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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

|This are the things that may affect the mastery of 4th year MAPEH students in

teaching Physical Education in K to 12 curriculums that several physical characteristics

of post pubescent males predispose them to outperform females in sports that require

strength, power, and speed. Adult males tend to be taller with longer limbs. The breadth

of their shoulders allows for more muscle on a larger shoulder girdle, the main

contributor to post pubescent males’ advantage in upper-body strength. Adult males have

more overall muscle mass and less body fat than females, even in trained samples. Male

athlete’s average 4% to 12% body fat compared to 12% to 23% in female athletes.

Without question, males and females differ on several physical characteristics that

influence sport performanceunder each mastery area regardless of how they entered the

profession. Moreover, if all MAPEH 4th year students desire to grow in a certain area,

they can examine expected learning and skills in the intermediate and advanced level.

Physical activity taught at school age has the goal of providing many later

opportunities, leading to physical, psychological, and social benefits. But such

participation is different for boys and girls, with the consequent impact on health and on
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remaining physically active. In physical education classes, students learn what physical

activities to do and how to perform them in order to achieve benefits throughout their

lives .

This maybe the reason why most females are not complete in teaching physical

education in K to 12 curriculum because there is a large problem in terms of the mastery

of the skills in Physical education that may affect their teaching, because of these

problem most girls can`t perform or demonstrate well the Physical skill needed in

teaching physical education in K to 12 curriculum.

There is no doubt that through physical education, students can discover new

skills/abilities, develop their creativity, and also improve their physical, mental emotional

and social health in doing this and they can create something that they never did before.

As futureMAPEH teacher the responsibility depends on them to nurture the

skills/abilities, creativity and health that lives in the children and the youth. Teachers are

expected to increase the skills/abilities, creativity and health of the students. For these

will be treasured and appreciated in their entire lives. More over power can move the

hearts of everyone. Thereforeimproving their skills and abilities can lead power and

changes that are achievable. This is true to the young generations of today. The future

MAPEH teachers are the prime movers of their goal. To this schools are implementing

comprehensive learning or to promote the optimum development of every students:

physically, emotionally, socially and mentally to provide paths and bridges to new, more

profound understanding of the vital nature of physical education for each and every one.
3

Physical education has been deemed an integral part of creating a well-rounded

and holistic education. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical

Education (NASPE), there are four main points that must be present for a quality

education: the opportunity to learn, meaningful content, appropriate instruction, and

student and program assessment (NASPE, 2012). NASPE further documents that by

creating a quality education program, lessons help develop physical competence, health-

related fitness, cognitive understanding, and positive attitudes about physical fitness. All

of these qualities are the goals of new PE. One of the key qualities of new physical

education and any successful academic program is the development of intrinsic

motivation (Huitt, 2011). In order for this to be present in the classroom, it is suggested

that teachers explain or show why learning a particular skill is important, create and

maintain curiosity, provide a variety of activities and sensory stimulations, provide for a

game-style environment, set obtainable goals along the way, relate what they are learning

to student needs, and help students on an individual basis as frequently as possible. These

requests are not unobtainable. With proper lesson planning and strong behavior 7

management skills, even the less trained professional has the potential to spark interest

and create the motivation needed for individual student growth. Traditional physical

education in the United States can be looked at in many ways. First, it is strictly sports-

oriented where students achieve the skills to only be able to participate in recreational

team sports, for example, football, soccer, basketball, volleyball, and baseball. This only

allows for students to acquire skills related to these sports. Examples include: kicking,

throwing, catching, striking, and running. These skill sets provide for a limited idea of

physical education. Second, some traditional programs include recreational games like
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dodgeball, kickball, and tag games. The emphasis in these types of activities is placed

higher on a winner or loser or the ability to eliminate a large group down to the key, more

athletic individuals. The problem with this narrow focus is it does not promote higher

levels of motivation and feeling of achievement.

According to Monaham (2010), “the traditional model of PE has been

unsuccessful in promoting physically active and fit adults” (p.18). Educational trends

show that the feeling of being successful in all academic areas, including physical

education, will promote intrinsic motivation and therefore push students to become more

knowledgeable about the content and want to achieve more within those content areas.

