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ME6012 MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING LTPC3003

OBJECTIVES:
To enable the student to understand the principles, functions and practices adapted
in industry for the successful management of maintenance activities.

UNIT I PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF MAINTENANCE PLANNING 9


Basic Principles of maintenance planning – Objectives and principles of planned
maintenance activity – Importance and benefits of sound Maintenance systems –
Reliability and machine availability – MTBF, MTTR and MWT – Factors of availability
–Maintenance organization – Maintenance economics.

UNIT II MAINTENANCE POLICIES – PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 9


Maintenance categories – Comparative merits of each category – Preventive
maintenance, maintenance schedules, repair cycle - Principles and methods of lubrication
– TPM.

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UNIT III CONDITION MONITORING
Condition Monitoring – Cost comparison with and without CM – On-load testing and
9

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offload testing – Methods and instruments for CM – Temperature sensitive tapes – Pistol
thermometers – wear-debris analysis

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UNIT IV REPAIR METHODS FOR BASIC MACHINE ELEMENTS 10
Repair methods for beds, slide ways, spindles, gears, lead screws and bearings – Failure

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analysis – Failures and their development – Logical fault location methods – Sequential
fault location.

gi nee
UNIT V REPAIR METHODS FOR MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT 8
Repair methods for Material handling equipment - Equipment records –Job order systems
-Use of computers in maintenance.
rin
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
g.n
TEXT BOOKS:
e
1. Srivastava S.K., “Industrial Maintenance Management”, S. Chand and Co., 1981
2. Venkataraman .K “Maintancence Engineering and Management”, PHI Learning, Pvt.
Ltd.,2007
t
REFERENCES:
1. Bhattacharya S.N., “Installation, Servicing and Maintenance”, S. Chand and Co., 1995
2. White E.N., “Maintenance Planning”, I Documentation, Gower Press, 1979.
3. Garg M.R., “Industrial Maintenance”, S. Chand & Co., 1986.
4. Higgins L.R., “Maintenance Engineering Hand book”, 5th Edition, McGraw Hill,
1988.
5. Armstrong, “Condition Monitoring”, BSIRSA, 1988.
6. Davies, “Handbook of Condition Monitoring”, Chapman & Hall, 1996.
7. “Advances in Plant Engineering and Management”, Seminar Proceedings - IIPE, 1996.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO TOPIC P.NO

1 Aim and objective of the subject 4

2 Detailed Lesson Plan 5

Unit-I-PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF MAINTENANCE PLANNING

3 Part - A (2marks Q &A) 7

4 Part - B (16marks Q &A) 8

Unit-II-MAINTENANCE POLICIES – PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

5 Part - A (2marks Q &A) 22

6 Part - B (16marks Q &A) 24

ww Unit-III-CONDITION MONITORING

8
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Part - A (2marks Q &A)

Part - B (16marks Q &A)


42

44

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Unit-IV-REPAIR METHODS FOR BASIC MACHINE ELEMENTS

9
En
Part - A (2marks Q &A) 59

10
gi
Part - B (16marks Q &A)

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Unit-V-REPAIR METHODS FOR MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT
61

11 Part - A (2marks Q &A)


rin 72

12 Part - B (16marks Q &A)


g.n 74

13
ANNA UNIVERSITY PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION PAPER

UQ-APRIL/MAY 2017
e 84 t
14 UQ-NOV/DEC 2016 86

15 UQ-APRIL 2016 88

16 UQ-NOV/DEC 2015 90

17 UQ-APRIL/MAY 2015 92

18 UQ-NOV/DEC 2014 94

19 UQ-APRIL 2014 96

20 UQ-NOV/DEC 2013 98

21 UQ-MAY/JUNE 2013 100

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ME 6012 MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING LTPC3003

1. Aim and objective of the subject:


 To introduce the students to discipline and profession of applying engineering
concept to the optimization of equipment procedure and department budgets to
achieve better maintainability reliability and availability of equipment..
 At the completion of the course, the student should be aware of the industrial
maintenance

2. Need and importance for study of the subject:

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 To enable the student to understand the principles, functions and practices adapted

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in industry for the successful management of maintenance activities.
 To explain the different maintenance categories like Preventive maintenance

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condition monitoring and repair of machine elements.
 To illustrate some of the simple instruments used for condition monitoring in
industry. En
3. Industry connectivity:
gi nee
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 The students having knowledge in maintenance engineering can be found
employed in almost all fields of industries.
g.n
e t

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DETAILED LESSON PLAN


Name of the Subject : ME 6012- MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Srivastava S.K., “Industrial Maintenance Management”, S. Chand and Co., 1981
2. Venkataraman .K “Maintancence Engineering and Management”, PHI Learning, Pvt.
Ltd.,2007
REFERENCES:
1. Bhattacharya S.N., “Installation, Servicing and Maintenance”, S. Chand and Co., 1995
2. White E.N., “Maintenance Planning”, I Documentation, Gower Press, 1979.
3. Garg M.R., “Industrial Maintenance”, S. Chand & Co., 1986.
4. Higgins L.R., “Maintenance Engineering Hand book”, 5th Edition, McGraw Hill,1988.

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5. Armstrong, “Condition Monitoring”, BSIRSA, 1988.

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6. Davies, “Handbook of Condition Monitoring”, Chapman & Hall, 1996.
7. “Advances in Plant Engineering and Management”, Seminar Proceedings - IIPE, 1996.

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Sl. En Hours
Required Cumulative Books
No
Unit
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Topic / Portions to be Covered

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/
Planned
Hours Referred

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF MAINTENANCE PLANNING


rin
1
Basic Principles of maintenance
planning
1
g.n
1 T1,R3

2
Objectives and principles of
planned 1 2
e t
T1,R3
maintenance activity
1 Importance and benefits of sound
3 1 3 T1,R3
Maintenance systems
4 Reliability and machine availability 1 4 T1,R3
5 MTBF, MTTR and MWT 2 6 T1,R1
6 Factors of availability 1 7 T1,R1
7 Maintenance organization 1 8 T1,R3
8 Maintenance economics 1 9 T1,R1

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MAINTENANCE POLICIES-PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
9 Maintenance categories 1 10 T1,R3
Comparative merits of each
10 1 11 T1,R1
category
Preventive maintenance,
11 2 3 14 T1,R3
maintenance schedules, repair cycle
Principles and methods of
12 2 16 T1,R3
lubrication
13 TPM 2 18 T1,R1
CONDITION MONITORING
14 Condition Monitoring 1 19 R1,R3

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15
Cost comparison with and without
CM
1 20 R1,R3

16 3w.E On-load testing and off load testing


Methods and instruments for CM –
2 22 R1,R3

17
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Temperature sensitive tapes
3 25 R1,R3

18
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Pistol thermometers 1 26 R1,R3
19
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wear-debris analysis
REPAIR METHODS FOR BASIC MACHINE ELEMENTS
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1 27 R1,R3

20
Repair methods for beds, slide
ways, spindles, gears, lead screws 3 rin 30 R1,R3
and bearings g.n
21
4
Failure analysis - Failures and their
development
3 33 e t
R1,R3

22 Logical fault location methods 2 35 R1,R3


23 Sequential fault location. 2 37 T1,R3,R1
REPAIR METHODS FOR MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT
Repair methods for Material
24 2 39 T1,R1
handling equipment
5
25 Equipment records 2 41 T1,R3
26 Job order systems 2 43 T1,R1
27 Use of computers in maintenance. 2 45 T1,R1,R3

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UNIT-I
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF MAINTENANCE PLANNING
PART – A

1. What are the objectives of Maintenance? (APR/MAY 2014)


The most important objective of the maintenance is the maximization of
availability of equipments and facilities so as to help in achieving the ultimate goals of the
organisation. To achieve minimum breakdown and to keep the plant in good working
condition at the lowest possible cost.

2. Define the term MWT. (APRIL 2016, MAY/JUNE 2012)


Mean Waiting Time for an object in a system is a mathematical term for the
amount of time an object is expected to spend in a system before leaving the system for good.

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3. What is the sound Maintenance system? (APRIL 2016)

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The profit of any industry depends only on the return of the investment. The
capital cost and operating cost are the major factors involved in any industrial investment. The

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life of the equipment and maintenance schedule information provided by manufacturer may
not be realized in practice to make the need for having a sound management system.

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4. State the principles of Maintenance planning. (MAY/JUNE 2012)

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Plant Management in Maintenance work, Production and Maintenance objectives,

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Establishment of work order and recording system, Information based decision making,
Adherence to planned maintenance strategy, Planning of maintenance functions.

rin
5. Define maintenance? (MAY/JUNE2015)
g.n
Maintenance is the routine and recurring process of keeping a particular machine or

service without any loss or damage. e


asset in its normal operating conditions So that it can deliver the expected performance or

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6. Define reliability? (NOV/DEC 2015, MAY/JUNE2014, NOV/DEC 2013, NOV/DEC 2009)
Reliability is defined as the probability that a component/system, when operating
under given condition, will perform its intended functions adequately for a specified period of
time. It refers to the like hood that equipment will not fail during its operation.

7. What is Mean Failure Rate? (NOV/DEC 2014)


The mean failure rate h is obtained by finding the mean of the failure rates for
specified period of time.
H = (Z1 +Z2 + Z3 + . ... + ZT) / T
Where ZT represents failure rates over the specified period of time.

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8. What is Mean Time between Failures (MTBF)? (MAY/JUNE2015, NOV/DEC 2013
NOV/DEC 2009)
Mean Time between Failures (MTBF) is the mean or average time between
successive failures of a product. Mean time between failures refers to the average time of
breakdown until the device is beyond repair.

9. Define MTTR. (MAY/JUNE 2015)


Mean Time to Repair is the arithmetic mean of the time required to perform
maintenance action. MTTR is defined as the Ratio of total maintenance time and number of
maintenance action.
MTTR = Total maintenance time / Number of maintenance action.

10. Define Maintenance Action Rate? (NOV/DEC 2014)


Maintenance action rate is the number of maintenance action that can be carried out on

wwequipment per hour.


µ = 1 / MTTR

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1. (i). State the various objectives and principles of maintenance planning (NOV/DEC

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2015, APR 15, MAY 12,NOV/DEC 2009) (8)
Objectives:
En
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The most important objective of the maintenance is the maximization of

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availability of equipments and facilities so as to help in achieving the ultimate goals of the
organisation. The following are the objectives of planned maintenance activity:

rin
g.n
 To achieve minimum breakdown and to keep the plant in good
working condition at the lowest possible cost.
e
 To ensure the availability of the machines and services in an
optimum working condition.
t
 To keep the machines and other facilities in a condition to be used to
achieve the maximum profit without any interruption or hindrance.
 To keep the time schedule of delivery to the customers or to the
sections for further processing.
 To meet the availability requirements for critical equipments.
 To keep the maintenance costs as low as possible for non critical
equipments.
 To control the cost of maintenance related activities

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 To provide effective and trained supervision.
 To meet the quality requirements of the product.
 To increase the profits of production systems.
Principles:
Maintenance principles are followed in a system to guide the staff to work
efficiently and effectively to achieve the overall objectives of the maintenance system.
(i) Plant Management in Maintenance work
The main role of the maintenance function is to provide safe and effective
operation of the equipment to achieve the desired targets on time with
economic usage of resource.
(ii) Production and Maintenance objectives

ww The plant operation is driven by the production targets. The objective of


maintenance function is to support these targets. The achievement of

w.Edesired goals of the production system is to be supported by both the


production and maintenance department to ensure smooth and successful

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operation of the industry.
(iii)
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Establishment of Work order and Recording system

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The maintenance system should have proper work order and recording

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system. The work order for the maintenance function indicates the nature of
work to be performed and the series of operations to be followed to execute

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a particular job. It is necessary to maintain proper records and entries to

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monitor the maintenance functions. This record is useful in formulating the

the organization. e
future maintenance plans and scheduling to meet the desired objectives of

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(iv) Information Based Decision Making
The maintenance objectives are successfully achieved by the use of reliable
information system. This information is used to meet the manpower and
spare parts requirements of the industry.
(v) Adherence to Planned Maintenance Strategy
A sound maintenance management should adheere to the planned
maintenance strategy. This also includes the use of manufacturer’s
information on the life and maintenance schedules of the equipment and
other materials.

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(vi) Planning of Maintenance Functions
All the maintenance functions are to be carefully executed by a way of
proper planning to ensure the effective utilization of manpower and
materials.
(vii) Manpower for Maintenance
The manpower requirements of the maintenance system must be carefully
evaluated based on the time and motion study. The requirements should
also satisfies the need arising in cases of overhauls, component
replacement, emergency and unscheduled repairs.
(viii) Workforce Control
Determination of exact workforce required to meet the maintenance

ww objectives of the system is difficult task due to the element of uncertainty.


Hence the proper control and monitoring of workforce are needs to be

(ix)
w.Eensured.
Role of Spare Parts

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A good maintenance management system requires appropriate tools. So the

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system should have good quality tools and that too available in required

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quantities to ensure the proper function of the maintenance works.
(x) Training of the Maintenance Workforce
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Training of the workforce must be integral part of any good maintenance

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management system. Training helps the workforce to learn about the
modern techniques, recent trends in maintenance, knowledge of
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demands of the industry. e
sophisticated instruments and to chalk out a strategy to meet the growing

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(ii) Derive the expression for determining Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) (NOV/DEC
2015, NOV/DEC 2009) (8)

Let t, is the time to failure for the first specimen, t is the time to failure for
the second specimen and tn is the time to failure for the N specimen. Hence the
mean time to failure for N specimens are
HTTF = (t1+t2+.......tn) /n
= 1/N
It is difficult to record the failure for each component when the numbers of
specimens tested are large. Instead, we can record the number which fails

10

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during the specific intervals of time.
If n1 is the number of specimens that failed during the first hour, n2 is the number
that failed during the second hour and nk is the number that failed during the kth hour.
Then the mean time to failure for N specimens is

MTTF = (n1 + 2n2 + 3n3 +....knk) / N

It is better to represent the time as interval of the time as such as. Hence the time interval
is ∆t instead of one hour.
Then MTTF is calculated as
MTTF = (n1 ∆t +2n2 ∆t +. ... + knk∆t +..... + lnl ∆t) /N

ww MTTF = (n1 ∆t +2n2 ∆t +. ... + knk∆t +..... + rnr ∆t) /N


MTTF = 1/N ∑ knk∆t (k = 1 to r)

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Where n1 is the number of specimens that failed during the first interval, n2 is the number
of specimens that failed during the second interval and nk is the number of specimens that

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failed during the kth time interval and so on.

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2. What are the objectives of maintenance organization and what are the different
gi
types of organizations?(APR 14)
Objectives of Maintenance Organization: nee (16)

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 Identification of organization roles pertaining to maintenance function.
 Determination of maintenance workload.
g.n
 Uniform distribution of total maintenance work to all the personal in the
department. e
 Identification and assignment of essential works to the various sections of
t
the maintenance department.
 Proper knowledge about the technical expertise/experience of the workers
deputed for the particular job.
 Proper training of the staff of maintenance to meet the growing demands of
the industry and to catch up with the modern trends in maintenance.
 Designing the policies and procedures at an early stage to help the
maintenance department to achieve the goals of the industry.

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Types of maintenance organization:
The selection of a type of maintenance system will largely depend on the structure
of an industry. Maintenance organization can be broadly classified into three types as
follows,
(i) Decentralized
This is suitable for large sized plants where inter unit communication is difficult to
get. In this type of organization, the maintenance is under the control of chief engineer of
production to ensure better understanding between the production and maintenance
department.
(ii) Centralized
This is suitable for small units where unit communication is feasible. In this

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type of organization, the maintenance is under the control of chief maintenance engineer.
The responsibilities and accountability is with the concerned department heads.

