Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir
CHEMISTRY FOR IITJEE
RECONSTRUCT YOUR CHEMISTRY WITH
Prince Sir
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Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir
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Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir
Inroduction
A gas is considered as collection of molecules/atoms which are in continuous random motion
with average velocities depending on temperature. The molecules of gases, except during
collision are seperated wide away and move in paths that are largely unaffected by
intermolecular forces.
Charactristics of gases :
The charactristic of gases are fully described
in terms of four parameters
1. Pressure : It is the force exreted by the gas per unit area of the walls of the container. The
origin of the pressure exterted by the gas is due to the continuous collisions of the
gas molecules with the walls of container.
If ‘h’ is the height of the fluid in a column than pressure is gh .
2. Volume : Volume of the container is generally volume of the gas . It is expressed in Litres, mililitres etc.
1L = 1000 mL = 1dm ^{3}
3. Temperature : The temperature,T is the property that indicates the direction of the flow
of energy through a thermally conducting, rigid wall.
SI unit of tmperature is Kelvin(K) .Temperature is also measured in degree celcius( ^{o} C).
Other unitss are Fahrenheit and Rankine.
C F 32
5
9
T
K
T
o
_{C} 273
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1. Boyle’s Law : “ At constant temperature, the volume of a given amount of the gas is
i.e.
P
1
V
T _{1} > T _{2} > T _{3}
2. Charle’s Law : “At constant pressure the volume of a given amount of gas is deirectly
proportional to is Temperature”.
i.e.
_{V} _{} _{T}
3. Gay Lussac’s Law : “ “ At constant volume for a given amount of gas pressure is directly
proportional to the temperature of the gas”. i.e.
_{P}_{} _{T}
4. Avogadro’s law : “ Under same conditions of temperature and pressure equal volumes of
all gases contain equal number of moles and equal number of
molecules.” i.e. _{V} _{} _{n}
IDEAL GAS EQUATION
The equation obtained by combining above laws is called ideal gas equation i.e. PV = nRT Where, R is the universal gas constant .
Numerical Values of R R = 8.314 J K ^{}^{1} mol ^{}^{1} R = 0.082 atmLitre K ^{}^{1} mol ^{}^{1} R = 8.314 _{} 10 ^{7} erg K ^{}^{1} mol ^{}^{1} R = 2 cal K ^{}^{1} mol ^{}^{1}
A gas which follows this equation at all conditions of temperature and pressure is called an Ideal gas .
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METHODS TO MEASURE PRESSURE
Following instruments can be used to measure pressure
1. Barometer
2.Manometer
BAROMETER Barometer is used to measure the atmospheric pressure. In this, we take 100 cm long tube which is inverted in a conatiner having mercury (liquid) and tube has vaccumm inside it. Due to pressure difference the liquid rises to some height in the column. This height gives the atmospheric pressure.
If liquid reaches to height “h” in the barometer tube than pressure
where,
Pressure of liquid column is independent of the cross section area of container in which it
is kept.
density of mercury,
g gravitational acceleration
MANOMETER
A Manometer is a device to measure pressures. A common simple manometer consists of a U
shaped tube of glass filled with some liquid. Typically the liquid is mercury because of its high density.
Ther are two types of manometers  1. Open End Manometer
2. Closed End manometer
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From the diagram we can say that the pressure at point B will be the sum of pressures due to the mercury column of height h and atmosperic pressure
P _{A} = P _{B}
P _{g}_{a}_{s} = h + atmospheric pressure = (h + 760 mm of Hg)
atm
Gas
A
B
Hg
atm
 h) = (760 mm Hg  h)
Closed End Manometer
P A = P _{B} ,
A
h
B
gas thus
P _{g}_{a}_{s} = h.
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Case2: When a gas lighter than air is filled in the manometer
P _{g}_{a}_{s} + h = P
P = (P
gas
Hg
Since the manometer is closed end so no atmospheric pressure
will act , so the height of column reached is due to the pressure of
Hg is used as Hg has almost no tendency of vapour formation like water & others, so a proper vaccumm is created above mercury column.
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir
Barometric Distribution
For gaseous systems with high molecular weight e.g. in polymers the pressure of the gas decreases with increase in its height. The relationship between the pressure and height can
be given as
i.e.
p
ln
p e
0
p
2
p
1
mgH
RT
mg
RT
H
2
H
1
This concept is valid when the system is isothermal and is at equllibrium.
where p _{2} and p _{1} are pressures at height H _{1} and H _{2} respectively.
Example 1.
Solution
Show that the height at which the atmospheric pressure is reduced to half of its value
is given by
h
0.6909 RT
Mg
.
According to the question p _{2} =
Thus
ln
p
1
2
P
1
Mg
RT
(
H
2
H
1
)
p
1
2
ln
1 h
2 RT
Mg
Open vessal concept
h
0.6909 RT
Mg
In an open vessal generally pressure and volume are constant. The pressure at the open end is
atmospheric pressure.
Since pressure and volume are constant , so from ideal gas equation
n _{1} T _{1} = n _{2} T _{2}
Example 2.
A 10 cm column of air is trapped by a column of Hg 8 cm long in a capillary tube
horizontally fixed at 1 atm pressure. calculate the length of the air
column when the tube is fixed
(i) Vertcally with open end up (ii) vertically with open end down
(iii) at 45 ^{o} from horizontal with open end up
Solution:
(i) If the tube is held vertically then atmospheric pressure i.e. 76 cm of Hg will start
acting on the air column in addition to the 8 cm column. So ,
total pressure on the air column = 76 cm of Hg + 8 cm of Hg = 84 cm of Hg
Whereas in the initial position as shown the total pressure on the air column was 76 cm of Hg.
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So for the two conditions We can say that
l
_{2}
p l
1
1
p
2
9.04 cm
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir P _{1} l _{1} = P _{2} l _{2}
(ii) In this case the pressure will be = (76  8) cm of Hg = 68 cm Hg
On comparing with initial conditions we get l _{2} = 11.17 cm
(iii) In this case the pressure is
76
Thus
l
2
9.3
cm
of Hg
76 