Over the last decade, educators have created a program that opens up the cognitive and

affective learning domains within the physical education setting. In this paper, it is

referred to as New Physical Education. For example, Seattle Public Schools have taken

on a new role in their physical education program that is shown in the following

mnemonic device: The “New” Physical Education is P-Planned and purposeful; H-Health

Related; Y-Youth centered; Success-oriented; I-Inclusive; C- Cooperative; A- All active;

L- Lifetime focused rather than just rolling out the ball, game-oriented, teacher directed,

winners and losers, eliminating the less skilled, competitive, too much waiting time, and

only traditionally oriented in sports. 8 A key attribute to the idea of new physical

education programs is the need for assessment. According to Ian Diamond, the Chief

Executive at The Economic and Social Research Group, “assessment is essential to allow

individuals to get the educational support they need to succeed, to see the effectiveness of

different educational methods, and to ensure that education budgets are being spent
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effectively. Inevitably, assessment also risks marking teachers, learners and institutions

as successes or failures (Mansell, James, & Assessment Reform Group, 2009, p. 2). It

would seem that for many years physical education programs have gone to waste due to

the lack of qualitative and quantitative data about the program, the teachers, and affective

thinking given by student’s self-assessment.

Therefore, assessment in these areas is a vital part of a strong program. NASPE

has created two strong documents that will help any school system assess their physical

education program, “School Physical Education Checklist- How does your school rate?”,

and one that evaluates the professionally trained physical educator, “Physical Education

Teacher Evaluation improvement in the instrument” (NASPE, 2012).

The purpose of this study is to detect the different challenges in teaching Physical

Education and to develop Mastery among the future teachers it will also help for the

future Physical educators and practitioners for the quality of Physical education program.

And it will also promote an understanding on how the future MAPEH teachers face and

surpass the challenges that they in counter in teaching Physical education. It also this

study will serve as one of the basis of school to consider the different challenges that the

MAPEH teachers encountered for the school to be able to address these problem and

conduct activities that are beneficial to the future educators so that it will help students to

have Mastery in teaching Physical Education in K-12.

This study deals with the plans, actions and tools that the researcher used in order

to conduct a data. As the researcher conduct a survey in order to assess the Mastery in
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Teaching Physical Education of the respondents, as a researcher we found out that the

respondents have these factor that affect their Mastery in teaching Physical Education .

We give a questionnaire that answers Yes or No and we add all their answers with the 7

questions. According to 30 respondent that answers Yes, we got 114 while 122 answers

No. As we researcher gathers a data, we found out that the Future MAPEH teachers has

poor capability/mastery to teach Physical Education in K to 12 curriculum.

Statement of the problem

The general problem of the study is: Whatare the factors that affect the Mastery of

4th year MAPEH students in teaching Physical Education in K to 12 curriculums.

Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions:

1. Determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of;

1.1. sex;

1.2.age;

1.3.height

1.4.weight

1.5. number of seminars and trainings related to physical education

attended from year 2017-2018 and

1.6. experiences in Physical Education?


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2. Identify the level of Mastery in teaching Physical Education in K to 12 curriculums in

terms of:

2.1.learning environment;

2.2. students and teacher`s assessment;

2.3. application and content of physical education;

2.4. teaching strategies and use of technology;

3. Describe the level of programs in terms of;

3.1. implementation and

3.2. effectiveness;

4. Define the materials needed in implementing the programs in terms of;

4.1. availability and

4.2. usability?

5. Identify which among the variable taken singly or in combination greatly affect the

mastery in teaching Physical Education.


8

Significance of the Study

The result of this study will hopefully give better insight to the academe:

Students. The result of the study will increase the knowledge of the students

about the mastery in teaching physical education in K to 12 curriculum. This will help

them identify the different challenges in teaching physical education.

School.And also as one of the basis of schools to consider in teaching physical education

in the k to 12 curriculum is to be able to address the problem and the challenges of the

future MAPEH teachers and to conduct an activities so that students will improve their

teaching or their skills in teaching physical education.

Practitioners.This study may serve as a guide for future physical educators and

practitioners for the improvement in the quality in teaching physical education and to

develop their skills, improve their abilities and to master their professionalism.

Future Researcher. The result of this study will give additional information and

knowledge about the study that may also use in related studies in the future. It will

provide them related information about to the current problem.

Scope and Limitation

This study was limited only to the mastery of 4th year MAPEH students in

teaching physical education in k-12 curriculum. The variables included were: age, sex,

MAPEH subject, course and major, specialization in physical education, seminars and

trainings, experience/s in physical education and problems encountered in; determine the

mastery of MAPEH 4th year students in teaching physical education.


