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Chapter no. Name of Chapter Page
Chapter 1 Introduction of Dyeing……………………… 9
Chapter 2 Reactive Dye………………………………….. 14
Chapter 3 Disperse Dye…………………………………. 40
Chapter 4 Sulpher Dye…………………………………... 55
Chapter 5 Azoic Dye…………………………………….. 63

Chapter 1 Introduction of Printing……………………... 72
Chapter 2 Printing With Reactive Dye…………………. 84
Chapter 3 Printing With Disperse Dye………………… 94
Chapter 4 Printing With Azoic Colour………………… 100
Chapter 5 Pigment Printing……………………………... 112

Chapter 1 Introduction Of Finishing…………………… 119
Chapter 2 Mercerisation…………………………………. 124
Chapter 3 Calendaring…………………………………... 143
Chapter 4 Raising………………………………………… 156
Chapter 5 Sanforizing……………………………………. 164
Chapter 6 Resin Finishing……………………………….. 168
Chapter 7 Flame Retardancy……………………………. 177
Chapter 8 Water Repellelcy …………………………….. 190
Previous Year Questions…………………….. 197
Dyeing Chapter 1
Introduction of Dyeing

General Introduction of Dyeing:

Dyeing is a distribution process which is happened between textile mtls and dye solution in the
dye bath.
1. Raw Mtls :
3000 kg knitted goods (basically cellulosic)
Cellulosic fibres – Cotton
Protein fibres – Silk, Wool
Synthetic fibres – Polyester, nylon, acrylic fibres.
2. Dyes / Pigments :
Dyes – Water soluble
Water insoluble Mainly organic substance
Pigments - Water insoluble – May organic or inorganic
3. Chemicals :
Oxidising agents
Reducing agents

4. Auxiliaries :
Wetting agents
Leveling agent
Antifoaming agent
Anti creasing agent.

5. Dyeing m/C s :
Jigger dyeing m/c (Woven)
Winch dyeing m/c (knitted)
Jet dyeing m/c (Knitted Woven)

6. Dyeing parameters :

Temp (30-140c)
Time (30-60 min)
PH of dye bath (4-12)
M:L Ratio (As less as possible)
Concentration of dye and chemical used.
7. Utilities :
Air, Electricity, Gas, Compressed air .

Some Important Definitions in dyeing process :

1. Shade : Depth of colour %
0.1 – 20% owf
Light shade – 0.5 % owm (own wt of mtls)
Medium shade – 1.5 own
Deep Shade – More than 1.5 5 Or 1.6 and above.
For deep shade, fastness properties of dye, increased and decreased of washing fastness.
Shade is expressed in percentage of dye amount in unit wt of fibre.
2. Substantively :
Substantivity means the rate of dye transfer from the dye sol to the textile mtls. And also
the distribution of dye molecules in the textile mtls. Substantivity is caused for different types of
attraction between dye molecules and textile mtl molecules.
3. Affinity : The attraction of dyes to the textile mtls is called affinity. It is related to heat or
temperature. Dyeing is performed for the affinity of dye and fibre.
Dyeing affinity very with the temp.
4. Colour Strike : Initial exhaustion on the fibre in a dye bath is called colour strike.
At the starting of dyeing, the rate of transfer of dye from the dye sol to the textile mtls is more
than any other time. About 30 Seconds, 50% of dyeing is completed.
5. Exhaustion : When three process complete (Ad sorption, sorption desorption) then total dye
molecules enters into fibre then it is called exhaustion.
OR The difference betn. The total dye molecules in the dye sol and the rest of the molecules in
the dye sol after eyeing is called exhausion.
Let, Initial dye bath concentration = IDC
Dye bath concentration after dyeing = FDC
Exhasion%   100%
6. Adsorption : When dye molecules come to the surface of the fibre, it is called adsorption.
7. Sorption : When dye molecules enter into fibre then it is called sorption.
8. Desorption : The process by which the dye molecules come out from the inner side of the
textile mtls in particular conditions (such as mil, time, temple) is
called desorption
9. Fixation : After washing which amount of dyes are contact
with the fibre that is called fixation.
Fixation = Exhaustion – (Wash + soap wash)
= 80% - 10%
= 70 % that is fixation.
Difference between Dyes & Pigments :
Dye Pigments
1. Water solubility 70% 1. 100% water insoluble
2. Most of dyes are organic compounds. 2. Most of pigments are inorganic
3. No binding agent is reqd 3. Required
4. Dye diffusions in the fabric 4. – On the fabric.
5. Costly 5. Cheap
6. Auxochorme present 6. Auxochrome not present.

Classification of colouring mtls:

Colouring mtls

(Organic +

Chromophore Auxochromes Chromogen Chromophore


Chapter 2
Reactive Dye

Reactive Dye: Why so called:

Reactive dyes react with the fibres.
Mainly react with cellulosic fibres
e.g. cotton, jute, bast fibres, viscose, flax
It can be applied to protein fibres e.g. wool & silk.
Reactive dye contains reactive group and this reactive group makes covalent bonds with the
fibres and becomes part of the fibre.
The general formula of Reactive dye can be written as follows:
Here D --> Chromophore of Dye post
X --> Bridge
Y --> Functional group
D-X-Y + Fibre --> D-X-Y-Fibre Covalent bond.
Reactive dyes water soluble
D-F + Cell-OH --> Dye-F-O-cell F = Functional group
D-F + H-OH --> Dye-F-OH
Properties of Reactive dyes:
1. Water Soluble dyes.
2. Makes covalent bonds with the fibres.
3. A certain amount of dye is hydrolyzed during dyeing (10-60%)
4. Dyeing is carried out in alkaline condition (PH = 11.5).
5. Huge electrolyte is necessary for dyeing with reactive dyes.
6. Fastness (wash, light, Rubbing, perspiration) properties are generally good.
7. Easy applicable to cellulosic as well as protein fibres. (Wool & Silk)
8. Very popular and wide used in the wet processing industry in Bangladesh.
9. Comparatively cheap.
10. All kinds of shade is found.
11. Dyeing method is easy.
History of Reactive dye: On the occasion of 100 years celebration of Synthetic dye
manufacturing, two chemists of ICI Company (UK) named Stephen and Rattee tried to
manufacture a new dye stuff. Thus they succeed to invent a new dye in 1956 which was named
REACTIVE DYE. This was manufactured for dyeing cellulosic fibres. The 1st three Reactive dyes
were Procion Yellow R, Procion brilliant Red 2B and Procion Blue 3G. For this effort they were
awarded Gold Medal of the Society of Dyes and colourists for the year 1960.
These dyes came to our country in Mid 60’s and became very popular during 80’s.
Reactive dyes So popular:
 Good washing fastness (Rating 4-5)
 very good light fastness (Rating 6)
 Lower cost.
 Simple dyeing method
 Good reproducibility.
 Low dyeing temp (below 100oC)
 Ability to produce bright shade
 Dye molecular composition
 Easily applicable to cellulosic fibre as well as protein
 All kinds of shade is found.

Importance of Reactive group present in Reactive dye:

 Reactive groups do not contribute colour which is determined by chromogen group.
 the reactivity of vinyl sulphone group is less than halogen group.
 If no of reactive group increases, binding also increases depending on dye structure.
 reactive dye absorb up to 90%.
 If the molecular wt of reactive group increases, reactivity also increases
 Reactivity of vinyl sulphone group increases with increases of PH and temp.
 Sulphone group has mere solubility but it is not stable
 Chlorine imparts medium reactivity, but it is cheap.
 Reactivity of Fluorine is the least and its rate of hydrolysis is also less.

Criteria of cellulose for attaching Reactive dye:

Chemical structure of cellulose molecule

Glucose unit
 Each glucose unit contains one primary hydroxyl group (-CH2OW) and two secondary
hydroxyl groups (>OH)
 Primary hydroxyl group (-CH2OH) at C6 position is more reactive than the secondary
hydroxyl groups at C2 and C3 position
 C2 Hydroxyl group is supposed to be acidic than C3 hydroxyl group under suitable
alkaline condition and more reactive.
 The hemiacetal group at C1 position is the most active.
 The reaction betn reactive group and cellulose takes place predominantly with primary
hydroxyl group.
 In case of monochloro triazinyl dyes, the reaction ratio of
-CH2OH & -CHOH is 15:1
i.e. C6:C2 or C3 = 15:1
 In case of dichloro triazinyl dyes, the reaction Ratio of
-CH2OH & -CHOH 3:1 to 7:1
12. Secondary hydroxyl group is the least reactive while primary one is the most reactive
Classification of Reactive dyes:
1. On the Basis of Reactive group: Two types
I) Halogenated heteroycles
(a) Triazine group :
N Example: Procoin, Cibacron

N N Cl



Dichloroazine dyes

b Pyrimidine
Ex. Reactone


Cl C


Trichloro pyrimidine

c Quinoxaline

Ex. Levafix
N Cl


Dichloro quinuxaline dye

II) Activated Vinyl compounds:

a Vinyl Sulphone (D-SO2-CH2-CH2-) Ex: Ramazol.
b Vinyl Sulphonamide (D-SO2-NH-CH2-CH2-) Ex. Levafix
c Vinyl acrylamide (D-NH CO-CH2-CH2-) Ex: Primazine

2. On the Basis of Reactivity:

I) High reactivity : Ex: Procion M
II) Moderate reactivity: Ex: Liva fix-E
III) Low reactivity : Ex: Premazine
Dyes can be devided into 2 groups
1. Cold Brand
2. Hot Brand.

Chemical Classification of Reactive Dyes:

Reactive dyes can be classified chemically into three (3) different groups:
1. Chloro triazinyl Reactive dyes.
(a) Monochloro dyes.
(b) Dichloro/Bifunctional
(c) Trichloro.
(a) Monochloro dyes:

N Cl


Cibacron Yellow R NH2

(b) Dichloro:
N Cl

NaO 3S N N


Procin brlliant Red 5B

(c) Trichloro pyrimidyl:


Dye HN C Cl



2. Vinyl sulphone Dyes:
Dye. SO2 CH = CH2
3. Heterocyclic helogen containing Reactive dyes-
Dye HN


I) Drimarine K F

II) Levafix E:
Dye HN OC Cl


III) Primazine P Dyes:



O Cl

Trade Names of Reactive Dyes:

High Procion MX

Drimarin K
Libafix EA
Libafix E
Cibacron P
Procin H
Cibacron T
Dimaren 2


Hydrolysis of Reactive Dye/Technical defficiency of R.D:

Under alkaline condition, Reactive dyes react with the terminal hydroxyl group of cellulose. But
if the soln of the dye is kept for long time, its concentration drops. Then the dye react with the
hydroxyl group of water. the reaction of dye with water is called Hydrolysis of reactive dye.

I) Incase of Triazinyl dyes:

Cl O Cell


Dye HN C N + Cell-OH Dye HN C N


Cl O Cell

Dichloro triazinyl



Dye HN C N + H-OH Dye HN C N



Dihydroxy group

II ) In case of Vinyl Sulphone Dyes:

a) Dye-SO2CH = CH2 + HO – cellulose  Dye – SO2 CH2 -CH2 O cellulose
b) Dye-SO2CH = CH2 + H-OH  Dye-SO2 CH2 CH2 OH
Mono hydroxy group

Dyeing mechanism of reactive dye:

The dyeing mechanism of material with reactive dye takes place in 3 stages:-
1. Exhaustion of dye in presence of electrolyte or dye absorption.
2. Fixation under the influence of alkali.
3. wash-off the unfixed dye from material surface.
Now they are mentioned below:
1. Dye absorption:
When fibre is immersed in dye liquor, an electrolyte is added to assist the exhaustion of
dye. Here NaCl is used as the electrolyte. This electrolyte neutralize the negative charge
formed in the fibre surface and puts extra energy to increase dye absorption. So when
the textile material is introduces to dye liquor the dye is exhausted on to the fibre.

2. Fixation:
Fixation of dye means the reaction of reactive group of dye with terminal –OH or-NH2
group of fibre and thus forming strong covalent bond with the fibre and thus forming
strong covalent bond with the fibre. This is an important phase, which is controlled by
maintaining proper pH by adding alkali. The alkali used for this purpose depends on
brand of dye and dyeing temperature. Here generally caustic soda, soda ash or NaHCO3
is used as alkali depending upon reactivity of dye. They create proper pH in dye bath
and do as the dye-fixing agent. The reaction takes place in this stage is shown below: -

1. D-SO2-CH2-CH2-OSO3Na + OH-Cell D-SO2-CH2-CH2-O-Cell + NaHSO3
PH 10-12.5
2. D-SO2-CH2-CH2-OSO3Na + OH-Wool D-SO2-CH2-CH2-O-Wool + NaHSO3


3. Wash-off:
As the dyeing is completed, a good wash must be applied to the material to remove extra
and unfixed dyes from material surface. This is necessary for level dyeing and good wash-
fastness. It is done by a series of hot wash, cold wash and soap solution wash.

Controlling Parameters/Factors:
II) Temperature
III) Dyeing time.
IV) Liquor Ratio.
V) Concentration of electrolyte (salt)

I) PH of dye bath: PH range for Reactive dyes 10-11.5

II) Dyeing time:
Dyeing time ; Hydrolysis 
The exhausion takes place in 20-30 min

III) Temperature: Temperature of dyeing Hydrolysis

40o-100oC temp is applied.
IV) Liquor Ratio: M:L may be 1:5 – 1:20
V) Concentration of electrolyte: Common salt and glauber’s salt.
Concentration of salt may be 20-100 g/L depends on the shade (0.1-5.0%)
Factors considered for Dye selection:
1. Selection of dyeing method:
I) Discontinuous method.
II) Semi-Continuous method- a) Pad Batch method
b) Pad Jig method
III) Continuous method - a) Pad steem method
b) Pad dry method
c) Pad thermo fix method
Selection of method depends on-
 Speed of dye diffusion on the fibre
 Affinity of dye to fibre
 Reactivity of dye stuff.
2. Selection of Brand.
 Hot brand
 Medium brand
 Cold brand
3. Cost of dyes.
4. Chemical groups.
5. Quality of products
6. Fastness required.
7. Quality of dyes.
8. Availability of dyes.
9. Reproducibility.
Dyeing process of cold brand reactive dye:
Dyestuff→ 3%
Salt→ 60 gm/L
Soda ash → 15 g/L
M:L → 1:10
Temp → 600C
Time → 1 hr
Dyeing curve:


5 10 Alk p
 ali

Auxiliar Dye Sa
ies + + lt
H2O mater
According to dyeing curve at first auxiliaries and water are added in the dye bath. And it is
kept for 5 minute. Then material, dye is added respectively. Then after 10 minutes salt is added.
After adding salt dye bath is heated to 400-500C kept for 20-30 minutes. This is the exhaustion
period of dyeing. Then alkali is added in the dye bath. After adding alkali the dye bath is
heated for 40-60 minute at 50-600C. This is the fixation period.

After treatment:

1) 600C10 2) 950C10
Rinse Soaping
Acetic acid agent
= 1g/L = 1g/L
3) 700C10 4) R.T 10

Hot water Cold wash


1) After dyeing operation is completed the dye material is put into a bath containing 1%
stock solution of acetic acid. This operation is done for neutralizing the fabric. This
operation is performed at 600C for 10 minutes.
2) Secondly the material is treated with a 1g/L soap solution, which removes the unfixed
dye from fabric surface, and makes the surface clean.
3) Thirdly material is treated with a hot water bath.
4) Fourthly material is treated with a cold-water bath.
5) Finally the material is dried in a drier.

Sequence of Dyeing:
Grey textile mtls

Pre treatment


Washing (Cold)




Washing (Cold)

Dyeing process with Hot Brand dyes:

Recipe: Dyestuff --> 4%
Salt --> 80g/L
Soda ash --> 20g/L
M:L --> 1:15
Temperature --> 50-90oC
Time --> 1-1/2 hrs
Dyeing Procedure:
At first, Paste is prepared with cold water and dye and then prepare dye soln with Hot water.
Dye bath is adjusted to 50oC and dye soln is added and Fabric is dyed about 20 min to the dye
bath and temp is raised to 60oC continuously. Now ½ Salt is added and dyed for 10 min and
then rest of ½ salt is added to the bath and dyed for 30 min. Then temp is raised to 90oC and
Soda ash is added and dyeing for 40-60min. Then washing with Cold water and washing with
Hot water. Then soaping with 2 g/L detergent and Finally cold wash is perforomed
90ºC 40-60’

60ºC 10’ Soda ash

50ºC 20’ ½ salt ½ salt

Dye Fabric
Sequence :
Grey textile mtls



Washing (Cold)

Washing (Hot)

Soaping (detergent)

Washing (Cold)
Application of Reactive Dyes:
Dyeing recipe: Anti creasing agent --> 0.3 g/L
Wetting agent --> 0.5 g/L
Sequestering agent --> 0.5 g/L
Reactive dyes --> 5% owf
Soda ash --> 5g/L
Caustic --> 1g/L
Salt (Common/glubers)--> 80g/L
M:L Ratio --> 1:8
Temp --> 60o-80oC
Time --> 60-90min.
1. Monochloro triazine dyes (MCT):
Example: Procion Red H-3B
or C.I Reactive Red 3

2. Vinyl Sulphone Dyes (VS):

Example: Reactron Black B
Or CI Reactive Black 5

3. Mixed Bifunctional Dyes (MCT + VS):

Example: Reactron Black HFGR
Sequence of Dyeing:
Grey textile MHS



Washing (Hot + Cold)

Neutralization (Acetic acid 0.75 g/L)



Washing (Hot + Cold)

Dyeing Methods:

 Jigger dyeing M/C (Woven fabric)

1. Descontinuous method
 Winch dyeing M/C (Knitted fabric)
 Jet dyeing M/C (Knitted + Woven)
2. Semi continuous method  Pad jig method
 Pad Batch method

3. Continuous method  Pad dry method

 Pad steam method

Pad Batch Method:

Dyestuff --> 3%
Soda ash --> 15 g/L
Salt --> 60 g/L
Urea --> 150 g/L
Na –alginate --> Little amount.