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(iii)Partially Centralized
This is the modified version of centralized maintenance organization and suitable

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for the industry where units are located at far away locations. In this type of organization,

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the maintenance person attached with production unit will carryout the routine

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maintenance works. Scheduled maintenance works such as overhauls, planned

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maintenance work, procurement of spare parts are under the control of chief maintenance
engineer at the central office.

rin
There are basically two at least two types of organization are followed in most of
the industries. They are,
g.n
Line Organization:
a. Line organization
b. Line staff organization e t
Line organization consists of a general foreman and a number of
specialist foremen with their under them is shown below.
The specialist foreman executes maintenance work in their respective areas while the
general foreman supervises the total work under his control and the various maintenance
tasks carried out in the industry. This kind of structure is an old type maintenance
organization.

12

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Line staff organisation:


A few more staff members such as storekeeper and clerk are added to the line

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organization to form the line organization structure as given below. The advantage lies in
separating the maintenance work from the store keeping and the role of clerk is to record

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the maintenance activities. The recording of maintenance related activities helps the
organization to restructure the strategies adopted to achieve the objectives of
maintenance. asy
En
gi nee
rin
g.n
e t
3. (i) Define availability and method of measuring availability. (8)
(Or) What is equipment availability and describe the three basic approaches in detail.
Availability: (APR 16, NOV/DEC 2014)
It is the ratio of the time at which the equipment is available for the designated
operation service to the total time of operation and maintenance of the equipment. It is
also defined as the ration of equipments uptime to the equipment uptime and down time
over a specified period of time.

13

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The uptime of a machine / equipment is the time for which it is in actually
available to complete the desired function. The downtime or outage of a machine is the
period of time during which it is not in an acceptable working condition.
The three types of availability are
(i) Inherent availability
(ii) Achieved availability
(iii) Operational availability

Inherent availability:
It is the probability that a system or equipment shall operate satisfactorily
when used under prescribed conditions in a ideal support environment without

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any scheduled or preventive maintenance at any given time.
Inherent availability = MTBM/ MTBM+MTTR

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Achieved availability:
It is the probability that a system or equipment shall operate satisfactorily

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when used under prescribed conditions in an ideal support environment with

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periodic preventive and corrective maintenance at any given time.

Operational Availability: gi
Achieved availability = MTBM/ MTBM+M

nee
In industrial system a certain amount of delay will always caused by time
element such as supply downtime and administrative downtime.
rin
Operational availability = MTBM/ MTBM+MDT
g.n
Where MDT is the mean downtime is the satisfied mean of the downtimes
including the supply downtime and administrative downtime.
In general availability of a system is a complex function of reliability,
e t
maintainability and supply effectiveness.
As = f (Rs, Ms, Se)
(ii) Explain maintenance economics. (APR 16, APR/may 14, MAY/JUNE 2012)
Life cycle cost analysis: (8)
The factors to be considered in the purchase of equipment of industries include the
cost, quality, performance and maintenance requirements. Some balance is to be made
between the capital cost and operating cost of the equipment in finding the suitability of
the equipment. The evaluation of any equipment for purchase should be made by keeping

14

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into considerations that total cost incurred by the equipment over a span of time say ten
years. Life cycle costing is the cost analysis for the equipment in an industry that
accounts the total cost of the equipment over a span of time which includes the capital
cost, operating cost and maintenance costs. This analysis is the integration of
engineering, economic and financial strategies in relation to the equipment to be
purchased. The aim of life cycle costing is to ascertain the total cost of equipment over
the span of its entire life period.
Advantages of life cycle costing:
Integration of engineering, economics and financial aspects lead to the way of
robust metric for the selection and purchase equipment required for the
industry.

ww Reduced operating and maintenance cost of equipments due to cost


analysis over span of time.

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It leads to the selection of proper and economically viable equipment.

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Estimation of economic life of equipment:
The economic life of equipment depends on the maintenance and repair costs,

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availability and operational efficiency. A plot of cumulative efficiency and maintenance

economic life of the equipment.gi


and repair cost per cumulative hours Vs operating hours of the equipment to find the

nee
Maintenance Cost:

rin
Budgets are allocated for all the activities in planning stage itself which includes

g.n
the maintenance cost. The cost of maintenance is difficult to measure due to random
nature of failures.
e t

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The records on maintenance history may be useful in determining the cost. The analysis
of maintenance cost is helpful in taking a decision regarding replacement of a machine or
any of its components.
Maintenance Budget:
The maintenance budget is used to set aside certain amount of money to meet the
expenditures incurred in achieving the objectives of maintenance. The following are the
types of maintenance budget,
(i) Appropriation Budget
Budget used to allocate money for each activity independently.
(ii) Fixed Budget

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Fixed used to allocate money for a specified period of time.
Variable Budget

w.E Dynamic allocation of expendure based on maintenance requirements and


activities.

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The evaluation of maintenance cost should consider the following factors:

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 The evaluation of maintenance cost should consider the following
factors.
gi
 Cost of maintenance from the recorded data.
 Level and requirements of maintenance. nee
 Cost of replacement of components and assemblies subjected to wear
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and tear.
g.n
 Accounting the number of break downs with their levels
 Downtime of the equipment for want of maintenance repair.
 Penalty cost due to loss of production.
e t
 Cost of manpower involved.
 Cost of additional manpower requirement for emergency breakdown
and maintenance.
Cost minimization in maintenance organization:
Centralized planning, scheduling and control
Grouping of specialized workforce
Effective labour utilization strategies

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Budgetary control and proper check mechanism to implement the cost control
strategies.
Proper and effective use of contract maintenance system to reduce the overhead
costs on equipment and manpower.
Purchase of reliable equipment and spares.
Use of skilled and trained workforce.
Proper selection of suitable type of spares, materials and lubricating.
Proper safety education and formulating the safe practice.
Constant appraisal and education to workforce about the objectives, strategies and
modern techniques adopted in the area of maintenance.

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4. (i) State the benefits of a sound maintenance management system (8)

w.E (NOV/DEC 2009)


The profit of any industry depends only on the return of the investment.

asy
The capital cost and operating cost are the major factors involved in any industrial

En
investment. The life of the equipment and maintenance schedule information provided by
manufacturer may not be realized in practice to make the need for having a sound
management system.
gi nee
The following are the benefits of sound maintenance management system.

rin
Minimization of colour time.
Improvement in availability of system. g.n
Extended life of equipment.
Safety and smooth operation of the process
e t
Provide adequate back up supply
Minimization of normal expected wear and tear of equipment.
Safety of the personal involved in the organization.
Increased reliability of the system.
Provide proper working environment.
Cost effective maintenance boost the profit of the production system.

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(ii) Explain the Maintenance Organization structure in detail. (8)


(APR/MAY 2015)

Identifying areas for implementation of preventive maintenance program.


Making suitable arrangements for maintenance facilities for carrying out the
maintenance work properly.
Planning and scheduling the total maintenance work.
Ensuring proper and timely supply of spare parts.
Managing proper inventory control of materials spares and tools required for the
maintenance.
Standardization of maintenance work.

ww Implementing modifications to the existing equipment whenever possible.

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Assisting the purchase department in procuring materials disbursement of services
such as water, electricity, steam, compressed air and other amenities required to

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carry out the maintenance.
Identification of obsolete and surplus equipment for replacement and disposal.

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Designing the systematic way for disposal of equipment and for maintaining floor
space.
gi
Training of maintenance personnel. nee
rin
Analysis of future demands and forecast the role of maintenance activities.
Implementation safety norms and procedures.
Ensuring safety of personnel and equipment. g.n
5. e
(i). State the steps necessary to reduce the maintenance cost in an industry. (8)
t
(NOV/DEC 2009)
Maintenance should be one of the key strategies to keeping the plant's assets
healthy. While equipment upkeep and parts replacements are necessary, there are
steps that can reduce maintenance costs without decreasing industry processing
facility's operational efficiencies.
a) Examine the necessary things to do and not:
 When first purchasing the equipment in an industry, ensure the review
its maintenance requirements with the manufacturers and the subject
matter experts, whether those are engineers or senior maintenance
professionals.
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 It should confirm that all of the suggested maintenance is actually


needed, as unnecessary maintenance can actually induce equipment
failure.
 For example, at one of the plant, pumps were undergoing preventive
maintenance every quarter to prevent pump failures. This maintenance
was actually inducing premature failure.
 After engineering performed a detailed root-cause analysis, a different
pump was specified and preventive maintenance was moved to a yearly
event, leading to better system performance and reduced maintenance

ww costs.
 Benefits: Decreased labour costs, Reduced parts purchases, Increased

w.E the efficiency and overall uptime of the system


b) Select a suitable measurement system:

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 Take a compressor, for example. Some companies may think they need

En
to rebuild a compressor every three years. But what if that compressor

gi
runs only one month out of every four months? You're basing your

nee
preventive maintenance on a calendar year, not on the compressor's
running hours.

rin
 Preventive maintenance should be performed based on the most
applicable measurement system for the equipment.
g.n
c) Pick the optimal time to perform maintenance:
e
 Preventive maintenance should be scheduled maintenance, tuned to the
specific needs of the production schedule.
t
 This way, processing plant can take assets out of service at a time that
allows maximizing the uptime or efficiency.
 Most companies complete their preventive maintenance in the cooler
months of the year.
 Compressor and evaporator rebuilds are easier to perform in the winter
because the temperatures are not as hot, requiring less of a refrigeration
load. This offsets labour costs, too.

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d) Maximize the efficiency of the industry staff :

 By training production workers to provide preventive maintenance


assistance on a daily or weekly basis, have to maximize the efficiency of
processing plant staff and take the preventive maintenance burden off of
the senior professionals.
 Preventive maintenance tasks that production workers can complete
include:
Cleaning up the equipment
Inspecting specific items

ww Watching particular equipment characteristics


 However, once a monitored characteristic is showing signs of needing

w.E preventive maintenance, you need to bring in a subject matter expert to


complete the work or provide additional planning.

asy
e) Develop an overall maintenance strategy:

En
 Preventive maintenance is only one type of maintenance that should be

gi
part of the overall strategy, including: Preventive maintenance,

nee
Predictive maintenance, Reactive maintenance.
 If preventive maintenance in conjunction with a predictive and reactive

rin
maintenance strategy, maintenance costs can control while managing
downtime and maximizing uptime.
g.n
ii) Briefly describe the Accelerated Testing. (ALT) (NOV/DEC 2013) e
 Accelerated Life Testing is a method for stress testing of manufactured
t
(8)

products that attempts to duplicate the normal wear and tear that would
normally be experienced over the usable lifetime of the product in a
shorter time period.
 Accelerate cause (something) to happen sooner, Life is the period of
duration, usefulness, or popularity of something, testing means by which
the presence, quality, or genuineness of anything is determined
by means of trial.

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 Goals of ALT Accelerated Life Testing: Most Important goals of Up
Front Product Life Testing (In-house or Beta Sites) & Data analyses are
to gain information for Fundamental Improvements and Proactive
reliability improvement before Product Release.
 Purpose of ALT: Reliability estimation at user level and dominant
failures mechanism identification.
 Types of accelerated tests: a) ESS and burn-in. b) Qualitative tests, c)
Quantitative tests
 Environmental Stress Screening (ESS):
A process involving the application of environmental stimuli to
products. The goal of ESS is to expose, identify and eliminate latent

ww defects which cannot be detected by visual inspection or electrical


testing but which will cause failures in the field. ESS is performed on

w.E the entire population and does not involve sampling.


 Burn-in:

asy
Burn-in can be regarded as special case of ESS. It is a test performed for

En
the purpose of screening or eliminating marginal devices. These devices

gi
are those with inherent defects or defects resulting from manufacturing

nee
aberrations which cause time and stress dependent failures. As with
ESS, burn-in is performed on the entire population.
 Qualitative tests:
rin
g.n
An accelerated test that yields failure information or failure modes only

e
is commonly called a qualitative test or elephant test. Over stressing of
products to “quickly” obtain failures is perhaps the oldest form of
t
reliability testing. It increases reliability by revealing probable failure
modes.
 Quantitative tests:
Quantitative accelerated life testing, unlike Qualitative testing, is
designed to provide reliability information on the product, component or
system. Data needed in quantitative test is time to failure, such as hours,
days, cycles, miles, actuations etc.
 Common form of ALT is continuous use acceleration. Estimate the life
distribution of the product in a shorter time.

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UNIT-2
MAINTENANCE POLICIES
PART-A
1. Write the types of maintenance system? (APR 2016)
Basically there are two types of maintenance tasks. They are
I. Break Down (Reactive) Maintenance
II. Planned Maintenance
Planned maintenance may further be classified into
1. Preventive Maintenance
2. Corrective Maintenance
3. Predictive Maintenance

ww 4. Condition Based Maintenance


5. Reliability Centered Maintenance

w.E
2. What is meant by Emergency Maintenance? (APR 2016)

asy
It is carried out as fast as possible in order to bring a failed machine or facility to a

En
safe and operationally efficient condition.

gi nee
3. What is meant by reliability centered maintenance (RCM)?
Reliability centered maintenance is one of the well established systematic and
(DEC 2015)

rin
a step by step instructional tool for selecting applicable and appropriate

g.n
maintenance operation types. It helps in how to analyze all failure modes in a
system and define how to prevent or find those failures early.
e t
4. What is meant by Breakdown maintenance approach? (DEC 2014)
It is a type of maintenance approach in which equipment is allowed to function/
operate till no failure occurs that no maintenance work is carried out in advance to
prevent failure.

5. Define Corrective maintenance approach and its objectives. (DEC 2014)


Corrective maintenance is the program focused on regular planed tasks that will
maintain all critical machinery and system in optimum operation conditions.
The main objectives are:

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Eliminate breakdowns
Eliminate unnecessary repairs
Optimise all critical plant systems
Eliminate deviations from optimum operation conditions
6. What is meant by planned maintenance approach? (APR 2014)
It is also called Scheduled maintenance. Planned maintenance is a scheduled service
carried out to ensure that equipment is operating correctly and to therefore avoid
any unscheduled breakdown and downtime.

7. Define preventive maintenance? What is the reason it is to be adapted in the


present times. (APR 2015)

ww It is a maintenance program which is committed to the elimination or


prevention of corrective and breakdown maintenance. It is designed for day to

w.E
day maintenance like cleaning, inspection, lubricating, retightening etc. to

asy
retain the healthy condition of equipments.
8. What is complete overhaul? (APR 2016)

En
Process of restoring and maintaining an equipment, machine, or system in a

gi
serviceable condition. Overhaul involves

nee
(1) Partial or complete disassembly of the item,
(2) Inspection to detect damaged, defective, or worn parts,
(3) Repair or replacement of such parts, and rin
g.n
(4) Reassembly, testing, and trial-run prior to full operating level.
9. Why do you need lubrication? Or what is the use of lubrication? (APR2014)
The primary objective of lubrication is to reduce wear and heat betweene t
contacting surfaces in relative motion. By means of lubrication co-efficient of
friction (which depends on area of contact and amount of load acting) could be
reduced. Lubrication also aids to reduction of rust formation.
10. Define the term Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)? (APR 2015)
Productive maintenance is where the operating personnel are involved in
maintenance of their equipment also. When this concept is extended to all the
employees of the plant shop including materials men, quality men and others and
all the employees work accordingly under consent, it is called “Total Productive
Maintenance"

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PART-B

1. Discuss the different types of maintenance system in detail. (16)

(DEC 2015)
Classification of Maintenance Approach:

ww
w.E
asy
En
gi nee
Basically there are two types of maintenance tasks. They are
rin
I. Break Down Maintenance g.n
II. Planned Maintenance

Planned maintenance may further be classified into


e t
A) Preventive Maintenance
B) Corrective Maintenance
C) Predictive Maintenance
D) Condition Based Maintenance
E) Reliability Centered Maintenance
BREAK DOWN MAINTENANCE OR REACTIVE MAINTENANCE

 In this category, less attention is given to the operating condition of


critical machinery, equipment or system. Here the equipment is allowed
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to function till no failure occurs no long as the equipment is functioning
at a minimum acceptable level, it is assumed to be effective. This means
the people wait till the equipment fails and repair. This approach of
maintenance is ineffective and extremely expensive. The following
factors contribute to high maintenance costs.

i) Poor planning
ii) Incomplete repair
Limitations:

a) Most repairs are poorly planned due to time constraint caused by production
and plant management. This will cost three to four times than the same repair

ww when it is well planned.


b) This approach focus only on repair or the symptoms of failure and not on the

w.E
root cause of failure. This results only in increase in the frequency of repair
and correspondingly the maintenance costs.

asy
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
En
gi
 It is a maintenance program which is committed to the elimination or

nee
prevention of corrective and breakdown maintenance. A comprehensive

rin
preventive maintenance program involves periodical evaluation of
critical equipment, machinery to detect problem and schedule

g.n
maintenance task to avoid degradation in operating conditions.