9

NOTES IN CHAPTER

Ihttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07303084.2016.1110482?scroll=top&ne

Access=true&journalCode=ujrd20#.Wts4BbN8FFA.facebook

https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=UNESCO+(2008)&rlz=1C1OKWM_enPH790PH

790&oq=UNESCO+(2008)&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i59j0l4.51398j0j7&sourceid=chrome

&ie=UTF-8

http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Thesis/293S.pdf

http://www.samplequestionnaire.com/physical-education-questionnaire.html
10

Chapter II

Relevant theories

According to Kickhofel, Allison M said that program should include traditional

theories of team-sports, new theories of life-long fitness, non-traditional games and

activities, health, wellness and nutrition. The survey reported student self-assessment

with positive gains from the incorporation of these educational blends. The main

recommendation for best practices for an effective physical education program is to

assess the needs of the student population, environment, and classroom culture frequently

to ensure that both national standards and individual goals are being satisfied.

According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education

(NASPE), there are four main points that must be present for a quality education: the

opportunity to learn, meaningful content, appropriate instruction, and student and

program assessment (NASPE, 2012). NASPE further documents that by creating a

quality education program, lessons help develop physical competence, health-related

fitness, cognitive understanding, and positive attitudes about physical fitness. All of these

qualities are the goals of new PE.

Tony Monahan, a Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Rhode Island wrote,

“Although serious, the situation of an unhealthy society is conceivably fixable; with

appropriate knowledge and resources the trend can be reversed. In order to achieve the

goal of a healthy society, innovative methods and theories that endeavor to help all

children toward a self-maintained, healthy lifestyle are needed” (Monahan, p. 14,


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2010).Before discussing these innovative theories, the review of why there is a need for

change within the schools programs need to be addressed.

Related literature

Physical education and academic achievement—literature review 1997–2015

(Published online: 30 Sep 2016 ). The purpose of this review was to organize the results

of studies conducted during the last 18 years into a body of knowledge concerning the

link between physical education (PE) and academic achievement (AA). Such knowledge

may help in clarifying the role of PE in the schools, whose main focus is on improving

the AA of the children. The term PE is used to denote those classes taught in the

framework of a school curriculum in which physical activity is at the center. The

reviewed studies were divided into three categories: the ‘political’, in which a rationale is

provided for PE in mainly achievement-oriented academic schools (n = 10); the

‘interventionist’, in which it is shown that PE given in accordance with a defined

intervention programmer influences AA (n = 10); and the ‘integrative’, in which it is

determined how physical activity incorporated into the daily routine of academic studies

contributes to AA (n = 5). The significance of the reviewed studies in each category is

discussed, as well as the advantages and limitations of the studies. Ideas for future

research on the link between PE and AA are proposed.

The Teacher Development in Physical Education: A Review of the Literaturethe

Teacher Development in Physical.The purpose of this article was to provide a review of


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the research on the professional development of physical education (PE) teachers. The

structured approach (Erich, Hansford and Tennent, 2004) was used for the search and

analysis of literature. First, searching through computerized education databases, a total

of 56 research-based articles were included in this review. Second, demographic data

were summarized and analyzed according to the geographic distribution, study periods,

research method, research design, and participants. Third, a review and analysis of the

findings from these studies were presented according to three themes: impact of PE

teacher development, types of PE teacher development, and influencing factors. The

article concluded with a discussion of key issues in three themes and the recommendation

for the future research.

Research and Practice in K-12 Online Learning the literature related to online

learning programs for K-12 students dates to the mid-1990s and builds upon a century of

research and practice from K-12 distance education. While K-12 online learning

programs have evolved and grown over the past decade, the amount of published research

on virtual schooling practice and policy is limited. The current literature includes

practitioner reports and experimental and quasi-experimental studies, both published and

unpublished. This paper reviews open access literature in K-12 online learning and

reports on a structured content analysis of the documents. Themes in the literature include

steady growth and a focus on the benefits, challenges, and broad effectiveness of K-12

online learning. In addition, newly developed standards for K-12 online learning are

emerging in descriptions of effective practices.


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Related Studies

Sex

Francisco Javier Castejón University Autónoma of Madrid, Madrid, Spain and


Francisco Javier GiménezUniversity of Huelva, Huelva, Spain said that the teachers
perceive a masculine orientation in the curriculum, in the sense that it favors boys'
participation and learning more than that of the girls. Nevertheless, a critical appraisal of
the curriculum could help to achieve the educational goals for boys and girls. In the case
of the contents included in the curriculum (sports, physical fitness and body expression),
sports (boys prefer soccer) and physical fitness are considered to be more 'masculine'
(boys participate more and enjoy them more), whereas in sports, girls prefer volleyball,
but they are especially inclined toward body expression, specifically, dancing, which is
considered more 'for girls' (they participate more). We do not intend to say that these
opinions tend to homogenize, but that from the teachers' viewpoint, the majority of boys
prefer certain contents and the majority of girls prefer others.