p cos 

8 

2
81.66 
cm 
Dry and Moist Gas
of Hg
if a gas is collected over water than the gas contains some amount of water vapours and the
gas is called moist gas.
the pressure of the moist gas = pressure of dry gas + Aqueous tension or vapour pressure of
thus
P
dry
= ^{P} moist ^{} ^{P} water vapours
water
Relative humidity (RH) =
Partial pressure of water vapour in air
_{V}_{.}_{P}_{.} _{o}_{f} _{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}
Example 3. 
A certain quantity of a gas occupies 100 mL when collected over water at 15 ^{0} C and 750 mm pressure. it occupies 91.9 mL in dry state at NTP. find the aqueous vapour pressure at 15 ^{o} C. 
Solution: 
Let the V.P. of water vapour be p mm. 
Then pressure of dry gas P _{1} = P _{m}_{o}_{i}_{s}_{t}  p = 750  p
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Volume V _{1} = 100 mL and T _{1} = 15+273 = 288 K
P _{2} = 760mm
(750  p)
100
At NTP
V _{2} = 91.9 mL and T _{2} = 273 K
760
91.9
288 273
p = 13.2 mm
Connected Containers
Let two tubes are connected with each other by a nozzle , if the nozzle is removed the gas
from high pressure will travel to the low pressure region untill the pressure is equal in both
the containers.
Example 4.
Two gases are filled in connected tubes separated by a stopcock between them. One
2
2 at 600
4 (solid) exhausts the limiting reagent completely.
4 what is the pressure of the gas remaining at 220 K
vessel contain 0.25 L NO at 800 torr and 220 K, The other vessel contain 0.1 L O
torr and 220 K. The reaction to form N O
Neglecting the vapour pressure of N O
2
after completion of the reaction ?
No. of mole of NO =
No. of moles of O _{2} =
2
PV 

800 
0.25 

0.26 

RT 
760 RT 
RT 

PV 

600

0.1 

0.07 

RT 
760 
RT 
RT 


N O (s) 2 4 
0.26
RT
Solution:
and
2NO (g) + O (g)
_{} 1 mol O
^{0}^{.}^{0}^{7}
RT
2 reacts with 2 moles of NO
2
So,
mol of O _{2} will react with =
0.26 
0.14 
0 .12 

Thus mole of NO left = 
RT 

RT 
^{=} 
RT 
total volume after removing stopcock = 0.25 + 0.1 = 0.35 L
So, pressure due to NO left =
0.12
RT
RT
0.34 atm
0.35
Pay Load or Lifting Power
Pay load can be defined as the maximum mass that it can carry. Pay load = Mass of air displaced mass of filled ballon
If density of gas filled in the ballon is d _{i} and density of outside air is d _{o} and M is the mass of filled ballon then Mass of air displaced = Vd _{o} g  Vd _{i} g = Vg(d _{o}  d _{i} )
9
thus
Example 5.
Solution
Thus
So,
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir
pay load = Vg(dd _{1} )  Mg
A ballon of diameter 20 m weighs 100 kg. calculate its pay load if it is filled with helium at 1 atm and 27 ^{o} C. density of air is 1.2 Kgm ^{}^{3} .
^{4} r
3
Volume of ballon V =
Mass of air displaced = 4190.47 _{} 1.2 = 5028.56 Kg
3
4190.47 m
3
M
P
^{V}
Mass of helium in the ballon =
mass of filled ballon = 681.376 + 100 = 781.376 Kg
RT
681 .376
Kg
Pay Load = 5028.56  781.376 = 4247.184 kg
DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE
At a given temperature , the total pressure occupied by two or more nonreacting gases
occupying a definite volume is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each gas
i.e.
P = p _{A} + p _{B} + p _{C} +
Partial pressure of any gas = mole fraction
Limitations : This law is applicable only when the component gases in the mixture do not
react with each other. For example. N
But this law is not applicable to gases which combine chemically. For example, H _{2} and Cl _{2} ,
2 etc.
CO and Cl _{2} , NH , HBr and HCl, NO and O
_{} Total pressuree
2 and O
2 , CO and CO _{2} , N _{2} and Cl _{2} , CO and N _{2} etc.
3
Relative Humidity(RH) =
Partial pressure of water in air
Vapour pressure of water
DIFFUSION AND EFFUSION
The spontaneous mixing of gases to form a homogeneous mixture is called Diffusion.
The process in which a gas is allowed to escape under pressure through a small orifice is
called Effusion.
Grahm’s Law of Diffusion or Effusion
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Diffusioninto vacuumwill
takeplacemuchmorerapidly
thandiffusionintoanotherplace.
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir Application of Grahm’s law of diffusion or Effusion
is called enrichment factor. This factors tells that
Separation of isotopes : The factor
lighter species will be effused preferentially in comparision to heavier species. Let there are two isotopes A ^{x} and A ^{y} , the mixture of isotopes is reacted with a common reagent and let the compound formed is AB _{n} . Then enrichment is done by passing through a porous barrier.The process of diffusion is repeated many times to achieve sufficient enrichment .
Separation factor =
'
n
1
/
'
n
2
n
1
/
n
2
Where n _{1} and n _{2} are concentration of two isotopes before diffusion.
and n’ _{1} and n’ _{2} are concentration of two isotopes after diffusion .
For a single step enrichment factor f’ =
if enrichment of species is achieved in n steps then
n
log
log
f
n
2
log
M
2
M
1
log
f
Example 6.
Solution:
The composition of the equillibrium mixture for the equillibrium
Cl _{2} _{}
2Cl
at 1470 K may be determined by the rate of diffusion of the mixture through a pin hole. It is found that at 1470 K, the mixtures diffuses 1 : 16 times as fast as krypton(83.8) diffuses under the same conditions. Find the degree of dissociation of Cl _{2} at equillibrium.
From the question we can interpret that the mixture diffuse 1:16 times fater i.e. first
we need to calculate the Molecular mass of the mixture, since rate of diffusion varies with
molecular mass. Cl _{2} _{}
2Cl 