I) Pad-Batch (Cold) process:

Fabric is padded in the bath dye, alkali, salt, during Room temp. The temp should be kept
constant to avoid variation in shade.
After padding, the batches the wrapped in polyethylene sheet and stored at room temp
for 1-24 hrs. During storage period. During storage period the rolls may be kept slowly rotating
to prevent seepage of dye liquor.
When the required batching time has passed, the cloth is washed in a open width
II) Pad-Batch (Hot) processes:

In this method, the milder alkali is used in the pad bath. In the pad batch method, the properly
prepared fabric is padded with the dye and alkali, passed betn, infra red heaters to pre heat the
padded fabric to 50 to 95oC and then batched on a large diameter roller in a heat chamber.

The batching is done under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity for a sufficient
time to ensure diffusion and fixation of the dye in the fibre. During this period, the batch is kept
slowly rotating to avoid seepage of the dye liquor. The cloth is then removed for washing.
Continuous Method:
I) Pad Steam Method:
In this process, the fabric is padded with the dye soln with 60o-80oC and then fabric is passed
through drying chamber. Then the fabric is padded with chemical (NaOH + Salt). Then the
fabric is passed through a steam chamr at 100o-102oC for 30-60 sec. Then fabric is washed in
open widbeth washer.
Stripping becomes necessary when uneven dyeing occurs. By stripping azo groups (-N=N-)
brom the dye is removed.
I) Partial stripping methods:
Partial stripping is obtained by treating the dyed fabric with dilute acetic acid or formic acid.
The commanded conc. is betn 5 to 10 parts glacial aid or 2.5 –10 parts of formic acid per 1000
parts of water
Recipe: Glacial acetic acid = 5 – 10 parts
Water --> 1000 parts
Formic acid --> 2.5 to 10 parts
Water --> 1000 parts
Temp --> 70-100oC
Time --> Until the desired shade is obtained.
Process- The goods are entered and temp is raise to 70-100oC and the treatment is continued
until the shade has been reduced to the desired amount thoroughly washing is then necessary
to remove the products of hydrolysis.
II) Full stripping:
For complete stripping, the goods are firstly treated with Na2S2O4 Sodium hydrosulphite at boil.
Then at room temperature for 30 min.
Chapter 3
Disperse Dye
The term ‘disperse dyes’ have been applied to organic coloring substances, which are
free from ionizing groups are of low water solubility and are suitable for dyeing hydrophobic
textile mils from colloid dispersion.
It is a special class of dyestuff which is used for dyeing man-made fibres eg acetate, polyamide,
polyesters etc.
The dye is so called because it is non soluble, non ionic dye and molecularly dispersed, farther
dispersing agents are used with the dye. The size of the dye molecule is very small.
Two forms of this dyes


Ready made dyes

Pure dyes (With dispersing

Solid dyes Liquid dye

Properties of disperse dyes:

i) Disperse dyes are molecularly dispersed.
ii) Disperse dyes are very less soluble in water which makes fine dispersion.
iii) The light fastness of disperse dye is fair to good and light fastness rating 4-5.
iv) Washing fasters is mode rate to good. The washing fastress rating is about 3-4.
v) Sublimation- Disperse dye have good sublimation power due to its stable electron
arrangement. The sublimation fastness of disperse dye is related to
 Low molecular size of dye stuff
 Non ionic group
 No sulphonatod group.
vi) Colour will be fade due to heat application on disperse dye.
vii) In the presence of nitrous oxide, textile mlt dyed with certain blue and violet disperse dyes
with anthraquinone dye structure will be fade.

Commercial Name of disperse dyes:

Name Manufacturer Country

1. Terasil Cibageigy Switzerland
2. Foron Sandoz Switzerland
3. Palanil BASF Germany
4. Resonil Bayer Germany
5. Samaron Herchst Germany
6. Dispersol ICI UK
Mechanism of disperse dyeing: Chemistry of dyeing. The dyeing of hydrophobic fibres like
polyester fibres with disperse dyes may be considered as a process of dye transfer from liquid
solvent (water) to a solid organic solvent (fibre).

Disperse dyes are added to water with a surface active agent to form an aqueous dispersion. The
insolubility of disperse dyes enables them to leave the dye liquor as they are more substantive to
the organic fibre than to the inorganic dye liquor. The application of heat to the dye liquor
increases the energy of dye molecules and accelerates the dyeing of textile fibres.

Heating of dye liquor swells the

fibre to some extent and assists the dye to
penetrate the fibre polymer system. Thus
the dye molecule takes its place in the
amorphous regions of the fibre. Once taking place within the fibre polymer system, the dye
molecules are held by hydrogen bonds and Van Der Waals’ force.
Dyeing of hydrophobic fibres like polyester fibres with disperse dyes may be considered as a
process of dye transfer from a liquid (water) to a solid organic solvent (fibre) and the dyeing
takes place in the following stages—

a) Dispersion of the dye into water by breaking up into molecules (Dissolution in water): The
dissolution depends on the disposability and solubility of the dyestuff further aided by the
presence of dispersing agents and Raise the temp.

b) Adsorption of the dissolved dye form the solution on to the fibre surface: The dye staff
adsorption by the fibre surface is influenced by the solubility of the dye in the dye bath and that
in the fibre.

c) Diffusion of the dye molecules from the fibre surface into the interior of the fibre substance
towards the center: The diffusion rate governs the overall rate of dyeing. When equilibrium
state is reached, the following subsidiary equilibrium are established-
i) Dye dispersion in the dye bath dye dissolved in the dye bath
ii) Dye dispersion in the dye bath dye absorbed on the fibre surface.
iii) Dye absorbed on the fibre surface dye diffused in the fibro
iv) dye diffused in the fibre dye diffused fibre to dye bath.
Chemical classification
1. Azo dyes :
i) Mono azo dyes-

e.i. Disperse orange

ii) Diazo dyes


Sulpracel golden orange GR

iii) Triazo dyes
2. Anthraquine dyes:

C.I. Disperse blue
3. Other dye:
i) Aminoketone dyes

O N O CH 2

Celliton Fast Green 3B

ii) Nitro dyes



Serisol Yellow-2G

Methods of application of disperse dyes: Dyeing of Polyester fabric with Disperse dyes.:
i) Method N  Normal temperature dyeing (80-100C)
ii) Method NC  Normal temp dyeing with carriers (80 – 100C)
Or carrier method.
iii) Method HT  High temp dyeing (105 - 140C)
iv) Method T  Thermosol method (180 - 200C)
v) Method pad Batch  Semi continuous method.
vi) Pad steam method  Continuous method.
Carrier Method: Recipe:
Dye  x% owf
Carrier  1-4% owf
Dispersing agent  0.5-1%
SaH [(NH4)2So4]  1-2 g/L
(Wetting agent)
Acetic acid (PH 4.5- 5.5)  1-2g/L
M:L Ratio  1:10
Temp  100C
Time  1 hr.
i) Dye sol is prepared with cold water (1:10) & kept for 15 mins.
ii) Dye bath is set at 60C & carrier, dispersing agent and salts are mixed one by one.
iii) Material is added and kept for 15 mins without raising temp.
iv) The dye sol is added and pH is controlled with CH3COOH
v) The temp is raised up to 100C. Then dyeing is continued for required time 1 hr.
vi) The temp is lowered to 70C, then rinsed and reduction clearing if required.
Reduction clearing is done is case of medium and deep shade only to improve the wash
Detergent : 1 g/L
Sodium Hydorsulphite : 2 g/L
Caustic Soda: 1-2 g/L
Time: 20-30 min
Tem: 70-80 C
100ºC 1 hr.

15 minutes


Advantage of Carrier method:

i) Possibility of dyeing in simple dyeing equipments at atmospheric pressure at temp of up to
100 C for polyester fibre.
ii) Reduced dyeing cycle due to accelerate dyeing.
iii) Improved fatness properties due to increased perpetration in the fibre.
iv) Moderate level dyeing in polyester dyeing.
v) Increased rate of dyeing.
vi) Increased leveling.
v) Some carriers reduce the staining of wool while dyeing polyester/ wool. blends.

Disadvantage of carrier method:

i) More costly
ii) Removed of carrier by using alkali also causes more cost.
iii) Decreased light fastness.
iv) Toxicity of some carrier
v) Odor and air pollution problem
vi) Some can cause carrier spots.

High Temperature Method: Most common Method:

Recipe: Dye  x% owf
Dispersing agent  0.5-1%
Salt  0.5-1%
Acetic acid  0.75-1 g/L
(PH  4.5-5.5)
M:L Ratio  1:8
Temp  130C
Time  1 hr.

i) Dye sol is prepared by adding cold water 1:8 and kept for 15 mins.
ii) Dye bath is set at 60C and dispersing agent and salt are added.
iii) The mtl is treated for 15 mins without raising temp.
iv) The dye sol is added and PH is controlled with CH3COOH
v) The temperature of dye bath is raised up to 130C with 30 mins.
vi) Dyeing is continued at 130C for 1 hr.
vii) The dye bath is cooled as early as possible.
viii) The fabric is allowed hot rinsing.
ix) Reduction cleared if required as be fore.
x) The fabric is again rinsed and then dried.

130ºC 1 hr.

10-15 min
15 minutes
Temp 15 min

Advantage of HT Method:
 Dyeing time are frequently shorter
 Higher temp require
 No need of carrier
 Maxm 98% dye fixation
 Loss of dye is less
 Light fastness and wet fastness is usually higher
 Better exhausion and deeper dyeing can be produced.
 Faster diffusion of the dye in the fibre at elevated temp.
Thermosol Method
Recipe: Dye  x% owf
Thickener  20-40 g/L
Wetting agent  1-2 g/L
Acetic acid  1-1.5 g/L
(PH  4.5-5)
Time  2 hr.
Process sequence:
Padding of fabric in a padder

Drying (90-100C)

Curing/ Thermo fixing (180-220C)


Mechanism of thermo sol Process: In thermosol process, dye is dissolved in fibre. But dye heat
is used instead of aqueous medium. Dye is deposited on fibre surface. When fibre is exposed at
dry heat temp (250C), then dye is directly dissolved in fibre. Complete penetration is occurred
at 60s.

Dyeing precedure:
i) The fabric is padded with the dye sol using above recipe.
ii) The fabric is dried at 100C depending on the dryer used.
If dryer temp is too high then solid shade will not be obtained.
iii) Fixation of dyes done at 203C for 60-90s depending on the type of fibre of the fabric, dye
and depth of shade.
iv) The unfixed dyes and chemicals are washed off by warm water.
v) Soap washing or reduction cleared if necessary as be fore
vi) Finally the fabric is washed and then dried.

Reduction clearing Soaping

Recipe Recipe
Detergent  1-g/L Soap/Sando clear PC  1 g/L
Sodium Hydrosulphite 2 g/L Temp  60C
Coustic Soda (50 ow)  1- 2 g/L Time  30 min
Time  30 min M :L 1:30/50
M:L Ratio  1:30/ 50

Advantage of Thermosol Process:

i) Dyeing time is very short.
ii) No need of carrier
iii) Non toxic.
iv) There is no additional problem of removing carrier by using alkali.
v) Very bright shade is obtained.
vi) Excellent dye utilization (75-90%) is achieved.

i) Shade may be changed due to sublimation at high temp.
ii) Special M/C required.
iii) Loss of strength when time of treatment is prolonged.
iv) Costly due to this process requires special arrangement.

Factors affecting the dyeing performance of disperses dyes:

i) Carrier.
ii) Dispessing agent
iii) Temp
iv) PH
v) Time
vi) Type of mtl to be dyer
vii) Quality of dyes.
viii) Chemical groups

Difference betn Carrier, HT & Thermosol Method:

Carrier Method Hot Temperature Method Thermosol Method
1. Carrier is required no Neither carrier nor thickener 1. Carrier is not used but
thickener is used is used thickener used
2. Lower dyeing Tem (80- 2. Higher dyeing tem (105- 2. very high temp (180-
100C) 140C) 220C)
3. Costly as carrier used 3. No so costly / Cheap 3. Costly due to this process
required special arrangement
4. Topic and unhygienic 4. Non toxic and hygienic 4. Non toxic and hygienic
process due to carriers process
5. Removal of carrier 5. Not applicable 5. Not Applicable
6. Difficult and alkali is used 6. More bright shade is 6. Very bright shade
faril farmed
7. Not change is shade 7. No change in shade 7. Change in shade due to
8. More shrinkage 8. Moss shrinkage 8.lee shrinkage
9. Less prodn 9. Less prodn 9. High prodn due to

Dispersing agent: Dispersing agents are effective under the dyeing conditions and stable to
hard water, high temp and other dye assistants which help to maintain dispersion of dye
molecule in the dye bath. The actual dye is farmed as relatively large particles during the last
stages of its manufacture and in this form it is unsuitable for application on hydrophobic fibres.
If these big particles are used as such, they produce uneven and specky dyeings and their full
colour value is not realized.

Function of dispersing agent:

i) It assists the process of particle size reduction of the dye.
ii) It enables the age to be formed in the powder form.
iii) When the powder is added to the dye bath, it facilitates the re conversion of the power into a
dispersion that is required for carrying out the dyeing.
iv) It maintains the dispersion in a fine form in the dye bath through out the dyeing process.
v) It increases the solubility of the disperse dye in water.
vi) It maintains the dispersion in a find form in the dye bath through out the dyeing process.
v) It increase the solubility of the disperse dye in water.
vi) It affect on the rate of dyeing.

Trade name of dispersing agent

Setamol  BASF
Edalon  Sandoz
Hispogal  Hoescht

Dispersing agent: of example:

 Soap powder
 Turkey red oil
 Alkel sulphonates
 Alkyl acryl sulphonates
 Formaldehyde
 Lignin sulphonates

Carrier: Carriers are dyeing assistants which alter the dispersing properties of the dyes and
physical characteristics of the fibre so that more of the dye can be transferred from the dye bath
to the fibre than in the absence of these assistants.
It is a are kind of organic compound that acts as a substantive swelling agents. In case of
hydrophobic fibre such as polyester fibre carrier is added to dye bath or print paste for increase
of dye take up.

Factors considered for selection of carriers:

i) High carrier efficiency
ii) Cheap.
iii) Available at market.
iv) Non toxicity
v) Little or no effect on the light fastness of the dyeing
vi) No degradation or discolouration of the fibre.
vii) High stability under dyeing conditions.
viii) Compatibility with the dyestuff.
ix) Ease of dispersion in the dye bath.
x) Ease of removal after dyeing.
xi) Low volatility of the carrier.

Function of Carrier:
Mechanism of carrier action:
i) Carriers swell the fibre and ultimately cause relaxation.
ii) They make dye film on the surface of the fibre.
iii) Carrier transport the dye to the fibre by dye carrier association in dye bath.
iv) They increase solubility of dye.
v) Products containing hydropholic groups such as O-phenyl phenol, benzoic acid etc show
rapid diffusion rate in the polyester fibres.
vi) It increases swelling of fibre.
vii) Increase dye take up by covalent bond of fibre liquid.
viii) They may act as molecular lubricants.
ix) Carrier penetrates in side the fibre polymer chain and thereby reduce inter chain attraction
and dye molecules enters the polymer structure.

