Sunteți pe pagina 1din 29



A Research Paper

Presented to the SHS English Department

Notre Dame of Greater Manila

Grace Park, Caloocan City

In Partial Fulfilment of the Subject Requirements

In Research


De Ocampo, Regiena S.

Regala, Tricis Nikka Chine

Santos, Maria Carren M.

12 - St. Dominic Savio



A. Introduction

Advertising plays an important role in every business. It has become a form of

communication which is intended to be used as a tool in encouraging an audience to make a

purchase decision about a specific product or service. It is considered as an essential element for

the economic growth of marketers as well as businesses (Ryans, 1996). Advertising is usually

referred to as the form of promotion or exposure being conveyed through different media such as

newspapers, magazines, radio advertisements, television commercials and etc. In today’s era

where technology improved the lifestyle of people, technology also enabled advertising to be

delivered through the use of modern media such as blogs, websites, etc. (Ahmed & Ashfaq, 2013).

Marketers are always adapting to the ever-changing business demands in terms of creating

new advertisements. Nowadays, almost all businesses are leaning towards digital advertising. With

the growing number of people using different social media, various businesses have decided to use

these social media as a platform for promoting their products or services. Almost every huge local

and multinational companies are practicing digital marketing in full swing (Haider & Shakib,


The major objective of advertisements is to influence its target consumers’ buying

behavior. Advertisements are used by different marketers as a form of marketing strategy that

creates brand awareness. It is evident that nowadays, consumers only buy products which are

familiar to them. Usually, they do not have enough time to do a background research about a

certain brand, thus, they only get products from the brands which they knew or heard of. This gives
marketers an idea to promote their products in a way in which it will create a long-lasting

impression to their target consumers that will encourage them to buy the said products.

In this study, the researchers introduced various variables and attempted to analyze their

impact on consumer buying behavior. This study aims to determine what variable primarily

influences the purchase decision of the consumers and what variable is the least significant in terms

of impact on consumer buying behavior. Not only will this study offer beneficial insights for

marketers, it will also help them see the factors affecting consumer buying behavior which they

can manipulate in order to achieve the maximum benefits they can get from their advertisements.
B. Background of the Study

According to an article made by the Business World, the cosmetics and toiletries industry

(C&T) in the Asia Pacific Region continues to flourish with an annual growth rate of 6.3%. The

sales of the said industry mostly come from Indonesia and Philippines. This data provided by

analytics shows the increasing number of Filipinos who buy cosmetic products in order to keep up

with the trends both in fashion and in beauty. In today’s era where people’s concern is centered in

their outward appearance, it is evident that numerous people, especially women, are in search for

products which will help them meet the ideal beauty standard. Nowadays, it is not surprising to

see a growing number of teenagers trying on different cosmetic products to make them look mature

whereas middle-aged women are looking for cosmetic products which will make them look young

and still beautiful to the eyes of the society. Society’s standard of beauty influences people’s belief

about themselves. As a result, the desire to look good and be acceptable in the society highly

encourages people to buy cosmetic products.

In line with this pursuit, different brands are bombarding their consumers with various

cosmetic products advertisements on a daily basis. Numerous brand advertisements are seen in

every corner, promoting cosmetic products which are said to enhance one’s beauty in a blink of an

eye. These advertisements not only act as a primary source of information about the cosmetic

product it promotes, but it also motivates the target consumers to purchase the said product.

This study aims to focus on the impact of advertisements on consumer buying behavior.

Consumer buying behavior is typically affected by various factors which include brand image,

lifestyle, purchasing power, culture, consumer opinion and brand awareness. Advertisements assist

the company to generate brand awareness in their target customers, thus shaping the perception of

the consumers about a particular brand and its products either in the positive or in a negative way.
People can assess the quality of the products a certain brand offers by gathering information which

are commonly delivered through advertisements. These factors affect the consumer buying

decision. This study seeks to evaluate these factors that influence the consumer buying behavior.

This study aims to provide useful insights about the role of advertisements in shaping consumer

buying behavior.
C. Statement of the Problem

The interference of consumer behavior by the adverse advertisement’s has been on the rise

in the last decade. This brought the changing tides in the levels of consumer and product relations

like making others develop a diverse habit of being addicted to advertisement campaigns.

Because of this, companies allot a huge amount of money for their advertisements so that

they can remain competitive in their industry. It is proven that advertisements are useful, but

companies still wonder about the impact of advertisement to the consumer buying behavior or how

advertisements help change the consumer buying behavior.

This study aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the impact of advertisements on consumer buying behavior?