1x 
2x 


n 
1 
M 
1 

n 
2 
M 
2 

n 
1 

n 
2 

(1 

x 
) 

71 
2 x 

35 .5 

71 

(1

x 
)

2 x 
1 
x 
mix
So
Acc . to Grahm
' s law
^{M}
^{M} mix
On substituting values we get x = 0.14
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Following are some postulates of this theorey
KINETIC GAS EQUATION
P 

pressure of the gas 
V 

volume of the gas 
m 

mass of a molecule 
n 

number of molecules of gas 
c 

root measn square speed of all the molecules 
KINDS OF MOLECULAR SPEEDS
Root Mean Square Speed (RMS speed)
of the squares of the individual speed of all the molecules.
It may be defined as the square root of the mean
^{C} rms
c 
1 
2 

c 
2 
2 

c 
3 
2 

n 
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Now from kinetic gas equation
For 1 mole of gas
PV
1
3
PV
mNc
2
1
3
Mc
2
Average Speed(C _{a}_{v}_{.} )
 This is defined as the mean of the various speeds of the gas molecules.
Most probable speed : Avg. speed : RMS speed
REALGASES & VANDER WAAL’S EQUATION
Real gases do not follow ideal gas equation at all temperatures and pressures. Real gases tend to behave ideally at low pressures and moderately high temperatures.
Real gases tend to deviate from ideal behaviour at high pressure and low temperature. Real gases deviate from ideal behaviour due to two faulty assumptions in KTG
1. The volume of a gas molecule is negligible as compared to the total volume of the gas.
2. There is no interaction between the gas molecules.
Vander Wall’s suggested two corrections for it  1. Volume correction: If b is the effective volume of the molecule per mole of the gas then
for n mol of gas the corrected volume
where, b is Excluded volume and is a charecteristic for each gas
V _{i} = (V nb)
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2. Pressure Correction: The molecules which is in the interior of the gas is attracted from all sides and net force is zero. But the molecule which is about to strike the wall is attracted by other molecules and experience an inward pull. Thus pressure observed will be less than the ideal pressure.
^{P} ideal ^{=} ^{P} obs
^{+} ^{P} c
Where P _{c} is pressure correction and P _{c} =
thus P _{i}_{d}_{e}_{a}_{l} = P +
n
2
a
V
2
a
V
2
applying both the corretions to ideal gas equation
Here a and b are Vander Waal’s constants
Units of 'a'  atm L ^{2}
mol
2
Units of 'b'  m ^{3} mol ^{}^{1}
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DEVIATION FROM IDEAL BEHAVIOUR (REAL GASES) Real gases deviates from ideal behaviour due to interaction between the molecules. repulsive forces are significant when molecules ar almost in contact thus repulsions are short range interactions. Whereas, attraction forces are effective upto several molecular diameter and thus are long range interactions. At low pressures and high temperature, when the sample occupies a large volume, the molecules are so far apart that the intermolecular forces play no significant role, and the gas behaves virtually perfectly.
COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR(Z)
The extent of deviation of a real gas from ideal behaviour is measured by compressibility
factor.
Z
Molar volume of real gas (V )
R
Molar volume of ideal gas (V )
i
PV
RT
Z=1, for an ideal gas
Z > 1, the gas shows positive deviation i.e. it is difficult to to compress the gas. In this case
repulsive forces dominates.
Z < 1, The gas shows negative deviation i.e. the gas is easily compressible. In this case
attractive forces dominate.
The deviations can be displayed, by plotting the PV isotherms fo real gas and ideal gas.
Z=
P
CALCULATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR FOR A REAL GAS for a real gas from Vander Waal’s equation
P
n
2
a
V
2
V
nb
nRT
At low pressure For 1 mole
At low pressure volume will be so high such that V nb _{} VV
a
V
RT
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2
CRICTICAL PHENOMENON AND LIQUIFACTION OF GASES Gases can be liquified by the application of low temperature and high pressure. At low temperature kinetic energy of gas molecules become less and slow moving molecules come together
due to attraction force and gases tend to liquify.The effect of temeperature is more important than of
pressure.
line ab 