Heat setting procedure of polyester fabric:/ Importance:

 To modify crystalline structure.
 To improve dimensional stability.
 Increase safe ironing temp.
 To avoid shade variation.
 To resist wet creasing during washing.
 Affect water absorbency.
Chapter 4
Sulpher Dye
Sulpher dyes so called:
The dyes are so called as they contain sulpher linkage their molecular structure but dissolve in a

soln of Na-sulphide which acts as a reducing agent, breaking the sulpher linkage and
converting the molecules into simpler components which are soluble in water and substantive
towards cellulose.
Water insoluble sulpher dye molecule

Chemical structure:
One of the reactions which takes place when sulpher is heated with P-toluidire is the formation
of dehydrothio-toluidine:

H3C NH2 + H3C NH2 + 3S

H3C N + 2H2 + 2H2S


The dehydrothio-toluidine can react with another molecule of toluidire a process which may be
repeated until quite a complex molecule of toluidire a process which may be repeated until
quite a complex molecule has been built up:
H 3C N

C NH2 + H3C NH2 + 3S






S S The dye sulpher Yellow 4

is built up of units possessing the structure

Properties of Sulpher dyes:

I) They contain sulpher linkage within their molecule.
II) Water Insoluble dyes.
III) Heat reduction and oxidation of the development in the fibre.
IV) Wet fastness good.
V) Light fastness satisfactory.
VI) Wash fastness excellent.
VII) Limited range of colour normally black.
VIII) Chlorine fastness fair.
IX) Shading is not more than 10%.
X) Unhygienic for environment.
XI) Very cheap.
XII) Available in the market.
XIII) S-dye makes colloidal solution.
XIV) S-dye produces Hydrogen Sulphide to decompose.

Chemistry of dyeing with S-dyes OR Mechanism of dyeing:

The sulpher dyes contain sulpher linkage within their molecules. They are Insoluble in water
but can be reduced to become soluble in water by treating with reducing agents and shows
substantivity towards cellulose. Sodium sulphide acts as reducing agent that breaks the sulpher
linkage and break down the molecules into simpler components which can easily penetrate the
fabric surface.
Reducing agent
Dye.S-S.Dye + 2[H] Dye.SH + HS.Dye
Insoluble Soluble(Leucoform)
The thiols, containing the –SH groups are readily oxidised in the fibre to the original insoluble
sulpher dyes by oxidizing agent and gives a colour with very good wet fastness properly.
Oxidising agent
2Dye.SH + [O] Dye.S-S.Dye +H2O
Insoluble Sulpher dye
Dyes are negatively ionized and no Vander Waals force effect on them, salt improve dyeing
efficiency by increasing physical force.
Dyeing of cellulosic fibre/cotton by Sulpher dyes: Method Application of S-dyes:
1. Fabric preparation

2. Preparation of dye solution

3. Dyeing (in a suitable method)

4. Oxidation

5. After treatments

6. Dyed goods.

Dyeing recipe (Std):

Sulpher dyes  10-20% owf
Wetting agent  1-2% ”
Sodium sulphide  10-20% ”
Soda ash (PH control)  5-10%”
Common Salt (Electrolyte)  15-20% ”
M : L  1:20
Time  1 hr
Temp  700-1000C

1. Fabric preparation: Only normal pretreated (Scoring, bleaching) fabric is required.

Mercerized cotton goods causes an increased colour yield 30 to 40%.
2. Dye Soln Prepn or Reducing step: Required amount of dye. Soda ash, sodium sulphide
wetting agent are taken in a beaker and little amount of cold water is added to make a
paste. In a separate vessel the rest of water is boiled and added to the paste to make the
stock Soln which was further boiled for 5 mins so that the day completely reduced.
3. Dyeing: At first dye Soln is taken in a dye bath and the fabric is immersed in that
solution and then heated for 10-15 min. Then half of the total NaCl Soln is added and
temperature is raised up to boil (100oC) and the rest of salt is added. Dyeing at this temp
is continued for 30 min.

4. Oxidation: After dyeing, the reduced water soluble form of the dye is oxidized to fix the
dyestuff as its insoluble oxidized form.
Dye.S-S.Dye + 2[H] Dye.SH + Dye.SH
2Dye.SH + [O] Dye.S-S.Dye
Typical recipe for oxidation.
Na-perborate  0.5-1 g/L OR 1.3 owf
Temp  40-500C
Time  20 min

5. After treatment: I) The dyed substance is soaped which makes the colour bright and
gives the permanent shade.
II) The light fastness of sulpher dyes, which is generally good, can be improved by after
treatment with certain metallic salt. Thus a treatment with CuSO4 and acetic acid in the
presence of sodium or potassium dichromate improves the light fastness. When the
dichromate is present, the washing fastness is slightly improved.
CuSO4  0.5-1% owf
Na/K-dichromoate  1-1.5 ”
Acetic acid  1-2% ”
Time 20-30 min
Temp  700C
Disadvantage / Defects of Sulpher dyes: Mainly two defects. which are common in sulpher
1. Bronziness OR dullness of shades
2. Tendering.
1. Brounziness of shades: It is a common defect found in sulpher dyed textile mtls.
Causes: I) Excessive delay betn lifting of the mtl out of the dye bath and washing off.
II) The presence of excessive dyestuff on the mtl.
III) Insufficient amount of sodium sulphide in the dye bath.
IV) Exposure of goods to air while dyeing.
V) Excessive heat.
I) Good washing and dilute solution of Na2S (1%) at 30oC OR
II) A treatment with boiling soap soln or a strong Na2S soln OR
III) A treatment with a solution containing 10% of saponified palm oil at 60oC.

2. Tendering: If sulpher dyed textile mtls are stored, tendering effect is seen on cellulose.
Causes: I) Gradual oxidation of sulpher to sulphuric acid on storage.
II) After treatment with copper salt causes rapid tendering.
III) Presence of ion as an impurity causes rapid tendering.
IV) The method of oxidation for the reconversion to insoluble form influence
Remedies: I) Treatment of dyed mtl with a little sodium acetate so that H2So4 may be
converted in to harmless acetic acid.
II) Treatment of dyed mtl with

Advantage of S-dye/ S-dyes are so popular in producing black shad:

I) Low cost
II) Fair to good light fastness.
III) High wash fastness.
IV) Easy to apply.
V) Low energy required.
VI) Chemical resistance is mode rate to good.
VII) Wet fastness good
VIII) Chlorine fastness fair.
 Used to dye of black umbrella cloth.
 Used for lining boat.
 Used to dye of rubber mtls.
Chapter 5
Azoic Dye
Azoicdyes: Azoic dyes are not ready-made dyes but are produced by reaction of two
components-Diazocomponent or Base/Salt and Coupling component (Naphthol).
Dye formation in Fibre occurs on the basis of coupling reaction.
RN2Cl + R/-ONa  R-N=N-R/-OH
Azoic dye
The coloured substance formed Azoic dye from these essentially colourless compound is
insoluble in water and the washing fastness of the shade is excellent.

Different names of azoic dyes:

1. Ice colour: The coupling component, which is finally soluble in diazotisation reaction,
the Ice water (0o-5oC) required to the process, so it is called Ice colour.
2. Mazic colour: It is called mazic colour in views of its versatility. Different colours are
obtained by combining different bases with same naphthol. Again using the same base
with different varieties of naphthol, a large no. of different shades can be produced.
3. Naphthol colour: To make the fabric coloured, the fabric is first impregnated with
sodium salt of -naphthol or arylamides to make substantive towards cellulose, as the
first coupling component is naphthol, so it is called naphthol colour.
4. Pigment colour: Azoic dyes contain azo group and the final colour product is insoluble
in water, so it is called azoic pigment.
Base + Napthol  Azoic dyes
Soluble Soluble Insoluble
Properties of Azoic dyes:
I) Cellulosic cotton but also jute, nylon, polyester, hemp acetate, rayon, linen are dyed
by azoic dyes.
II) Insoluble azo group present in it.
III) It is directly insoluble in water.
IV) Many azoic components exhaust only 10-20% while others almost completely
exhaust. Rate of exhaustion decreases with Temp
V) Colour is formed from solubilised components but the ultimate coloured product is
always insoluble.
VI) Alkali resistance: Poor to good, Index 2-4.
VII) Light resistance: Poor to very good, Index 2-7
VIII) Wash fastness-very good.
IX) Brightness of azoic dye is good.
X) This dye is called developed dye due to formation of dye in fibre during dyeing
XI) Addition of salt increase substantivity.
XII) Naphthol dispersed in Alcohol, T.R. oil.

Chemistry of dyeing: Dyeing process of azoic dyes includes three main stages. They are-
I) Naphtholation
II) Diazotisation
III) Coupling.
I). Naphtholation: Naphthols are insoluble in water and converted into soluble form by treating
with alkali. The fabric is in pregnated with -naphthol and NaOH Soln and converted into -
Naphthol Na--Naphtholate.
OH + NaOH, 300 -400C ONa
+ H2 O
72 T W

Insoluble -b napthol soluble

II) Diazotisation: A base containing amino group reacts with sodium nitrite to a soln of the
hydro chloride of the base in the presence of excess of HCl at 0o-5oC.
NH3 NH3+Cl-

+ HCl

NaNO2 + HCl HNO2 + NaCl

NH2 HCl + NaNO2 N N

+ NaCl + H2O
00-50 C

In total,
III) Coupling: The impregnated mtl is treated in a bath containing diazonium soln to carry out
coupling and azoic colour is produced.

ONa N N Cl N N
+ NaCl

Naphtolated fabric Azoic Base Colour

Process – Sequence For dyeing with Azoic dyes:

Textile mtl is prepared

Fabric/textile mtl is
treated with Naphthol Soln

Preparation of base salt soln

Naphthol treated fabric is treated with


Colour developed

Dyeing of cotton with Azoic dyes:

Dissolution Method: Naphthol is not easily dissolved in water. Naphthol is dissolved in
water by two process.-
1. Hot dissolution method
2. Cold dissolution method
Hot dissolution Method-
1. Naphthol-1Kg
2. NaOH- 0.75 L
3. TR oil – 3-7 ml/L
4. Common salt – 15 gm/L
5. HCHO protective colloid – 10 ml
6. Hot water – 15 L
Naphthol + TR oil  Paste+NaOH+ Cold water

Cold dissolution method:
Azoic component – 1 Kg
Methylated – 1 L
NaOH – 0.7 L
TR oil – 1 ml/L
HCHO – 10 ml/L
Cold water – 2 L
Factors considered for diazotisation:
1. Amount of HCl and NaNO2: For diazotisation, excess amount of HCl and NaNO2 is required.
Their presence can be tested by congo red paper and starch iodide paper. Cango red paper
terms blue if excess HCl is presence and same happens with starch iodide paper if excess HNO2
is present.
2. PH: At the end of diazotisation, the soln contain a fairly large amount of HCl. The PH is raised
by using Na-acetate.
3. Temp: - Lower the temp, better the stability of diazotisation salt soln
- Very low temp, increase the cost of maintenance.
4. Metal: Diazonion should be carried out in non metallic vessel other than Stainless steel.
Because most metals promote catalytic decomposition.

Factors Considered for coupling:

 Concentrate of nephthol soln.
 Concentrate of base soln (PH = 6.5, >0.5g/L)
 Temperature of base soln (20oC)
 Inherent substantivity of naphthol to fabric.
 PH of base Soln for fast reaction PH should be less.
 Strength of base and naphthol.
 Base to water ratio 1:5
 Presence of alkali binding agent to naturalize excess alkali.
 Colour to be produced playing a important role-
Blue colour is obtained quickly
Blue colour is developed slowly.
Yellow colour is obtained quickly
But it is problansum colour.

Types of Naphthol: According to substantivity.

1. Low substantively nephthols:
Naphthol As, Naphthol As-D, Naphthol AS-OL
Naphthol AS-G, Naphthol, AS-PH etc.


Naphthol AS



Naphthol AS-D

2. Medium Substantively: Naphthol:

Naphthol AS-RL, Naphthol AS-BG, Naphthol AS-LT, Naphthol AS-VL


Naphthol AS-RL

3. Higher Substantivity: Naphthols-AS-BS, Naphthol AS-BI, Naphthol AS-BO,



Naphthol AS-BS

Azoic dye Azo dye

1. Insoluble Azo group 1. Soluble Azo group
2. Insoluble in mater 2. Soluble
3. It not found in readymade dye 3. Ready made dye.
4. Need of diazotization and coupling. 4. No need
5. Application is compound 5. Simple
6. Less used 6. Widely used
7. Two bath process 7. One bath
8. Comparatively costly 8. cheap
Dyeing of cotton fabric with azoic dye
Recipe for Naphthol:
Naphthol  4%
Wetting A  1%
NaOH  6%
Common Salt  10g/L
Tem  Room Temp
Time  20-30 min
M:L  1:10
Recipe for base soln:
Fast Base  2%
HCl  2%
Acetic acid  0.5g/L
Na Acetic  2 g/L
Temp  Room temp
Time  20 min
For naphtholation:
1) For making naphthol solution, at first naphthol and glycerine are added in dye bath.
2) Then NaOH is added into the bath.
3) Finally salt and water are added into the bath.
4) Then fabric is immersed into this solution for few minutes. And the fabric becomes
For base recipe:
1) At first required amount of base, HCl, NaNO2 are mixed another dye bath at 00-50C (with
2) Then acetic acid and sodium acetate are added into the dye bath. And mixed them very
3) Finally thickener and required amount of water is added and stirred them very well for
getting required viscosity.
Printing process:
The naphtholated fabric is then printed with base printing paste by block and screen printing

After treatment:
After printing the printed fabric is dried at 100-1050 for 5-10 minute in a dryer
Printing Chapter 1
Introduction of Printing

Textile Printing:
Textile Printing is one kind of localized dyeing that is dyes or pigments are applied locally or
discontinuously to produce various design on the fabric with a motif or motives in one more
By the term “Textile Printing” we mean the localized application of dyes or pigments and
chemicals by any method which can produce particular effect of colour on the fabric according
to the design.
Steps in Textile Printing :
Grey textiles / Raw mtls

1. Preparation of textile mtls ( singening, desizing , bleaching scouring)

2. Preparation of printing paste

3. Printing (with a certain style and method)

4. Drying of the printed fabric (in the drier)

5. Steaming of the printed fabric
(to transfer dye into fibre, 100-1020 C, 15 min in a steamer)

6. After treatment (Soaping of washing)

Various designs/ selection of Designs :

Various design

1. Natural 2. Artificial
a) Flowers Mental creation/ CAD
b) Leaves
c) Fruits
d) Natural Beauty
e) Animal (Men &
 Cats
 Dogs
 Tigers
 Birds etc.

Difference bet Dyeing & Printing :

Dyeing Printing
1. There is no localized 1. This is the localized application
application of dyes/pigments on the fabric
according to design.
2. Colour is applied in form of 2. Colour is applied in form of
soln thick paste.
3. Fabric, yarn and fibres are 3. Fabric is only printed
4. Generally a colour is used. 4. One or more colour is used.
5. Thickener is not used. 5. Thickener is used.
6. Steaming is not required on 6. Steaming is used in the printed
dyed mtl. fabric for fixation.
7. More time is required 7. Less time is required.
8. Less expensive. 8. More expensive
9. Much amount of water is used 9. Less amount of water is used.
10. Liquor ratio is high. 10. Liquor Ratio is less.
Printing Ingredients:
1. Dyes/Pigments
2. Wetting agent.
3. Thickener
4. Solvents/dispersing agent
5. Defoaming agent
6. Oxidizing and reducing agent.
7. Catalyst and oxygen carrier.
8. Acid and alkalis
9. Carrier and swelling agents.
10. Miscellaneous agents
1. Dyes/Pigments:
 Attraction of dye stuff to the fibre due to presence of auxochrome.
 To achieve colour effect on the fabric
 To produce required shade.
e.g. Vat, Azoic, Reactive, direct etc.
2. Wetting agents:
 To wet the fabric as well as dyestuff.
 To reduce surface tension of water allowing the dyestuff for easy penetration
into fibre.
 To obtain smooth paste.
 To dissolve the dyestuff in the paste
e.g.: Olive oil, T.R oil, caster oil etc.
Lissapol N. Animal oil, Glycerine
3. Solvents/dispersing agents/solution acids:
 To get bright design.
 To assist dye penetration
 To spread dye moles evenly in the past.
 Assist dye fixation.
 To prevent aggregation of dye molecules in the highly concentrated of the dye.
 To prevent precipitation.
 To increase solubility of the dyes.
 To make proper printing shade
e.g.: Urea, Glycerine, desirable, Alcohol, Acetone, Diethylene glycol, Thio diethy lene
4. Thickener:
 To give required viscosity to the printing paste.
 To prevent premature reactions betn the chemicals contained in the print paste.
 To hold the ingredients of the print paste on the fabric
Ex: Na-alginate, fine gum, british gum, CMC

5. Defoaming agents:
 To prevent the foam generation during printing.
e.g. Silicone, defoamers, sulphated oil, perminol KB, Emulsified pine oil.
6. Oxidising and reducing agent:
Oxidising agent:
 To develop the final colour during steaming or in the subsequent after treatment.
 Assists to dye fixation.
e.g.: Sodium chlorate, Potasium chlorate, Sodium nitrate, Resist Salf Ammonium chloride,
Ludigol, Na or K dichromate

Reducing agent:
 Used for reduction of different dyes.
 Used for mainly in discharge printing.
 To destroy colour from the ground of fabric.
 To make the insoluble dyes to soluble
e.g. Sodium hydrosulphite, Stanus chloride etc. Rongolite-C

7. Catalyst and oxygen carrier:

 To prevent fibre damage during steaming.
 Accelerate the final colour development by oxidation.
 Reduce the risk of oxidisation.
e.g. Copper sulphide, Amimonium vanadate, Potassium ferrocyanide.