2. How do advertisements create brand awareness?

3. Does consumer awareness and perceptions buying behavior?

D. Theoretical Framework

Consumer behavior refers to the actions or attitudes of the consumers in the marketplace,

how they make decisions on whether they’ll buy or not and what brand of product they’ll purchase.

According to Smith and Swinyard (1983), attitude as cited in Ghulan, Javana Burhan, Ahmed

(2017) is acquired behavior disposition. Adhelaar et al (2003) suggested that behavior is a result

of emotional response which appears when consumers watch an advertisement about the brand

and then eventually willing to pursue it as argued by Goldsmith and Lafferty (2002).
E. Assumptions and Hypotheses

Three hypotheses have been developed in this research study.

H : Advertisement has no impact to consumers’ buying behavior


H : Advertisement has an impact to consumers’ buying behavior


H : There is no relationship between advertisement and consumers’ buying behavior


H : There is relationship between advertisement and consumers’ buying behavior


H : Consumer awareness and consumer perception have no impact on consumers’ buying



H : Consumer awareness and consumer perception have impact on consumers’ buying


F. Significance of the Study

This research focuses on the impact of advertisements on consumer buying behavior. It

enumerates and analyzes the variables present in various cosmetic products’ advertisements which

primarily influence the buying behavior of the consumers.

With this, the study results of the study will be of great benefit to the following:

Marketing Managers & Executives. The results of the study will help marketers to focus on

improving the aspects of their advertisements, which affects the buying patterns of their

consumers, in order to achieve profit maximization.

Advertising Team. The results of the study will help the advertising team come up with useful

insights which will assist the marketing manager in creating/ improving promotional strategies.

Consumers. The results of the study will help the consumers analyze their buying patterns,

especially the factors which affect their behavior towards a certain brand. This study will help

them reflect on whether their buying patterns depend on how a certain brand appeal to them

through the use of advertisements.

G. Scope and Delimitations of the Study

Scope of the Study

The main focus of this research is the impact of advertisement to consumers’ buying

behavior on cosmetics products. The conscious drawn from the study are based on the responses

given by the consumers in a specific area. The researchers aim to focus on the buying behavior of

the young adults who are using any form of cosmetics. This study will be helpful in getting an

insight into the perception of consumers on advertisements and its impact on changing the buying

behaviors of consumers. The study covers a time from 2018 to 2019.

Delimitations of the Study

This research will not study the buying behaviors of the consumers that has an age beyond

18-35. The researchers will not tackle other types of industry other than the cosmetic industry.
H. Definition of Terms

Consumer Buying Behavior

Consumer buying behavior refers to the methods involved when individuals or groups

choose, buy, utilize or dispose of products, services, concepts or experiences to suit their needs

and desires (Solomon, 1995).


Advertisement is defined as a paid notice that tells people about a product or service. A

picture, short film, song, etc. that tries to persuade people to buy a product or service. (Cambridge



Advertising is a process activity or program necessarily to prepare message get it to the

intended market. (ProjectClue, 2019)


Cosmetics is defined as articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on,

introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body...for cleansing, beautifying, promoting

attractiveness, or altering the appearance. (The Federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act, 2017)


Influence is the effect that somebody or something has on somebody or something.

(ProjectClue, 2019)

Media is the main ways that a large number of people generates information or get

entertained. (ProjectClue, 2019)


Consumers are the people who buy goods and use it for services. (ProjectClue, 2019)


Product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, and

consumption or use that might satisfy a need or want. (ProjectClue, 2019)


Services is any act of performance that can be offered to another that is essentially

intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. (ProjectClue, 2019)


Familiarity is defined as the number of product-related or service-related experiences that

have been gathered by the consumer. These related experiences include direct and indirect

experiences such as exposure to advertisements, interactions with salespersons, word of mouth

contact, trial and consumption. (Alba & Hutchison, 1987)



A. Conceptual

As defined by Bovee, &Arens (1992), advertising is the non-personal

communication of information, usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods and

services) or ideas by identified sponsors through various media. Advertising is directed to

groups of people, rather than to individuals, and is therefore non-personal. Most advertising

is intended to be persuasive – to win converts to a good, service, or idea.

According to Miranda (1991), advertising, as used by business, involves a variety

of media, audiences, and purposes. These media include television and radio “message,”

displays in newspapers and magazines, in show windows and store counters, direct mail

circulars, billboard posters, electric signs, sky writings, catalogs and others.

Advertising reaches us through various channels of communication called media in

addition to the traditional mass media – radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and

billboards – advertising also uses direct mail, shopping carts, blimps and videocassettes.