gas 
line bc 

liquid 
At point Y ,
dP
dV
0, thus at critical temperature
dP
dV
0.
The area to the left of the dotted line only liquid exists and in the area to the right of
the dotted line only gas exists.If we consider the curve at Temperature T _{C} , at point
Y there is no liquid portion which indicates that there is only gas which exists at this
point. This point is called critical point and the temperature is called
critical temperature(T
C ).
Critical Temperature(T
C
) It is defined as the temperature above which a gas cannot be
liquified by applying any amount of pressure is called Critical temperature.
T
8 a
=
C 27 Rb
Critical Pressure(P
C )  The pressure required to liquify a gas at critical temperature is called
critical pressure.
P _{C}
a
27b
2
Critical Volume (V _{C} )  The volume at critical temperature and pressure is called Critical Volume. V _{C} = 3b
Compressibility factor Z =
P V
C
C
3
RT
C
8
0.375
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Boyle’s temperature(T _{b} )
The temperature at which a real gas behaves like an ideal gas over
a wide range of pressure is called Boyle temperature ‘T _{b} ’.
T _{b}
a
Rb
at boyle’s temperature PV = constant for a wide range of pressure.
Inversion Temperature(T _{i} )
The tmeperature below which a gas cools on expansion and above
which shows heating on expansion is called inversion temperature.
VIRIAL EQUATION OF STATE
For 1 mol of gas Virial equation of state can be expressed as
PV
m
RT
1
B
C
V
m
V
m
2
Where, B, C are tmperature dependent constants .
The first virial coefficient is one.
From the graph it is clear that Z, approaches 1 at low pressures, but does so with different slopes. For a perfect gas, the slope is zero, but real gases may have either positive or negative slopes, and the slope may vary w ith temper ature. At the Boyle temperatur e, the slope is zero and the gas behaves perfectly over a wider range of conditions than at other temp eratures.
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Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir Maxwell Distribution Law
Maxwellshown themolecuarspeeddistributionforgases Fromthegraphit is clear thatas thetemperatureincreases thenumberof moleculeshavinga specificspeedat that specifictemperatureincreases.
HEAT CAPACITIES Heat capacity is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the system by one degree.
dq
Heat Capacity (C) = _{d}_{T}
Heat capacity is an extensive property as the amount of heat required (q) to raise the temperature
by T depends on the mass of the substance.
Molar heat capacity is the heat capacity per mole of the substance and it is an intensive
property.
Its unit is JK ^{}^{1} mol ^{}^{1} .
Specific heat capacity is the heat capacity per unit mass of the substance and it is also an
intensive property. Its unit is J
Following two types of heat capacities are used
_{K} 1 _{K}_{g} 1
(i) Heat capacity at constant volume (C
_{V} )
=
U
T
V
and thus
U
C .dT
v
(ii) Heat capacity at constant pressure(C ) =
P
H
T
P
and thus
H
C
P
.dT
C _{p}  C _{v} =P V =
C
p
C
2
1
v f
R
, where f is the degree of freedom for a given gas
Heat capacity of mixtures: let n _{1} and n _{2} moles of two nonreacting gases A and B are mixed than
C
v
mix
n
1
C
v
1
n
2
(
C
v
)
2
n
1
n
2
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Degree of freedom There are three types of degrees of freedom
1. Translational degree of freedom(f _{T} ) f _{T} = 3 for all types of molecules
2. Rotational degree of freedom (f _{R} ) f _{R} = 0 (for monoatomic gas) f _{R} = 2 (for diatomic gas) f _{R} = 2 (Triatomic or polyatomic linear gas)
f _{R} = 3 (triatomic or polyatomic nonlinear)
3. Vibrational degree of freedom(f _{V} )
f _{V} = 0 (for monoatomic gas )
Total degrees of freedom = 3N(for a molecule having N atoms )
3N5(for diatomic or
polyatomic linear )
0 (for Monoatomic)
3N6(for nonlinear
polyatomic)
LAW OF EQUIPARTITION OF ENERGY
According to it the energy of a gas molecule is equally distributed among its
various degrees of freedom and each degree of freedom is associated with energy
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1
2
kT
.
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Norma l Te mpe rature 
High T em pera ture 

