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# 1.

0 INTRODUCTION

## Buckling is a mathematical instability that leads to a failure mode. When a

structure is subjected to compressive stress, buckling may occur. Buckling is usually
associated with columns so, columns can buckle in different ways and this is
mainly dependant on the method of fixing the ends of the column. There are
four common types being pinned ends, fixed ends, pinned-fixed end and
fixed-fixed end.

This experiment to investigate critical buckling loads for steel strut with three
type of fixing the end of the column. This experiment also will test the Euler’s theory
buckling.

 2 EI
Pcr 
(KL) 2

Where; Pcr = critical or maximum load on the column/strut just before it begins to
buckle. This load must not cause the stress in the column/strut to exceed
the proportional limit
E = modulus of elasticity for the material (Young’s Modulus)
I = moment of Inertia
L = length of column/strut

## 1.2 Goal and objective

1. To investigate the influence of multiple column lengths and end restraints (support

2. To derive the Euler buckling factor by accounting few columns length and end
restraint conditions.
1.3 Laboratory scope

## 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

3.0 METHODOLOGY

Part 1

1. Fit the bottom chuck to the machine and remove the top chuck (to give the pinned
ends) select the strut, number 1 and measured the cross section using the venire
provided and calculated the second area.

2. Adjust the position of the sliding crosshead to accept the strut using the thumbtack
to lock off the slider. Ensure that there is the maximum amount of travel available on
the hand wheel threat to compress the strut. Finally tighten the locking screw.

3. Carefully back-off the handwheel so that the strut is resting in the notch but not
transmitting any load. Re zero the force meter using the front panel control.

4. Carefully start to load the strut. If the strut begin to buckle to the left, flick the strut
to the right and vice versa (this reduces any error associated with the straightness of
and then drop as it settles in the notches).

Part 2

1. To study the effect of end conditions, follow the same basic procedures as in part 1,
but this time remove the bottom chuck and clamp the specimen usin the cap head
screw and plate to make a pinned-fixed end condition.

1
2. Record your result in table and calculate the values of for the struts.
L2

3. Fit the top chuck with the two cap head screws and clamp both ends of the
1
specimen to make a pinned end condition. Calculate the new value of .
L2
4. Insert all the data obtained in Table 1, 2, 3 and 4.
4.0 RESULTS, DATA ANALYSIS & DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Results

(N) (N)
Experiment Theory
1 0.32 7602.76
2 0.37 5686.80
3 0.42 4413.39

## Table 1 (Pinned ends condition)

(N) (N)
Experiment Theory
1 0.32 30411.03 9.77
2 0.37 22747.18 7.30
3 0.42 17653.57 5.67

## Table 2 (Fixed ends condition)

(N) (N)
Experiment Theory
1 0.32 15515.83 9.77
2 0.37 11605.70 7.30
3 0.42 9006.92 5.67

## Table 3 (Pinned and fixed ends condition)

(N) (N)
Experiment Theory
1 0.32 1900.69 9.77
2 0.37 1421.70 7.30
3 0.42 1103.35 5.67

## Table 4 (Free and fixed ends condition)

4.2 Data Analysis

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

##  2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3

 
(1.0  0.32) 2 12

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

##  2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3

 
(0.5  0.32) 2 12

##  30411.03N  1.1432 10 9 m 4

3. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Pinned and fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

##  2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3

 
(0.7  0.32) 2 12

##  15515.83N  1.1432 10 9 m 4

4. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Free and fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12
 2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3
 
(0.7  0.32) 2 12

##  15515.83N  1.1432 10 9 m 4

Length of strut = 0.37m, E=69×109 Nm

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

##  2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3

 
(1.0  0.37) 2 12

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

##  2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3

 
(0.5  0.37) 2 12

##  22747.18N  1.1432 10 9 m 4

3. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Pinned and fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

##  2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3

 
(0.7  0.37) 2 12

##  11605.70N  1.1432 10 9 m 4

4. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Free and fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12
 2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3
 
(0.7  0.37) 2 12

##  1421.70N  1.1432 10 9 m 4

Length of strut = 0.42m, E=69×109 Nm

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

##  2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3

 
(1.0  0.42) 2 12

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

##  2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3

 
(0.5  0.42) 2 12

##  17653.57 N  1.1432 10 9 m 4

3. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Pinned and fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12

##  2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3

 
(0.7  0.42) 2 12

##  9006.92N  1.1432 10 9 m 4

4. Calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory (Free and fixed ends condition)

 2 EI bd 3
Pcr  I
(KL) 2 12
 2 (69 109 )(1.1432 109 ) (0.002)(0.019)3
 
(0.7  0.42) 2 12

4.2 Discussions

5.0 CONCLUSION

6.0 REFERENCES