8. Acids/Alkalis:
 To maintain PH
 To develop the colour or printed fabric.
 To fix dye on the fabric permanently.
e.g. Organic acid Alkali KOH, NaOH, Na2CO3, pottasium carbonate, sodium
bicarbonate, Sodium acetate.
9. Carrier and swelling agent: Swelling agent:
 To create the big size holes of the fibres.
 Helps to swell the fibre structure.
 To reduce crystallinity.
 Help the easy penetration of dye molecule inside the fibre polymer.
e.g. Polyethylene flycol, Phenols, DEGDA (di-ethylene glycol. diacetate)
Used for fixing disperso dyes on polyester or polyster wool blends at temp below 105oC.



e.g. Diphenol, Ortho-phenol, Tri-chloro benzene, P ara phenyl phenol

10. Miscellaneous agent: Hygroscopic agent:

 Assist fixation of dyes.
 Absorb moisture from air.
 Facilitates subsequent washing off.
e.g. Urea, glycerine etc.

Mild oxidising agent:

During steaming of ago colour, the partial colour can be destroyed by the effect of
Reducing. To secure of this condition, Mild agent used.
Ex: Ludigol, Resist SaH.
Style of Printing:
Style of printing means the manner in which a printed effect is produced. H involves certain
chemical reactions and operations.

1. Direct style of printing.

White discharge
2. Discharge of printing.
Colour discharge

White resist
3. Resist style of printing.
Colour resist

4. Raised style of printing.

5. Raised style of printing.
6. Azoic style of printing.
7. Metal style of printing.
8. Flock style of printing.
9. Crepe or crepon style of printing.
10. Lining style of printing.

3. Discharge style of printing:

Discharge style of printing means the process which can produce a white or colour effect on a
previously dyed ground.
Discharge style of printing is carried out.
1st step: Dyeing: Fabric is dyed firstly with a easily reducable dye.
Reduction (Reducing agent
Dye(-N=N-) ~NH2 + NH2~

2nd step: Printing:

 The fabric is printed with a thicked soln of discharging agent.
 This discharging agent destroy the colour at the printed areas and leaves the dye of
unprinted areas unaffected.
 If any dye is present in the soln of discharging agent which is not affected by its
discharging action, can also be deposited and fixed on the ground.
 Reducing agent must be stronger than Dye
3rd Step: Steming:
4th washing:

Types of discharge styles:

I) White discharge:
 After dyeing and printing, the discharge agents discharge the dye of printed areas and
leaves the dye present on the unprinted area unaffected
 A while design is produced on colour ground

Green Green

Dyed Print with White

Fabric discharging agent

II) Colour Discharge:

 The coloured printing paste remove the initial value from the coloured ground
 At the same time deposit colour on the original ground.

Green Green

Dye with Print with discharging Red

Green agent + Red
Colour discharge

3. Resist style of Printing:

In this process, a substance is applied to the fabric that will prevent the fixation of any colouring
agent employed afterwards on that area.
Resist style of printing is carried out-
I) Printing : The fabric is printed with a resist salt sol which is spreyed on the
fabric mechanically or manually.
II) Dyeing : The fabric is dyed with a suitable dye as a result the areas covered
by the resist salt will not be dyed and other portions would be dyed.

White Resist:
o No colour is added to the print paste sol with resist salt
o After dyeing the printed area remains white.

Print with Print with

resist Salt green + resist
After dyeing After dyeing
with Red with Red

White Green

Red Red
White Resist Colour Resist

Colour resist :
 Colouring mtl is added to the print past with resist salt
 The printed area contain the colour added to print paste and the
remaining areas will contain the colour of dye sol.

Difference bet Discharge style of printing & Resist :

Discharge Style Resist style of printing
1. It is always sharp in outline, bright in 1. It is less sharp in out line and less bright
2. Discharging agent used 2. Resist salt used
3. Strong chemical reaction in required 3. No chemical reaction due to pre dyeing
4. At first the fabric is dyed and then 4. At first reisting salt printed, and then
discharging printing fabric is dyed.
5. Two or more coloured can be dyed at a 5. Only two class can be dyed
6. Discharging agent destroy pre fixed dye 6. Resisting salt resist to be fixed of colour
of fabric on the fabric
7. The cost of discharging agent is high 7. Less wastage of dye
8. More wastages of dye 8. Less wastage of dye

Methods of Printing:
1. Block printing
2. Roller printing Hand screen
3. Screen printing
4. Rotary Screen Semi automatic
5. Transfer printing Fully automatic
6. Burnout printing
7. Flock printing
8. Batik
9. Ink - jet
Chapter 2
Printing With Reactive Dye

Reactive dyes used for printing:

Dye Chemical Structure Company
Procion M ICI


Procion H Cibacron ICI



Remazol D-SO2-CH2CH2-O-SO3Na F Hoechst

Cl Cl
Drimarene Reactone Sandoz Geigy



Levafix D-SO2-NH-CH2CH2OSO3Na F. Bayer

N Cl
Levafix E F Bayer

N Cl


Primazin P BASF


Solidazol DNH-COCH2CH2SO2R Casella

Lanafix D-
Levafiz P N F Bayer


Procion SP Cl ICI



Drimarene R, N Sandoz
Drimarene K

Thickeners used for pointing with reactive dyes:

Normal thickeners are not suitable for printing with reactive dyes. Example British gum, guar
gum, starch are not suitable for printing with reactive dyes.
Because they all contain terminal-OH group (hydroxyl group) which readily reacts with
reactive dyes.

i) Na-alginate to thicker is used for printing with reactive dyes Na-alginate show improved
flow properties and gives depth, Sharpness and levelness of the printing, in roller printing.

ii) In screen printing it is essential to use emulsion thickenings when overlapping designs are
being printed, since Na-alginate does not give sufficiently sharp outlines.

iii) Half emulsion (Mixture of Na-alginate emulsion) is suitable for reactive dye printing.

Printing with Procion Dyes:

There are dichloro triazine (cold brand) and monocloro triazine (hot brand) reactive dyes in this
type of reactive dyes. Different sequences may be followed in printing with procion dyes:

1. Steaming process:
Pad with alkali  Dry  Steam  Wash off  Dry

2. Dry heat process : Banking Process:

Print with alkali  dry  cure  wash off  Dry.

3. Alkali pad printing process:

Print with OR without alkali Dry  Pad with alkali  Dry with alkaliDry on
cylinderWash offDry

4. Air development process:

Printing without
alkali on alkali
padded cloth

Hang in  Wash
off  Dry air
Print with alkali on
unprepared cloth

Printing with procion Dyes:

1. Steaming Process: In the process, the printing paste contains
 a mild alkali (sodium bi carbonate)
 a mild oxidizing agent (to counteract any reducing in fluencesw resist salt on the
reactive dye)
 Urea helps to bring the dye into solution and helps to bring about the humidity
required fixing during the subsequent sfeoming.
 Sodium alginate as the thickener.

The printing paste is prepared as
1) Urea 50-150 gm
2) Water (heated to 70º C) 420-245g
3) Procion dyes 10-80gm
4) Na-alginate (5%) 500 gm
5) Resist salt L/ Ludigol 10 gm
6) Sodium bicarbonate 10 to 15 gm
1000 gm/1 kg

Pretreatment of cotton fabric:

Brushing, Singeing, Desizing, scouring, bleaching, Mercerising.

Printing paste prep:

from recipe
Urea+Dye+Boil water+Stirring  paste-I+Resist salt+water
Paste-I+No-alginate+Resist salt+stirring  paste-II
Paste-II+Sodium bicarbonate  past-III

Style of printing: Direct style

Method of Printing: Block Printing

 After printing The fabrics is treated/carried out
 Drying at 140 to 160 for 4-6 min
 Steaming at 1000-1020c for 5- 10min
 Washing off-Dying

Process sequence: Print with alkali dry steamwash offdry.

2. Dry heat/Baking process:

Urea up to 200 g/kg
Sodium bicarbonate 15 gm/kg.
Resist salt 10 gm/Kg
Na-alginate 400 gm
Water 325 gm
Procion 50gm

After printing, dyes my be fixed by heating at 1000 Cfor 3’ and a curing time of about 5´ at 1400-
PrintingDrying curing washing of Dry.

3. Pad alkali-Pad process:

In this case, the rapid reaction of cold brand reactive dyes and cellulose under the influence of
heat and moisture (in the process of alkali) has been used to fix the prints which is done by
passing the cloth in a cylinder drying range.
Recipe: [Steam process] without alkali.

After printing the printed fabrics is dried and the fabrics is padded with 20g/l sodium bi
carbonate in the presence of Na-alginate. The fabric is dried on steam heated cylinders. Finally
the fabrics is rinsed, soaped.

Printing with Cibacron dyes:

a) Normal process/ single phase: The printing paste may be prepared as follows-
Cibacron dyes 50gm
Urea 200gm
Hot water 200gm
Na-alginate (5%) 470gm
Potassium carbonate (33% soln) 60gm
Na-OH (66tw) 5 gm
Ludigol 15 gm
1000gm/1 kg

 While preparing the printing paste the dye is first mixed with urea, hot water is then
added and stirred till dissolution is complete.
 The dye solution is then mixed with the Na-alginate thickening and resist salt (Ludigol)
 In the solution, NaOH and potassium carbonate solution is added and printing paste is
Style of printing: Direct
Method of printing: Black, Roller, Screen.
After printing the fabrics carried out
Dried 1400 c-1600c
Steaming at 100-1020c for 1-2’
High pressure steaming at 1300c for 30sec-or
Thermo fixation at 1500c for 1’

b) Flash ageing process: Two phase:

In this process, printing is carried out in two phase-
In the 1st phase : The printing paste recipe-
Cibacron dyes 30-50gm
Water 450-470
 6 parts Na-algirnate 5% 
Thickening (    500gm
 1 parts CMC 

1 kg

In this stage, the printing paste is prepared with dye and thickener (Na-alginate and CMC) and
then water is added and stirring gently. Then printing paste is used for printing the fabric.

Method of printing: Block

Style of printing: Direct style. Then direct.
After printing, in the 2nd phase –Pad liquor contain.
Common salt 150gm
Potassium carbonate 100gm
Sodium hydroxide (680 TW) 30 ml
Water 720 ml
1000 ml

After padding, the dye is fixing by steaming at about 1200c for 30-60s without intermediate
Finally the prints are soaped, washed and dried.

Process sequence:
Pretreatment Printing Dry Padding Steamingwash

C) Wet fixation process:

In this process, printing is carried out in two phase-
In the 1st phase – The printing paste recipe-
Cibacron dye 50gm
Urea 200gm
Ludigol 10gm
Na-alginate(5%) 500 gm
Water 240 gm
1 kg
In this stage,
 The dye is pasted with urea and water and stirred gently dissolution is complete.
 The dye solution is mixed with Na-alginate and Ludigol. Without alkali and stirred
 The print paste is prepared.

Style of printing Direct
Method of Printing: Screen or block
The fabric is dried and steaming for 100-1020c and then the fabric may be treated with a soln
Sodium hydroxide (660 TW) 80gm
Soda ash 100gm
Sodium chloride 150gm
Sodium silicate 20gm
After padding at 900c for 200 see in open soaper, the fabric is then washed with cold, hot and
finally with cold water.

Process: Pretreatment PrintingDrying Steaming Padding washing

Effects of shades and dyes properties on the quantities of printing.
Ingredients used:
The quantities of urea, Alkali, Resist salt, may be veried depending on the depth of shade. The
following quantities may be used-

Dye Urea Sodium Resist salt L

g/Kg g/Kg bicarbonate gm/Kg
Cold brand
<40 50 101 10
10-40 100 10 10
>40 150 12.5 10
Hot brand
<40 100 15 10
>40 150 15 10

Advantage of all in OR single phase over two phase method:

i) Urea is added to the printing paste for the fixation of dye but in two phase method
urea is not used.
ii) Printing paste is prepared are time but in two phase method double time required.
iii) Alkali is used for dye fixation but in two phase method, alkali is not used.
iv) Shorter washing off time as alkali and Urea used.

 Complex to prepare printing paste
 Print is affected by stemming irregulation.

Fixation my be carried out by the following methods-

1. Short steaming , method
2. Thermo fixation “
3. High temperature

1. Short steaming method: after printing and drying the cloth is steamed for 1 to 2 min at 102 to
1030c washed and dried.

2. Thermo fixation Method: In this method, the printed and dried cloth is thermo fixed at 1800c-
1400c for 30 – 60s following by washing and drying.
3. High temperature steaming: The printed and dried cloth is steamed in a high temperature
steamer at 1300c for 30 soc at atmospheric pressure in a supper heated steam followed by
washing and drying.
Chapter 3
Printing With Disperse Dye

The characteristics of dispose dyes to be considered during selection of dyes for printing:
i) Selected dyes with good steaming and thermo fixing fastness are suitable.
ii) The washing fastness of dispose dyes on polyester are much higher than on acetate,
triacetate or nylon.
iii) Disperse dyes have a high degree of dispersibility so that they can be easily
dispersed in water at 110 to 1200 F
iv) Many disperse dyes are available in liquid from which makes it possible add them
to a stock thickening without predisposing

Trade Name of dispese dyes:

Trade name Manufactures Country

1. Foron Sandoz Switzerland
2. Dispersol ICI UK
3. Duranol ICI UK
4. Navalon Cibagegy Switzerland
5. Samaron Hoechst Germany
6. Terasil Cibageigy Switzerland

Thickener used in disperse dye printing:

i) Natural gum
ii) Starch ethers
iii) Locust bean gum (gum indulca)
iv) Guar gum
v) CMC
vi) British gum
vii) Mey progum
viii) Starch
ix) Na-alginate

Reason of selection:
i. Natural gum: with natural thickeners sharp prints are attained and the dried
thickener film is relatively elastic.
ii. Starch ethers: Their wash off properties is not good and therefore starch
others are mixed with locust bean gum, which produces dull prints with poor
colour yield when used alone.
iii. Locust bean gum: Most commonly used thickness they produces
sharp/bright prints.
iv. Guan gum: They product depth sharpness and levelness of the points.
v. CMC : Prints with CMC are normally level and sharp and have good yield,
clarity and Brightness.
vi. British gum: Produce sharp prints, paste become durable, prolonged lasting
easily washable.
vii. Starch: No reaction with alkali increase levelness and penetration of the dye,
the flow properly improved.
viii. Na-alginate : It imparts the brightness of the print especially in the theromsol
ix. Emulsion Thickener: These are helpful since the mineral spirits are excellence
wetting agent for hydrophobic fibres. These thickenings increase levelness
and penetration of the dye in the fibre.
So combination of thickener should be used.

Requirements for Thickness in disperse Printing:

i) The thickener film should adhere well to the fabric and should produce on elastic
film to prevent cracking, splintering and dusting – off.
ii) If should produce level printing with sharp outlines.
iii) The thickener must be easily removable in the after treatment
iv) The thickeners should contain high solids to produce more level and sharper prints.
v) The thickener should be alkali free.

Printing on polyester fabric with disperses dye:

Pre treatment of fabric: Scouring, washing.

In printing polyester, the printing paste may be prepared as follows:

a) For high pressure steaming:
Recipe: 50-100 g Dispose dye (liquid form)
50-104 g water
894 to 790 Thickening (guargum)
5g Ammonium sulphate
1 gm sodium chlorate (oxidizing agent)
1 kg
b) For thermal fixation:
Recipe: 50-100 g disperse dye (liquid form)
50-100g water
10-20g Ekaline F1 liquid (carrier)
890-780g Thickening
1 kg

Function of ingredients:

Sodium chlorate  Oxidizing. It protects the brightness of the off against any possible
reduction of the dyestuff under the prolonged steaming conditions at elevated temp.

Ammonium sulphate Used as on acid liborating agent so that the print paste remains acidic
(PH=5) during steaming.
Ekaline E1 is the carrier used to improve the colour field.

Fixation: After printing and dyeing the fabric may be steamed for 30min at 25 PSI (1250 to 1300

i) Hot air fixation (Thermosoling)

ii) High temperature steaming (super heated steaming)
iii) Thermofixation
iv) High pressure steaming.

(I) Hot air fixation : Hot air fixation may be carried out as follows:-
1800-1900 c for 1 min (formm E dyes)
190-2000 c (form SE dyes)
2050-2100C for 1 min (Form S dyes)

After fixation the fabric is rinsed with warm water and reduction clared in a both containing.
2 g Ekaline F1 liquid
2 g sodium hydro sulphite
2 g sodium hy droxide
at 600 c for 20 min and washed with hot water and finally with cold water.

II) High Temperature steaming: Recipe:

 In this system, the live steam is raised to about 1800 c at atmospheric pressure by bringing
live steam in contact with radiator.
 These radiator or the inside walls or ceiling of the steamer are maintained at this high
temp (2000 c) either by pressure steam or oil heating system.
 Disperse dyes are fixed in these steamers at 1800 c in 1-2 min
 This is a continuous process and gives full colour yield and bright prints.