Gas 
C v 
C p 

C v 
C P 


He 
3 
R 
5 
R 
^{5} 
=1 .6 7 
3 
R 
5 
R 
^{5} 
= 1.6 7 

2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
3 

H 2 
5 
R 
7 
R 
^{7} 

1.4 
7 
R 
9 
R 
^{9} 

1.29 
2 
2 
5 
2 
2 
7 

CO _{2} 
5 
R 
7 
R 
^{7} 

1.4 
13 R 
15 
R 
15 
_{} 1.15 

2 
2 
5 
2 
2 
13 

SO _{2} 
3R 
4R 
^{4} 

1.33 
6R 
7R 
7 

1.17 

3 
6 

CH _{4} 
3R 
4R 
^{4} 

1.33 
12R 
13R 
13 
1.09 

3 
12 
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BOOST YOUR BASICS
Q.1.
Two balloons are taken at 300 K. maximum capacity of balloon A and B are 800 ml and 1800 ml respectively. When the ballon system is heated, which one of the following will burst first?
(A) 
Outer balloon B 
(B) 
Inner balloon A 
(C) 
Both simultaneously 
(D) 
Cannot be predicted. 
Q.2.
Two glass bulbs of equal volume are connected and filled with a gas at 0 C and pressure of
760mm of Hg. one of the bulbs is then placed in a water bath maintained at 67 C. What is
the new value of the pressure inside the bulbs?
o
o
(A) 750 mm Hg
Q.3.
(B) 850 mm Hg
(C) 843mm Hg
Which gas will have the greatest density at 25 C and 1 atm pressure ?
o
(D) 743 mm Hg
(A)
Q.4.
O _{3}
(A)
Q.5.
(A)
Q.6.
(A)
Q.7.
(B) SiH _{4}
(C) PH
3 (D) C _{3} H _{8}
A jar contains a mixture of Hydrogen and helium gases in the ratio 1 : 5. What is the ratio of mean
translational kinetic energy of hydrogen and helium molecules?
1:2
(B) 2:1
(C) 1:1
(D) 1:5
Dust particles in the suspended state in a monoatomic gas are in thermal equillibrium with the gas. If
the temperature of the gas is 300 K, the RMS speed of dust particles if the mass of a dust
particle is 10 ^{}^{1}^{7} Kg.
2.5 cm/s
Two perfect gases at absolute temperatures T
mass of the gas molecules are m
respectively than what will be the temperature of the mixture?
n T
and T
(B)3.5 cm/s
(C) 1cm/s
(D) 4cm/s
2
are mixed. There is no loss of energy. if the
_{1} and m _{2} and the number of molecules in gases are n _{1} and ^{n} _{2}
1
2
n T
2
1
n
1
n
2
(C)
n T
1
n
1
1
n T
n
2 
2 
2
(D)
n T
1
1
n T
2
2
T
1
T
2
1
n T
1
2
T
1
n T
T
2 
1 
2
(B)
An ideal gas has molar heat capacity C = 37.35 J mol ^{}^{1} K ^{}^{1} in the process PT = constant. The number of degrees of freedom of molecules in the gase will be ?
(A)
Q.8.
(A)
Q.9.
3
How much energy at constant volume should be added to a mixture of one gram of Hydrogen and one gram helium to raise its temperature from 0 ^{o} C to 100 ^{o} C ?
325 cal
A mixture of two different ideal gases in a container is separated by a pourous wall from an evacuated chamber. after instanteneous diffusion the evacuated chamber contains :
(B) 5
(C) 7
(D) 4
(B) 225 cal
(D) 750 cal
(D) 500 cal
(A) More number of atoms of the heavier gas
(B) More number of atoms of the lighter gas
(C) Equal number of atoms of both the gases
(D) Any number of atoms of any gas
21
Q.10.
(A)
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir
Two identical cylinders containequal moles of He at 2.5 atm and Ar at 1 atm respectively. If both the gases are filled in one of the cylinders , the pressure would be 
1.5 atm
(B) 3.5 atm
(C) 1.75 atm
(D) 1 atm
Q.11.
Two identical containers A and B with frictionless pistons contain the same ideal gas at the same
temperature and the same volume V. The mass of the gas in A is m _{A} and that in B is m _{B} . the gas in each cylinder is now allowed to expand isothermally to the same final volume 2V. the changes in the pressure in A and B are found to be P and 1.5 P respectively. Then :
(A) 4m _{A} = 9m _{B}
(B) 2m _{A} = 3m _{B}
(C) 3m _{A} = 2m _{B} (D) 9m _{A} = 4m _{B}
Q.12.
(A) Low T and high P
A gas deviates maximum from the ideal gas laws at :
(B) High T and low P
(C) Low T and P
(D) High T and P
Q.13.
(A)
A vessel contains air saturated with water vapours and the total pressure in it is 100 cm of Hg. The
1
gas is now compressed at constant pressure to _{4}
becomes 380 cm of Hg. Calculate the vapoure preesure of water:
of its original volume and the total pressure
20 cm Hg
(B) 10 cm Hg
(C)
^{2}^{0} cm Hg
3
(D)
^{1}^{0}
_{3}
cm Hg
Q.14.
(A)
Three closed vessels A, B and C are at the same temperature T and contain gases which obey
maxwell distribution of velocities. Vessel A contains O , B only N _{2} and C mixture of equal quantities
of O _{2} and N _{2} . if the average speed of the O
the vessel B is v , the average speed of the O
2 molecules in the vessel A is v _{1} , that of N _{2} molecules in
2
2 molecules in vessel C is :
2
v 1
v
2
2
(B) v
1
(C)
(D)
Q.15. A cylinder closed at both the ends is divided into two equal parts by a heatproof piston. Both parts
(A)
of the cylinder contain the same masses of gas at a tempertaure 27 ^{o} C and pressure 1 atm. Now if
the gas in one of the parts is heated to 57 ^{o} C, the distance moved by the piston from the middle of
the cylinder will be (given the length of the cylinder is 84 cm)
3 cm
(B) 5 cm
(C) 2 cm
(D) 1 cm
Q.16. A cylinder of 5 L capacity, filled with air at NTP is connected with another evacuated cylinder of 30 litres capacity. The resultant air pressure in both the cylinders will be 
(A) 
10.8 cm Hg 
(B) 14.9 cm Hg 
(C) 21.8 cm Hg 
(D) 38.8 cm Hg 
Q.17. 
Which of the following statments is not true about the effect of an increase in temperature on the distribution of molecular speeds in a gas 