In the case of the girls, the teachers of our study consider that, for girls, physical
education is more closely related to their physical image (and demanded by social
influences: beauty, thinness, feminine stereotypes) than to learning motor skills. On the
other hand, the teachers think there is still a masculine approach to physical education
classes, which leads to girls' lower participation in the classes. We think that the demand
for research postulating a negotiation between teachers and students would benefit
participation and learning.

Most of the teachers think that, if boys and girls were separated in physical education
class, the girls would work and participate more. But the teachers also state that this
would entail the loss of many educational nuances, which would no longer be appropriate
or pertinent. The teachers propose some alternatives to improve girls' practice: teaching
contents that are more attractive to them, eliminating or decreasing competitive activities,
and stressing equal opportunities to maintain an active lifestyle. Again, a process of
negotiation should be proposed so that everyone would feel included when practicing
physical education contents. Future research should analyze the inclusion of motivation
to understand the differences in the use of the contents in physical education.

Age

Instructional opportunities vary within and among school levels as a result of


discrepancies in state policy mandates. Although the time to be devoted to physical
education (e.g., 150 minutes per week for elementary schools and 225 minutes per week
for secondary schools) is commonly included in most state mandates, actual time
allocation in school schedules is uncertain and often left to the discretion of local
education officials.
14

With respect to content, in both elementary and secondary schools, physical activity
is an assumed rather than an intended outcome except in the fitness education model. The
goals of skill development and knowledge growth in physical education presumably are
accomplished through participation in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity.
Data are lacking, however, to support the claim that physical activity offered to further
the attainment of skills and knowledge is of vigorous or moderate intensity and is of
sufficient duration for children to reap health benefits.

Height and Weight

According to Jennifer Harmon The College at Brockport physical activity and

BMI in February and March, 2012. At-test showed that children were significantly more

active than their female parents. The correlation between children and their female

parents' BMI revealed a moderately strong relationship. Boys took more steps than girls

during the seven day week, weekdays, and on the weekends. Caucasian children took

more steps during the seven day week, weekdays, and on the weekends than African

American and Hispanic children. Children in the healthy BMI category took more steps

in the seven day week than children in the overweight or obese BMI categories. Children

took significantly more steps on physical education days than on non-physical education

days indicating that children are more active on physical education days than non-

physical education days.

Body height and weight were self-reported by all participants and their body mass

indexes (BMI) were calculated. BMI does not distinguish overweight due to excess fat

mass from overweight due to excess lean mass and does not measure body fat directly.

However, BMI does correlate to direct measures of body fat, such as underwater

weighing and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. To be meaningful in children and

adolescents, BMI measurements must be compared to a reference-standard that accounts

for children's and adolescents' age and sex. Based on their BMI values, the participants
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were assigned to the following categories: (a) underweight, (b) normal weight, and (c)

overweight, including individuals recognized as obese. Classification into the categories

was based on age- and sex-adjusted cutoff values of BMI for children and adolescents as

determined by Cole et al.

Seminars and training

The Presidential Youth Fitness Program, launched in September 2012, is a

comprehensive program that provides training and resources to schools for assessing,

tracking, and recognizing youth fitness. The program promotes fitness testing as one

component of a comprehensive physical education curriculum that emphasizes regular

physical activity. The program includes a health-related fitness assessment, professional

development, and motivational recognition. A key to the program’s success is helping

educators facilitate a quality fitness assessment experience. The Presidential Youth

Fitness Program was developed in partnership with the Cooper Institute; the Centers for

Disease Control and Prevention; the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education,

Recreation and Dance; and the Amateur Athletic Union.

Experience in Physical Education

According to José Luis Chinchilla Minguet, IvánLópezFernándezthey can conclude that

the activity levels of students in physical education classes depends on the content of the

session, which in turn is dependent on the student’s educationallevel. In physical

education classes in which the technical tasks or those carried out individuallyrequire

students to take a leading role, the time in which the students are active and involved in
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the activity is significantly less in comparison with classes in which the main content

consists of group games and sports. This difference is more pronounced in the third stage

of elementary education and in high school education. However, in all cases the level of

activity of the students in physical education classes is low, at around 50% of class time.

Th is means that in almost half the class time the students remain inactive even when the

content of the session is group games and sports, which lend themselves to simultaneous,

less rigid participation. Comprehensive efforts are needed to increase physical activity

levels during both types of physical education classes.