III) Thermo fixation:

 Disperse dyes on polyester fabrics can be fixed by subjecting them to hot air at 2100 c for
about 30 soc
 The thermo fixation is carried out on a stenter or a baking m/c where heat setting and
thermo fixation ca be carried simultaneously
 Prints obtained by themofixation are not as bright as steam.
 10-15% loss of colour yield results in the fixation
 Only these dyes with high sublimation fastness should be selected.

IV) High pressure steaming:

 The disperse dye are steamed at 30 PSI (1280 c) for 25-30 min.
 Disperse dyes of low sublimation fastness may be used.
 This system produces full colour yield and bright prints.
 Dye is fixed at high process and need more labor.
 Limited production of dispose colour prints.

Recipe: HT fixation Thermo fixation HP steaming.

Thickening 560 g 560 g 560
Disperse dye Xg Xg Xg
Water 100g 100g 100g
Urea 50g 50-100g -
Resist salt/
Sodium chlorate 10g 10g 10g
1 kg 1 kg 1kg

Emulsion thickener for polyester:

Emulsion thickenings are helpful since mineral spirits are excellent wetting agents too
hydrophobic in the fabrics.
They minimize the colour transfer in roller printing and reduce screen frame marks in screen
Complete fixation of the dye can be achieved.

Disadvantage of Urea in polyester fabric:

 Urea produce dull out lines of points in steam fixation
 Reduce dye solution formation.

Function of Mild oxidizing agent: Resist salt/sodium chlorate:

 It protects brightness of the dyestuff against any reduction o/s the dyestuff under the
prolonged steaming at elevated temp.
Chapter 4
Printing With Azoic Colour
Chemistry of Printing with Azoic Colour:
The selected Naphthol is dissolved either by hot dissolution method (pasting with TRO, adding
caustic soda sol. Pouring hot water with further heating) or by cold dissolution method. During
the exposure of the naphtholate solution to the atmosphere, the free naphthol may be formed by
reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide (i.e. carbonic acid)


Napthol AsInsoluble
Na-Naptholate (soluble)

H2CO3(H2O + CO2



Napthol AsInsoluble

This change may also take place on the naphthalated cloth. The free naphthol has less affinity
for cellulose fibres and has lower coupling power compared to the naphtholate form.

When the diazotised base couples with it subsequently the azoic pigment formed is not firmly
held in the fibre and as a result, the rubbing fastness of the print is lowered.

In order to avoid three problems, the naphtholated cloth (after drying) has to be printed with a
thickened soln of a diazotised base as early as possible. Formaldehyde maybe added and as a
result methlylol compound is formed which is more difficult to hydrolyse than the naphtholate.


With the concentrated sols of naphthols the reaction requires 5-30 min for completion. At high
temperatures (80-90C) the methylol compounds are converted into methylene compounds with
the blocking of the coupling position at which the diazotised base couples otherwise. This
results in the loss of coupling power of the naphtholate.

CH 2 OH +



CH 2



Methods of Printing with Azoic dyes/colours :

Azoic Colour

1. Direct style 2. Discharge style

(a.)Base printing a. White discharge 3. Resist style
method b. Colour discharge a. White resist
(b.)Naphtholate b. Colour resist
printing method
nitrate padding
printing method

Principles of Direct style of printing:

Because of high degree of brightness, ease of application and excellent fastness properties
(except rubbing) azoic combinations (naphthols and bases) are widely used in printing on
cellulosic fibre fabrics.

Azoic colours are applied by the direct printed style by four methods-

I) Base printing method

II) Naphtholate method
III) Naphthol nitrate padding method
IV) Naphthol nitrate printing method

I) Base printing method

The cloth is padded with naphtholate soln

Printed with a suitably thick red sol of a fast colour salt diazotised base.

This method does not need steaming for fixing the colour but the ground naphthol (uncoupled)
has to be washed off.

II) Naphtholate method

Printing a thickened sol of sodium naphtholate on undyed cloth
Steaming and treating with a sol of a diazotised base or fast colour salt

III) Naphthol nitrate padding method :

Padding the undyed cloth with a sol of sodium naphtholate and sodium ritrite
Printed with a thickened soln of a Fast Base along with an organic aid.

The Ground Naphthol is then removed by washing .

IV) Naphthol Nitrate Printing Method :

Printing the undyed cloth with a suitably thickened sol of Na Naphtholate and Na nitrite.
The cloth is passed through a sol of a fast base in the presence of an organic acid.

Base Printing Method of Azoic colour on cotton fabric:


The Process sequence of base printing method:

The cloth is padded with Naphtholate soln

Printed with a suitably thickened sol of a dazotised base

This method does not need steaming for fixing the colour but the ground naphthol has to be
washed off.

The cloth is first naphtholated (Padded with naphtholated solution )

Prepared as follows:
13 g Naphthol As
15 ml TRO
22.5 ml Sodium Hydroxide (70o Tw)

Printing: 1 L with water

The cloth is dried and printed with a paste prepared by using Fast base or fast colour salt as

I) With fast colour salt :

64 g Fast Orange salt RB
436 g Water
500 g Starch tragacanth thickening

2) With fast base:

15 g Fast Scarlet RC
14 ML Conc. Hydrochloric acid
320 ml Coldwater
6g Sodium Nitrite
40 ml water
12 gm Sodium acetate
8 ml Acetic acid (50%)
500 g Starch tragacanth thickening
1 Kg

Printing Procedure:
Starch + Sodium + Water
Fast + Sodium + Conc. HCl
Acetic acid + water

After treatment :

After printing and drying and standing for some time to complete the coupling reaction. Then
the cloth is soaped with detergent and soda ash at the boil . Subsequently it is treated with 10%
sodium bisulphate (670 Tw) soln to remove the unreacted naphthol from the ground. Finally the
cloth is soaped, washed and dried.

Printing on cotton fabric with Naphtholate Printing Meghod :

Process Principle:
Printing a thickered sol of sodium Naphtholate on undyed cloth

Treating with a soln of diazotised base or fast colour salt.

Printing recipe:
The printing paste may be prepared as follows:
15-20 gm Naphthol As
30 g TRO
50g Methylated spirit
25g Sodium hydroxide (700 Tw)
375 g Water
500g Starch Tragacanth paste

Style of Printing: Direct style

After printing the cloth is passed through a suitably diazotised fast Base containing common
salt and a diazo stabliser and after giving sufficient time to complete the coupling reaction , it is
rinsed, treated with sodium bisulphate sol rinsed, soaped , washed and dried.

Best Method & why/ :

Advantages of Naphtholated printing method over Base printing Method :

I) The prints are produced by a simple after treatment.

II) Since the naphtholate is printed at the required areas of the cloth, the ground is kept
untinted and these fore it is easier to produce better white ground.
III) There is a saving of naphthol in this method, since in the other method, naphthol is
applied to the whole cloth and is removed from the ground after printing with the
diazotised base.
IV) A variety of hues can be produced by printing mixtures of naphthols to be
subsequently coupled with diazotised base.
V) It is possible to produce deep and pole shades side by side by printing the paste.

Compare Beth Base and Napthol printing Method :

Base Printing Method Naphthole Printing Method

1. The cloth is padded with naphtholated 1. The fabric is printed with a thickened
sol and then printed with a diazotised base soln of Na- naphtholate and then treated
or fast colour salt. with a diazotised base or fast colour salt
2. No steaming is required for fixing the 2. Steaming is required for dye fixing.
3. Not possible to produce white ground. 3. Possible to produce white ground.
4. Methylated Spirit is not used 4. Methylated sprit is used.
5. No bleeding 5. Bleeding occurs and common salt
prevent this problem.
6. Concentration of naphthol is more 6. Less concentration.
7. Dispersing agent is used for controlling 7. Dispersing agent is not used.
8. Not saving Naphthol 8. Saving of Naphthol
9. To the whole cloth 9. Naphthol is printed to the required area
of the cloth.

Discharge style of Printing on Azoic ground:

The azoic pigment has the azo group as the chromophore and hence is amenable to reduction
with the formation of coloured compounds (having no affinity for the fibre) which can then be
washed off from the fabric. This forms the basis of reduction discharge printing of azoic dyed
cloth. Rongalite-c issued as the reducing agent.

1. White discharge style :

In this case, the cloth is first dyed with an easily dischargeable Naphthol-base combination. It is
then printed with a discharge paste prepared as follows:

150 – 250 g Rongalite C

100- 200 g Fine oxide dispassion (50%)
50-80 g Solution salt B
20-60 g Potassium Carbonate or sodium hydroxide (70%)
10-40 g Anthra quinone paste (30%)
200 – 0 g Water
470 – 370 g Starch-tragacanth paste
1 kg.

After printing the cloth is dried and steamed for 5 min at 100-102 c and immediately treated at
the boil for 4 to 5 min in an alkaline sol (Soda ash 105 9/L) to remove the decomposition
(reduction) products of the pigments and residual thickener film and the thickener it self.

2. Colour discharge style of Printing:

In this case the fabric is first dyed with an easily dischargeable Naphthol base combination. The
dyed cloth may then be printed with a discharge paste prepared as follows:

10-300g vat dye (paste from)

80-100g (Glycerin)
80-120g Potassium Carbonate
60-100g Rongalite C
205-0g Water
500-380g Starch tragacanth paste
1 kg

After Printing, the cloth is dried and steamed for 5 min in a rapid ager at 1000 to 1020 C and
rinsed, oxidized with sodium per borate/acetic acid or potassium dichromate / acetic acid. It is
then rinsed, soaped, at the boil, washed and dried.
Chapter 5
Pigment Printing

Pigment are insoluble colouring matter mostly mineral origin have been used for the
colouration of metal wood, stone, and textile material.

Trade name of pigments:

Trade name: Manufactururer Country

Acranium Bayer W.Germany
Acron Parckh Dye crop W. Germany
Aquabond/ Aquaprint Inmount crop USA
Helizarine BASG Ag Germany
Imperon Hoechst Germany
Noepralae Francolor France
Seabond, lifebond HDC Company USA
Syntrofix Syndex India.

Structure and characteristics of pigments:

1. Quinanridone:

Characteristics: These give yellow to violet pigments by chelation with different metals, Mn
and Ni chelates have better light fastness.

2. Dioxazine:
Yellow, red, orange, violate, and blue pigments can be obtained from these acromatic
sulphuric acids dispersant is used to brightness color.
3. Perilane perinone:

These provided red to blue pigments including clear red and prange colour. The light
fastness of these pigments is excellent.
4. Fluorubine:

Grenish yellow pigments with very good all round fastness properties and useful for dope
5. Pyrrocoline:

These give red to blue pigments of excellent properties.

6. Isoindolinone:
These give greenish yellow, red, and brown pigments. At least 4 chlorine atoms are
necessary for imparting to light weathering and solvent to the pigments.
Basic principle: Material necessary for pigment printing:
 Pigments( Multi colour)
 Film former(Binder)(Polymeric material)
 Cross linking agent(Fixer)
 Catalyst (To accelerate X-linking)
 Wetting agent
 Etc.
Cross linking is occurred in Acetic Acid medium in pH=(5-5.5)

Functions of ingredients of print paste in pigment printing:

The functions of the ingredients of the print paste of pigment printing are mentioned
Pigment: Pigment impart colour to the print.
Binders & Fixers: Binders are long chain polymer macromolecules. They imparts stickiness and
plasticity to the print paste. They help to adhere the pigment particles on the fibre surface.
Fixers are cross linking printing agents which help the binders in their functioning,
Catalyst: Catalysts promote the cross linking reaction, leading to fixation of the binder to the
fabric. Catalysts to the fixation of the binder to the fabric. Catalysts are acid – liberating agents
which under suitable conditions initiate the cross linking reactions.

Characteristics of a good binder:

Binders and fixers play important rolls in pigment printing in achieving optimum
fastness properties.
Binder is a film forming substance made up of long chain macro moles which when
applied to the three – dimensionally linked network.
The characteristics of a good binder are mentioned below:
1. It should not impart any harsh and stiff handle to the fabric. It should create a soft
2. It should impart good rubbing and washing fastness property to t he print.
3. It should not impart any unhygienic on bad chemical effect on the print.
4. It should form a film like coating on the fabric the curing process and should have good
sticking capacity to hold the fibre and pigment particles together.
5. The coating produced by binder should be transparent.
6. It should be cheap and available and should have a long lasting effect on print.

Required Properties of Pigments:

 Pigments should have good covering power.
 Pigments should have freely mixing properties.
 Pigments should be chemically inert.
 Pigments should have good resistance to Acid.
 Pigments should be resistance to solvent.
 Pigments should have suitable brilliance , hardness, and stability.
 Pigments should have good wet , light, and abrasion resistance.
 Pigments should have good characteristics for excellent
dispersion including :
 Particle size and distribution
 Electrical charge
 Specific gravity
 Purity and crystalline structure
 Condition of Precipitation
 Should be applied to all fibre
 Should be cheap.
Pigments printing:
Pigment-------30 parts
Binder---------600 parts
Fixer-----------10 parts
Na alginate---100(50% solution)
White sprit---250 parts
Total 1000 parts
After printing the fabric is dried and cured for making X- linking of the binder film with the
Pre treatments

Roller/Rotary Printing (with birds & Fixer)


Drying (90 – 100%/110-120ºC)

(Cotton 140-160ºC/110-120ºC 3 – 5 min)
(Polyester 160 - 220ºC 30 – 60s)

Stenter Washing (Some time it is not need)


Advantage and Disadvantage of Pigment Printing

 Applicable to natural and synthetic fibre
 Wide range of colour can be produced
 Can be used for dope dyeing for filament yarn.
 Easy applicable
 Less expensive
 Not controllable for the binder film
 Use of solvent like kerosene, spirit etc can produce problems like
flammability, odor, pollution etc.
 The jumming up of equipment and air and water pollution in observed .
 Wet and rubbing fastness is average.
Finishing Chapter 1
Introduction Of Finishing

In general, before marketing, all the process which are applied on the fabric after knitting or
weaving is called finishing. In broad sense, the term finishing covers all the processes which the
fabric undergoes after leaving the loom or knitting m/c to the stage at which enters the market.
Process Sequence:

Pretreatment (Scouring, bleaching)


After Treatment
Softenings or other
Chemical finishing


Calendering / Compacting or Sanforzing


Delivery to market

In short sense, finishing is the process by which the fibres, yarns, fabrics are made as
presentable to the customer and these process are implemented after coloration.
Classification of Finishing:

Physical (Mechanical) Chemical

Temporary Temporary
Permanent Permanent
e.g. Calendering e.g. Starching
e.g. Raising e.g Mercerising
Embossing Weighting
Sanforizing Resin finishing etc.
Beetting etc Softening

Physical / Mechanical finishing :

The finishing process which is per formed by m/cs but not using of chemicals is called

 Used to control dimension

 To improve appearance and handle etc.
 Less expensive.

Example: Calendaring, embossing, raising , sanforizing, beething etc.

Chemical finishing:
The finishing process which is performed by application of chemicals which reacts with fibres is
termed as chemical finishing.

 Used to make glossy protection

 To improve performance
 Highly expensive.
eg Straching, weighting, mercerizing, resin finishing etc.

Temporary Finishing:
The finishing process by deposition of different materials on the fabric where the finishing
materials may be removed by easy washing or clearing is called temporary finishing.
This finishing is only achieved on the surface of the mtls.

Permanent / Durable finishing:

In this finishing process, the finishing mtls stables up to the last position of using the mtl and
not damage in any clearing process.
It is of 2 types –
Physical finishing – Milling of wool, raising
Chemical finishing – mercerizing, resin finish.

Different betn Physical and Chemical finishing :

Physical finishing Chemical finishing
1. Mainly performed by m/c. 1. This is performed by m/cS and
2. No chemical is used. 2. Chemical is mostly used.
3. Used to control dimension, improve 3. Used to make glossy protection and
appearance, handle etc. performance etc.
4. Less expensive. 4. Highly expensive.
5. Less permanent. 5. Comparatively permanent.

Effect of finishing on Fabric Properties/ Object of finishing:

(1) To improve attractiveness.
If can be done by-
I) Modification of fabric appearance
e.g. calendering or ironing, optical brightening or whitening, delusturing,
II) Alternation of fabric handle e.g. softening, stiffening, weighting etc.
III) Control of fabric dimension
e.g. shrinkage resistant, chemical setting, thermo setting.

(2) To improve serviceability.

It can be done by-
I) Improve performance
e.g. flame proofing, not proofing, Antibacterial
II) Improve performance
e.g water proofing, antistatic finish, coating.
III) Easy care properties.
e.g. soil and oil repellency.
resin finishing etc.
The technique of finishing is capable of wide verification but in the main it may be held to
depend on four factors:
Depending Factors of finishing Technique:
a) The type of fibre and its arrangement in yarn and fabric.
b) The physical properties of the fibre, particularly in respect of swelling capacity as
affecting the behavior when pressure or friction is applied in wet and dry states and at
high and low temperature.
c) The receptivity of the fabric for absorbing various finishing prepn.
d) The susceptibility of the mtl. to chemical modification.
Chapter 2
Mercerisation is a physio-chemical process where cotton/yarn is treated with 15-25% (55-
65oTw) caustic soda solution at a temperature of 20o-30oC.
It is necessary to hold the fabric under tension and wash thoroughly.