(A) 
The most probale speed increases 

(B) 
The fraction of the molecules with the most probable speed increases 

(C) 
The distribution becomes broader 

(D) 
The area under the distribution curve remains the same as under the lower temperature 
22
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir
Q.18. The Vander Waal’s constant ‘a’ for the gases O _{2} ,N _{2} , NH _{3} and CH _{4} are 1.3, 1.390, 4.170 and
2.253 L ^{2} atm mol ^{}^{2} repectively. The gas which can be easily liquified is :
(A) O _{2}
Q.19.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
Q.20.
(A) O _{2}
(B) N _{2}
(C) NH _{3}
(D) CH _{4}
The Vander Waal’s constant ‘a’ for the gases O _{2} ,N _{2} , NH _{3} and CH
2.253 L ^{2} atm mol ^{}^{2} repectively. Which of the following gases have shortest mean free path
4 are 1.3, 1.390, 4.170 and
(B) N _{2}
(C) NH _{3}
(D) CH _{4}
Q.21. On the basis of given statments choose the correct options :
(1) For constant volume if temperature is increased pressure increases due to the increase in the
number of collisions among the molecules
(2) For a real gas at N.T.P. if Z>1 then V
(3) Gases can be liquified only below their critical temperature
< 22.4 L
m
(A) TTF
(B) TFT
(C) FFF
Q.22. At point A the gas is at Boyle’s temperature and it is
brought to B as shown in the figure. then at point B the gas
will have compressibility factor
(A) 
1 
(B) Z>1 
(C) 
Z <1 
(D) Z = 3/8 
(D) TTT
When an ideal gas undergoes unrestrained expansion, no cooling occurs because the gas molecules
Are above the inversion temperature
Exert no attractive force on each other
Do work equal to loss in K.E.
Collide without loss of energy
Q.23. The RMS speed of the gas molecule at temperature 27 K and pressure 1.5 bar is 1 _{} 10 ^{4} cm/sec. If both temperature and pressure are raised three time, the RMS speed of the gas molecules will be
(A) 9 _{} 10 ^{4} cm/sec
(B)
3 _{} 10 ^{4} cm/sec
(C)
10
4 cm/sec
(D) 10 ^{4} cm/sec
RT
A
B
C
Q.24. A general form of equation of state for gases is
molar volume of the gas and A,B,C
obeys Vander Waal’s equation, are respectively 
PV
V
2
, where V is the
V
are constants for the gas. The values of A and B, if the gas
23
(A)
a
RT
, b
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir
(B)
2
a
RT
, b
(C)
1,b
a
RT
_{(}_{D}_{)} 1,
a
27 b
Q.25. The critical temperature and critical pressure of a gas obeying Vander Waal’s equation are 30 ^{o} C and 73 atm respectively. the value of ‘b’ is , therefore 
(A) 0.5
(B) 0.06
(C) 0.265
(D) 0.128
Q.26. For a sample of gas ‘X’ the RMS speed at Temperature T will be 
(A) 328 ms ^{}^{1}
(C) 490 ms ^{}^{1}
(D) 400 ms ^{}^{1}
1
1
3
Q.27. The critical volume of a gas is 0.072 L mol
(A)
3
4
10
23
1
3
(B)
4
3
10
23
. the radius of the molecule will be(in cm)
(C)
3
4
10
23
1
3
(D)
3
4
10
8
Q.28. A closed vessel contain equal number of Nitrogen and Oxygen molecules at pressure P atm. If
nitrogen is removed from the system, then pressure will be 
(A) P
Q.29
(B) 2P
(C)
^{P}
2
(D) P ^{2}
Two vessels of capacities 3 L and 4 L are separately filled with a gas. The pressures are respectively 202 kPa and 101 kPa. The two vessels are connected. The gas pressure will be now, at constant
temperature
(A) 151.5 kPa
(B) 144 kPa
(C) 303kPa
(D) 175 kPa
Q.30. A He atom is two times havier than a hydrogen molecule at 298 K, the average K.E. of He is
(A) 
Two times that of Hydrogen molecules 
(B) Same as that of hydrogen molecules 
(C) 
Four times that of Hydrogen molecules 
(D) Half that of hydrogen molecules 
24
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir
Q.31. According to KTG , for a diatomic molecule
(A) 
The pressure exerted by the gas is proportional to the mean velocity of the molecule 
(B) 
The pressure exerted by the gas is proportional to the RMS velocity of the molecules 
(C) 
The RMS velocity of the molecule is inversely proportional to the temperature 
(D) 
The mean translational K.E. of the molecule is proportinal to the absolute temperature 
Q.32. A gas mixture consists of 2 moles of Oxygen and 4 moles of Argon at temperature T. Neglecting all vibrational modes, the total internal energy of the system is 
(A) 4RT
(B) 5RT
(C) 15RT
(D) 11RT
Q.33. The average molecular weight of air is 28.8 g mol ^{}^{1} . At 20 ^{o} C, the pressure of air at a height of 6 km
is half of that at the sea level. Assuming that air contains minute quantities of hydrogen, at what
height the partial pressure of hydrogen would be one fourth of the partial pressure at the sea level if
temperature is same ?
(A) 172.8 km
(B) 4.8 km
(C) 86.4 km
(D) 9.6 km
Q. 34. 2.3 g of a mixture of NO
2
and N O
2
4 have a pressure of 0.82 atm at temperature, T K and volume
V litres. If
V
T
1
300
magnitude, calculate
p NO
. Assume that all the NO _{2} was formed N _{2} O _{4}
2
(A) 0.52 atm
(B) 0.38 atm
(C) 0.19 atm
(D) 0.41 atm
Q.35.
What is the total pressure in a 2L container that holds 1 g He, 14 g CO and 10 g NO at 27 ^{o} C ?
(A) 21.6 atm
(B) 13.2 atm
(C) 1.24 atm
(D) 0.310 atm
25
Q.1.
Q.2.
Q.3.
Q.4.
Q.5.
Q.6.
Q.7.
Q.8.
Q.9.
Q.10.
Q.11.
Q.12.
Q.13.
Q.14.
Q.15.
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir SUBJECTIVES Specific heat of a monoatomic gas at constant volume is 315 J kg ^{}^{1} K ^{}^{1} and at a constant pressure is 525 J kg ^{}^{1} K ^{}^{1} . Calculate the molar mass of the gas .
A gas bulb of 1 litre capacity contains 2 _{} 10 ^{2}^{1} molecules of nitrogen exerting a pressure of 7.57 _{} 10 ^{3} N m ^{}^{2} . calculate the RMS speed and temperature of the gas molecules.
An evacuated glass vessel weighs 50 g when empty and 148 g when filled with a liquid of density 0.98 g mL ^{}^{1} and 50.5 g when filled with an ideal gas at 760 mm Hg at 300 K. Determine the molecular weight of the gas.
A vertical hollow cylinder of height 1.52 m is fitted with a movable piston of negligible mass
and thickness. The lower half of the cylinder contains an ideal gas and the upper half is filled with Hg. The cylinder is initially at 300 K. When the temperature is raised half of the mercury