Benefits of Preventive Maintenance: e t


In general the cost incurred towards breakdown maintenance is usually higher than
the cost incurred on preventive maintenance.
It maintains the equipment in good condition to preventing them from bigger
problems.
Prolongs the effective life of the equipments.
Detects the problem at earlier stages.
Minimizes / eliminates the rewash/ scrap and help in reducing the process
variability.
Significantly reduces unplanned downtime.
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CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE

 Corrective Maintenance is the program focused on regular planned tasks


that will maintain all critical machinery and system in optimum
operating conditions. The effectiveness of this program is judged on the
cycle cost of critical equipment rather than on how quickly the broken
machines are restored to working conditions. It is proactive approach
towards maintenance management.

The main objectives of this program are to

i) Eliminate breakdowns
ww ii) Eliminate deviations from optimum operating conditions.
iii)
iv)
w.E
Eliminate unnecessary repairs.
Optimize all critical plant systems.

asy
As per this program, all the repairs are well planned and implemented by properly

En
trained people and the equipment or system is verified and returned to service.

(i)
gi
PREREQUISITES OF CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE:

nee
Existence of trained full time maintenance planners for accurate

rin
identification of roof cause of all incipient problems.
(ii)
g.n
Properly trained craftsmen with necessary skill to complete the repair of
each incipient problem.
(iii) e
Standard maintenance procedure for recurring repairs and maintenance
task. t
(iv) Allowing sufficient time to maintenance amidst tight production schedules
and management constraints.
(v) A thorough verification process to ensure the completion of repair.

PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE

 Predictive maintenance is a management technique that uses regular


evaluation of the actual operating conditions of plant equipment,
production systems and plant management functions to optimize total

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plant operation. It is not a solution for all the factors that limit total plant
performance.

CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE

The various techniques are

Vibration Monitoring –determines the actual condition of equipments / machines


by studying the noise or vibration produced during functioning.
Thermography –determines the condition of plant machinery systems etc by
studying the emission of infra red energy ie temperature.
Tribology –determines the dynamic condition of bearing lubrication, rotor support
structure of machinery etc by adopting any one of the techniques like lubricating

ww oil analysis, spectrographic analysis, ferrography and wear particle analysis.

w.E
Electrical Motor Analysis –determines the problem within motors and other
electrical equipments.

asy
Visual inspection -determines the conditions of working elements visually based
on the experience.
En
gi
REALIBILITY CENTERED MAINTENANCE (RCM)

nee
 It is one of the well-established systematic and a step by step

rin
instructional tool for selecting applicable and appropriate maintenance

g.n
operation types. It helps in hw to analyze all failure modes in a system
and define how to prevent or find those failures early. The rough process
of a CM is as follows.
e
 Target products or systems of maintenance should be clearly identified,
t
and necessary data should be collected.

 All possible failures and their effect on target produced or systems are
systematically analyzed.

 Preventive or corrective maintenance operations are considered


selection of operations is done based on rational calculation of
effectiveness of such operations for achieving required maintenance
quality, such as reliability, cost etc.

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Applications of RCM:

 When designing, selecting and installing new systems in a plant.

 When setting up preventive maintenance for complex equipment and systems for
which we are not clear on how they work.

 When teaching people the basics of reliability it helps to explain the matters in a
detailed fashion using RCM.

2. i) Describe the benefits and steps of preventive maintenance.


(DEC 2015) (8)

(a) PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

ww  It is a maintenance program which is committed to the elimination or prevention

w.E
of corrective and breakdown maintenance. A comprehensive preventive
maintenance program involves periodical evaluation of critical equipment,

asy
machinery to detect problem and schedule maintenance task to avoid degradation

En
in operating conditions.

gi
Benefits of Preventive Maintenance:

nee
In general the cost incurred towards breakdown maintenance is usually higher than
the cost incurred on preventive maintenance.
rin
g.n
It maintains the equipment in good condition to preventing them from bigger
problems.
Prolongs the effective life of the equipments.
Detects the problem at earlier stages.
e t
Minimizes / eliminates the rewash/ scrap and help in reducing the process
variability.
Significantly reduces unplanned downtime.

STEPS FOR ESTABLISHING A PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM)


PROGRAM

 There are a number of steps involved in developing a PM program. The figure


presents six steps for establishing a highly effective PM program in a short period.

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Each step is discussed below.

1. Identify and choose the areas:


Identify and selection of one or two important areas to concentrate the initial PM effort.
These areas should be crucial to the success of overall plant operations and may be
experiencing a high degree of maintenance actions. The main objective of this step is to
obtain immediate results in highly visible areas, as well as to win concerned management
support.

2. Identify the PM needs:


Define the PM requirements. Then, establish a schedule of two types of tasks: daily PM
inspections and periodic PM assignments. The daily PM inspections could be conducted

ww
by either maintenance or production personnel. An example of a daily PM inspection is
to check the waste water settle able solids concentration. Periodic PM assignments

w.E
usually are performed by the maintenance workers. Examples of such assignments are
replacing throwaway filters, replacing drive belts, and cleaning steam traps and
permanent filters.
asy
En
3. Establish assignment frequency:

gi
Establish the frequency of the assignments. This involves reviewing the equipment

nee
condition and records. Normally, the basis for establishing the frequency is the

rin
experience of those familiar with the equipment and the recommendations of vendors and
engineering. It must be remembered that vendor recommendations are generally based on
the typical usage of items under consideration. g.n
4. Prepare the PM assignments: e
Daily and periodic assignments are identified and described in detail, then submitted for
t
approval.

5. Schedule the PM assignments on annual basis:


The defined PM assignments are scheduled on the basis of a twelve-month period.

6. Expand the PM program as necessary:


After the implementation of all PM daily inspections and periodic assignments in the
initially selected areas, the PM can be expanded to other areas. Experience gained from
the pilot PM projects is instrumental to expanding the program.

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ww
w.E
asy
En
gi nee
Figure. Six steps for developing a PM program rin
ii) Write short notes on RCM and its process. (APR 2016) g.n (8)

(b) RCM (REALIBILITY CENTERED MAINTENANCE) PROCESS e t


The basic RCM process is composed of the following steps:

1. Identify important items with respect to maintenance:


Usually, maintenance important items are identified using techniques such as failure,
mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) and fault tree analysis (FTA).

2. Obtain appropriate failure data:


In determining occurrence probabilities and assessing criticality, the availability of
data on part failure rate, operator error probability, and inspection efficiency is essential.
These types of data come from field experience, generic failure databanks, etc.
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3. Develop fault tree analysis data:
Probabilities of occurrence of fault events basic, intermediate, and top events are
calculated as per combinatorial properties of the logic elements in the fault tree.

4. Apply decision logic to critical failure modes:


The decision logic is designed to lead, by asking standard assessment questions, to
the most desirable preventive maintenance task combinations. The same logic is applied
to each crucial mode of failure of each maintenance-important item.

5. Classify maintenance requirements:


Maintenance requirements are categorized into three classifications: on-condition
maintenance requirements, condition-monitoring maintenance requirements, and hard-

ww
time maintenance requirements.

6. Implement RCM decisions:


w.E
Task frequencies and intervals are set/enacted as part of the overall maintenance
strategy or plan.
asy
En
7. Apply sustaining-engineering on the basis of field experience:
Once the system/equipment start operating, the real-life data begin to accumulate.
gi nee
At that time, one of the most urgent steps is to re-evaluate all RCM-associated default
decisions.

rin
3. Explain the principles and methods of lubrication in detail. (APR 2016) (16)

g.n
 In industrial equipments, the surface of the mechanical parts will have physical

e
contact on the neighbouring parts to establish a relative motion between them.
During operation of the equipments, those contacting surfaces are subjected to t
friction which depends on the area of material, properties of material etc which is
undesirable.

 This leads to progressive damage resulting in material loss which is defined as


wear. Friction and wear also generate heat and responsible for the overall loss in
system efficiency. All these contribute to significant economic costs due to
equipment failure, cost for replacement and down time.

 The primary objective of lubrication is to reduce wear and heat between


contacting surfaces in relative motion. By means of lubrication coefficient of
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friction could be reduced and in turn heat and wear of the surfaces. Lubrication
also aids to

(i) reduce oxidation and rust formation


(ii) provide insulation in transformer application
(iii) transmit mechanical power in hydro fluid power systems
(iv) seal against dust, dirt and water.
 Selecting the right lubricant, the right amount of lubricant and the correct
application of the lubricant are essential to the successful performance of
any bearing because bearing lubricants serve three purposes:

(i) To reduce friction by separating mating surfaces.

ww (ii)
(iii)
To transfer heat (with oil lubrication)
To product from corrosion and with grease lubrication, dirt ingress

w.E
 The success of these three factors depends heavily on the film thickness on
the raceway and at the rib/roller end contact.

Lubricants: asy
En
 Any material used to reduce friction between wearing surfaces with high
gi nee
coefficient of friction, by establishing low-viscous film are called
lubricants. Lubricants are available in liquid, solid and gaseous forms. Solid

rin
lubricants are used for industrial applications when oil or grease are not

g.n
suitable. Graphite is used when the loading at the contact points is heavy.

Methods of Lubrication:
e
The following are the various methods of lubrication normally used for industrial t
applications

a) Hydrostatic Lubrication
b) Hydrodynamic or Fluid film lubrication
c) Boundary lubrication
d) Elastic hydrodynamic lubrication (EHD)
e) Extreme pressure (EP) Lubrication

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 In general, the method of lubrication is characterized by the friction and
wears characteristics of wearing surface. Based on the value of ‘R’ which is
defined as follows, the method of lubrication is chosen.

R = Mean fluid film thickness / Surface Roughness (CLA)

Where, R is less than or equal to 1 for boundary lubrication

R is in between 5 and less than or equal to 100 for fluid film lubrication

R is between 1 and 5 for mixed lubrication.

1. Hydrostatic Lubrication:

 In hydrostatic lubrication systems, a thin film of lubrication is created

ww between the journal and the bearing by supplying lubricant under pressure

w.Ewith an external source like pump. Since the lubricant is supplied under
pressure, this type of bearing is called externally pressurized bearing.

asy
En
gi nee
rin
g.n
e t
 Compared to hydrostatic bearing, hydrodynamic bearings are simple in
construction, easy to maintain and lower in initial as well as maintenance.

2. Hydrodynamic or Fluid Film Lubrication:

 In heavily loaded bearings such a thrust bearings and horizontal journal


bearings apart from viscosity of fluid, higher fluid pressure is also required
to support the load until the film is established.

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 If the pressure is generated externally it is called as hydrostatic lubrication
and if generated internally within the bearing by dynamic action, it is
referred to as hydrodynamic lubrication. In hydrodynamic lubrication, a
fluid wedge is formed by the relative surface motion of the journals or the
thrust runners over their bearing surfaces.

(a) Thrust bearings:

 In hydrodynamic lubrication, the wearing surfaces are completely separated


by a film of oil. This type of lubrication is similar to motorized speed
moving on water.

 When not moving the boat begins to move, it experiences a resistance due

ww to the viscosity of water. This causes a slight lift of leading edge of the boat
and allows a small amount of water between it and supporting water film
w.Eincreases until a constant velocity is reached.

asy
 When the velocity is constant the amount of water entering the leading edge

En
equals the amount passing outward from the trailing edge. For the boat to
remain above the supporting surface there should exist a upward pressure
gi nee
equals to the load. The same principle can be applied to sliding surface.

 The operation of thrust bearing is an example of hydrodynamic lubrication.


rin
Thrust bearing assembly used in hydropower industries are also called tilt

g.n
pad bearings. The pads of these bearings are designed to lift and to tilt to
provide enough area for lifting the load of generator.
e
 As the thrust runner moves over the thrust shoe, fluid adhering to the runner t
is drawn between the runner and shoe forming a wedge of oil. As the
velocity of thrust runner increases, the pressure of oil wedge and the runner
is lifted as full fluid film lubrication takes place. When the load is high the
pressure pumps are used to provide initial oil film.

(b) Journal Bearing:

 The operation of a journal or sleeve bearing is also an example of


hydrodynamic lubrication. When the journal is at rest its weight squeezes
out the oil film so that the journal directly rests on the bearing surface
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ww  During operation, the journal has the tendency is drawn into contact area

w.E and when the speed increase an oil wedge increase until the journal is lifted
up vertically but also pushed to the side by pressure of oil wedge. When the

asy
journal is rotating at a constant velocity, film thickness will exist only at the

En
left centre and not at the bottom of the bearing.

3. Boundary Lubrication
gi nee
 When a full fluid film is not developed between rubbing surfaces, the

rin
thickness of film may be reduced so that dry contact is formed at high

g.n
points or asperities of mating surfaces. This condition is a characteristic of
boundary lubrication.

e
 This situation arises when anyone of the full film thickness forming factors
are missing. The common examples of this type we experience during
t
starting and stopping of bearings in equipments. E.g. reciprocating
equipments-compressor pistons, turbine wicket gates, gear teeth contact
etc.

4. Extreme Pressure Lubrication

 Anti wear agents which are normally used in boundary lubrication will not
be effective beyond certain temperature (250 degree Celsius). In heavy
loading applications, oil temperature raises beyond the anti wear protection.

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Under this situation lubricants containing additives that protect against
extreme pressure called EP lubricants are used.

 EP lubrication can be achieved by chemical compounds of boron,


phosphorus, sulphur, chloride or combination of these. These are activated
by high temperature resulting from extreme pressure. At these temperatures
EP molecules become reactive and release derivatives of phosphorous
chloride or sulphur. These derivatives form a solid protective coating that
fills the asperities of the exposed surfaces.

5. Elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) Lubrication

 The lubrication principle is applicable to rolling bodies such as ball or roller

ww bearings, is known as Elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) Lubrication. The


formation of the lubricant film between the mating bearing surfaces is
w.Ecalled the elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) mechanism of lubrication.

asy
 The two major considerations in EHD lubrication are the elastic

En
deformation of the contacting bodies under load and the hydrodynamic
effects forcing the lubricant to separate the contacting surfaces while the
gi
pressure of the load is deforming them.
nee
 The contact between the large end of the roller and the inner race rib is
rin
called elasto-hydrodynamic contact or a hydrodynamic contact. As the rib

g.n
loads are much lower than the roller loads, the film at the rib end contact is
usually twice as thick as on the roller contact.

 However, scoring and welding may still occur in severe conditions,


e t
including high speeds, viscosity, load or inadequate lubrication. In these
conditions, a lubricant with EP additives is to be used to prevent bearing
damage. Even though the lubrication principle of rolling object is different
from sliding objects, the principle of hydrodynamic lubrication can be
applied up to certain limits. An oil wedge similar to hydrodynamic
lubrication exists at lower leading edge of bearings.

 Adhesion of oil to the sliding element and supporting surface increases


pressure and creates an oil film between two surfaces. Since the area of

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contact is extremely small in a roller bearing or ball bearing, the force per
unit area will be extremely high. Under this pressure, it would appear that
the oil could be squeezed from between the surfaces. However, the
viscosity increase and prevents the oil from being entirely squeezed out.

4. Discuss the various stages involved in implementation of TPM. (16)


(DEC 2009)

To implement an effective TPM in an organization, the following stages are to be


planned and executed.