2018 Chicago State UniversityOnline MS Ed in Physical Education (Grades K-

12) Program in this study The Department of Secondary Education, Professional Studies,

and Recreation offers a Master of Science in Education degree in Physical Education

completely online. Completion of the master’s degree program does not lead to teacher

licensure. The program affords an opportunity for continuing education in physical

education beyond the bachelor’s degree, particularly for teachers and others in the fields

of health and safety education, physical education, and recreation. The physical education

program is accredited by the National Association of Sports and Physical Education

(NASPE).

The MPE program offers three options for students interested in gaining

knowledge of current curriculum and instructional and administrative practices and

procedures in physical education. Emphasis is placed on improving instructional

effectiveness and developing quality physical education programs in school settings as


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well as expanded physical activity programming beyond the physical education lessons

within school environments. Students will learn about designing, implementing and

assessing Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. This type of programming

reflects current global trends in promoting physical activity for children, youth, school

staff, and families in communities surrounding school campuses. The Master of Physical

Education degree program gives candidates the flexibility to design a plan of study that

enhances their interests and professional specialization.

The Master of Physical Education pedagogy research track is appropriate for

students interested in learning more about research on teaching in physical education

settings. This track may be of interest to students who already have a teacher certificate in

physical education and are interested in pursuing doctoral studies in the future.

The Master of Physical Education with a physical education endorsement (grades K-12)

familiarizes students with the most current trends and issues in school physical education.

Students can focus on numerous topics within elementary physical education, secondary

physical education and adapted physical education. This track may be of interest to

students with a teaching certificate in a different subject matter who are interested in a K-

12 physical education endorsement.

The master's degree and Arizona certification in physical education program

provide students with the course work and practical experiences necessary to become

certified to teach physical education in the public schools. The program provides

participants an institutional recommendation for an Arizona secondary education (grades


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6-12) certification with a Physical Education endorsement (grades K-12) and the Master

of Physical Education degree.

Physical education programs that utilize developmentally appropriate motor skill


learning experiences delivered by qualified physical education specialists significantly
improve motor skills in youth (Morgan et al., 2013)

Physical education with higher physical activity intensity significantly improves


adolescents’ non-verbal and verbal ability, abstract reasoning, spatial ability, and
numerical ability (Ardoy et al., 2013)

Definition of Terms

K to 12.Letter “K” refers to kindergarten and “12” refers to additional two (2) years in a

basic education. It is the additional tears after 4th year in secondary school.

Mastery iscomprehensive knowledge or skill in a subject or accomplishment.

Future MAPEH teachers are the prime movers of their goal.. To this schools are

implementing comprehensive learning or to promote the optimum development of every

students: physically, emotionally, socially and mentally to provide paths and bridges to

new, more profound understanding of the vital nature of physical education for each and

every one.

Physical Education is an integral part of educational program design to promote the

optimum development of a single individual: physically, emotionally, socially,

spiritually, and mentally through total body movements in the performance of property

selected physical activities.


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Conceptual Framework

IV-DV Model

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Socio-demographic profile

1.1 sex;

1.2.age;

1.3.height
The factors that affect the Mastery of 4th
1.4.weight
year MAPEH students in teaching

1.5. number of seminars and trainings related to Physical Education in K to 12

physical education attended from year 2017-2018 and curriculum.

1.6. Experiences in Physical Education?

Problem encountered by public secondary

MAPEH 4th year students

 Desired learning outcomes

 Equipment/facilities

 Learning resources
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Hypothesis of the study

Based on our findings and result of the questionnaire that we conduct we found out that

future MAPEH students have a problem in Mastery in teaching Physical Education and

also they encounter different challenges in teaching physical education one of this is the

lack of experience, and also the capability of MAPEH students to speak in English

fluently and they have lots of activities that they don’t commonly do or they actually lack

of talents in terms of teaching Physical Education.


21

Notes in Chapter II

https://education.asu.edu/academic-programs/physical-education-mpe

790&oq=UNESCO+(2008)&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i59j0l4.51398j0j7&sourceid=chrome

&ie=UTF-8

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3607380/

http://shapefla.org/doc/ResearchImpactandBenefitsofPhysicalEducation.pdf

https://journals.muni.cz/studiasportiva/article/viewFile/7313/7031
22

CHAPTER III

Methods and Techniques of Research

This chapter contains the research design and the methodology use in the conduct of this

study. It incorporated the sampling technique, sources of data, the research subjects,

populations of the study, the instrument utilized to gather data, as well as the statistical

tools employed in processing the data. This chapter is showing how the researcher came

to the necessary data for this study, and how these data were analyzed, interpreted and

presented in the easiest way possible.