comes out of the cylinder. Find the temperature assuming the thermal expansion of Hg to be
negligible.
If the temprature of 1 mole of a gas is increased by 50 ^{o} C, calculate the change in kinetic
energy of the gas .
The reaction between gaseous NH _{3} and HBr produces a white solid NH _{4} Br. Suppose small
quantity of gaseous NH _{3} and gaseous HBr are introduced simultaneously into opposite ends
of an open tube which is one metre long. calculate the distance of white solid formed from
the end from which NH _{3} was introduced.
The composition of the equillibrium mixture for the equillibrium Cl _{2} _{} 2Cl at 1400 K may be
determined by the rate of diffusion of mixture through a pin hole. It is found that at 1400 K,
the mixture diffuses 1.6 times as fast as Krypton(84) diffuses under the same conditions. Find
the degree of dissociation of Cl
2 equillibrium.
Vander Waal’s constant‘b’ of Ar is 3.22
Two perfect gases at absolute temperature
10
5
m
3
^{T} 1
mol ^{}^{1} .Calculate the molecular diameter of Ar
are mixed. There is no loss of energy.
and
^{T} 2
Find the temperature of the mixture if masses of molecules are m _{1} and m _{2} and the number of
moles of the gases are n _{1} and
^{n} 2
respectively.
Calculate the compressibility factor of SO _{2} , if one mole of it occupies 0.35 L at 300 K and 50
atm pressure.
A gas cylinder contains 55% nitrogen, 20% oxygen and 25% carbon dioxide by mass, at 760
mm pressure. Calculate the partial pressure of nitogen.
The density of a mixture of N _{2} and O _{2} at NTP is 1.3 gL ^{}^{1} . Calculate partial pressure of O _{2} ,if total pressure is 1 atm.
Pure O _{2} diffuses through an aperture in 224 second, whereas mixture of O _{2} and another gas containing 80% O _{2} diffuses from the same in 234 second. What is the molecular mass of the gas?
Rate of diffusion of a gas is 0.4 times that of methane. Calculate the weight of gas diffused through a hole in 10 seconds. If 32 gm of O _{2} diffuses through the same hole in 4 seconds.
Given the RMS velocity of oxygen molecules at 27 ^{o} C is 4.8 _{} 10 ^{4} cm sec ^{}^{1} , calculate the density of the gas at pressure of 1 atm.
26
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir Compressibility factor for N _{2} at 50 ^{o} C and 800 atm pressure is 1.95. calculate the number of moles of N _{2} gas required to fill a gas cylinder of 100 mL capacity under the given conditions.
A mixture of 0.5 mole of CO and 0.5 mole of CO _{2} is taken in a vessel and allowed to effuse through a pin hole into another vessel which has vaccumm. if total A moles has effused out in time t _{1} show that M _{1} A + M _{2} (1A) = 36 , where M _{1} and M _{2} are mean molar masses of the mixture that has effused out and the mixture still remaining in the vessel respectively.
Determine final pressure after the valve is left opened for a long time in the apparatus represented in figure. Assume that the temperature is fixed at 300 K. Under the given condi
Q.16.
Q.17.
Q.18.
tions assume no reaction of CO & O _{2} .
Q.19.
1 litre of gaseous mixture is effused in 5 minute 11sec, while 1 litre of oxygen takes 10
minutes. The gaseousmixture contains methane and hydrogen. Calculate:
(a) vapour density of gaseous mixture
(b) the percentage by volume of each gas in mixture.
Q.20. A container with a volume of 3.0litre holds ^{N} _{2} (g) and ^{H} _{2}
^{H} 2
O (l) H _{2} (g) + O _{2} (g)
O(l) at 29°C. The pressure is found
to be 1.0atm.The water is then split into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis, according to
the reaction
After the reaction is complete, the pressure is 1.86atm. What mass of water was present in the
container? The aqueous tension of water at 29°C is 0.04atm.
A two litre vessel contains oxygen at a pressure of 380 mm Hg at 27°C . 1.40g of nitrogen
gas is introduced in the vessel. Will the pressure of gaseous mixture increase or decrease and to what extent ?
The pressure of gas at 20°C contained in 0.95 litre flask was 1 atmosphere. The weight of the flask and gas was 25.2g. The gas was allowed to escape until the final pressure was 0.81 atmosphere and the flask was found to weight 25.05g. What is the molecular weight of the gas?
A bulb can be filled by of 0.4g nitrogen gas at 25°C and 1 atmosphere. If 0.8 g of a gas are required to fill the same bulb under the same condition of temperature and pressure, what is the molecular weight of the gas.
Q.21.
Q.22.
Q.23.
27
Q.24.
Q.25.
Q.26.
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir A bulb was filled with 500g of argon at 300K and 1 atmospheric pressure. After few days due to leakage, a certain amount of gas escaped and the pressure fell to 600mm at the same temperature. Calculate the amount of gas leaked out.
At the top of a mountain the thermometer reads 10°C and the barometer reads 700mm Hg. At the bottom of the mountain the temperature is 30°C and the pressure is 760mm Hg. Compare the density of the air at the top with that at the bottom. Chemical absorbers can be used to remove exhaled CO _{2} of space travelers in short space flights. Li _{2} O is one of the most efficient in terms of absorbing capacity per unit weight . If the reaction is
Li _{2} O + CO _{2}
Li _{2} CO _{3}
What is the absorption efficiency of pure Li _{2} O in L CO _{2} (STP) per kg ?
Q.27.
A closed container of volume 0.023 m contains a mixture of neon and argon gases at a
temperature 27°C and pressure 1 10 Nm . 5 “2 × The total mass of mixture is 28g. If the
gram molecular weight of neon and argon are 20 and 40 respectively, find the masses of
individual gases in the container, assuming them to be ideal.
Q.28.
An evacuated glass bulb was weighed, then filled with 2 O and reweighed. The difference in
weights was 0.250g. The operation was repeated under the same conditions with unknown
gas and difference was 0.375g.Find the molecular weight of gas.
Q.29.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contains mainly methane (CH ) 4 . A 3 10m tank is made to