Benefit obtained by Mercerisation/Objects:

I) Increase tensile strength.
II) Improved hygroscopicity.
III) Improved dye afeinity.
IV) Improved smoothness.
V) Improved luster.
VI) Improved dimensional stability and physical compactness.
VII) 20-30% dye and chemical save while dyeing after mercerising.

Physio-Chemical charges that occur during mercerisation:

When cotton fibre is brought into aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide of 45oTw(18%), the
cellulose begins to swell immediately and in a few seconds the hair/fibre is elliptical in X-
section. On further swelling, the section rounds off and the major axis of the ellipse is at least
25-30% greater than the fibre width of the corresponding collapsed fibre.

The cellulose of the wall swells inwards until the lumen is practically eliminated. These charges
are shown in the following figure:

When the fibre is transferred to water and well washed. Shrinkage begins (stage 6) and on
drying at room temp a further and final shrinkage occurs (Stage 7). During the last three
shrinkage proceeds uniformly towards the centre and the lumen does not recover its original

(a) Higher strength is obtained after the process sequence due to:
 Molecular orientation increase.
 Length wise shrinkage of fabric occurs which minimize the weak links in the

(b) Higher absorbency obtained due to:

 NaOH acts as decrystallinity agent which causes increasing amorphous region.
 Crystal lattice is altered and tends to increase absorbency.

(c) Dye affinity increase due to:

 Increase amorphous region.
 Crystal lattice is altered
 Available –OH group increase which contribute dye affinity.
(d) Luster increase due to
 Kidney shaped becomes almost circular (Oval shape) in X-section.
 Almost 200 convolution/ribbon form/natural twist found in one inch.
 Deconvolution occurs or convolution twist becomes less
 Increase transparency and reduce surface roughness.

Effect of mercerising Condition:

The condition or considerable points for mercerisation is-
I) Concentration of caustic soda Soln
II) Temperature.
III) Tension.
IV) Time.
V) Wash thoroughly
VI) Wetting agent.
1. Temperature:
a) Normally/Commercially mercerisation is carried out at a temp range of 15o-20oC.
b) Ideal temperature --> 15oC
Edelstein investigated the effect of temp on mercerisation in the range of 15o-43oC. He found
that the lower the temp
I) Lesser conc. of caustic soda need.
II) Greater tension necessary to prevent shrinkage.
III) Greater dye affinity.
IV) Slightly higher tensile strength.
V) Higher lustre.
VI) Caustic recovery easy.
Different temp affects on lusture

2. Concentration of caustic soda soln:

 Dye absorption increases with increasing caustic soda conc up to 13%
 Tensile strength increases with increasing caustic soda conc up to 13% and further
slight increases with increasing conc up to 27%.
 If caustic conc. increases above 27%, tensite strength falls rapidly.
 Most commonly used conc is 21-22%
 13-15% caustic conc is applied when dye absorbency is importantly considered.
 Not full conversion of cellulose if the conc is less than 13%
3. Time:
 Ideal time of mercerising is 3Os to 2min.
 But more time than ideal time is required for mercerising, Oxycellulose will be
produced which will damage the mercerised fabric.
 30-60s time is enough for mercerising in 55oTw caustic conc.
 When caustic conc is less, temp is increased, then time is increased.

4. Tension:
I) Mercerisation without tension gives no lustre and causes a considerable shrinkage.
II) Maximum lustre is obtained when the tension is just sufficient to bring the material
back to its original dimension.
III) Further increment of tension causes-
 No benefit
 May be harmful
 Fabric damage
 Cellulose-I (natural formation) can not convert fully into cellulose-II (after
mercerisation formation)
IV) Dyeing properties increase as mercerisation carried out under decreasing tension.
V) Impregnation is carried out at relayed condition but washing carried out under
VI) The tenacity and elastic modulus increase significantly when the mercerizing
tension increase.
VII) Extension at break decrease when tension increase.

5. Washing thoroughly:
I) Washing under stretched condition after mercerisation is very important.
II) In commercial mercerisation process, the strong NaOH is washed out of cotton by
hot water.
III) After washing, caustic soda concentration in the fabric must be less than 8%,
otherwise shrinkage occurs if tension is reduced.
IV) 0.1-0.5% HCl may be used to neautralised caustic soda.
6. Wetting agent: A wetting agent is included in the merceriging liquor which reduces
mercerisation time as a result of successful, uniform and rapid penetration of NaOH.
 Commonly 0.5-1% of wetting agent is used.
 For grey fabric, this amount may be 2%.
 Incase of Scoured and bleached fabric, wetting agent not important but using 0.1-
0.5% gives better effect.
 Cost of wetting agent should be considered before using.
 In Industry, wetting agent is referred as mercering oil.

Why washing important in Morcerisation:

Washing condition is important after mercerisation because the fabric will shrink when
washed under slag condition.

Why strength increase:

Due to
 Molecular orientation increase
 Length wise shrinkage of fabric occurs which minimise the weak links in the fibre.
If washing is not carried out under tension and the concentration of NaOH remains more than
8% after washing then considerable amount of shrinkage of fabric occur. Again if the remaining
NaOH is not neutralized that will cause harm to mH by hydrolysing of cellulose. So washing is
very important after mercerisation and its condition carefully should be maintained.
Requirements of good wetting agents:
 It should posses a high wetting power.
 It should enable the alkali to swell the cotton fibre rapidly.
 It should disperse perfectly.
 Its effect on mercerising liquor should be permanent.
 It must be easily removable.
 It should able to reduce the surface tension of water.

Mercerisation (for lustre) can be carried out in two ways:

a) By unrestricted swelling (by-treating the cotton with sodium hydroxide solution, allowing it
to shrink to the maxm extent) following by stretching to the original width (if cloth) or length (if
yarn in the hank form)

b) Restricted swelling (by treating the cotton under tension with strong sodium hydroxide soln
without allowing it to shrink and then washing while still in the stretched condition)

The lustre of mercerised cotton depends on various factors:

1. Cross-section of the fibre.
2. Staple length of the fibre.
3. Wall thickness of the fibre.
4. Concentration of Sodium hydroxide.
5. Temperature of the mercerisation Soln.
6. Percent stretch.
7. Yarn construction.
8. Yarn twist
9. Doubling of yarns.
10. Degree of singeing.
11. Application of tension.
12. Rate of drying.

Mercerising Process:


Yarn mercerising

Hank form Continuous yarn Grey fabric
after scouring,
(Generally) mercerising mercerising

Yarn Mercerising: Yarn is mercerised in two ways:

1. Hank form
2. Continuous sheet (warp) form.

1. Yarn mercerising in Hank form:

M/C description:
I) Two guide rollers are arranged parallely and horizontally or vertically.
II) The dia of each roller is 4’’-6’’
III) One of two rollers is geared to drive anticlockwise or clockwise.
IV) The distance betn the two guide rollers can be altered according to the size of hank.
V) Synthetic rubber coated padding roller is placed on guide roller, mounted on ball-
bearing to avoid any drag of slip on yarn.
VI) Two trays are used in the m/c where one is moveable tray containing mercerising
VII) There is a water spraying unit which is used for washing the yarn, treated with
caustic soda solution.

Process sequence:
I) The yarn of hank form is placed on the guide rollers whilst they are close together.
II) The yarn is then impregnated in the trough containing caustic soda solution.
III) Impregnation is maintained upto half of the squeezing rollers.
IV) The yarn rotates in the alkali soln and stretched by guide rollers and at the same time
squeezing rollers press on the yarn to ensure penetration.
V) Impregnation time approximately 3 mins and then alloy tray is covered.
VI) The yarns are washed by means of spraying unit and squeezed. The first washing is
with hot water and then with cold water.
VII) The washed yarn is treated with 0.002% H2SO4 to remove alkali.
VIII) The stretching is carried out not to exceed an elongation of 3-5% with reference to
initial length.
IX) Finally the rollers are brought close together to facilitate the removal of stretched

I) The yarn must be mounted evenly on the rollers.
II) The temp of alkali will be below 15oC
III) Tension variation must be reduced.

2. Yarn mercerising in continuous sheet (warp) form:

M/C description:
I) A series of boxes as many as eighteen are used.
II) There is arrangements of squeezing rollers and guide rollers in each of the boxes.
III) The guide rollers are of 12” in dia and made of brass or iron.
IV) The squeezing rollers are of 10” in dia, 36” in length and are covered with rubber.
V) The squeezing rollers are driven at const speed and the pressure is applied by means
of weights and lever.

Process sequence:
I) The warps first pass through 2-4 boxes, where they are boiled in a suitable solution
of dilute caustic soda and T.R. oil. sequestering agent may be used.
II) The liquor is usually heated by closed steam coils.
III) The warps then passed through 1-2 boxes, containing cold water for cooling and
IV) Then warps are squeezed and pass through 3-4 boxes containing caustic soda
solution of mercesising strength.
V) Mercerisation time 3-5 mins.
VI) Penetration is assisted by the rubber coated rollers which speed determines the
amount of tension on the yarn.
VII) Then 3-0 boxes are used for washing
 In 2-4 boxes, hot washed at 60oC temp
 Last 2 boxes are used for cold wash.
VIII) Small quantity of acid is used for neutralisation.

Fabric Mercerising Process: There are 3 types of mercerising m/c

1. Pad chain type M/C
2. Chainless type M/C
3. Pad-Chainless type M/C.

1. Pad chain mercerising M/C:

M/C description:
I) A high speed pad-chain Mercerising M/C capable of handling fabrics like poplin
and at the same time producing a high degree of lusture.

II) M/C Comprises two power full 3-bowl mangles followed by a heavy pattern clip
stentering M/C fitted with washing and caustic recovery arrangements and souring
and washing cisterns.

III) The mangles are of open type, enabling the bowls to be easily changed.

IV) Each mangle is arranged to provide either a single or double immersion in the
caustic liquor and two squeezes.
Process sequence:
I) The scoured and bleached cotton fabric is passed through a padding mangle
containing 55o-65o Tw the NaOH soln at 18oC for 2-3 min with tension.
II) Then padded fabric is squeezed with squeezing Roller.
III) Then fabric is washed with hot water at 70oC in proper tension.
IV) Then the fabric is washed with cold water in two times.
V) The washed fabric is washed with 1oTw H2SO4 for removing of the remain caustic
VI) Then the fabric is dried washing in cold water.

2. Chainless Fabric Mercerising M/C:

Feature / M/C description:

 No need of padding Mangle or chain(Stenter)
 Fabric is mercerised in tension.
 No arrangement of pressure or squeezing.
 Wetting agent is used in caustic soda solution.
 Tension pulleys are present due to variation of tension.
 For light fabric, 45-65 lb pressure is used and for coarse fabric 250 lb pressure is used.
Process sequence:
I) The fabric is entered in the bath of caustic soda soln with two down rollers.
II) Simultaneously, caustic soda is dropped on two lifted roller with two pipe. So that
the impregnation becomes properly.
III) The fabric advance 5 yds in contact with other rollers so that caustic soda can
penetrate perfectly in fabric.
IV) Then fabric is passed through pressure mangle and fabric advances of 8 yds, In this
time, fabric is mercerised and 40-60s time required.
V) Then fabric is washed with hot water at 70oC by some rollers by spraying or counter
consent process.
VI) Then fabric is washed properly with cold water.
VII) In this M/C 9-26 yds fabric is Mercerised.
VIII) Simultaneously two fabrics can be mercerised.

Grey Mercerisation:
If mercerisation of mt/(Yarn/fabric) is carried out in grey state i.e. without scouring and
bleaching after desizing it is called grey mercerisation.
In grey mercerisation, a large amount of impurities find their way in the mercerising liquor.
The causes for carrying out grey mercersiation are-
I) It is observed that a softer handle is obtained on goods which are mercerised in grey
state compared with mercerised after bleaching. So for obtaining softer handle
mercerisation is done.
II) If maxm tensile strength is to be maintained, it is saber to mercerise before bleaching
i.e. in grey state.
III) Only some chemicals are required for mercerising.
IV) The process is easy.

Efficiency of Mercerisation: The degree of or efficiency of mercerisation is assessed in terms of

moisture Regain and Barium Activity number (BAN).
The Barium Activity Number is expressed by
Weight of Ba(OH)2 absorbed by 2 gm mercerised sample
Weight of Ba(OH)2 absorbed by 2 gm unmercerised sample
b s
 100%

Where b = Titration reading for the blank.

s = Titration reading for the mercerised sample
u = Titration reading for the Unmercerised smaple

If mercerisation occurs, the BAN will be more than 100 (Usually this no is 116-130).
If BAN is less than 116, the degree of mercerisation is not acceptable and it will result in uneven
And if BAN is 127 or more it indicates that very high degree or mercerisation has been

Mercerisation of cotton:
Cotton fibre is a long chain polymer of glucose residue.
Two glucose units are considered to give the monomer of cotton. When cotton is treated with
caustic soda soln, soda soln, is formed which causes swelling of fibres.

The primary and secondary alcohols in the cellulose are acidic in nature. These hydroxy groups
form the basis for the high hydrogen bonding and orientation found in the fibres.
The hydroxy groups independently dissociate to the extent of alkali sorption. As a result there
is an osmotic pressure increases which causes water to enter the fibre until such time as the
osmotic pressure is in balance.
Chapter 3
After a grey fabric is subjected to scouring, bleaching, mercerizing etc. It is finally dried to retain
its true shape and dimensions. But in this state the fabric becomes least lustrous. Because, for
those operations the threads in fabric become wavy and crimped. But if a fabric is to appear
highly lustrous then its surface should be perfectly flat and fibres appeared on the surface
should be parallel to each other and all should lie in the length direction.
To fulfill this object cotton, linen, rayon, silk materials are applied a temporary physical finish
which is known as calendaring. In this process fabric is passed through a series of healed rollers
under pressure in open width form.

Objects of calendaring:
The main objects or purpose of calendaring process are mentioned below:-
1. To cause a closing together of the threads of the fabric by flattening them and thus
tending to fill up the interstices between warp and weft.
2. To produce a smooth, glossy and highly lustrous appearance on the surface of the cloth.
3. To reduce fabric thickness.
4. To reduce air permeability and water permeability of fabric by changing its porosity.

Essential elements of calendaring:

The following 3 elements should be controlled during calendering namely:
1. High pressure
2. High temperature
3. Suitable degree of dampness.
Besides these the number, composition & arrangements of pressure bowls and speed of running
cloth are also should be controlled carefully.
Now these elements are described below:
1. High pressure:
About 2-10 tonns of pressure should be applied on pressure bowl. This pressure can be
i) By compound lever and weight, (used in jute mills)
ii) By hydraulics,
iii) By pneumatic action, (mostly used in the industry)

2. High temperature:
Temperature is applied on metallic bowls. These bowls are generally hollow. They are
i) By steam (most common, most economical, conventional, mostly used in the
ii) By thermo oil (also conventional, but not popular as steam)
iii) By electricity (specialized used)
iv) By gas

3. Suitable dampness:
Suitable degree of dampness is created by passing fabric through brush or roller damping
machine. But now-a-days in calendaring machines, in the entry zone there remains a
damping zone which creates dampness on fabric.

4. Bowl arrangement:
In industrial calendaring machines, there are 2-11 no of bowls. But commonly the no. of
bowl is 3, 5 or 7. Sometimes in jute mills 9 or 11 bowl calendering machines are found.

5. Bowl material:
Bowls are made of cast iron and compressed materials like synthetic rubber, paper, cotton
etc. The compressed material is as hard as iron and. The metallic bowls has a polished
surface. Now-a-days synthetic rubber coated bowls are used.

6. Bowl placing:
Both closed or open frames may be used as supports for the bowls. In general the metallic
bowls are never placed in contact with each other. Between two metallic bowls a
compressed material coated bowl is placed. This is done to prevent shearing action.

To prepare the cloth for finishing operations, conditioning machine is useful in restoring the
moisture content of the goods before making up and hence improving the handle and
appearance. Damping can be done in 3 ways:-
1. By brush damping machine.
2. By spray damping machine.
3. By steam.

Brush damping machine:

Brush damping machine is described below:-
Working principle & construction:
i) There is a brush made of fibres, bristles and copper spikes in this machine.
ii) The brush revolves/rotates at high speed in contact with water in a trough.
iii) The cloth passes over usual tension rails, scrimp and guide rollers to the position
above the water trough.
iv) The water in spray form falls on the passing due to centrifugal force produced by
high speed of brush roller.
v) The fabric then passes round draw drawn over a pressing roller which forms a nip to
the batching apparatus or plating device.