Research Design

This study utilize the descriptive – survey in order to achieve the purpose of this

study – which is to determine the mastery of 4th MAPEH students in teaching physical

education in k to 12 curriculum. It is descriptive in a sense that the data obtain were

analyzed and described.

Population and Sample of the Study.

The research population for this study comprised all the MAPEH 4thyear students at

Bataan Peninsula State University. Thirty three respondents within the school will be

selected specifically the 4th year MAPEH students they were taken by used of Table of

Random Numbers as informants of the study.


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Research Instruments

We prepared a questionnaire to determine the mastery of 4th year MAPEH students

in teaching physical education in k to 12 curriculum. This can be determined based from

the indicators such as the respondent’s profile, the mastery of 4th year MAPEH students

in terms of teaching physical education.

The questionnaire had questions that related to the study and this questions were

answered consequently.

Construction and Validation of the Instrument.

Data Gathering Procedure

We followed certain procedures in the conduct of this study.

1. Choose a certain title. It is a must that we choose a title for our study and defend it

to the panelist until it was approved.

2. Securing permit to conduct the study. The permit to conduct the study was

requested and filled by Dr. Leandro T. Olubia.

3. Preparation of the instruments. Questionnaire is a principal tool in gathering the

data. The first draft of the instrument was made in coordination with the adviser

so that the survey tool is reliable and valid.

4. Administering the questionnaire. The researcher personally distributed the

questionnaire to the respondents in Bataan Peninsula State University Balanga


24

Campus (BPSU-BC) during their vacant time or free time. Here, a clear

explanation of the purpose and objectives of the study was been indicated.

Confidentiality was given in order to assure cooperation to avoid inhabitations

from the respondents in the accomplishing the questionnaire.

5. Validating the instrument. After the distribution is the validation of the

questionnaire. It is analyzed and interpreted through the data gathered and

formulate the conclusions and recommendations of this study.

Data Processing and Statistical Treatment.

In this part, the researcher will discuss the next step that will undergo after data

collection. Statistical treatment will employ specifically numerical leveling the responses

of the respondents. The presentation is a Descriptive Statistics, it will use the frequency

distribution, proportional and percentage tools.


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Chapter 4

Data analysis and interpretation

This chapter presents the data analysis and interpretation. The data was analyzed
using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Descriptive and
inferential statistics such as frequencies, tables, percentages and correlation tests were
used in the data analysis and summaries. Relationships between variables were identified
using Pearson’s Correlation and Regression analysis.

The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that affect the mastery of 4th
year MAPEH students in teaching Physical Education in K to 12 curriculums.

The objectives of the study were to:

 determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of; sex, age,
height, weight, number of seminars and trainings related to Physical Education
attended from year 2017-2018, and experiences in Physical Education;
 identify the level of Mastery in teaching Physical Education in K to 12
curriculums in terms of: learning environment, students and teacher’s assessment,
application and content of physical education, teaching strategies and use of
technology;
 describe the level of programs in terms of implementation and effectiveness;
 define the materials needed in implementing the programs in terms of availability
and usability;
 identify which among the variable taken singly or in combination greatly affect
the mastery in teaching Physical Education.
This chapter is divided into five sections:

 Part I shows the level of socio-demographic profile of the respondents in


terms of; sex, age, height, weight, number of seminars and trainings
related to Physical Education attended from year 2017-2018, and
experiences in Physical Education;
 Part II explain the level of Mastery in teaching Physical Education in K to
12 curriculums in terms of: learning environment, students and teacher’s
assessment, application and content of physical education, teaching
strategies and use of technology;
 Part III illustrate the level of programs in terms of implementation and
effectiveness;
 Part IV describe the materials needed in implementing the programs in
terms of availability and usability;
26

 Part V identify which among the variable taken singly or in combination


greatly affect the mastery in teaching Physical Education.

 Part I shows the level of socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of;
sex, age, height, weight, number of seminars and trainings related to Physical
Education attended from year 2017-2018, and experiences in Physical Education

Table 1 Presents the profile of the respondents in terms of sex

Descriptive
Standard
Sex Frequency Percent Mean Equivalent
Deviation
of Mean

Male 16 53.3%

Female 14 46.7% 1.4667 male .50742

Total 30 100%

The table shows that frequency of male respondents is 16 or 53.3%. And the
frequency of female respondents is 14 or 46.7%. The table also present that male
respondents are greater than female respondents.

Table 2 Presents the profile of the respondents in terms of age.