(Bovee&Arens, 1992)

The role of advertising is contained in the word AIDA which means to attract

attention, to create interest, to stimulate desire, and to induce action. (Miranda, 1991)

According to Rodgers & Thorson (2012, p. 4), advertising is a subcategory of

marketing. Marketing refers to everything done to promote a brand, e.g., creating the
product, pricing it, placing it where it can be bought, and promoting it, i.e., the “4 Ps,”

including product, price, place, promotion. Advertising falls under the fourth “P,

promotion.” Advertising may occur in different mass media like television, radio,

newspapers, magazines, and internet which were paid to carry message to audiences.

Bovee, C. L., &Arens, W.F. (1992, p.132), defined consumer behavior as the

activities, actions, and influences of people who purchase and use goods and services to

satisfy their personal or household needs and wants. The primary mission of advertising is

to reach prospective customers like Joe Shields to influence their awareness, attitudes and

buying behavior.

According to Euromonitor International, among different countries in Asia,

Philippines is one of the fastest-growing countries having real GDP that is set to increase

by 6.3% annually. The developing economy of the Philippines helps to drive demand for

beauty and personal care. With the increasing number of influencers and also the growing

influence of social media, beauty and personal care industry in the Philippines is

continuously developing over the years. Being exposed to different social media platforms,

consumers may follow and interact with various beauty and personal care content such as

online makeup tutorials and the likes. The growing number of people being exposed to the

beauty and personal care industry through various social media platforms helped numerous

brands under the mentioned industry to build brand awareness and interest in beauty and

personal care products, especially cosmetics. Among these people are the younger

consumers, especially Filipinos in their early 20s, who are the largest users of the popular

social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagra, making them the usual

target market of different cosmetic brands.

According to the Mintel Blog, the Philippine’s beauty industry holds a huge growth

potential, and that is because of the growing number of middle class consumers and

improved logistics. Being exposed to the Korean wave, Korean beauty influenced various

local brands among the Philippines’ cosmetic industry to take inspirations from Korean

beauty products. For example, locally manufactured lip products are now incorporating K-

beauty trends with the latest product innovations focusing on lip tint, lip oils and 2-in-1 lip

and cheek tints. These beauty brands offer the said products at competitive prices, catering

to the lower income Filipino consumers. On the other hand, premium local brands try to

attract brand-conscious consumers with the vision of not having to pay more for imported

brands. It is also notable to mention that as the consumers around the world are being

conscious and knowledgeable about beauty products and ingredients, Philippines or the

country of origin is no longer a hindrance for local beauty brands in taking their brand

outside the country. This gives them the potential to go beyond Philippines, promoting

their brand and their beauty products.

B. Research

Impact of Advertisement

A study based on a survey of 315 randomly selected consumers of food drinks in

Lagos, Ibadan and Ile-Ife, cities in Southwestern Nigeria, which examined the role played

by advertising in influencing consumers preference for Bournvita, which is one of the

leading food drinks in the Food and Beverage industry in Nigeria, have revealed that both

male and female and different age groups were equally influenced by advertising in their

preference for the brand. It is said that advertising is needed for companies that want to not

only retain their market but take positive steps to increase their market share as it is clearly

shown in the results that captivating advertising influence consumer preferences

(Ayanwale, Alimi, &Ayanbimipe, 2017, pp 9-16)

Major Classes of Consumer Behavior & Determinants

Suabdra S, Murugesan K M & Ganapathi r (2010) studied “Consumer Perceptions

& Behavior” and concluded that consumer behavior consists of all human behavior that

goes in making purchase decisions. An understanding of the consumer behavior enables a

marketer to take marketing decisions which are compatible with its consumer needs. These

are four major classes of consumer behavior determinants & expectations, namely, cultural,

socioeconomic, personal & psychological. The socioeconomic determinants of consumer

behavior consist of age, marital status, occupation, education, income, family size, etc.
Consumer Behavior Theories

According to Ohio University (2019), there are four consumer behavior theories

every marketer should know namely, theory of reasoned action, Engel, Kollet, Black Well

(EKB) model, motivation-need theory, and Hawkins Stern Impulse buying. The core of the

theory of reasoned action posits that consumer act on behavior based on their intention to

create or receive a particular outcome. The next theory of Hawkins Stern on impulse

buying, suggests that sudden buying impulses fit alongside rational purchasing decisions

to point a complete picture of the average consumer. The EKB model explains that the first

step, input, is where consumers absorb most of the marketing materials they see on

television, newspapers or online. The last theory, motivation-need theory, suggests that

people act to fulfill their needs based on a five-part priority system.