STAGE I:

Step-1: Announcement by Management about TPM


ww Top level management people should attend awareness programs on TPM to have

w.E
proper understanding, commitment and active involvement. Then all matters about TPM

asy
should be communicated to others in the company by publishing in the magazine, putting
up in the notice board and by other possible means. In this step a TPM coordinator is
hired or appointed.
En
Step-2: Initial Education gi nee
In this step through educational program is arranged for workforce and is just not
a month program, may even prolong for a year or more. rin
Step-3: Setting up TPM departmental committees g.n
Since TPM includes improvement, autonomous maintenance and quality e
maintenance an action team is formed with people who directly have impact on the
t
problem being addressed. Operators, maintenance personnel, shift supervisors, schedulers
and top management might be the members of force. This action team should take care of
all those needs.

Step-4: Establishing TPM working system and target

The action team will be assigned with the responsibility of identifying problem
area and detailing course of corrective action and initializing the corrective process. In

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this step by observing and comparing TPM in other companies a benchmark is set and the
team starts working towards achieving that.

Stage-I-Intialization

Stage-II-Introduction on TPM

Stage-III-Implementation of TPM

ww
w.E Stage-IV-Institutionalization
Step-5: A plan for institutionalizing

asy
A master plan leading to institutionalizing, where in TPM becomes an
organizational culture. En
STAGE-II - INTRODUCTION STAGE: gi nee
rin
A grand ceremony is to be arranged inviting vendors out customers, affiliated
companies, sister concerns and communicating them all that “We care for Quality”.

g.n
e
STAGE-III-IMPLEMENTATION STAGE:

out.
The following activities which are familiarly called as pillars of TPM are carried t
 5’S Principle
 Autonomous Maintenance (JISHU HOZEN)
 Planned Maintenance
 Quality Maintenance
 Training
 Office TPM
 Safety, Health and Environment

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STAGE-IV-INSTITUTIONALIZING STAGE:

Once the action teams are familiar with the TPM process and have experienced
success with small level problems and then with high and complicated problems, the
company can apply for PM award.

5. i) Explain about the repair cycle. (APR 2014) (8)


Repair cycle
 The repetitive performance of all maintenance activities in between two
over hauling is termed as repair cycle.
 The time period for a repair cycle dependent on the time intervals in
between two activities.

ww The various maintenance activities may be classified into four categories which
are as follows.

w.E Inspection (I)

asy
Minor Repair (R1)
Medium or major (R2) and

En
Overhauling (O)

gi nee
 It is clear that first an inspection activity is scheduled followed by minor/
major repair activities.

rin
 Then an inspection takes place followed by a major repair. Again a second
inspection is followed by major repair.
g.n
between two consecutive overhauling is defined as a repair cycle.e
 Like this is goes and completes one repair cycle. The set of these activities

 This typical repair cycle covers three inspection and two minor and major
t
repair activities.
 This can be represented O1 –I1 –R11 –R21 –I2 –R1 –I3 R2.
From the above it is understood that the repair cycle is mainly time dependent
between activities.
 An index number generally known as repair completely number is used to denote
the complexity repairing equipments. More the complexity number more will be
the activities involved and in turn more staffing requires completing the repair
cycle.

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ii) Compare TQM and TPM. (DEC 2009) (8)

PILLARS OF (TPM )Total Productive Maintenance:


TPM starts with 5, s principle. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the
workplace is unorganized. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the tem to
uncover problems.
5s Seiri –Sort out. This means sorting and organizing the items as critical,
important, frequently used items, useless, or ileins that are not need as of now. Seiton –
Organize Each item has a place and only one place.. the items can be identified early by
writing name plates and coloured tags. `
SEISO –SHINE Their involve cleaning the workplace free of turss, grease, oil,
waste, scrap etc. no loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines.

ww SEIKETSU –Standardization Employees have to discuss together and decide on

w.E
standards for keeping the workplace/ machines/ pathways neat and clean. These
standards are implemented for whole organization and are inspected randomly.

asy
SHIFTSUKE –Self Discipline This is to bring about self discipline among
employees of the organization. This includes weaving badges, following work

En
procedures, punctuality, dedication to the organization etc.
Piller 2 –JISHU HOZEN
gi nee
Also known as autonomous maintenance. The pillar aims at developing operators

rin
capable of taking care of small maintenance tasks themselves, thus freeing up the skilled

g.n
maintenance people to expend time on more value added activity and technical repairs.
Pillar 3 –Kaigen “Kai” means change “Zen means good. Means a continuous
improvement will be there. The above graph shows the continuous improvement.
e
Pillar 4 –Planned Maintenance It is aimed to have trouble free machines and t
equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. This
maintenance classified into four “families or groups” which were defined earlier.
Pillar 5 –Quality Maintenance It is aimed towards customer delight by getting
them from the highest quality through defect free manufacturing. Focus is on eliminating
non- conformances in a systematic manner. We gain understanding of what parts of the
equipment affect product quality and being to eliminate current quality concerns and then
more to potential quality concerns.

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Pillar 6 –Training It is aimed to have multi-skilled employees whose morale is
high and who are eager to work and perform all the required functions independent and
effectively.
Pillar 7 –Office TPM It must be followed to improve, productivity, efficiency in
the administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. This includes analyzing
processes and procedures towards increased office automation. Office TPM addresses
twelve major losses.
Pillar 8 –Safety Health and Environment This pillar aims at achieving i) Zero
accident ii) Zero health damage iii) Zero fires.
1. TPM focuses of equipment which is the input or cause side whereas TQM focuses
mainly on quality & process which are the output or result side of the company.

ww
2. In TQM the small group activities or quality circles are voluntary but in TPM the small
group activities are company led and are integral parts of work-place and organization.

w.E
TPM & TQM Similarities:
In many of the aspects, TPM is found to have similarity with the total quality
management (TQM) program.asy
En
The following are the similarities between them.

documentation. gi
 Empowerment of employees to initiate corrective action, bench marking and

 Top level management committed to the program. nee


 Long range outlook perspective.
rin
g.n
The main objectives are to achieving zero defects zero accidents and zero breakdowns in

e
all functional areas of an organization. Also the objectives include creating different team
of people to have active participation aiming at minimization of defects and to inculcate
autonomous policy.
t
Dissimilarities:
Category Total quality Management (TQM) TotalProductive
Maintenance (TPM)
Objective To have quality To have reliable equipment
Means of achieving Through systematized Through active participation
of management employees

Target Minimized defective Elimination losses and


Preventive maintenance

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UNIT-3
CONDITION MONITORING
PART-A

1. What are the three types of condition monitoring? (NOV/DEC 2009)


i) Subjective condition monitoring
ii) Aided Subjective condition monitoring
iii)Objective condition monitoring

2. Name the types of pyrometers. (NOV/DEC 2014)


i) Total radiation pyrometers

ww ii) Infra red pyrometers

w.E
iii) Optical pyrometers

asy
3. List down the features of Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD). (APRIL 2016)

En
i) High degree of accuracy.
ii) Resistance thermometer is interchangeable in a process without compensation
or recalibration. gi nee
iii) It is normally designed for fast response as well as accuracy to provide close
control of processes.
rin
4. What is wear debris analysis? (APR 16, NOV/DEC 2013 ) g.n
e
Concentration and characterization of wear metals and other contaminants,
suspended in used oil, mainly from the machine components, through which the oil
t
interfaces and generates some wear metals and wear particles.
Contaminants (wear debris or wear particles) generated due to interaction between the
various components / parts of the machine and carried away by the lubricant to sumps,
these are known as Wear Debris Analysis or Contaminant Analysis or Wear Particle
Analysis.
5. Name any four instrument commonly used for condition monitoring methods.
(MAY/JUNE 2012)
i) Visual Inspection
ii) Vibration Monitoring
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iii) Temperature Monitoring
iv) Crack Monitoring

6. What is meant by Thermography? (APR/MAY 2015)


A Thermography technique uses the distribution of surface temperatures to assess
the structure or behaviour of what is under the surface.
Types of Thermography:
i) Passive Thermography
ii) Active Thermography

7. List down the advantages of condition monitoring. (NOV/DEC 2017)

ww Links between cause and effect


Systems with sufficient response

w.E
Mechanisms for objective data assessment

asy
Benefits out weighing cost
Data storage and review facilities.

En
gi
8.What is shock pulse meter?(May/June 2013)

nee
The meter is used to monitor both oil film thickness and bearing disorder in a bearing

rin
and the conditions to support and maintain oil film thickness.

9.What are the five types of wear?(May/June 2015)


g.n
sliding wear.
e
Rubbing wear, Cutting wear, rolling fatigue, combined rolling and sliding wear, Sever

t
10. What are the functions of Temperature Sensitive Tapes? (Nov 2017)
A tape having four of five 20 mm diameter dots of special paints, each of which
changes its colour at a particular temperature is stuck to the heat prone parts of the
equipment.

PART-B
1. Describe the various types of Non-destructive testing techniques for condition
monitoring.(APR 15)

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 Various condition monitoring methods have been developed for the past
35years and are in use. A number of strategies and techniques exist for
collecting condition data and interpreting it for taking corrective action.
 The success of condition monitoring depends in the efficiency of
identifying the deteriorating trend in the machine components. For this
purpose, it is essential to recognize the source or cause of failure. There is
variety of technologies that can and should be used as part of a condition
monitoring program. The extensive range of monitoring techniques
available is listed in table.
Type Method On/off line Comments
1.Visual Human eye On/off Covers a wide range of highly

ww
Inspection effective condition
surface inspection methods.
checking and

w.E Off Can be used for internal inspection of


machines, good for detecting surface

asy corrosion, wear and severe defects like

En cracks.

giClosed circuit Permits


television
nee
inaccessible
detailed inspection
environment machine
of

(CCTV) parts. Image recording and high

rin
resolution analysis is a post-processing
possibility.
g.n
2.Vibration
monitoring
Overall
vibration level
On
e
Represents the vibration of a rotating
or reciprocating machine as a single,
t
number which can be trended and used
as a basis for the detection of common
machine faults, but fault diagnosis is
not possible and detection capability
can be compromised.
Frequency On Represents the vibration of a rotating
(spectrum) or reciprocating machine as a
Analysis frequency spectrum which reveals the
discrete frequency component content

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of the vibration. Provides the basis for
fault detection, diagnosis and severity
assessment.

Shock pulse On All of these techniques use high


monitoring On frequency vibration signals to detect
(SPM), Spike and diagnosis a range of faults
energy and including rolling element bearing
Kurtosis damage, lubrication failure and leak
detection.
Structural Off

ww monitoring A variety of vibration-based


techniques exists for the detection and

w.E location of structural faults. The


majority of such techniques involve

asy imparting a known vibration into the

En structure and analysing the resulting

3.Temperature Temperature gi On
response.

nee
Simple and effective aids to visual
Monitoring crayons, paints inspection. Can resolve body
and taps rin
temperature to perform from a distance
at a glance.
g.n
Thermometers, On e
Range from stick-on thermometric
t
thermocouples strips to permanently installed
thermocouple sensors. Can give visual
temperature readout or an electrical
input to a hard-wired monitoring
system.

Infra-red meter On Non-contacting device which measures


radiated body heat to estimate the
surface temperature of a component.

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Covers a wide range of temperature
but acts only on a small area.

Infra-red On As above but can cover a much wider


camera surface area. Can provide a detailed
surface temperature picture and can be
calibrated to give quantitative
measurement.
4.Lubrication Magnetic plugs On/Off Analysis of debris picked up by plugs
analysis and filters or filter in an oil washed systems.
Mainly large debris picked up, 100-

ww 1000microns.

w.E
Ferrography N/A Analytical technique used to separate
ferrous debris by size to enable

asy microscopic examination. Non-ferrous

En debris can also be separated but not

gi graded. A wide range of debris size

nee
can be analysed from 3-100 A
contact service is usually available.
rin
Spectroscopy N/A Analytical technique
g.n is used to

e
determine the chemical composition of
the oil and debris. Generally, for small t
debris size 0-10 microns. A contract
service usually available.
5.Crack Dye penetrant On/Off Detects cracks which break the surface
monitoring of the material.

Magnetic flux On/Off Detects cracks at/near the surface of


ferrous materials.

Electrical On/Off Detects cracks at/near the surface and

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resistance can be used to estimate depth of crack.

Eddy current On/Off Detects cracks near to surface. Also


useful detection of inclusions and
hardness changes.
Detects cracks anywhere in a
component.
Ultrasonic On/Off
Suffers from directional sensitivity,
meaning that general searches can be

ww lengthy. Often used to back up other


NDT techniques.

w.E Detects cracks and inclusions


Radiography asy Off anywhere in a component, although

En access to both sides of component is

6.Corrosion Weight loss gi Off


necessary. Involves a radiation hazard.

nee
Coupons are weighed and weight loss
monitoring coupons is equated to material thickness loss

rin
due to corrosion.

g.n
Incremental
bore holes
On
incremental depths e
A series of fine plugged holes of
which
t
are
periodically unplugged and scrutinized
for leakage.

Electrical On Electrical element and potentiometer


resistance are used to assess resistance change
due to material loss. Capable of
detecting material thickness reduction
of loss than 1mm.
Polarization On

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resistance A good indicator of corrosion but is
unreliable as a means of estimating
material loss rate.

2. i) Explain the principle and working of pistol thermometer. (APR/MAY’ 15,


MAY/JUNE 2012) (8)
 Temperature is the measure of velocity of fluid particles. It is a property which is
used to determine the degree of hotness and coldness or level of heat intensity of a
body.
 Instrument used to measure ordinary temperature – Thermometer.
 Instrument used to measure high temperature – Pyrometer.

ww  Since pressure, volume, electrical resistance, expansion co efficient are all related to
temperature through fundamental molecular structure, they change with temperature

w.E
which can be used to measure temperature.
 Temperature is created when wear, friction, slippage, impact and others occur
between equipments. asy
En
 The difference between the ambient temperature and the equipment temperature is

gi
proportional to the defect, which can be detected using the following devices.

nee
Temperature crayons, optical pyrometer, softening cones, bimetallic strips,
thermisters, Thermo transistor, Thermisters, infrared thermograph.
Pistol thermometer (optical pyrometer) rin
 Thermometers are use to measure the temperature of smaller ranges.
g.n
 The range of thermometers is increased to certain limits by using infrared
thermometers. e t
 Ideal as a professional diagnostic tool for maintenance professionals, the high-end
fluke 576 non-contact, pistol-grip thermometer enables the capture of a simultaneous,
time-stamped digital photographic image as a temperature reading is taken. The logged
results and images from up to 100 locations can be uploaded via a USB connection to a
PC using the windows-based software that comes with the thermometer.
 Thus, the temperature can be stored, presented graphically and analysed, and the
photographic images can be displayed on screen for improved documentation and
maintenance follow-up.

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 The fluke 576 measures surface temperatures, helping to quickly locate lubrication
problems, overloads, short-circuits or misaligned and overheated equipment
 Reducing work and follow-up time, and improving performance.
 The fluke 576 precision IR thermometer, featuring a true dimension laser sighting
system for precise targeting, is one of the most advanced of its type on the market for
accurate condition monitoring and analysis.
 It measures temperatures between -30 and +900C to a 0.1C resolution with a very
fast response time and a distance to spot ratio of 60:1.
 Features include max/min readings, difference and average readings, and audible
alarms for high and low readings in comparison to 30 preset levels. A bar graph on the
backlit LCD screen displays the last 10 readings.

ww
Pistol thermometer Diagram:

w.E
asy
En
gi nee
rin
g.n
e t

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ii) How system approach to condition monitoring can be useful? Explain. (MAY 13,
APR 16) (8)
In traditional or holistic approach of condition monitoring, the components of a
equipment are monitored independently. A complete system consists of sub-assemblies
formed of these components. Monitoring of individual components involves recording of
information for result oriented operational control, which is not efficient. This approach
clearly identifies key maintenance and reliability activities, explains their interactions and
how they can be integrated into the whole management process. It enables the
organization of the whole maintenance process rather than focusing on individual
elements or jobs. A good maintenance management process can be considered as having

ww
the following six phases:

w.E
 Work identification
 Work planning

asy
 Work scheduling
 Work execution
En
 History recording
 Analysis gi nee
In system approach to maintenance, monitoring of a equipment is done by

rin
considering it as a system. For proper identification and communication of all of the

g.n
above six phases, a system approach is developed , it includes proper cataloguing,

e
codification and computerization of all the actions/activities, assets and materials related
to maintenance of all the departments and work areas and integrating them into one
system. This approach provides an enterprise database that enables to capture and analyze
t
data about current and historical maintenance work. It also helps keep track of the cost of
maintaining any piece of equipment, work orders and labour time, and key performance
indicators and benchmarks throughout the maintenance operation.
In system approach, a separate sensor is to be used independently, to measure each
characteristics of a component for example, bearings. When this approach is employed,
the output of one sensor can give information, on more than one sub-assembly.
Therefore, monitoring at sub-assembly level reduces the number of sensors, which is the
concept of system condition monitoring technique.