store LPG at –164°C and 760 torr pressure, under this condition its density is 415kg/ 3 m .
Calculate the volume of a storage tank capable of holding the same mass of LPG as a gas at
27°C and 1 atm pressure.
Q.30.
Q.31.
Q.32.
A cylinder containing 5.0 litre 2 O at 25°C was leaking. When the leakage was detected and
stopped there was a change in the pressure of the gas from 3.0atm to 2.235atm. How much
oxygen in g has been leaked during thisperiod ? Also report the volume leaked if collected at
1atm and 25°C.
A meteorological balloon has a radius of 1m when released from sea level at normal P and
25°C and expanded to a radius of 3m when it had risen to its maximum altitude where the
temperature was –20°C. What is the pressure inside the balloon at that height?
A certain container has 5×1023 molecules of a gas A at a pressure of 900torr. By a photo
chemical combination allowing light to fall on the molecules, the pressure drops to 500 torr. If the temperature and volume remain the same how many molecules are present after exposure to light. If dimerization:
2A
A _{2}
has taken place,how many monomer molecules are still present ?
Q.33.
A 500mL bulb is filled with CH _{4} at a pressure of 1 atm and oxygen at a pressure of 4atm at 27°C. The mixture is then exploded, when the reaction,
CH _{4} +
O _{2}
CO _{2}
+
H _{2} O(l)
occurs. Calculate the pressure if the final temperature is 27°C. Aqueous tension at 27°C is
6.7mm.
28
Q.1.
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir FACE THE CHALLENGE Two flasks A and B of equal volume containing NH _{3} and HCl gases, are connected by a narrow tube of negligible volume.What will be final pressure in each flask when passage connecting two tubes are opened assuming ideal gas behaviour of NH _{3} and HCl gas and the reaction.
NH _{3} (g) + HCl (g)
NH _{4} Cl (s) goes to completion.
Q.2.
A column of Hg 10 cm in length is containedin the middle of a narrow horizontal 1 m long
tube which is closed at both ends. Both the halves of the tube contain air at a pressure 76 cm
of Hg. By what distance will the column of Hg be displaced if the tube is held vertical?
Q.3.
Q.4.
Q.5.
2.69 g of a sample of PCl
temperature of250 ^{o} C. The pressure observed at this temperature was 1 atm. PCl _{5} dissociates
according to the equation
5 was placed in a 1 L flask and completely vaporised to a
PCl _{5} (g)
_{} PCl _{3} (g) + Cl _{2} (g)
What are partial pressures of PCl
5 under these conditions?
A closed vertical cylinder is divided into two parts by a frictionless piston, each part contains
1 mole of air . At 27ºC the volume of the upper part is 4 times than that of the lower part.
Calculate the temperature when volume of the upper part will be three times than that of the
lower part.
PCl
5 present in a container is attached to a thin manometer as shown below.
Calculate the change in height (in cm) in open end if PCl _{5} dissociates 25% into PCl _{3} and Cl _{2} at same temperature & radius of open end is 2 times of the closed end.
29
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir Two bulbs A and B of equal capacity are filled with He and SO _{2} respectively at same temperature.
Q.6.
(i) How will the U _{R}_{M}_{S} be affected if volume of B becomes 4 times that of A at constant temperature.
(ii) How will the U _{R}_{M}_{S} be affected if half of the molecules of SO _{2} are removed at constant temperature.
Q.7.
Q.8.
Q.9.
Q10.
A flask of volume 2L, provided with a stopcock contains oxygen at 300 K and atmospheric pressure. The system is heated to a temperature of 400 K, with the dtopcock open to atmosphere. The stopcock is then closed and the flask is then cooled to its original temperature. (a) what is the final pressure of oxygen in the flask? (b) How many grams of oxygen lost in the flask
A barometer tube contains some air above the Hg level inside it. The atmosphere pressure is 76
cm of Hg. The Hg level in the barometer tube is 74 cm high and the tube has a length of 100 cm
above Hg level. The tube is raised vertically upwards by a distance of 10 cm. What is the height
of Hg level inside the tube after it has been raised?
A cubical box of side 1 metre contains He gas at a pressure of 100 Pa. During an observation
time of 1 second, an atom travelling with the RMS speed parallel to one of the edge of the cube
was found to make 500 hits with a particular wall, without any collision with other atoms. Take
R = 25/3 J K ^{}^{1} mol
kinetic energy per atom of the gas.
JK. evaluate the temperature of the gas and the average
^{}^{1} and k = 1.38 _{} 10 ^{}^{2}^{3}
The respiration of a suspension of yeast cells was measured by observing the decrease in
pressure of gas above the cell suspension. The apparatus was arranged so that the gas was
confined to a constant volume, 160 cm
of oxygen by the cells. That pressure was measured in a manometer the fluid of which has a
density of 3 1.034 g/cm . The entire apparatus was immersed in a thermostat at 37°C . In a
30 min observation period the fluid in the open side of the manometer dropped 37 mm.
neglecting the solubility of oxygen in the yeast suspension, compute the rate of oxygen
consumption by the cells in cubic millimeters of O _{2} (STP)per hour.
3 ,and the entire pressure change was caused by uptake
30
Reconstruct Your Chemistry With Prince Sir CHOOSE YOUR FAVOURITES
Q.1.
According to the assumptions of KTG, which statment(s) are correct:
(A) 
The size of a molecule is much smaller than the average separation b/w the molecules 
(B) 
The molecules exert no force on each other and on the walls of the container except 
during collision
(C) Collision between two molecules or between a molecule and a wall are perfectly elastic
(D) The molecules obey Newton’s laws
If the atoms in a diatomic molecule can vibrate, the molecule has 
(A) 
2 rotational degree of freedom 
(B) 
3 rotational degrees of freedom 
(C) 
1 vibrational degree of freedom 
(D) 
2 vibrational degree of freedom 
Q.2.
Q.3.
Select the
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