Attitudes Toward Cosmetic Products

The research of Iryna Pentina, David Taylor, and Troy Voelker focused on how

advertising and society creates unrealistic beauty standards, and how that standards affect

females. Advertisers in the cosmetics industry portray the body as an object, insinuating

that it can be changed and manipulated easily into a more attractive form. This perception

can be seen as dangerous as people, especially women with low self-esteem, will try to

modify their bodies through the use of makeup and cosmetics or more unconventional

measures. Pentina, Taylor and Voelker also highlighted the difference between males and

females in terms of reacting towards societal standards. According to their study, men tend

to react to the standards only if the changes will help them physically. Women, on the other

hand, react to these standards on a fiercer level, engaging themselves in the changes if it

will help them improve their self-esteem (Pentina, 2009).

Mary Martin and Patricia Kennedy considered how advertisers and marketers affect

adolescent girls. They mentioned in their study the fact that advertisers and marketers

generate the impression that young females should always look nice, even at the expense

of putting on a lot of makeup. Because of this, Martin and Kennedy conducted a study on

how preadolescent and adolescent females reacted to models in various cosmetics

advertisements. The results of their study implied that as females get older, they become

more and more concerned with their looks, and so they strive to look like the models in

advertisements as they get older. Furthermore, even a one-time exposure to an

advertisement featuring a beautiful model could highly affect the viewers into wanting to

change their appearance (Martin, 1993).

Tamizhjyothi discussed attitudes which are primarily formed through experiences

and learning. These attitudes then influence the purchase decision of every consumer.

Middle-aged people, especially women, have positive attitude towards cosmetic products.

This is because of their desire to look young and since most of them are already settled in

their life, they have the ability to spend on these luxuries (Tamizhjyothi, 2013).

Men are also entering the world of cosmetics. Although most of the time, men are

still reluctant in using various beauty products especially creams, there are notable number

of men who are now getting attracted towards this industry. The interest of men in

cosmetics arises due to their concern about their body and face. Having said this, the

competition in the professional world of cosmetics also put influence on men to care for

their looks (Fatima, 2015).

Techniques Used in Cosmetics Advertisements

Richards-Gustafson, on her article Advertising Techniques for Selling Makeup,

stated that selling makeup involves more than encouraging a person, particularly a woman,

that a certain product will make her appearance acceptable in the standards of the society.

Selling cosmetic products is difficult since cosmetics are products people do not really

need. And so, in order to sell these products, marketers must persuade consumers to spend

money on these items. In order to do that, Gustafson enumerated some techniques which

are usually used in the advertisements and promotion of cosmetic brands. These are the


 Link Selling: Use advertisements to show the benefit of purchasing a combination

of makeup products instead of a single item. (Richards-Gustafson, 2017)

 Sell Aspirations: According to marketing professional Helen Oakley, the most

popular types of aspirations that makeup companies use in advertisements include

social appeal, sex appeal and feminine appeal. Use the power of imagery to

communicate that a makeup product will help produce the pleasure or perfection

the consumer seeks. (Richards-Gustafson, 2017)

 Use of Keywords: Words in advertisements can have as much power as the images

themselves. When creating a makeup advertisement, use words or phrases that will

cause a consumer to favor a product. Such words can include “new,” “hot,” “long

lasting,” “flirty,” “even,” “better,” “glides,” “hydrating” and “wears for hours.”

These keywords describe features or benefits of makeup that consumers seek,

which may not be apparent with just a picture of a model. (Richards-Gustafson,



In this chapter, the nature of the present study is made clear, including its research method

and design, as well as the sampling procedure and distribution used for the respondents. Data

collection and the research instrument, statistical treatment of data and the data gathering

procedure will also be further discussed in this section.

As part of the subject course, the research method is used is the Quantitative method, which

aims to measure and analyze numerically the gathered data about the impact of advertisements to

consumer buying behavior on cosmetic products. It makes use of statistical formulas in order to

interpret the data and give meaning to the responses of the target population.
A. Research Design
B. Population, Samples and Sampling Procedure
C. Instrumentation

Polit and Hungler (1999) defined data as “information obtained during the

course of an investigation or study.” In this study, the researchers used

questionnaires to obtain data pertinent to the research objectives and research

questions. A questionnaire is a data gathering tool developed to gather data from

the target respondents. Questionnaires are often used in quantitative research

since questionnaires are structured to be compatible with quantitative approach.

The questionnaire used in the study is an adapted questionnaire.