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3. Explain how cost comparison is done in condition monitoring?(Nov/Dec 2009)

 The cost in maintenance department includes wages, spares, overheads, instrument


and so on. It is difficult to allocate accurate proportion of total cost to individual
maintenance components.

ww
w.E
asy
En
gi nee
 The spares, labour cost raises and equipment deteriorate with usage, as shown in
figure the there is steady raise in maintenance cost as plant usage increases.

rin
g.n
e t

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 The above diagram represents expenses against savings and final break down
point. The aggregate graph for the cost of the current maintenance situation and
plotted along the expected costs after installing condition monitoring, The area
between two represents potential savings.

ww
w.E
asy
En
gi nee
 The cost of installation of CM is high in the starting and operation cost becomes
low, but steady during the life of Condition monitoring equipment.

rin
 Introducing Condition monitoring includes both capital and running cost.

g.n
Capital cost (Installation):
e
 The cost includes creative access, installing foundation, covering or protecting, t
power supply, service acceptance etc. Consulting cost before and after installation
is also included. The cost of training the operator is also included.

Operating cost:
 The major cost is man power, fuelling, consumables needed.
 Initial cost and saving should result in an early cash outflow for equipment and
training, but soon crosses the breakeven point within acceptable period.

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 It should then level off into steady profit, it represent satisfying routine on the
initial investment as reduced maintenance cost and improved equipment
performance with overall financial gain.

These are represented in the graph below.

ww
w.E
asy
En
gi nee
rin
Some of the examples, show the finanical benefits to be gained by implementing
condition monitoring techniques,are as follows:
g.n
e
i) A 25 year old flour mill implemented a planned and condition monitoring and achieved
t
a 43% saving within 12 months,
ii) An esimated benefit of Rs.160 million has been reported by imperial chemical
industries after implementing permanent vibration monitoring systems at a number of
sites.
iii)The successful implementation of an overall condition monitoring plan by British
Petroleum on one site alone has saved a considerable amount of money.
iv) Taxaco’s Pembrock refinery saved nearly Rs.40,000,000 perpendicular year by
implementing an effective energy monitoring and management programme.

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4. Discuss the benefits from condition based maintenance.(MAY/JUNE 13)


1. Safety:
The injury and fatal accidents can possibly be reduced by adopting the safety
measures in equipment and system. So, the condition based maintenance enables the
system by indicating the future failure in the form of giving signal to the operator.
2. Extended useful life:
The continuous monitoring enables the system to avoid sudden failures which is
not unscheduled. It extends the life of the equipment considerably.
3. Enhanced availability:
The breakdowns are minimized through proper maintenance which leads to

ww
increase the availability. It is achieved by reducing the down time.
4. Reduction in maintenance time:

w.E
The repair time and fault correction time can be reduced by condition based
maintenance.
5. Improved output: asy
En
The output of the process is directly linked with the availability, enabled life of the

gi
equipment, reduced maintenance time. The condition based maintenance improves these

nee
three factors which lead to improve the quality of products.
6. Quality product:

rin
The better quality products could be ensured through condition based maintenance

g.n
with healthy equipment in the process line. The quality of the products will satisfy the
customer expectation.
7. Improved reliability: e
Since the condition monitoring can predict the possible failures, it is possible to
t
remove or replace a piece of equipment before any series consequences arises and
hence, the reliability of the equipment can be improved.
8. Improved planning:
Condition monitoring also helps in improving maintenance and production
planning. This is due to the fact that the ability to predict the onset of failure
ensures that the organisation of materials and staffing can be carried out in
advance, and fitted into any existing schedules. The reduction in unexpected
failures should reduce the need to reschedule or cancel the existing work.

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5. What is wear debris analysis? What are the wear debris analysis techniques
commonly used and compare their performance and uses?(NOV/DEC 2015, APR
14)
 Wear debris analysis (WDA) is related to oil analysis only in that the
particles to be studied are collected through drawing a sample of lubricating
oil, wear debris analysis provides direct information about the wearing
condition of the machine train, where as the lubricating oil analysis
determines the actual condition of the oil sample.
 Particles in the lubricant of a machine can provide significant information
about the condition of the machine. This information is obtained from the
study of particle shape, composition, size and quantity.

ww  Wear debris analysis is normally conducted in two stages. The first method
is routine monitoring and trending of the solid content of the machine

w.Elubricant. The continuous trending of wear rate monitors the performance


of machine and provides early warning and diagnosis.

asy
 In simple terms, the quantity, composition, and size of particulate matter in

En
the lubricating oil are indicative of the mechanical condition of the

gi
machine. A normal machine will contain low levels of solids with a size
less than 10 micrometers.
nee
 Different mechanical systems have different life and minimum component

rin
wear. International organization for standardization (ISO) set up cleanliness

g.n
codes for proper lubricating analysis defined as the number of particles per
millilitre greater than 5,15,25,50 and 100 microns.
e
 The second method involves analysis of the particulate matter in each
lubricating oil sample is run through a particle counter. The counter passes
t
the lubricant stream through a beam that measures the number and sizes of
the solid particle contained in the fluid.
 If the wear debris concentration indicates that are too many particles in a
given size range, then further investigation is required. The solid
components are then inspected under a microscope. The results of this test
include particle identification, possible sources, suggestions on corrections,
and picture of the particles.

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 Five basic types of wear can be identified according to the classification of
particles: rubbing wear, cutting wear, rolling fatigue wear, combined rolling
and sliding wear, and severe sliding wear. The following table summarises
the different types of wear and its description.
SI. No Types of wear Description
1. Rubbing wear Particles<20 micron chord dimension and =1
micron thick. Results from flaking of pieces
from mixed shear layer mainly benign.
2. Cutting wear Swarf like chips of fine wire coils. Caused by
abrasive cutting tool action.
3. Rolling fatigue Chunky, several micron thick from, e.g. gear

ww wear, 20-50 micron chord width, primary result


of rolling contact bearing failure.
4.
w.ECombined rolling and Typically ferrous, 1 to >10 micron diameter
sliding wear generated when micro cracks occur under rolling
asy contact fatigue condition.
5.
En
Severe sliding wear Large>50micron chord width, several microns

gi thick. Surfaces heavily striated with long straight

nee
edges. Typically, found in gear wear, caused by
excessive loads or heat in the gear system.

rin
WEAR DEBRIS ANALYSIS METHODS
g.n
e
 A wide variety of basic techniques are used in the detection, and evaluation,
of the wear debris present in a lubrication system. The monitoring t
equipment which has evolved from these techniques may be used on-line or
off-line. The various basic techniques used are briefly described as follows:
(a) Optical methods:
There are three techniques used by applying optical method.
i) Light of obstruction technique
This technique uses the change in light intensity which occurs when
particle debris pass though a light beam. The intensity change is detected using a
photodiode and the output is calibrated to give the particle size for the flow conditions.

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Any change in flow conditions and particle properties requires a recalibration of the
instrument.
ii) Time of transition technique
This technique uses a scanning laser beam and is based on the principle that
the time of interaction of a particle within the beam depends directly on the particle size.
The technique is independent of the type of fluid used and therefore does not require
calibration.
iii)Forward reflectance technique
This technique is based upon the reflectance of light at a very shallow angle of
incidence. The light is reflected forward in a narrow angle band, and occurs at an
intensity depending upon the surface area which is impinged by the light beam. This in

ww
turn depends upon the particle size.
(b) Filler blockage:

w.E
This technique depends upon the change in the pressure characteristics which
occur when an orifice is blocked by debris within the liquid passing though that orifice.

asy
In practice, screen or mesh is used which consists of a number of same-sized orifices.

En
Any particles in the fluid which are larger than the orifice size will cause a blockage,

(c) Magnetic attraction: gi


thereby decreasing the flow rate through the mesh.

nee
This technique uses the magnetic susceptibility of ferrous contaminants to separate

rin
the debris from the carrying fluid. The separation is brought about by a variety of

g.n
methods such as the use of a permanent magnet or a magnetic filter. Those instruments

e
which separate the debris in a manner suitable for further examination and analysis are
generally offline monitors. Magnetic plug method is an on-line debris collector. This
technique collects the ferrous debris from the passing fluid by using magnetized sensing
t
heads. The debris is allowed to build up over a specified period of time, and the wear rate
is calculated from the weight collected or the change in magnetic flux. The debris is
released back into the system at the end of each measuring cycle by demagnetizing the
collecting zone.
(d) Wear:
This is a technique whereby the electrical resistance of an wear debris contained
within the flowing fluid are allowed to impinges upon the sensor, causing a wearing away
of the sensor material, and hence increasing its electrical resistance. The change in

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resistance depends upon the rate change in sensor wear and therefore, upon the hardness,
sharpness and frequency of the particles striking the sensor.
(e) Ultrasound:
This technique uses a pulsed ultrasonic acoustical beam focused into a fluid, such
that it will sense the presence of particulate matter within that liquid. Maximum
sensitivity is achieved at the focus of the acoustic beam. Hence, any passing debris will
interrupt the beam and cause a change in the strength of the reflected pulse signal, as seen
by the receiver. The rate of change in the strength of the reflected pulse can be used to
quantify and size the particles present in the fluid stream.
(f) Radioactivity:
This technique involves the monitoring of irradiated wear particles which have

ww
resulted from the wear of an irradiated component. The method is carried out by either,
monitoring the particles using gamma ray detection units within the vicinity of the

w.E
irradiated work part, or by monitoring the decrease in radioactivity of the component
itself.

asy
(g) Electrical conductance:

En
A technique which depends upon the electrical conductivity of the debris within a

gi
non-conducting fluid. The capture of conductive particles between two electrical

nee
terminals results in bridging the gap between them, and this causes a short circuit which
indicates their presence. The capture is brought about by using a magnetic plug
arrangement and therefore the debris must be ferromagnetic.
rin
(h) Image analysis:
g.n
e
Basically a technique involving the computer analysis of video camera images of
dried and cleaned particles extracted from a carrier fluid. The particles are first extracted
using filtration or magnetic separation etc. Onto a substrate for viewing by means of an
t
optical microscope. The microscope image is translated into an electronic digital picture
through a video camera and an image processing system. The electronic image is then
analysed using computer software techniques to produce information with respect to size,
shape, texture, colour etc.

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UNIT-4
REPAIR METHODS FOR BASIC MACHINE ELEMENTS
PART-A

1. What is fault or failure analysis? (MAY / JUNE 2013)


Defect analysis or failure analysis is the process by which information / data about
failure occurring in equipments / systems are collected and analyzed to find the root
cause of failures and the causes are addressed to prevent recurrence of failures

2. List the design considerations of guide ways. (NOV/DEC 2009)

ww
The shape of the guide ways is designed based on:

w.E
i) Load to be carried by it and direction in which to carry.
ii) Position of transmission element

asy
iii) Characteristics of wear

En
iv) Ease of chip disposal

gi nee
3. Differentiate between fault tree diagrams and reliability block diagrams (NOV /
DEC 2009, APR 16)
Sl. Fault Tree Diagrams
rin
Reliability Block Diagrams
No.
1 g.n
Fault tree works in the failure space RBD works in the success space and
and looks
combinations
at system failure thus looks
combinations.
at e
system
t
successes

2 It is used to access fixed probabilities It includes time varying distributions for


(i.e. each event that comprises the the success (reliability equation) and
tree has a fixed probability of other properties such as repair /
occurring) restoration distributions.

4. How the bearings are repaired? (NOV / DEC 2012)


1. Grinding and polishing of journal surfaces. 2. Periodical change of oil and
filters as recommended. 3. Maintaining a dirt free environment. 4. Shafts and bore

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produced to exact dimension and geometry. 5. Proper assembly and mounting of
bearings.
5. Discuss the preventive maintenance for bearing. (NOV / DEC 2012)
Lubricant Supply:
The lubricant is the key component of the system which determines bearing life.
Reduced to simplest terms, if a sleeve bearing is provided with an adequate flow of the
proper clean lubricant, long life should be realized.
6.Write down the basic method of repair of gears.(Nov 2017)
Recertification, Reconditioning and Remanufacturing.
7. Define FMEA? (MAY/ JUNE 2013)
FMEA is methodology for analyzing potential reliability problems early in the

ww
development cycle where it is easier to take actions to overcome the issues, thereby
enhancing reliability through design.

w.E
8. What are called age-dependent failures? (APR/MAY 2014)

asy
Time dependent failures are called age dependent failures

En
gi
9. Define Fault tree diagrams (APR/MAY 2014)

nee
Fault tree diagrams are logic block diagrams that display the state of a system in
terms of the states of its components.

rin
10. Write down the capabilities of Fault Tree Diagram. (NOV/DEC 2009)
g.n
Fault tree analysis and failure modes and effects analysis,
Design for reliability e t
Design for safety

11. Define Event tree Analysis (NOV/DEC 2014)


An event tree is a visual representation of all the events which can occur in a
system. As the number of events increases, the pictures fans out like the branches of a
tree.
12. What is meant by Logical Fault Location method? (Nov 2017)
Logical Fault Location method deals with locating the fault in systematic and orderly manner so
as to have a thorough study on cause of fault.

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PART-B

1. Discuss the repair methods of bearing.( APR 15, NOV/DEC 2009)


Failure Condition Cause Solution
Flaking Raceway surface is Rolling fatigue, Avoid installation error
flaked and look overload, poor shaft or increasing viscosity of
very rough housing accuracy, lubricant and adequate
installation error, lubrication.
rusting
Peeling Is a cluster of small Occur in roller Controlling surface

ww spalls bearings, if mating roughness and dust,


surface is rough and proper selection of

Spalling
w.E Scratches
poor lubrication.
in Poor mounting
lubricant
and Adopting improved
spinning asy direction removing practice, mounting and removing

En
on raceway surface slippage of rolling procedures, correction of

surfaces gi
and rolling contact elements,

nee
discontinuation
oil film preload, proper selection
of lubricant and
lubricating systems.

rin
Smearing Surface is Slippage of
g.n
rolling By making sound oil film,
roughened an tiny elements due to poor using extreme pressure
particles adhere lubricant e t
lubricant, precautious on
characteristics radial clearance and pre-
load to avoid slippage.
Worn surfaces and
Selecting optimum
reduced dimensions Ingress of solid
lubricant and lubrication
compared to other foreign objects, poor
Stepped wear system filtering
portions, mostly lubrication and
lubricating oil avoiding
roughed and skewing of rollers.
misalignment.
scored.
Speckles and Clusters of tiny Poor lubrication, Speckles: Improving

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discolouration dents and surface deposition of sealing efficiency,
colour change deteriorated oil on filtration of oil, effective
surface, ingress of lubrication system
solid foreign objects discolouration: wiping out
oil deposition by organic
solvents, polishing with
sandpaper
Partial chipping of Impact of excessive Improved sealing
inner, outer ring load poor handling characteristics, better
Chipping
and rolling trapping of large solid handling, avoiding impact
elements foreign objects. or excessive loading.

ww Cracking
Splits, and cracks Excessive load and
in bearing rings and impacts very loose
Preventing creep.
Correction of fit avoiding

w.E rolling elements fitting large flaking


Way in for water and
impact and heavy load

asy
Rusting and
corrosive materials Effective sealing, periodic
Rust and
En
corrosion of
(acid) condensation of lubrication of lubricating
corrosion
gi
bearing surfaces
moisture in air, poor

nee
packaging and storing
oil, carefully handling
bearing.
conditions.
Due to heat, Low heat dissipation, rinEffective heat dissipation
disabled spinning, poor lubrication,
g.n
selecting suitable

Seizing
discolouration,
softening and
improper lubricant,
very small clearance, e
lubricant and optimal
lubricating feed rate, t
welding of raceway excessive load and avoiding mis-alignment,
surfaces ad rib roller skewing and enhanced operating
surface. installation error. conditions.