Regulating points:
Some regulating points in brush damping machine are:-
i) Adjusting the level of water in the through by a over flow pipe.
ii) Adjusting the opening of the top of the box by using hinged lid. For heavy
fabric the lid should more open and for fine fabric less open.
iii) Adjusting the speed of brush roller.
iv) Adjusting the speed of fabric passing.

i) Machine construction is simple.
ii) Damping process is easy.
iii) Damping can be regulated (more/less damping) easily.
iv) Not require highly skilled labors.
i) Water droplet size is big, so damping may not be uniform.
ii) The machine requires more space.
iii) High labor cost.
iv) Over damping may occur if the m/c is not stopped frequently.
v) As the regulating systems are manual so it is not easy to operate uniformly.

Spray damping machine:

A spray damping machine is described below:
Working principle with construction:
i) The no of nozzles which are essential parts of this machine, varies according
to the width of machine.
ii) Nozzles are attached to a common feed pipe which supplies water under
iii) The feed pipe and nozzles are enclosed in a wooden box.
iv) An inclined disc is arranged in the front of the nozzle inside the box.
v) Due to high pressure, water discharges through the nozzle on the disc and
from there the fine droplets of water deposits on the cloth which passes over
the box at a suitable distance.

Regulating points:
i) Adjustable hinged lid is fixed inside the wooden box which permits the
amount of damping.
ii) The automatic device is provided to stop spraying immediately when the
m/c stops.
iii) Material speed is controlled.
i) Very fine droplet can be sprayed on the cloth.
ii) Uniform damping is possible.
iii) No risk of over damping in case of m/c stoppage.
iv) M/C construction is simple.
v) No need of skilled labor.

i) More floor space is required.
ii) More electricity is required to run the machine.
iii) More labor cost.

Damping by steam:
This is not a separate damping m/c. In this method fabric passed between two perforated steam
pipes which are placed in the entry zone of the calendaring m/c.

i) Regulating can be done by regulating valve.
ii) Process of damping is more uniform.
iii) Not require more space.
iv) Loss of electricity can be reduced.
v) Labor cost can be reduced.
vi) No risk of over damping.
vii) Less costly process.
viii) Quick process of damping.

Various types of calendaring finishes:

There are 4 processes of calendaring finishes namely,
1. Swizzing finish.
2. Chasting finish.
3. Friction calendaring.
4. Embossing calendaring.

1. Swizzing finish:
Swizzing finishes are obtained by passing suitably conditioned cloth through the nips of the
calendar. The features are mentioned below:
1. Generally, the calender consists of 5 bowls. Where metallic and compressed material
coated bowls are placed alternatively.
2. The surface speed of all the bowls are same. Again dia of all bowls are same.
3. The bowls are placed in strong iron frames.
4. The metal bowls are heated by gas or steam.
5. The metal bowls are geared together but compressed material coated bowls rotates in
surface contact of metallic bowls.
6. The cloth is taken from a batch and passed through a tension rail. Then the fabric is
passed from the bottom of the last bowl to the first nip of the calendar.
7. A smooth appearance is obtained according to number and composition of bowls.

i) Smooth fabric surface can be obtained.
ii) Very high glossy fabric is obtained.
iii) There is no risk of displacing of fabric.
iv) Remove wrinkles and creases from fabric.
v) Uniform calendering is obtained.

Friction calendaring:
Friction calendaring fives a higher gloss and greater closing of the yarns.
i) It is produced by bringing the cloth into contact with a heated, polished and chilled-
iron bowl.
ii) The bowl rotates at a higher/faster speed than the cloth itself.
iii) 3-bowls heavy friction calendars are suitable for friction calendaring effect.
iv) The bottom bowl is made of closed-grained cast iron, the middle bowl of cotton and
the top bowl of highly polished chilled iron.
v) The middle bowl is greater in diameter than the others to allow for wear.
vi) The surface speed of metallic top bowl is higher in 1.5-2 times than that of lower
bowls which is obtained by spur-wheel arrangement.
vii) The cloth is passed into the bottom hip and round the middle bowl which revolves
in same surface speed as the bottom bowl.
viii) The top bowl has higher surface speed which produces friction effect by polishing.

i) Produces more smooth, glossy and higher lustrous appearance of fabric
ii) Fabric thickness can be reduced.
iii) Suitable for the finishing of highly glazed linings, prints etc.
iv) Remove creases and wrinkles from fabric surface.

Chasting finish:
Chesting or chasing finishes are obtained with all the bowls running at the same surface speed.
The cloth is passed through the nips of the calender, over external rollers and back into the
bottom nip of the calender again. In this way the cloth may be passed through the calender
several times, one layer of the cloth over another in multiple fashion.
i) The chesting calendar is made of 5 bowls and is mainly used for linen
ii) A popular arrangement of the bowls, passing from bottom to top is cast iron,
cotton iron, heated iron, cotton and iron.
iii) The pressure on bowl is applied by long horizontal levers acting on top bowl
in addition to the weight of the bowls.

i) Chesting calendaring produce the effect of rounding the yarns to give a
‘thready’ or ‘linen’ appearance.
ii) Produce a soft handle fabric.
iii) Give a slight amount of water marking.
iv) Remove the wrinkles and creases of fabric.

Embossing calendering:
It is a special type of calendaring machine.
i) Embossing calendars are generally made of 2 or 3 bowls. These bowls are
ii) In a three-bowl machine the engraved metal bowl is generally mounted on a
steel mandrel which is placed between two cotton or paper bowls.
iii) The diameter of these compressed material bowls are about 3 times greater
than the metal bowl.
iv) Speed of all bowls are same.
v) The temperature of the bowls can be increased either by gas or by steam.
vi) Fabric passes under the compressed material bowl then over the metal bowl.
i) Crepes or ‘Pebble’ effect may produced.
ii) Temporary and permanent effect may produced by different setting of
pressure and heat.
iii) Due to smaller metallic bowl cost is less.
iv) Generally used for synthetic fabrics. It can not create any effect on cotton
Chapter 4
Raising is a permanent mechanical finishing process of lifting a layer of fibres from the body of
the fabric which stand out from the surface. Raising may be done either in wet stage (for
woolen) or dry stage (for cotton). For example,
i) Funnel fabric (woven raised fabric)
ii) Fleece fabric (knitted raised fabric)
Raising causes a ‘Lofty’ handle effect on fabric.

Objects of raising:
The objects of raising are mentioned below:
i) To obtain a lofty handle effect in fabric.
ii) To obtain fleecy appearance.
iii) To create pile or cover on fabric surface.
iv) To produce a heavier surface made of fibres.
v) It is used to develop some structural features.
vi) To produce warm cloth as well as a soft one.

Types of raising m/c:

There are two types of raising m/c. namely
1. Teasel raising machine.
2. Card wire raising machine.-
i) Single acting raising m/c
ii) Double acting raising m/c

Peach skin effect:

If we use emerzing roller in place of raising roller the effect produced is called peach skin effect.

Teasel raising machine:

i) Teasel are obtained from a species of thistle plant specially cultivated for the
ii) Some teasels are 2 inches long, but the average type is 1.5-1.75 inches in
length. King teasels are 4 inches long.
iii) The teases are prepared with steam or hot water and then set into frames or
iron slats as tightly as possible to form one or two rows.
iv) The slats or frames are placed on a drum which rotates and the fabric is
brought into careful contact with the teasel-filled slats.
v) Raising must take place very gradually and the fibres should be untangled
and lifted instead of being torn.
vi) The process is started with old teasels whose points have been worn and
softened. New and sharper teasels may be used later.
vii) The rotation of raising cylinder and fabric occur in same direction.
viii) But speed of rotation of cylinder is higher than that of fabric.
ix) Machines are also available with two cylinders and return mechanism where
by continuous raising both side of fabric can be raised.

i) Used for raising woolen fabric.
ii) Rising may be carried out both in dry and wet condition.
iii) Raising take place very gradually.
iv) A more spongy effect is produced.
v) Both side of fabric can raised at same time by using two-cylinder raising m/c.
vi) The teasel-raising gig imparts a brushing and polishing action- double acting
raising m/c.

i) Raising speed is slow.
ii) Raising action is mild.
iii) It is not an industrial machine.
iv) It is not found in our country.

Card wire raising machine:

Card wire raising machines are usually construct on the basis of a cylinder around which small
rollers, covered with wire filleting, are mounted. There are two main types of card wire raising
machines, namely-
i) Single acting raising machine
ii) Double acting raising machine.
24, 30 and 36 roller cylinders are commercially available. Generally 30 small rollers are mounted
around the big cylinder. A schematic diagram is shown below:-

Single acting raising machine:

i) In the single acting raising machine the pile or cover is raised in only one
direction as the wire covered rollers rotate in the opposite direction to that of
the cylinder.
ii) The fabric and roller speed direction are the same.
iii) But roller speed is higher than fabric speed.
iv) Its cylinder contains only one type of roller named pile roller. Here no
counter pile roller is found.
Double acting raising m/c:
i) The double acting raising machine has two sets of rollers named pile and
counter-pile roller.
ii) Two types of roller have opposite wire direction.
iii) The two types of roller rotate at same surface speed. But the cylinder rotates
in opposite direction to that of the rollers.
iv) Pile and counter pile rollers each have separate gear boxes so that the rotary
speed of pile rollers may be caused to differ from that of counter pile either
slightly or greatly as required.
Two types of rollers are alternatively arranged. 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 pile rollers may have
one counter pile rotates opposite to that of fabric moves over and press against them.

Fabric passing speed is less than roller speed.

i) Better effect is obtained due to the processing of counter roller.
ii) Less possibility of damage of fabric.
iii) Raising can be done both in dry or melt state.
iv) Peach skin effect may be produced by using emerzing roller.

Advantages of card raising machine:

The advantages of card wire raising machine over teasel raising machine are mentioned
1. The speed of wire raising machines varies from 12 to 15 yards per minute which
is 20% to 30% higher than that of teasel raising m/c.
2. Single acting machine is not used in our country but double acting m/c is widely
3. There is no possibility of damage to fabric.
4. Both types of raising of fabric may be done by card wire raising m/c in both dry
or wet state.
5. Both knitted and woven fabric may be raised by it.
6. Peach skin effect may be produced by using emerzing rollers.
7. By single acting m/c produced pile is laid like a fleece whereas in double acting
machine the produced pile is raised to stand erect.

Difference between Teasel & Card wire raising m/cs:

The differences between teasel and card wire raising m/c are mentioned in table below:
Teasel raising m/c Card wire raising m/c
1. Teasels are set on the frames or 1. The wire are set o small rollers
iron plates which are in turn which are in turn mounted
placed on a drum or cylinder. around large cylinder.
2. On the course of process the 2. The wires do not get damage.
teasels become blunt so they
require changing.
3. The raising action is some what 3. The raising action is severe.
4. Possibility of surface fibre 4. Possibility of fire breakage is
breakage is less. more.
5. The production is less. 5. The production is high.
6. Teasels are obtained from thistle 6. Wires are obtained from steel or
plants. iron.
Shearing is a necessity in most finishing operations and is also used in some mills to produce
clear, finished spun fibre fabrics. Most of napped fabrics (except napped sleepwear, print cloth,
flannel & some industrial fabrics) are sheared.

1. To clear out the random length fibres & produce a uniform & level pile.
2. To reduce the height of the wild fibres & prevent pilling.
3. To produce a certain band.
4. To improve the colour & appearance of the fabric.
5. To reduce sculptured effects.
Chapter 5 Sanforizing

Sanforizing is a controlled compressive shrinkage process, which is applied on woven fabric to
achieve shrinkage before making the garments. After sanforizing the residual shrinkage of
woven fabric may be zero. In sanforrizing process shrinkage is achieve by passing the cotton
fabric onto a movable elastic felt blanket is released it assumes a shortened conditional. Thus
the cotton fabric is forced to conform this compression.

Residual shrinkage:
Residual shrinkage is the latent shrinkage of a fibre, filament, yarn or fabric.
In woven fabrics, the yarns of warp and weft bend round one another of which warp yarns
bend round the weft yarn to a greater extent. When the cloth is wetted, the yarns increase in
diameter and if the crossing weft threads were to remain the same distance apart, as in the dry
state, then the warp would have to extend. Such extension would require force for its
accomplishment, just as with the fibres in a swollen yarn. But as there is no such force and the
cloth is under no constraint, the weft threads move closer together in order that the warp yarns
can remain in same length. The cotton therefore shrinks in the warp direction.
Alternatively, where the warp threads are straight, then the weft threads are crimped and the
fabric shrinks weft way.
Such shrinkage in woven fabrics, during wetting is simply termed as residual shrinkage.
In most fabrics warp yarns are finer than weft yarn and therefore bend easily. Again they are
closer together for good cover and are less able to bend the weft threads. So stable structure is
that which the warp crimp is high and weft crimp is low. The shrinkage amount is dependent
1. The nature of fibres.
2. The character of threads.
3. The way of interlacing of thread in the fabric.
4. Crimp in yarn.
5. Cycle of washing no. of washing.
Sanforizing process:
Sanforinzing is a mechanical finishing process of treating textile fabrics to prevent the
normal dimensional alternation of warp and weft.
Sanforizing process is based on the principle that when a elastic felt blanket is passed
around a metal roller in contact with it, its outer surface is express extended and the inner
surface contracted. If a cotton fabric is placed on the outer surface of eh felt blanket and allow to
move with it into the subsequently contracted surface of the blanket formed by moving
opposite curvature, the fabric is contracted by compression. So the process is called controlled
compressive shrinkage process.

The process can be carried out by palmer machine with a special attachment of metal shoe and
metal roller near the big drum and blanket. The shoe is heated by an electric current and tightly
pressed against the fabric. The shoe prevents the fabric slippage as it fed into the space between
the felt blanket and palmer cylinder with the same speed as the felt blanket. Since the blanket
moves around the small metal feed roller the top layer of the felt is stretched while the other
surface contacting the roller is compressed. When the fabric passes onto the big roller with a
small curvature the top layer of felt is compressed in the warp wise direction. Thus the fabric is
at first stretched and then is compressed. This makes the fabric sanforized. Residual shrinkage
of fabric is determined by thickness of blanket and diameter of feed roller. Feed roller dia is
generally 2 inch.
Main cylinder dia is generally 1.5-2.1 metre.
When felt thickness is 0.275″ it gives shrinkage of 3.5″ per yard and when felt thickness is 0.45″ it
gives shrinkage of up to 5.6″ per yard.
After sanforizing the fabric is washed by 1% soap and 0.5% soda at 36°C temperature for 30
Causes of shrinkage:
The major cause of fabric shrinkage is due to the swelling of threads on wetting. The thickened
warp yarns require more space to enable them to pass over and under the swollen weft yarns.
So they must adopt an undulating path and so the cloth shrinks.
The cotton materials are not completely shrunk on the first wash but continue to shrink in
further washes. So shrinkage seems to depend on the intensity of washing treatment.
Shrinkage also depends on amount of crimp in yarn and fineness of yarn.
Chapter 6
Resin Finishing
Synthetic resins are complex organic products of high molecular wt. Resin results when a
number of simple molecular of low molecular wt become joint together and to end to from
much longer molecules which may be linear or linear molecules cross-linked.
The main outlet of resins has been the plastic Industry and the electrical field, considerable
amounts has been used as paints and varnishes.

Resin finishing:
The process of applying resins on textile mtl. so that they cross link inside the amorphous
region, block the free hydroxyl groups, prevent the H-bond formation and thus improve resin

Resin may be applied on the surface of the mtl to from a coating or if may be applied to the
amorphous region of the mtl to import a crease resisting property.

Resin finishing is a permanent chemical finishing. The principle is based on the formation of in
finite networks and the quantitative characterization of network structure with cross linking of
homogeneous polymers.

Important/Advantages/Why resin finishing is applied on cotton:

i) Improved resistance and recovery to creasing is important by resin finish.
ii) Resin finish improves resilience, handle and draping properties of fabrics.
iii) Increase in weight is achieved.
iv) Increase the strength of rayon in both and cold state.
v) Decrease the extension of rayon with freedom from distortion.
vi) Resin finishing, dye fastness co be improved.
vii) By resin finish, dye fastness can be improved
viii) Resin finisher some times resists the degradation of textile mtl by light
ix) Resin finish gives com fort to wearer in different climates.
x) It imparts adequate resistance to wear and tear of fabrics.
xi) It provides full retention of all creases and pleats.
xii) Good soil repellency and easy removal of soil by washing can be achieved by resin

Cross-Linking agents:
Cross linking agents create chemical bonds betn polymer molecules to form a three
dimensional network e.g in a fibre or in a pigment birder. This generally restricts swelling in
inhibits solubility and alters elastic recovery. The most important cross linking agents are-
i) Urea formaldehyde.
ii) Tetramethylol acetylene diUrea (TMADU)
iii) Dimethylil ethylene Urea (DHEU)
iv) Dimethylol Dihydroxy ethylene Urea (DMDHEU)
The types of cross-linking agents to be used depends mainly on-
i) Demand placed on the resin finish goods.
ii) The composition and construction of the textile mtl.
iii) The process employed.