Adaptation is defined as “the deliberate modification of a question or

questionnaire to create a new question or questionnaire.” (Mohler et al., 2016)

Harkness stated that the main purpose of adaptation is to “better fit the needs of a

new population, location, language, or mode, or any combination of these.” (2010)

The researchers chose to adapt an existing questionnaire and align it with the set

of variables used in this study to have an appropriate instrument for the target

participants of the study.

The research questionnaire seeks to answer the questions about:

1. The consumer perception on advertisements

2. Impact of advertisements on the consumer's purchasing decision

The primary data gathering instrument is furthermore supported by the

literature review. While the adapted questionnaire serves as the medium of

collecting data, the literature review serves as the reference in providing additional

information which will also be considered in the study.

D. Statistical Treatment of Data

As the present study makes use of the quantitative design, casual- comparative method, and

experimentation and survey instruments, the researcher will make use of descriptive statistics in

reckoning the results and finding. Linear texts and non-linear texts such as tables, graphs, Venn

diagrams, charts and percentage (%) are to be used to present the results gathered from the

instruments to give more meaning to the data. The measures of central tendency (depending on the

skewness of data) will also be used to generalize and find common ground or pattern to determine

the relevance of product packaging aesthetic to consumer attention and product preference.

The measures of central tendency are the mean, median, mode, with mean as the sum if the

values, median as the middle value, and mode as the most frequent value. Mean is mostly used in

the present study, with its formulae defined as:

𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 =

∑𝑓𝑥 = 𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑠

𝑛 = 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑠
Weighted Average was also used to reckon the average rankings of the functions, elements and

principles of packaging design.

The assigned weights for each rank are as follows:


1 0.50

2 0.30

3 0.20

Total 100 %

The respondents’ most preferred option has the largest value while the least preferred

option is assigned the lowest. In this case, the Rank 1 is assigned with the greater weight as it is

the most important standing.

The weighted average for ranking is computed as:


∑𝑓𝑤 = sum of all products of frequency and weight

𝑁 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠

Rank is directly proportional to its weighted average while rating is directly proportional

to it. For instance, the higher the average, the higher the rank.
E. Data Gathering Procedure

Ahmed, S. & Ashfaq, A. (2013). Impact of advertising on consumer buying behaviour through

persuasiveness, band image and celebrity endorsement. Global Media Journal, 6(2).

Alba, J.W. & Hutchinson, J.W. (1987). Dimensions of consumer expertise. Journal of Consumer

Research, 13, 411-454.

Arens, W.F., &Bovee, C.L. (1992). Contemporary Advertising. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill


Ayanwale, A.B., Alimi, T., &Ayanbimipe, M.A. (2017). The Influence of Advertising on

Consumer Brand Preference. Journal of Social Sciences, 10(1), 9-16. doi:


Euromonitor International. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Fatima, S., & Lohdi, S. (2015) Impact of Advertisement on Buying Behaviours of the Consumers:

Study of Cosmetic Industry in Karachi City. International Journal of Management Sciences and

Business Research, vol. 4, no. 10.

Haider, T., & Shakib, S. (2017). A Study On The Influences of Advertisement On Consumer

Buying Behavior. Retrieved from


Johnson, E.J. & Russo, J.E. (1984). Product familiarity and learning new information. Journal of

Consumer Research, 11, 542-550.

Kweek, S. (2018, October 24). Why the Philippines is a beauty market to watch. Retrieved from


Martin, M. C., & Kennedy, P. F. (1993). Advertising and social comparison: Consequences for

female preadolescents and adolescents. Psychology & Marketing, 10(6), 513-530.

Miranda, G.S. (1991). Advertising. Manila City: National Book Store, Inc.

Ohio University (2019). Four Consumer Behavior Theories Every Marketer Should Know.

Retrieved from


Pentina, I., Taylor, D. G., & Voelker, T. A. (2009). The roles of self-discrepancy and social support

in young females' decisions to undergo cosmetic procedures. Journal of Consumer Behaviour,

8(4), 149-165. doi:10.1002/cb.279

ProjectClue (2019). The Impact of Advertising to Consumer Buying Behavior. Retrieved from


Richards-Gustafson, F. (2017, November 21). Advertising Techniques for Selling Makeup.

Retrieved from

Rodgers, S., & Thorson, E. (2012). Advertising Theory. New York: Routledge.

Ryans, C. (1996) Consumer Resources. Journal of Small Business Management, 34 (1996): 63-

Solomon, M. (1995). Consumer behaviour. Prentice Hal, New Jersey.

Tamizhjyothi, M. J. (2013). Consumer Attitude towards Cosmetic Products . IJEMR –Vol 3 Issue

6 - Online - ISSN 2249–2585 - Print - ISSN 2249-8672 .