2. List a few causes of failures in an electromechanical system like compressor,


pumps and elevators. (APR 15)
Causes of failures in compressors:
 Lack of lubrication due to low oil level

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 Overheating of components due to poor air flow/poor heat transfer and poor
ventilation
 Improper mounting of compressor due to incorrect levelling of floor during
installation or loose floor mountings
 Filter damage due to bad atmospheric condition
 Loose pulley, flywheel, belt, belt guard, cooler, clamps or accessories
which may cause excessive noise.
 Water entering in oil reservoir due to compressor operating in high
humidity environment
 Wrong fuse size.
Causes of failures in pump:

ww  Using low-quality fluids and poor contamination control


 Failure of seals and hence leakage of fluid

w.E
 Cracked or bent pulleys due to improper handling or installation
 Shaft breakage due to bearing overload

asy
 Improper mounting of pumps due to incorrect levelling of floor during

En
installation or loose floor mountings.

gi
 Pump housing or casting breakage due to excessive vibration
 Undersized shaft in an end suction pump
Causes of failures in elevators: nee
 Sudden stops & abrupt landings
rin
 Poor scheduled maintenance
g.n
 High fluctuation in electrical power supply
 Overloading the elevators frequently
 Poor system circuit design
e t
 Malfunctioning of electronic circuits and sensors due to high moisture
 Overheating of the drive and control system
RELIABILITY = SAFETY
 Many accidents occur without any component “failure” – Caused by equipment
operation outside parameters and time limits upon which reliability analyses are
based. – Caused by interactions of components all operating according to
specification. – Highly reliable components are not necessarily safe. For relatively
simple, electro-mechanical systems with primarily component failure accidents,

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reliability engineering can increase safety. But this is untrue for complex,
software-intensive or human-intensive systems

3. Explain the repair methods for spindles.(APR 15)


 Machine spindles are a part of different tools and equipment that are used in a lot
of different jobs like those in automotive and manufacturing areas. Spindles
require appropriate maintenance and repair.
 In fact, restoration of machine tool spindles has become a necessary industry.
While methods used in spindle repair depend on the specifications and extent of
the restoration required, basic essential methods guide are followed for every
repair. The essential methods used in the spindle repair procedure are described

ww under:
(i) Processing and dismantling

w.E
Before dismantling of spindle, it is very important to take photograph and
catalog the machine spindles. This information is required for logging and tracking the

asy
alterations made to the spindle. The spindle may be taken apart after the processing step.

En
(ii) Assessment of spindle

gi
Close inspecting the spindle and its parts is required in machine spindle

nee
assessment. Every part and component of the spindle like the spindle housing, end caps,
spindle pulleys, collar locks, shaft and spindle taper are inspected and taken into account.

rin
In order to determine dimensions that are in need of tuning and other configuration, the

g.n
assessment step also involves measuring and recording every component accurately.

(iii) Machining process e


The grinding process is used as a primary machining process for spindles.
t
Grinding is a process that is designed to fine-tune the measurement of the spindle back to
factory-set default dimensions. Finishing processes such as polishing, lapping etc. Are
done to get required surface finish. The spindle is returned to a ‘like new’ condition by
grinding and lapping. This process helps to avoid unnecessary expenditure of money to
replace the damaged spindle with a new one. There might also be a requirement to put the
spindle through subsequent repairs like machining and bearing placement.
Table given below shows the repair standards and methods for common spindle worn out
places:

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Wear out places Repair standards Repair methods

Shanks and journal Taper = 0.01 mm Grinding


seats Ovlity =0.003 – 0.005 mm Lapping the bearing seats

Radial bearing of the axis Grinding


Near the spindle Compensating bush for
Spindle taper bore =0.006 – 0.01 mm larger wear
At 300mm
= 0.01 – 0.02 mm Spindle reversal
(iv) Reassembly and testing

ww Following the machining process, the machine spindle is assembled back


together and then tested. This process helps in identifying the efficiency and restoration

w.E
of the repaired spindle to almost brand new condition.
(v) More methods of preservation

asy
 There are additional maintenance procedures that can be performed on

En
the spindle to complete the repair methods.
 These extra services include acoustic and stability control as well as
gi nee
vibration evaluation. Stability control is designed for large grinding
systems and is meant to fix any discrepancies by injecting a coolant
fluid to 3-4 compensating tanks.
rin
g.n
 On the other hand, vibration analysis is used to diagnose problems in

e
tools like drive motors, work head spindles, wheel head spindles,
hydraulics and drive motors.
 Because of the technical nature of the application of spindles in many
t
industries, proper maintenance and repair of this essential component is
important to ensure longer service life and efficiency. Also good spindle
repair helps experts and workers avoid damages and save money.

4. i) Briefly explain the repair methods of machine beds.( APR 16,APR 14, NOV
2009)
 Most of the machine tool bed are made of grey cast iron, owing to it’s ability to
absorb/dampen vibration that may arise during the functioning of machine tool.

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 The most probable problem that occurs in machine bed may be the cracks. Repair
of cracks can be repaired by riveting and hot clamping.
Riveting:
 Riveting is done with headless copper screws in a definite order based on the
size and length of the crack.
 Initially a suitable diameter (d) is drilled at the extreme ends of crack, so that
crack does not extend. Then the intermediate holes are drilled at a distance of
1.5d.

ww
w.E
asy
En
gi nee
rin
g.n
is strengthened. e
 The projected ends of the screws are hammered to form rivet head and the riveting

t
Hot clamping:

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 Over the location of the cracks on cast iron bed, two pieces of plates
are placed and bolted with special type and tightened till the shank
portion shear off.
 The welding is done at the end faces of the two plates. While the
welding is cooling down, the shrinkage of plates keep the cracks
closed up.

ww
ii) Describe the fault tree method. (MAY/JUNE 2013)

w.E
 Fault-tree analysis is a method of analyzing system reliability and safety. It
provides an objective basis for analyzing system design, justifying system

asy
changes, performing trade-off studies, analyzing common failure modes,

En
and demonstrating compliance with safety and environment requirements.

gi
 It is different from a Simplified Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in that it

nee
is restricted to identifying system elements and events that lead to one
particular undesired event.

rin
 Figure shows the steps involved in performing a fault-tree analysis.

g.n
 Many reliability techniques are inductive and concerned primarily with

e
ensuring that hardware accomplishes its intended functions. Fault-tree
analysis is a detailed deductive analysis that usually requires considerable
information about the system.
t
 It ensures that all critical aspects of a system are identified and controlled.
This method represents graphically the Boolean logic associated with a
particular system failure, called the top event, and basic failures or causes,
called primary events. Top events can be broad, all-encompassing system
failures or they can be specific component failures.

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Typical fault-tree process:

ww
w.E
asy
En
 Fault-tree analysis provides options for performing qualitative and
quantitative reliability analysis. It helps the analyst understand system

gi nee
failures deductively and points out the aspects of a system that are
important with respect to the failure of interest. The analysis provides
insight into system behaviour.
rin
g.n
 A fault-tree model graphically and logically presents the various
combinations of possible events occurring in a system that lead to the top
e
event. The term “event” denotes a dynamic change of state that occurs in a
system element, which includes hardware, software, human, and
t
environmental factors. A fault event is an abnormal system state. A normal
event is expected to occur.

Event tree analysis (ETA) is a forward, bottom up, logical modeling technique
for both success and failure that explores responses through a single initiating event and
lays a path for assessing probabilities of the outcomes and overall systemanalysis.

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ww
w.E
SEQUENTIAL FAULT LOCATION METHODS
Root cause analysis (RCA) is a method of problem solving used for identifying

asy
the root causes of faults or problems.[1] A factor is considered a root cause if removal
thereof from the problem-fault-sequence prevents the final undesirable event from

En
recurring; whereas a causal factor is one that affects an event's outcome, but is not a root

recurrence with certainty.


gi
cause. Though removing a causal factor can benefit an outcome, it does not prevent its

nee
rin
Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA) is a very useful tool for improving the

g.n
reliability of plant process equipment. It is a logical, structured, and deductive technique
that can identify the causes behind the failure.

e
A method leading to the listing of all possible reasons and outcomes associated with a
particular problem or situation. It is a group process direct at uncovering possible or t
probable causal factors and their manifestation. ... The process usually reports its results
on a cause-and-effect diagram.
Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a step-by-step approach for identifying
all possible failures in a design, a manufacturing or assembly process, or a product or
service. “Failure modes” means the ways, or modes, in which something might fail.
Failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) is an extension of failure
mode and effects analysis (FMEA). FMEA is a bottom-up, inductive analytical method
which may be performed at either the functional or piece-part level.

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A failure reporting, analysis, and corrective action system (FRACAS) is a system,
sometimes carried out using software, that provides a process for reporting, classifying,
analyzing failures, and planning corrective actions in response to those failures. ...
Perform analysis in order to identify the root cause of failure.

5. Discuss about the types of failure mechanisms.(MAY 13,APR16)


 It is not possible for a typical reliability engineer to spend the time needed
to apply basic science to each and every application where a failure might
occur in each and every system.
 As a result, there is value in characterizing the factors that can adversely
affect reliability in more easily understood and applied format. Using those

ww generic characterizations, it is then possible to apply generic forms of


prevention that help to widely eliminate deterioration.

w.E
 A typical example is a plant-wide painting program. When properly applied
a plant-wide painting program will eliminate deterioration due to corrosion

asy
in a vast array of situations, far more than if they had they been handled on

En
a one-at-a-time basis.

 Corrosion
 Erosion
gi
For mechanical components within systems, there are four failure mechanisms. They are,

nee
 Fatigue
rin
 Overload
g.n
e
 Clearly, there are a number of kinds of corrosion and each of them
can cause the deterioration needed to result in a failure mode and a
failure. Also, erosion results from a number of causes.
t
 The same is true of fatigue and overload. The benefit of the form of
generic characterization that groups similar failure mechanisms
together is that it provides reassurance that the number of failure
mechanisms is not infinite.
 There is a starting point and there is a relatively simple way to
quickly focus attention on a limited number of sources for
deterioration. There is no need to say, “there are too many
possibilities”.

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 The number of failure mechanisms is small enough that all but a few
can be prevented by following “good practice”in design, assembly
and maintenance.
 For instance, here are a few “good practices”that can be applied during
design, assmbly and maintenance that will provide prevention for a number
of typical failure mechanisms:
 Keep metals isolated from others that are more or less chemically active.
Avoid creating corrosion cells.
 Provide protection where forms of erosion are possible.
 Where movement of vibration can be present, be careful to avoid situations
that might allow rubbing. Use non-metallic grommets to shield electrical

ww conductors passing through holes in bulkheads.


 Where movement of vibration can be present, provide supports or bracing

w.E that will limit movement and prevent fatigue.


 When producing a “fleet” or a number of items using the same design,

asy
construct one or more “rabbit” units using the same manufacturing

En
processes that are intended to be used on all the units to follow. Closely

gi
review the completed “rabbit” units to identify any shortcomings that exist

nee
within the assembly process. Test the “rabbit” units using extreme
conditions that the units may experience during actual use. If leaks,

rin
vibrations, rubbing or any number of undesired effects are noticed, correct

g.n
the problem on the “rabbit” and alter the manufacturing process to address
the problems.
e
 Maintain the systems of prevention rather than deterioration to the asset.
When a form of needed prevention is no longer effective and deterioration
t
to the asset must be maintained, the likelihood of failure and costs of
maintenance will increase dramatically.

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UNIT-5
REPAIR METHODS FOR MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT
PART-A

1. How the computers will be used for maintenance? (NOV / DEC 2012)
Equipment classification/ information. Maintenance planning. Materials planning.
Captive engineering shop planning. Inventory control. Downtime information's/ analysis.
work order management. Maintenance cost. Maintenance audit & performance
measurement.

2. State few examples of material handling equipments. (APR/MAY 2015,

ww
NOV/DEC 2014)
Material handling equipments include carts, hand trucks, forklifts, conveyors, shelf

w.E
pickers and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal
combustion engines.

asy
En
3. State the benefits of proper maintenance of material handling equipments.
(NOV/DEC 2009)
gi nee
The benefits of a maintenance program for material handling equipments are to
maintain the high efficiency, keep the min running condition, reduce the cost of repairs,
safer operation and enhanced productivity.
rin
g.n
4. State the major stages in preventive maintenance of material handling
equipments. e
(NOV/DEC 2014)
t
There are three stages of preventive maintenance are:
Inspection
Repair and
overhaul

6. State the various phases present in a good maintenance management system.


(NOV/DEC 2015, NOV/DEC 2009)
Work identification
Planning

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Scheduling
Execution
Recording and
Analysis

6. Define work order system. (NOV/ DEC 2014, APR 16)


Work order system is the information system used by the industry to keep track of
its maintenance works.

7. What is job card? (MAY/JUNE 2010)


Job cards contain necessary details for performing individual job in maintenance

ww
organizations. Job card may be in the form of a card, sheet or printout.

w.E
8. State the role equipment records in maintenance. (APR/MAY 2014)

asy
Equipment records are information containing the details of installation, service,
repair, maintenance activities, schedules and plans for future implementation. Equipment

En
records are to be used to maintain control on maintenance cost, reliability and
availability.
gi nee
rin
9. State the benefits of keeping equipments records. (MAY/JUNE 2008)
Clear picture about the details of maintenance programmes is obtained.

g.n
Information about completed, pending and regular jobs carried out to the
equipment are available
Records disseminated to various units of the industry.
e t
Helps in standardization of procedures.
Evaluation of performance of maintenance tasks.

10. Define the term computerized maintenance management system (CMMS)


(APR/MAY 2015, APR/MAY 2014)
Computerized maintenance management system is the application of computers in
planning, scheduling, monitoring and control of maintenance activities.

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PART-B
1. Explain the repair methods for crane hydraulic lift and belt conveyor.(APR 14)

 The proper maintenance of material handling equipment is extremely essential for


preventing the occurrence of bottle neck or points of congestions production line
flow can be maintained only if the material handling equipments is in proper
working order.
 Out of money maintenance techniques available preventive maintenance is one of
the best maintenance techniques suggested in case of material handling
equipments.
 Preventive maintenance helps to keep the material handling equipments always

ww running conditions there by minimizing the interruption during operation. A


periodic inspection and minor alignments may be adequate to prevent the

w.E
equipment breakdown.
 Preventive maintenance also includes lubrication adjustment and repair. There are

asy
three stages of preventive maintenance and they are
Inspection
En
Repair and
gi nee
Overhaul Maintenance strategies for hoists and cranes.

1. Portable cranes:
rin
g.n
The major issues covered in maintenance of portable cranes and cranes are,

that are mounted on wheels or wheeled platforms


 Frequent inspection of brakes, load hoisting and lowering
e
 It is necessary to keep loads within design limits on portable cranes

t
mechanism.
 Inspection of boom, base and platform for any sign of stress e.g.,
cracks, bends, breaks.
2. Overhead cranes:
The major issues covered in maintenance of overhead cranes are,
 Keep the attachments in overhead cranes loaded within the rating
capacity.

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 Maintain safety factors for replacement parts according to
manufacturer’s specification.
 Keep rail level grounded, properly aligned, properly spaced, and
securely attached to the supporting structure, free of beading and
bends.
 Examine over speed sensing mechanisms, brakes and clutch,
sheaves, pins, gears, cables, hooks, rails, etc,. For wear and
maladjustment
 Check welded connections for cracks, bends, abrasion and corrosion.

