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Lecturer 6: Conic Section
(Cont )
CE-112 : Engineering Drawing for Civil Engineers
By: Dr. Mohammad Ashraf (engineerashraf@yahoo.com)
Office: CE: B109
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and
Technology, Peshawar

Conic Section

The sections obtained by the intersection of a right circular cone by a plane in different positions relative to the axis

Circle: When the section plane is perpendicular to the axis (Section 1-1) Ellipse: When the section plane is inclined to the axis and cuts all the generator on one side of the apex (Section 2-2) Parabola: When the section plane is parallel to one of the generators (Section 3-3) Hyperbola: When the section plane cuts both the parts of the double cone on one side of the axis (Section 4-4)

Conic Section (Cont )

Conic Section (Cont )

Conic Section may be defined as:

The locus of a point moving in a plane in such a way that the ratio

of its distance from a fixed point (focus) and a fixed straight line

(directrix) is always constant. The ratio is called eccentricity (e).

 For Ellipse : e < 1.0 For parabola : e = 1.0 For hyperbola : e > 1.0 A line passing through focus and perpendicular to the directrix is

called axis. The point of intersection of conic with the axis is called vertex.

Ellipse

 F : Focus V : Vertex e = AB : Directrix TP : Tangent

PF

VF

=

PD

VC

<1.0

Ellipse in real life (Cont )

The ellipse has an important property that is used in the reflection of light and sound waves. Any light or signal that starts at one focus will be reflected to the other focus. This principle is used in lithotripsy, a medical procedure for treating kidney stones. The patient is placed in a elliptical tank of water, with the kidney stone at one focus. High-energy shock waves generated at the other focus are concentrated on the stone, pulverizing it St. Paul's Cathedral in London. If a person whispers near one focus, he can be heard at the other focus, although he cannot be heard at many places in between.

Parabola

 F : Focus V : Vertex AB : Directrix TP : Tangent

PF

PD

VF

VC

e =

=

=1.0

Parabola in real life (Cont )

Hyperbola

 F : Focus V : Vertex AB : Directrix TP : Tangent

PF

PD

VF

VC

e =

=

>1.0

Hyperbola in real life

The huge chimney of a nuclear power plant has the shape of a hyperboloid, as does the architecture of the James S. McDonnell Planetarium of the St. Louis Science Center.

© Jill Britton, September 25, 2003

Other Methods: Ellipse

Ellipse is also defined as a curve traced out by a point moving in a plane in such a way that the sum of its distances from two fixed points (foci) is always the same. F 1 P+F 2 P = F 1 Q+F 2 Q = F 1 C+F 2 C

Other Methods: Ellipse (Cont )

Other Methods: Ellipse (Cont )

Other Methods: Parabola

Rectangle Method

Tangent Method

Other Methods: Rectangular Hyperbola

A curve traced out by a point moving in such a way that the product of its distances from two fixed lines at right angle to each other is a constant.