Descriptive
Standard
Age Frequency Percent Mean Equivalent
Deviation
of Mean

19 5 16.7

21 years’
20 11 36.7 20.6000 1.24845
old

21 9 30.0
27

22 2 6.7

23 2 6.7

24 1 3.3

Total 30 100.0

The table present the frequency, percentage, mean, descriptive equivalent of mean
and standard deviation distribution of the respondents as to their age. As depicted by the
table, the age of 20 accumulated the highest frequency or 36.7%, age of 21(30%) attained
the second highest frequency and age 24 accumulated the lowest frequency or 3.3%. In
general, the average age of the respondents is 21 years old and the standard deviation is
1.24845.

Table 3 Presents the profile of the respondents in terms of Height

Descriptive
Standard
Height(feet) Frequency Percent Mean Equivalent
Deviation
of Mean

5’2 4 13.3

5’3 6 20.0

5’4 1 3.3

5’5 5 16.7 5.5503 5’5 feet .22653

5’6 2 6.7

5’7 7 23.3

5’8 2 6.7
28

5’10 2 6.7

5’11 1 3.3

Total 30 100%

As showed by the table, the height of 5’7 gathered the highest frequency or
23.3%, height of 5’3 attained the second highest frequency or 20% and height of 5’4 and
5’11 accumulated the lowest frequency or 6.6%. Overall, the average height of the
respondents is 5’5 feet and standard deviation of .22653.

Table 4 Presents the profile of the respondents in terms of Weight

Cumulative
Weight(kg) Frequency Percent
Percent
50.00 8 26.7 26.7

52.00 1 3.3 30.0

53.00 2 6.7 36.7

54.00 1 3.3 40.0

55.00 2 6.7 46.7

56.00 2 6.7 53.3

57.00 1 3.3 56.7

58.00 1 3.3 60.0

59.00 1 3.3 63.3

62.00 1 3.3 66.7

65.00 1 3.3 70.0

66.00 1 3.3 73.3

67.00 1 3.3 76.7


29

68.00 1 3.3 80.0

70.00 2 6.7 86.7

73.00 1 3.3 90.0


As indicated by the
75.00 1 3.3 93.3 table, the weight of 50
gained the highest
81.00 1 3.3 96.7 frequency or 26.7%.
Generally, the average
105.00 1 3.3 100.0 weight of the respondents is
60.3333 kg which is equal
Total 30 100.0 to 60kg and standard
deviation of 12.21738.

Table 5 Presents the profile of the respondents in terms of number of


seminars and trainings related to Physical Education attended from year 2017-2018

Descriptive
Number of Standard
Frequency Percent Mean Equivalent
Seminars Deviation
of Mean

0 11 36.7

1 10 33.3

2 6 20.0
1.0667 1 Seminar 1.08066
3 2 6.7

4 1 3.3

Total 30 100.0

As revealed by the table, zero seminar attended obtained the highest frequency or
36.7%, one seminar attended attained the second highest frequency or 33.3% and four
seminars attended accumulated the lowest frequency or 3.3%. Largely, the average
30

number of seminars attended of the respondents is one seminar and standard deviation of
1.08066.

Table 6 Presents the level of experience in Physical Education

Descriptive Standard
Indicators Mean
Equivalent Deviation

1. The way the lesson is taught helps me learn how to


exercise by myself. 4.0333 Satisfied .92786
2. The way the lesson is taught helps me learn how to use PE
to improve my health. 3.8667 Satisfied 1.04166
3. I feel very satisfied when I learn something new.
4.1333 Satisfied 1.07425
4. I feel very satisfied when I learn new skills and games.
3.7667 Satisfied 1.33089
5. I enjoy trying my best to learn a skill.
3.7667 Satisfied 1.22287
6. I learn something enjoyable.
3.8000 Satisfied 1.32353
7. What I learn makes me want to practice more.
3.9333 Satisfied 1.11211
Grand Mean 3.9 Satisfied 1.14760
Descriptive Equivalent of Mean
1.0 – 1.49 Very Dissatisfied/ Statement does not describe you at all
1.50 – 2.49 Dissatisfied/Statement describes you very little
2.50 – 3.49 Average/Statement describes you somewhat
3.50 – 4.49 Satisfied/Statement describes you pretty well
4.50 – 5.0 Very Satisfied/Statement describes you exactly