STAGES OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE FOR CRANES

ww
(i) Inspection:
All parts, open or covered are inspected for wear and tear. Worn out or

w.E
unworkable components like wire ropes, wheels, bearings, bolts etc are removed.
Brakes are adjusted and necessary lubrication applied.
(ii) Repair: asy
En
The repairable parts of the system after inspection are corrected for small repairs

gi
and minor defects are rectified. Systems like open gear transmission, couplings,

nee
riveted and bolted joints, trolley, brakes, guards, etc may be repaired according to
the needs.
(iii) Overhaul:
rin
g.n
Overhauling involves dismantling the complete mechanism and replacing all

e
damaged components. Crane structure, buffers, rails, open gear transmission,
pulley blocks, etc may be replaced and various sub mechanism may be aligned
and adjusted to ensure smooth operation.
t
MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES FOR CONVEYORS
The major issues covered in maintenance of conveyors are,
 Conveyer systems need to be inspected on a regular basis. The important
areas include rollers, bearings, chains and belts. All of these moving parts
are subject to wear and tear.
 Check conveyers to detect any belt slippage, dragging or defective rollers.

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 Be sure that all necessary guards are in place to protect workers from
mechanical injury. Moving machine parts should be lubricated regularly
according to manufacturers’ instructions.
 Frequently overlooked are conveyor rollers, belts, chains during regular
maintenance procedures. So proper attention is required for the same.
 Moving equipment parts are subject to breaks caused by metal fatigue,
loose bearings and obstructions.
 Check conveyors regularly to detector any belt slippage, dragging or
defective rollers. Control static electricity through bonding and grounding
to minimize static charges.

ww
STAGES OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE FOR CONVEYORS
(i) Inspection:

w.E
Belts or rollers are inspected for tensions, wear and tear. Gear box is properly
lubricated, various fasteners are tightened and safety guards are checked.
(ii) Repair: asy
En
Rollers and belts are checked, adjusted or repaired. Couplings, packing, safety

gi
guards, steel structures, gear transmission, bearings, fastener joints, threaded

nee
components, etc are adjusted or repaired as per their conditions and requirements.
(iii) Overhaul:

rin
The conveyor system is completely dismantled, components, worn out and beyond

g.n
repair item like belts, bearings, packing, oil sealers, rollers, drums, fasteners and

conditions. e
couplings are replace. Structures and safety guards may be repaired as per their

t
2. Describe the applications of computers in maintenance management.( APR 14)
Computerization of a maintenance work order system enhances and improves
maintenance efficiency if the correct computer system for the installation is used. The
computer maintenance system is more effective if there is a manual work order system
already in force.
The objectives of computerized maintenance system are as follows,
 Maintenance of existing equipment
 Inspection and service of the equipment
 Installation or revamping of the equipment
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 Maintenance storekeeping
 Craft administration
These major objectives incorporate the following subtasks,
 Reduction of downtime costs
 Maximizing the operating life of the equipment
 Execution of preventive maintenance work
 Minimizing the spare parts inventory
 Maximizing the productivity of the workforce.
Advantages of computerized maintenance management system:
The failures in the computerized maintenance management system provide the
following advantages to the user,

ww  Improve maintenance efficiency


 Reduce maintenance costs

w.E
 Reduce the equipment downtime by proper scheduling
 Reduce the overtime and ensures optimal utilization of manpower

asy
 Increase the life of equipment

En
 Provide historical database to assist in maintenance planning and budgeting

gi
 Provide maintenance reports in specific formats depending on the requirements.
 Quicker access to plant maintenance statistics
 Conformity with health and safety standards nee
 Compliance with industry and statutory regulatory standards.
rin
g.n
 There is a need to integrate the decision support tools in maintenance

efficient discharge of the maintenance function. e


function. Support tools in maintenance planning and execution for the

 There is an increasing trend in application of information based decision


t
support systems in different departments of modern industry.
 Thus computers have become an indispensable requirement in
maintenance management
 Computer is an efficient and reliable tool for maintenance personal to plan
and implement their programmers.
 The success of CMMS depends on the quality of integration of computer
system in maintenance management.

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 Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) is used to track
all maintenance costs and equipment repairs. This tracking is accomplished
by the monitoring of work orders. This task will provide necessary
information to track and plan and maintenance budgets.
 Effective cost control through CMMS is also achieved by the monitoring of
purchase and inventory costs. This will track spare part costs and aims to
avoid excessive inventories. This module also helps in vendor selection and
monitor the shipping time.
 A computerized maintenance management system includes the following
aspects:
Development of a database

ww Analysis of available part records Development of maintenance schedules


Availability of maintenance materials

w.E Feedback control system


PEM

asy
Project management.

En
3. Write a short note on job order system.( APR 15, APR ‘16)

gi
 There are basically two approaches to assign manufacturing costs to

nee
products produced or services rendered: Job-Order Costing and Process
Costing. The approach that you use depends upon the character of your
production operations.
rin
g.n
 Products and services are often produced according to a customer's order.

e
Because every job is different, the cost of each product or service will be
different. Because of this difference in cost, you have to keep track of the
cost of every job separately. This is what occurs with Job Order Costing
t
(also called Job Costing).
 Companies that typically use Job-Order Costing include print shops, law
firms, accounting firms, doctors, construction companies, and film studios.
In all of these cases, the firm keeps track of the cost of each job separately
because each order is different.
 The work order system is the information system for the maintenance
organization. It is important for an organization to maintain proper records

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to perform any meaningful analysis on its policies and procedures. It is
especially on the equipment under their maintenance.
 Work order systems are useful to plan and schedule maintenance activities.
The work order system is the process which the maintenance department
uses to manage all their works.
 The work order system assists the plant in keeping track of prioritizing,
planning, scheduling, analyzing and controlling maintenance work. A
major purpose of using work orders for plant equipment is to track its
history.
 The computerized maintenance management system allows computer
tracking and analysis of work orders as well as plant equipment data. The

ww work order system manual is distributed to the persons responsible for the
maintenance tasks.

w.E
 A job order is an internal document extensively used by projects-based,
manufacturing, building and fabrication businesses. A job order may be for

asy
products and/or services.

En
 In a manufacturing environment, a job order is used to signal the start of a

material. gi
manufacturing process and will most probably be linked to a bill of

 Hence, the job order will probably state: nee


rin
1. The quantity of the product to be manufactured built or fabricated.
2. The amount of raw material to be used, its price and amount.
g.n
3. The types of labour required, rate (per hour or per unit) and amount.
e
4. The machine utilisation for each machine during the routing process, its rate and
t
amount.
4. Briefly explain the equipment record.(APR’ 14)
 Equipment records are information containing the details of installation,
service, repair, maintenance activities, conditions, defects, schedules and
plans for future implementation. Equipment records are to be used to
maintain control on maintenance cost, reliability and availability.
Types of equipment records:
There are many types of equipment records available in industry catering to
various needs. They are as follows,

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 Planned work and percentage of planned work achieved
 Ratio of planned to planned work
 Production delays & downtime
 Ratio of preventive work to corrective work
 Failure patterns
 Repetitive breakdown
 Manuals including operating manual, instruction manual, maintenance
manual, job manual and drawings
 History cards and records
 Spare cards
 Maintenance requirement records

ww  Performance details
 Cost reports

w.E
 Condition monitoring reports
Advantages of equipment records:

asy
The following are the advantages of equipment records,

En
 Clear picture about the details of maintenance programmes is obtained

gi
 Information about completed, pending and regular jobs carried out to the
equipment are available
nee
 Records disseminated to various units of the industry
 Helps in standardization of procedures
rin
 Evaluation of performance of maintenance tasks
g.n
 Provide details of frequency of maintenance requirements for each
equipment e
 Comparison of time taken for completing the maintenance job with the past
t
records.
 Provide strategies for better maintenance management.
Job order entry:

 The general work order entry requires the following information to be filled
by the user:
Equipment number that requires maintenance
Priority and description of the work
Estimated cost of work
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Information for dependent or associated work tasks for a complex
maintenance job.
Job order backlog:
 The backlog is the storage area for all active work order Work order
system: The work order system is the information system for the
maintenance organization it is an important for an organization to maintain
proper records to perform any meaningful analysis on its politicizes and
procedures.
 The computerized maintenance management system allows computer
tracking and analysis of work orders as well as plant equipment data.
 General structure of maintenance work order Maintenance work order: A

ww Maintenance work order generally gives the following information


 Work order number and code

w.E  Departments address and code.


 Date of issues.

asy
 Detects of approval

En
 Date of receipt of work order

Planning of job orders:


It has four objectives:
gi
 Equipment details

nee
rin
i. Provide on efficient methods of requesting and assigning work
performed by maintenance personal.
g.n
work to be carried out e
ii. Provide an efficient method of transmitting written instruction on the

iii. To provide a method of estimating and then recording actual


t
maintenance costs and
iv. To provide a method of gathering the information necessary to
prepare reports for management
5. How can computers be useful in maintenance planning? Explain it briefly.
(APR/MAY 14, APR/MAY 13)
 Because of the vast quantity of technical and economical data involved in
maintenance management, computer support is very desirable. Installing a
computer-aided system brings these economies and can be

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a. Reduced time spent on preventive maintenance, because of better planning.
b. Less overtime worked
c. Less time given to corrective maintenance
d. Reduced loss of production due to breakdowns
e. Less time spent on the administrative tasks of the maintenance service
f. Longer lifetime of the equipment, because of better preventive maintenance
g. Reduced energy consumption
 No need to say that, as with all other computer aided technologies,
maintenance planning and control should be well structured.
 The maintenance planning software should be integrated with all other
computer applications like production planning, inventory planning, and

ww computer aided design, as a better design influences the frequency and


amount of maintenance required.

w.E Expert systems could also be useful in inspection and fault diagnosis.
 Computer based maintenance needs a computerized maintenance

asy
management system (CMMS). A CMMS software package maintains a

En
computer database of information about an organization’s maintenance

gi
operations, i.e. CMMIS – Computerized Maintenance Management
Information System.
nee
 This information is intended to help maintenance workers do their jobs

rin
more effectively and to help management make informed decisions.
CMMS data may also be used to verify regulatory compliance.
g.n
 CMMS packages may be used by any organization that must perform
e
maintenance on equipment, assets and property. Some CMMS products
focus on particular industry sectors. Other products aim to be more general.
t
 CMMS packages can produce status reports and documents giving details
or summaries of maintenance activities. The more sophisticated the
package, the more analysis facilities are available.
 Many CMMS packages can be either web-based, meaning they are hosted
by the company selling the product on an outside server, or LAN based,
meaning that the company buying the software hosts the product on their
own server.

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Computer based maintenance consist of the following,
a) work orders
b) Asset management
a) Work Orders:
 Scheduling jobs, assigning personnel, reserving materials, recording costs,
and tracking relevant information such as the cause of the problem,
downtime involved, and recommendations for future action.
 Typically, the CMMS schedule preventive maintenance automatically
based on maintenance plans and meter readings. Different software
packages use different techniques for reporting when a job should be
performed.

ww  Inspection Details condition of assets.


 Preventive maintenance Keeping track of preventive maintenance jobs,

w.E including step-by-step instructions or check-lists, lists of materials required,


and other pertinent details.

asy
 Machine breakdown Incidence of machine breakdown details of repairs

En
completed and repairs “to do”. Preventive maintenance tasks are often

gi
undertaken during breakdown repair and so preventive maintenance tasks
need to be rescheduled.
b) Asset Management: nee
rin
It refers recording data about equipment and property including maintenance

g.n
activities, specifications, purchase date, expected lifetime, warranty information, service

e
contracts, service history, spare parts and anything else that might be of help of
management or maintenance workers. The CMMS may also generate metrics such as the
Facility Condition Index (FCI) to measure effectiveness of asset management.
t

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Reg.No.

Question Paper Code : 72123

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL 2017


Seventh/Eighth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME6012 – MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING
(Common to Mechanical, Production and Automation Engineering)
(Regulations 2013)

ww
Time : Three Hours Maximum : 100 Marks

w.E
Answer ALL questions.

PART – A (10 X 2 = 20 Marks)


1.
asy
Write down any four objectives of planned maintenance? (Pg no 8)

2.
En
Define the term Reliability. (Pg no 7)

3.

4.
gi
List the maintenance categories. (Pg no 22)

nee
What is meant by Preventive maintenance? (Pg no 23)

5. Write down any four uses of Condition Monitoring. (Pg no 50)


rin
6. What are the functions of Temperature Sensitive Tapes? (Pg no 43)
g.n
7.

8.
Write down the basic method of repair of gears.(Pg no 60)

What is meant by Logical Fault Location method? (Pg no 60)


e t
9. Write any four repair methods for Material Handling Equipment.

10. What is meant by Job Order Systems? (Pg no 78)

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PART – B (5 X 16 = 80 Marks)

11. (a) Explain the importance of sound management systems with suitable examples. (16)
(Pg no 17)
Or

(b) Explain the following:


(i) MTBF
(ii) MTTR
(iii) MWT
(iv) Maintenance Economics. (Pg no 14)

ww
12. (a) Explain the concepts, merits and demerits of Preventive maintenance.(16) (Pg no 28)
Or

w.E
(b) Explain with clear illustrations about the factors affecting Availability.(16)

13. asy
(a) Explain Cost comparison with and without condition monitoring with suitable

En
examples. (16) (Pg no.51)

gi
(b) Explain the following:
Or

(i) On Board and Off Board Testing. nee


(ii) Wear Debris Analysis. (Pg no 55)
rin (8+8)

14. g.n
(a) Describe the procedural steps in the failure analysis with suitable examples. (16)
Or
e t
(b) Explain the procedural steps in Sequence Fault Location with suitable examples.(16)
(Pg no 69)

15. (a) Explain the repair methods of Slideways, Spindle, Lead screws and bearing in a CNC
Machine. (16)
Or
(b) Explain the role of Computers in Maintenance with suitable examples. (Pg no 76)

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Reg.No.

Question Paper Code : 80648

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, Nov/Dec 2016


Seventh/Eighth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME6012 – MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING
(Common to Mechanical, Production and Automation Engineering)
(Regulations 2013)

ww
Time : Three Hours Maximum : 100 Marks

w.E Answer ALL questions.

asy PART – A (10 X 2 = 20 Marks)

En
1. What is meant by maintenance planning? (Pg no 7)

gi
2. Define Reliability. (Pg no 7)

3. What are the types of maintenance? (Pg no 22) nee


4. List the various pillars of TPM? (Pg no 23)
rin
5. What are the advantages of condition monitoring? (Pg no.43)
g.n
6. What are the instruments used in condition monitoring? (Pg no 42)

7. What are called Age-Dependent Failures? (Pg no 60)


e t
8. What are the benefits of Fault Tree Diagram? (Pg no 60)

9. What is job card? List down its uses. (Pg no 73)

10. What do you mean by equipment records? List down the contents. (Pg no 73)

PART – B (5 X 16 = 80 Marks)
11. (a) (i) What are the objectives and principles of planned maintenance? (8) (Pg no 8)
(ii) Explain MTBF, MTTF, MTTR and failure rate. (8) (Pg no 10)

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Or
(b) (i) Explain briefly different types and classes of maintenance organization. (8)
(Pg no 12)
(ii) List the important factors to be considered in maintenance economics. (8)
(Pg no 14)
12. (a) (i) What are all the steps involved in preventive maintenance? Also, state why
preventive maintenance is better than reactive maintenance. (8) (Pg no 28)
(ii) What do you understand by maintenance categories? Explain common types and
explain the basis of their selection. (8)
Or
(b) (i) What is total productive maintenance? Briefly explain the procedure for TPM.(8)
(Pg no 37)

ww (ii) What are the functions of lubrication and mention the tips on lubrication. (8)
(Pg no 31)
13.
w.E
(a) (i) Explain briefly the process involved in condition monitoring. (6) (Pg no 50)
(ii)Briefly explain various method and instructions used for condition monitoring. (10)
(Pg no 44)
asy
En Or
(b) (i) What is wear debris analysis? What are the three wear debris analysis techniques

gi
commonly used and compare their performance and uses? (10) (Pg no 55)

nee
(ii) Explain with a neat diagram pistol thermometers. (6) (Pg no 48)
14.
rin
(a) (i) Briefly explain various repair methods of machine slide ways and spindles.(8)
(Pg no 64)
(ii) What is failure analysis? Narrate its development. (8)
g.n
(b) Explain the following in detail:
Or

(i) Logical fault location methods. (8) (Pg no 67,68)


e t
(ii) Sequential fault location methods. (8) (Pg no 69)
15. (a) Explain various repair methods for the following:
(i) Conveyors,
(ii) Chain, rope, trolley and
(iii) Hydraulic lift. (5+6+5) (Pg no 74)
Or
(b) (i) Explain in detail Computerized Maintenance Management System.(8) (Pg no76)
(ii) Explain job order system with an example. (8) (Pg no 78)

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Reg.No.