Urea-formaldehyde :
The reaction betn Urea and formaldehyde in neutral or alkaline medium results primarily in the
production of mono methylol urea or dimothylol Urea:



Mono-methyl Urea



Dimethyl Urea

This perondensate reacts with cellulose polymer as below:

O C + 2Cell-OH O C

This can be shown as below:-

At least, didmethyl urea forms three dimensional network at the amorphous region of cotton

Besides reacting with cellulose some side reactions as bellows-

i) Formation of methylol bridge:

ii) Formation of ether linkage:

Acid catalyst NHCH2OH


iii) Cyclization to form azomethylene rings:

The resinification of Urea formaldehyde has been separated in to two stages, first under neutral
or slightly alkaline conditions and later by heating under slightly condition.
The urea and formaldehyde may be employed in two ways-
i) Uncondensed reagent.
ii) A pre condensate

Formaldehyde to Urea=1.6 : 1 optimum result obtained

i) By boiling under a reflux condenser
ii) By allowing the mixture to real at room temperature.

Impregnation 120-180ºC

Drying120-103 ºC

Curing/Heating120 ºC -150 ºC

 Lower lost
 Higher efficiency
 Recommended only for colour finished goods.

 Strength loss occurs
 Abrasion resistance decrease.
 Handle of fabric becomes shift and harsh.
 The finished mtl can not be bleached by chlorines

General Recipe for resin finishing of cellusic mtl:

Cross-linking agent 100-120gm/L
Magnesium Chloride or other recommended catalyst 100-120 g/l
PH(Maintained by CH3COOH) 4.5-5
Drying Temp 100ºC
Curing Temp 130ºC -170ºC
Curing Time 2-4 minutes.

Dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene Urea (DMDHEU)

DMEU reduces the light fastness of reactive dyed textile mtls. To overcome this problem
BASF introduces DMDHEU. Its commercial name is Fixapret CP.
It differs from DMEU only in the presence of the hydroxyl groups in position 4 and 5 of the
five membered rings.
It is produced by reacting with Urea and glyoxal and then formaldehyde is added.
Acid catalyst
O C + O C

Dihydroxy ethylene Urea






Advantage :
i) Gives very good crease recovery effects on cotton, Rayon & bleached fabrics.
ii) The disability is of very high order
iii) It does not reduce the light fastness of reactive dyed textile mtls.
iv) Can be used in all casing process.
v) Exhibits no chlorine retention.

Dimethylol Ethylene Urea: (DMEU)

Urea and ethylene diamine mixture is heated to about 200ºC -300ºC reaction takes place and
formaldehyde is added which produce diethylol ethylene Urea (DMEU)
NH2 Heating (2000-3000C) HN CH2
O C + O C
NH2 CH2 -2NH3

Cyclic ethylene Urea





Dimetylol cyclic ethylene Urea (DMEU)

 4 to 5% DMEU can give crease recovery angle up to 280º
 No yellowing
 No chlorine absorption
 It is extremely good & effective and can be used in white fabrics.

 It reduces light fastness of reactive dyed fabric
 After finishing with this agent, wash treatment is required
 If erects problem if hypo chlorite bleach is used.

 Fabrics show a tendency of yellowing on wring.
 For the fabrics to be finished with DMDHEU, the treatment is very critical, especially
during bleaching special attention is to be given otherwise fabrics may be damaged.
Chapter 7
Flame Retardancy

Irreversible chemical decomposition due to non oxidative heating combustion. Salt catalyzed
exothermic reaction involving fuel and oxidizer.

Combusion process in the gas phase accompanied by emission of visible light.

Tendency of a mtl to burn with a fame under specified test conditions.

To char:
To form a carbonaceous residue during pyrolisis or combustion.

Flame propagation:
Spread of flame from region to region in a combustiable material.

Flame resistance:
Property in a material of exhibiting reduced flammability.

Flame retardant:
Chemical compound capable of imparting flame resistance to (reducing the flammability) of a
material to which it is added.

Flame retardency:
Chemical process or treatment where by improved flame resistance is imparted to a material.

Flame proof:
A flame proof is one which does not propagate flame i.e. any flame goes out quickly when the
igniting flame is withdrawn.

Necessity of flame retardency:

i. Protective clothing
ii. Domestic (upholstery)- window curtaining, sofa covering etc.
iii. Uniform (civil & military)
Properties of an ideal flame retardant chemical:
i. Fast to washing or dry cleaning
ii. Highly effective
iii. Neutral or little alkaline
iv. Maximum effect on fabric handle and strength
v. Process should be simple and easy
vi. Should posses least environmental hazard during processing
vii. Low cost
viii. Compatible with other finishes
ix. No effect on dye-shade or fastness of dye
x. Non toxic
xi. Resistant to chlorine bleach

Burning cycle of a polymeric material:

The burning or combustion of a polymeric material is a complex phenomenon that heating,
decomposition, ignition and flame propagation.


Fibre polymer Oxidation product

Transfer of heat

Endothermic Exothermic

Relatively low
molecular wt
Step-1 Condensed air pyrolisis product Step-2 Vapour phase
Solid phase (oxidation)
Volatile pyrolysis
product is produced
Step-1: This step is endothermic. The polymeric material under the influence of externally
applied heat undergoes thermal decomposition and becomes relatively low molecular weight
pyrolisis product.

Step-2: After paralysis, if the temp is equal to or greater than that required for oxidation, the
paralyzed product is oxidized and forms oxidation product, CO2 and H2O. This step is

Step-3: The flame provides a part of its heat for the continued paralysis of the substrate. The
roast part or that heat is dissipated and is lest in environment.

Combusion of cellulose :


Short cellulose(DP  500)

Simutaneously unzipping of
Severed monomer units
40% not burn
60% burn

Epoxide Char forming mtl

Levoglucosan 18%
Secondary char
pyrolysis product
Final Char H2O

Tertiary pyrolin

Volatile pyrolysis

Commonly available flame retardant finishes:

1. For cotton
Type Durability Structure/Formula
a. Ammonium Non or semi durable

b. Diammonium Non durable (NH4)2HPO4

Cellulose reactive Durable to more than 50 O
methylated launderings (CH3-O)2 P CH2CH2CON
phosphonamides CH2OH

e.g. Pyrovatex CP(ciba)

Antiblaze TER1
Polymeric tetrakis Durable to more than 50 THPC-Urea-NH3
(hydroxyl methyl) launderings condensate
phosphonium salt e.g. Proban CC(Alright &
condensates Wilson)
Aflammit P (Thor)
Back coatings:
Chlorinated paraffin Semi-durable CnH(2n+2) CIm
waxes e.g. Flaeavon FK
Antimony/Halogen Semi to fully durable Sb2O3(or Sb2O5) +
(aliphatic or Aromatic Decabromo diphenyloxide
bromine containing Or, Hexabromocycle
species) dodacane + Acrylic resin
e.g. Myflam (Mydrin)
Flacavon F12

2. For polyester: O

Phosphinic acid HO O Y COOH

X X = H or alkyl
(comonomer) Y = Alkylene

3. Wool:

Antiblaze FSD (Rhodia) Ammonium poly phosphate

(Dry cleaning)
Ammonium bromide

Ammonium salt of
Antiblaze RDI phosphoric Acid

Classification of flame retardant:

3 types of flame retardant process-
i. Temporary finishes/Non durable finishes
ii. Semi-durable finishes
iii. Durable flame retardant finish.

i. Temporary flame retardant:

 Generally water soluble inorganic salts that are easily removed by water, rain and
 Provide only temporary protection and there fore periodic processing becomes
necessary to maintain the flame retardant effect.
 The application process is simple and consisting of immersing the fabric in a
solution of a suitable chemical, wringing out and then drying
 Popular for fabric use which do nor require washing and bleaching

Example: Mixture of Borax and Boric acid in the ratio of 7:3 with a small amount of water for
padding the fabric. The mixture is applied on the fabric of about 6-7% on the weight of fabric.

ii. Semi-durable flame retardant:

 Have intermediate durability
 Generally insoluble salts which, when precipitated on the fabrics, do not let the
fabric to be decomposed in flame
 Used for those material which do not laundered many times such as- carpets and
 Durable to cold soap wash
 Not durable to hot alkaline wash and dry cleaning
Example: Chlorinated paraffin waxes.
iii. Durable flame retardant:
The international Fabric Institute has defined flame retardant finishes as –
“Chemical held on the fabric or in the fibres. These finishes must last the entire useful life of
the fabric and are not romoved in cleaning procedures.”
Example- Phosphorus bromine polymer, pyrovatex C.P., Proban etc.

Example_1Pyrovatex CP:
Pyrovatex is a trade product of CIBA, USA. and the chemical name of Pyrovatex is N-methylol
dialkyl phonopropionamide.
Pyrovatex CP → 35 parts
Resin (Melamune formaldehyde
or Hexamethylol melamine) → 8 parts
Weting agent → 0.1 parts
Catalyst(phosphoric acid) → 2 parts
Water → 54.9 parts
100 parts
Application process:

Padding (40°C, 75-80% pick up)

Drying at 102°C×3′

Curling at 150°C×2′

Washing with soda solution (1-2 g/L)

 Low toxicity
 Good fabric handle
 Durable with repeated alkaline laundering

Example_2: Proban:
 Proban is phosphorous and nitrogen containing flame retardant that shows P-
N synergism
 The chemical name of proban is Tetrakis Hydroxy Methyl Phosphonium
Chloride (THPC)
 It is invented by Albright Wilson
 It is the most successful phosphorus compound for durable flame retardant on

THPC → 16 parts
Trimethylol melamine → 10 parts
Urea → 10 parts
Triethanol amine → 3 parts
Wetting agent → 1 parts
Water → 60 parts
Total → 100 parts
Application process:

Padding (2 dip, 2 nip, 40°C, 70% pick up)


Curling at 160°C×2′
Softener may be used in the pad liquor to improve the handle of fabric.

 Most popular and best quality finishing agent
 Very good durability
 Low strength loss
 Increase of
i. Crease resistance
ii. Rot resistance
iii. Mildew resistance

Flame retardant strategies:


Heat + Light (a)

CO, CO2, H2O

Flammable gases
Liquid condensates
Pyrolysis Non-flammable gases
Char (c)

Fig: Combusioin as a feedback mechanism with flame retardant actions.
In the fig: Presents the combustion of any textile material as a feed back mechanism in which
fuel (from thermally degraded or pyrolysed fibres), heat (from ignition and combustion) and
oxygen (from the air) feature as the main components. In order to interrupt the mechanism, five
modes (a)-(e) are proposed.
Each stage with a relevant flame retardant action is listed below:
(a.) Removal of heat: High heat of fusion and/ or degradation
and/or dehydration.
(b.) Enhancement of decomposition Not usually exploited by flame retardants;
temperature: more usually in inherently flame and heat
resistant fibres (e.g. aramid)
(c.) Decreased formation of Most phosphorus-and nitrogen-containing
flammable volatiles, increase in flame retardants in cellulose and wool;
char: heavy metlal complexes in wool.
(d.) Reduced access to oxygen or Hydrated and some char-promoting
flame dilution: retardants release water; halogen-containg
retardants release hydrogen halide.
(e.) Interference with flame Halogen-containing flame retardants,
chemistry and/or increase fuel often in combination with antimony
ignition temp (TC): oxides.
Methods of flame retardency:

Pad Dry


(II) Dry Heat Wash Dry

cure off
Fabric (open width)
Dry Chemical Fix/ Dry
(III) Cure Wash off


Back-coat Dry/Cure

Fog: Summary of finishing and coating techniques.

Fig. attempts to present an overall summary of four basic processes shown schematically and as
they would be used on open-width textile fabrics. Each process (I)-(IV), relates to finish type as
Process (I): This simple pad/dry technique is applicable with most non-durable and water-
soluble finishes such as the ammonium phosphates.
Process (II): This sequence is typical of those used to apply crease resistant and other heat
curable finishes.
Chapter 8
Water repellency
Water proof:
The term ‘water proof’ involves filling the pores in the fabric with a substance impermeable to
water and usually to air as well.
The well known products are rubber latex, chlorinated rubber, linseed oil etc. It is applied on
the fabric surface as an uniform coating, the interstitches between the warp and weft yarns are
blocked, thus make it completely, not only impervious to water i.e. water proof but also air
proof, therefore the movement of air through the fabric is prevented and the wearer feels
uncomfort and uneasy.
Example- Rain coat.

Water repellent fabric: finish:

Water repellency is a character of textile material by which it prevents the spreading of a
globule of water on its surface.
Water repellency can be defined as the ability of the fabric to withstand wetting or penetration
by water under test conditions. Water repellent fabrics have open pores and are permeable to
water vapour and air. The fabrics permit passage of water when hydrostatic pressure is
sufficiently high. Interstitches between warp and weft are unaltered or little affected in water
repellent fabrics. So, water repellent finishes can be applied on textile materials for apperal use.
Water repellent finishes are produced by the use of metallic soaps like Al-stearate.
Two properties to be considered in water repellent fabrics: (i) Water shading properties (ii) The
resistance to penetration by liquid water under pressure.

Difference between water proof & water repellent fabrics:

Water proof Water repellent fabrics

Pores in the fabric are filled. Pores are open
Not water vapour permeability to very Permeability is small to large
Air permeability – None to small Usually large
Highly resistance to water penetration Resistance to wetting by rain drops and
even under hydrostatic pressure spread of water but permits water under
hydrostatic head.
Fabrics are stiff, not pliable Fabrics are pliable and are not form
different untreated fabrics
Permanent finish Durable and renewable finish.
Shower proof: To treat textile materials in a manner to delay the absorption and penetration of
water. The fabrics retain a degree of permeability to air.

Types of water repellent finish: Two types of water repellent finishes:-

i) Durable water repellent finishes
ii) Non durable water repellent finishes
i) Durable repellent finish: Durable water repellent finishes are fast to repeated washing and
dry cleaning.
Example: Steatoxy-methyl pyridium chloride, emulsions containing stearate methylated
methylol melamine etc.
They are applied by pad dry or cure technique in the presence of a catalyst. During curing
step, they decomposes and form a highly hydrophobic residue on the fabric.
ii) Non-durable repellent finish: Non-durable water repellent finishes can not
withstand against repeated washing. They do not have any affinity for the fibres and they
also do not react chemically with the fibre substance. They just simply stay on fabric
surface. As they are not permanent i.e. do not give durable effect, they are rarely used on
textile materials.

Names of different water repellent finishes:

i) Alluminium salts (Al-acetate mainly)
ii) Aluminium salts/ wax combination
a. Zirconium salt/wax combination.
b. Zirconium salt/wax combination with resin finish.
iv) Pyridinum salts
v) Silicons
vi) Fluoro chemicals

Pyridium compounds: water repellent finishing process by pyridium com:

A durable water repellent finish may be obtained by using a pyridinium salt. Two commercial
water repellent are-
Velcan PF – ICI
Cerol WB – Sandoz

60 gm Velden PF are pested with
60 gm Ethanol &
250 ml water at 40°C
20 gm Sodium Acetate Crystals are dissolved in
250 ml water at 40°C and added to the Veldon PF disporssion
The total liquor is finally diluted to 1000ml total volume with water at 40°C.

Application process:

Padding at 40°C with 70% pick up

Drying in a stenter at 100°C

Curling at 150°×3′

Washing in a solution containing
2 g/L soap and 2 g/L soda ash at 50°C

Rinsing with cold water


Water repellent finish by silicon base reactant:

 Silicons are relatively new class of durable water repellents
 Nows days silicion water repellents are widely used and very popular
 Properties of silicon-
 Soluble in orgarnic solvents
 Highly stability and chemical intertness
 Relatively low flammability
 Non toxic

Polysiloxan: The silicon polymers, used as water repellents have the following chemical
These polymers are named as polysiloxanes.
3 types of polysiloxanes namely-
a. Dimethyl polysiloxane
b. Metyl hydrogen polysiloxanes
c. Hydrogen polysiloxanes.

a. Dimethyl polysioxanes: Dimetyl polysiloxanes are slow in reaction and consequently are
relatively unaffected by storage. They give moderate water repellency and high durability.
The chemical structure-
b. Methyl hydrogen polysiloxane: Methyl hydrogen polysilxane occupies a position between
the hydrogen polysiloxanes and dimethyl polysiloxane. They can impart high water
repellency, increased flex abrasion resistance. The chemical structure:-

c. Hydrogen polysiloxanes:
 Highly reactive
 Are not stable during storage
 The water repellent effect obtained with hydrogen polysiloxanes is good
 Low fastness to wash
 Rarely used polysiloxane
Structure formula-

Polysiloxane finishing agent named Silicon emulsion H478 is the 60% emulsion
of methyl hydrogen polysiloxane and produced by ICI. It gives very good
synergism result.

Silicon M478 → 50 parts
Urea formaldehyde precondensate (45%) → 150 parts
Zirconium oxychloride → 10 parts
Acetic acid (glacial) → 3 parts
Sodium acetate → 6 parts
Water → 774 parts

Application process:
Padding (at 40-60°C, pick up 70-80%)

Drying (at 100°C)

Curling (at 120°-150°C×2-3′)

No afterwash is required

I) (SAMPC) Stearomide-methylol phyridinium chloride reacts with cellulose.



II) Persistor VS is a long chain isocyanate which is proven as water repellent