Question Paper Code : 52684

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL 2016


Eighth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME2037/ME803/10122 MEE 45 – MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING
(Common to Production Engineering and Automation Engineering)
(Regulations 2008/2010)

ww
Time : Three Hours Maximum : 100 Marks

w.E Answer ALL questions.

asy PART – A (10 X 2 = 20 Marks)

En
2. Define MWT. (Pg no 7) gi
1. What is a sound maintenance system? (Pg no 7)

nee
3. What is meant by Emergency Maintenance?
rin
4. What is complete overhaul?
g.n
5. List down the features of RTD. (Pg no 42)

6. What is wear debris analysis? (Pg no 73) e t


7. Differentiate between Fault Tree Diagrams and Reliability Block Diagrams. (Pg no 59)

8. What is sequential fault location?

9. Define job order systems. (Pg no 73)

10. Define equipment record. (Pg no 73)

52684

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PART – B (5 X 16 = 80 Marks)
11. (a) (i) Explain the salient features of shutdown planning and execution. (8)
(ii) Explain availability, MTBF, MTTR and failure rate. (Pg no 8,13) (8)
OR
(b) (i) Define availability and method of measuring availability. (Pg no 13) (8)
(ii) Briefly explain the maintenance economics. (Pg no 14) (8)

12. (a) (i) Write short notes on RCM with a flow diagram. (8)
(ii) Explain the annual and monthly preventive maintenance schedules. (Pg no 21) (8)

OR
(b) (i) Briefly explain the different stages of repair cycle. (8)

ww (ii) Explain the procedure of TPM. (Pg no 23) (8)

w.E
13. (a) (i) Explain various methods and instruments for condition monitoring. (Pg no 30) (8)
(ii) Briefly explain the leakage monitoring. (8)

asy OR

(1) En
(b) (i) Write short notes on :
Check mode
(6)

(2)
(3)
gi
Learning mode
Testing mode
nee
monitoring. rin
(ii) Explain with a neat sketch the graphical representation of condition
(10)
14. (a) (i) Explain the logical fault location methods.
g.n (8)
(ii) Explain the repair of transmission gears.
OR e (8)

t
(b) (i) With a neat sketch explain the repair methods for beds / guide surfaces. (Pg no 66)
(12)
(ii) Write short notes on failure analysis. (Pg no 41) (4)
15. (a) (i) Classify material handling equipment’s. (4)
(ii) Explain the repair methods for hydraulic drive. (Pg no 74) (12)
OR
(b) (i) Explain job order system. (Pg no 78) (8)
(ii) What are the technical conditions required for the assembly of hydraulic
transmission? (8)
52684

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Reg.No.

Question Paper Code : 21838

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOV/DEC 2015


Eighth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME2037/ME803/10122 MEE 45 – MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING

ww (Common to Production Engineering and Automation Engineering)


(Regulations 2008/2010)

w.E
Time : Three Hours Maximum : 100 Marks

asy Answer ALL questions.

En PART – A (10 X 2 = 20 Marks)

gi
1. Define Reliability? (Pg no 7)

nee
2. What is Mean Time Between Failure(MTBF) and Mean Time to Failure(MTTF)(Pg no 8)

3. List down the key features of conditional monitoring. (Pg no 43) rin
4. What is the difference between Predictive maintenance and g.n
corrective maintenance? (Pg no22, 23)

5. What is meant by reliability centered Maintenance (RCM)? (Pg no22)


e t
6. Define Root Cause Analysis(RCA)

7. State the application and limitations of thermistors

8. What is work permit? What are the types of work permit?

9. Differentiate between fault tree diagrams and reliability block diagrams. (Pg.No:59)

10. State the various phases present in a good maintenance management system. .(Pg no 72)

21838

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PART B – (5 X 16=80 marks)


11. (a) What is equipment availability and describe the three basic approaches in detail.
(Pg.no 13) (16)
Or
(c) State the various objectives of maintenance planning, Derive the expression for
determining Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) (Pg.no 8,10) (16)

12. (a) What are the steps involved in preventive maintenance? Why preventive maintenance
is better than reactive maintenance? (Pg no 24)
Or

ww (b)What do you understand by maintenance categories? Explain common types and


explain the basis of their selection.
13.
w.E
(a) What is wear debris analysis? Discuss in detail about its types. (Pg no 55)
Or

asy
(b) What is thermal monitoring? Explain its principle and uses of thermograph.
14.
En
(a) (i) List out possible causes of failure of machine beds and how to overcome it.
(Pg no 37)

by
gi
(ii) With aid of suitable sketches, describe the method of repairing cracks in machine bed

nee
(1) Riveting
(2) Hot clamping rin (Pg no 66)
Or
g.n
(b) Briefly discuss the following in regard to bearing
(i) Failures
(ii)Characterization of failure
e t
(iii)Causes
(iv) Solution
15. (a) Explain the repair methods for any three materials handling equipments (Pg no 74)
Or
(b)Discuss the following
(i)Job order system (Pg no 78)
(ii) Use of Computers in maintenance (Pg no 76)

21838

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Reg.No.

Question Paper Code : 71838

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APR/MAY 2015


Eighth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME2037/ME803/10122 MEE 45 – MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING
(Common to Production Engineering and Automation Engineering)

ww (Regulations 2008/2010)

w.E
Time : Three Hours Maximum : 100 Marks

asy Answer ALL questions.


PART – A (10 X 2 = 20 Marks)
1. Define Maintenance?
En (Pg no 7)
2. Define MTTR.
gi
3. Define the term Total Productive Maintenance?
nee
4. Mention the reason for preventive Maintenance to be adapted in
(Pg no 8)
(Pg no 23)

the present times


rin (Pg no 23)
5. What are the five types of wear?
6. What is meant by Thermography? g.n
(Pg no 43)
(Pg no 43)
7. Define FCFA
8. Discuss briefly the role of corrective maintenance.
e t
9. List any three material handling equipments (Pg no 72)
10. Mention the benefits of computers in maintenance. (Pg no 72)

PART B – (5 X 16=80 marks)

11. (a) (i) Explain the objectives and principles of planned maintenance (Pg no 8) (8)
(ii) Explain the Maintenance organization structure in detail. (Pg no 18) (8)
Or
(b) (i) Briefly explain the reliability centred Maintenance (8)
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(ii) Explain the important elements of MTTR (Pg no 8) (8)

12. (a) (i) Discuss the different types of maintenance system and distinguish between reactive
and planned maintenance. (Pg no 23) (8)
(ii) Describe the importance of TPM and documentation. (Pg no 37) (8)
Or
(b) Explain the methods of analysis of oil and lubricants in details with
a suitable diagram. (Pg no 31) (16)
13. (a) (i) Explain the principle and working of pistol thermometer (Pg no 48) (8)
(ii) Discuss the Maintenance schedule in detail (8)
Or

ww (b) Describe the various types of non destructive testing technique for
condition monitoring. (Pg no 44) (16)

w.E
14.(a) (i) Discuss the repair methods for bearing. (Pg no 61) (8)
(ii) List the few causes of failure in an electromechanical system like compressor, pumps
and elevators.
asy (Pg no 63) (8)

En
(b) (i) Explain the repair methods for spindles.
(ii) Discuss the merits of Criticality matrix
(Pg no 64) (8)
(8)

gi
15.(a) (i) Describe the repair methods for material handling equipment of elevators.

nee (Pg no 74) (8)

rin
(ii) Explain the need and importance of equipment record with suitable example. (8)
(Pg no 79)
Or
g.n
(ii) Write a short note on job order system (Pg no 78) e
(b) (i) Describe the applications of computers in maintenance management.(Pg no 78) (8)

t
(8)

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Reg.No.

Question Paper Code : 91621

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOV/DEC 2014


Eighth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME2037/ME803/10122 MEE 45 – MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING
(Common to Production Engineering and Automation Engineering)

ww (Regulations 2008/2010)

w.E
Time : Three Hours

Answer ALL questions.


Maximum : 100 Marks

asy PART – A (10 X 2 = 20 Marks)

En
1. What is Mean Failure Rate? (Pg no 7)

gi
2. Define Maintenance Action Rate.

nee
(Pg no 10)
3. What is meant by Breakdown maintenance approach? (Pg no 22)
4. Define Corrective maintenance approach.
rin
(Pg no 22)

g.n
5. List down the key features of condition monitoring. (Pg no 43)
6. Name the types of pyrometers. (Pg no 42)
7. Define Fault tree diagrams
8. Define Event Tree Analysis (ETA)
(Pg no 60)
(Pg no 61)
e t
9. State few examples of material handling equipments. (Pg no 72)
10. Define work order systems. (Pg no 73)

PART B – (5 X 16=80 marks)

11. (a) What is equipment availability and what are the three basic approaches to define and
quantity availability. (Pg no 13) (16)
Or
(b) Explain briefly different types and classes of maintenance cost. (Pg no 14) (16)

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12. (a)Distinguish between fixed time maintenance and connect based maintenance. Give the
merits and demerits.
Or
(b) Explain the repair cycle of metallic materials. (Pg no 39)

13. (a) What is leakage monitoring? Explain some of the leakage mediums used for condition
monitoring.
Or
(b) Briefly explain various methods and instruments for condition monitoring. (Pg no 44)

ww
14. (a)Briefly explain the procedure for the repair cycle for gear and lead screw.
Or

w.E
(b) Explain the logical fault location methods

asy
15. (a) Explain various hydraulics and pneumatics equipments used in material handling

En
purpose. How to maintain it.
Or

gi
(b) Explain the maintenance procedure for various small equipment for material handling

nee
purpose like chain block, chain, rope, trolley and R.G.H

rin
g.n
e t

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Reg.No.

Question Paper Code : 51613

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL 2014


Eighth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME2037/ME803/10122 MEE 45 – MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING
(Common to Production Engineering and Automation Engineering)

ww (Regulations 2008/2010)

w.E
Time : Three Hours

Answer ALL questions.


Maximum : 100 Marks

asy PART – A (10 X 2 = 20 Marks)

En
1. What are the objectives of Maintenance? (Pg no 7)
2. Define Reliability.
gi
3. What is meant by Planned maintenance approach?
4. Why do you need lubrication? nee
(Pg no 7)
(Pg no 23)
(Pg no 23)
5. Explain the role of condition Monitoring?
6. Describe briefly pistol thermometer. rin
(Pg no 43)
(Pg no 48)
7. What are called Age – Dependent Failures?
8. What are the benefits of Fault Tree Diagram? g.n
(Pg no 60)

e
9. Define the term Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS).(Pg no 73)
10. State the role of equipment records in maintenance. (Pg no 73)
t
PART B – (5 X 16 = 80 marks)

11 (a) What are the objectives of maintenance organization and what are the different type of
organizations? (Pg no 11) (16)
Or
(b) (i) What are the objectives and principles of Planned maintenance
activity? (Pg no 8) (8)

(ii) Explain Maintenance economies. (Pg no 14) (8)

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12 (a) Explain the principles and methods of lubrication in detail. (Pg no 31) (16)
Or
(b) (i) Explain the repair cycle. (Pg no 39) (6)
(ii) What are all the steps involved in preventive maintenance (Pg no 24) (10)

13 (a) Explain On-load testing and off-load testing in detail. (16)


Or
(b) What is wear debris analysis? What are the wear debris analysis techniques
commonly used and compare their performance and uses? (Pg no 54) (16)

14 (a) Briefly explain the repair methods of machine beds. (Pg no 66) (16)
Or

ww (b) Explain the logical fault location methods. (16)

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15 (a) Briefly explain the equipment record.
Or
(Pg no 79) (16)

asy
(b) (i) Briefly explain the job order system. (Pg no 78) (8)

En
(ii) Explain briefly the use of Computers in maintenance. (Pg no 81) (8)

gi nee
rin
g.n
e t

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Reg.No.

Question Paper Code : 31553

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOV/DEC 2013


Eighth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME2037/ME803 – MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING
(Common to Production Engineering)
(Regulations 2008/2010)

ww
Time : Three Hours Maximum : 100 Marks

w.E Answer ALL questions.


PART – A (10 X 2 = 20 Marks)

2. State reliability.
asy
1. Define Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). (Pg no 8)

(Pg no 7)

En
3. Define Total Productive Maintenance.

5. Define condition monitoring.


gi
4. What is the use of lubrication?
nee (Pg no 23)

(Pg no 43)

6. Write about wear debris analysis. rin


(Pg no 42)

7. Write about skills of operator. g.n


8. Give the use of manpower planning.

9. Write short notes about hydraulic and pneumatic repair shop.


e t
10. Define coding scheme.

PART B – (5 x 16 = 80 marks)

11. a). Briefly describe the Accelerated Testing. (Pg no 20) (16)

Or

b). Explain Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF). (Pg no 8) (16)

12. a). Discuss about the Repairable and repair cycle in Tools Management. (16)

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Or

b). Explain the methods of lubrication. (Pg no 18) (16)

13. a). Describe Standard hourly cost estimation and Manpower repair cost estimation.
(16)

Or

b). How do we estimate repair, removal or capital improvement costs? Discuss. (16)

14.a). How do we monitor and report maintenance and capital improvement accomplishments?
(16)

Or

b). Describe the load testing. (16)

ww
w.E
15. a). Explain the maintenance work quality.

Or
(16)

asy
b). Discuss about Software maintenance and their distribution. (16)

En
gi nee
rin
g.n
e t

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Reg.No.

Question Paper Code : 21553

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2013


Eighth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME2037/ME803 – MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING
(Common to Production Engineering)

ww (Regulations 2008/2010)

w.E
Time : Three Hours
Answer ALL questions.
Maximum : 100 Marks

asy PART – A (10 X 2 = 20 Marks)

En
2. What is maintenance?
gi
1. Write the use of computer based maintenance system.

nee (Pg no 7)

3. Write the types of maintenance system?


rin (Pg no 23)

4. Define environmental impact.


g.n
5. Write the use of condition based maintenance.

6. What is shock pulse meter?


e
(Pg no 43)

(Pg no 43) t
7. Write short note about Ferrograph.

8. What is the role of FMECA in system analysis? (Pg no 60)

9. What is meant by central workshop organization?

10. Why lubricants are required?

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PART B – (5 X 16 = 80 marks)

11 (a) (i) Explain productivity and maintenance. (8)


(ii) Describe the various levels of maintenance functions. (Pg no 8) (8)
Or
(b) Discuss the role of R & D in maintenance organization? (16)

12 (a) Explain the planned maintenance. (Pg no 24) (16)


Or
(b) Discuss about preventive maintenance. (Pg no 24) (16)

13 (a) How system approach to condition monitoring can be useful? (Pg no 50) (16)

ww Explain.
Or

w.E
(b) Discuss the benefits from condition based maintenance. (16)

asy
14 (a) Discuss about the types of failure mechanisms. (Pg no 69) (16)

En
(b) Describe the fault tree method.
Or
(Pg no 67) (16)

gi
15 (a) (i) Discuss about store layout design.
nee (8)
(ii) Discuss the role of lubricants for maintenance.
Or rin (8)

(b) How can computers be useful in maintenance planning? Explain it briefly.


g.n
(Pg no 82)
e (16)

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