It can be gleaned from the data that, indicator three (3) “I feel very satisfied when
I learn something new” gotten the highest mean and indicator one “The way the lesson is
taught helps me learn how to exercise by myself “attained the second highest mean. In
contrary, indicator four (4) “I feel very satisfied when I learn new skills and games” and
five (5) “I enjoy trying my best to learn a skill” accumulated the lowest mean. Largely,
the average experience in Physical Education is 3.9 “satisfied” and standard deviation of
1.14760.
31

 Part II explain the level of Mastery in teaching Physical Education in K to 12


curriculums in terms of: learning environment, students and teacher’s assessment,
application and content of physical education, teaching strategies and use of
technology.
Table 7 Presents the Mastery in teaching Physical Education

Descriptive Standard
Indicators Mean
Equivalent Deviation

 Learning Environment
1. I individualized my teaching so that each of my students
improves emotionally, kinetically and socially. 3.7000 Satisfied 1.17884

2. I individualized my teaching so that each of my students


improves cognitively. 3.7333 Satisfied 1.04826

3. My student safety (physical, emotional, social)


guaranteed during my lesson. 3.9000 Satisfied 1.09387

4. I modify my lesson plan to ensure motivation, progress,


and safety of students. 3.9333 Satisfied 1.08066

Grand Mean
3.81665 Satisfied 1.1004

 Students and Teacher’s Assessment


5. My students participate in the evaluation of my teaching.
3.7667 Satisfied 1.25075
6. I involved my students in the evaluation of their
classmates. 3.6667 Satisfied 1.02833

7. I invite my colleagues to evaluate my teaching.


3.8000 Satisfied 1.06350
8. I used techniques to evaluate students cognitively and
socially (e.g., multiple choice questions, rubrics). 3.8333 Satisfied .94989

9. I used other techniques (e.g., evaluation during game,


evaluation scales, and rubrics) for the motor evaluation
4.0667 Satisfied 1.01483
of students.

Grand Mean
3.82668 Satisfied 1.06146

 Application and Content of Physical Education


32

10. I teach tactics, rules, and regulations of educational and


sport games. 3.9333 Satisfied 1.01483

11. I integrated issues like nutrition, obesity, smoking, drugs,


and tactics in my teaching. 3.7667 Satisfied 1.27802

12. My students acquire knowledge and skills from other


subjects (e.g., Language, Mathematics, Geography, and
3.7333 Satisfied 1.14269
History) through my lesson.

13. I teach techniques (e.g., of skills, physical fitness, etc.)


3.9000 Satisfied 1.09387
Grand Mean
3.83332 Satisfied 1.13235

 Teaching Strategies
14. I communicated with the students using clear and
concise speech, rhythm, signs-gestures. 3.7000 Satisfied 1.08755

15. I employed student-centered teaching styles (e.g.,


exploration, problem solving, etc.) according to learning 3.8667 Satisfied .93710
objectives and student needs.

16. I used a wide variety of media (e.g., tables, posters,


music, cards). 3.8000 Satisfied .99655

17. Apart from partial and whole practice, I employed


methods of group/random, constant/varying practice. 3.8333 Satisfied 1.05318

Grand Mean
3.8 Satisfied 1.0186

 Use of Technology
18. I used videos for teaching.
3.8667 Satisfied 1.04166
19. I make used of the computer to teach.
3.9000 Satisfied 1.12495
20. I assigned tasks that require students to search for
information on the Internet. 3.8000 Satisfied 1.09545

21. I used a video and voice recorder to evaluate my


teaching. 3.8000 Satisfied 1.27035

Grand Mean 3.84168 Satisfied 1.13310


Descriptive Equivalent of Mean
33

1.0 – 1.49 Very Dissatisfied/ Statement does not describe you at all
1.50 – 2.49 Dissatisfied/Statement describes you very little
2.50 – 3.49 Average/Statement describes you somewhat
3.50 – 4.49 Satisfied/Statement describes you pretty well
4.50 – 5.0 Very Satisfied/Statement describes you exactly

It can be deduced from table 7, mastery in the use of technology attained the
highest grand mean and mastery in application and content in physical Education
accumulated the second highest grand mean. In contrary, mastery in teaching strategies
gained the lowest grand mean. Generally, the average level of respondents in teaching
Physical Education is 3.82367 “Satisfied”.

 Part III illustrate the level of programs in terms of implementation and


effectiveness

Table 8 Depicts the level of programs in terms of implementation and


effectiveness

Descriptive Standard
Indicators Mean
Equivalent Deviation

Implementation
1. Does this school follow any national, state, or district
physical education standards or guidelines 3.8000 Satisfied 1.03057

2. Are these physical education standards or guidelines based on


the National Standards for Physical Education 3.8667 Satisfied .93710

Grand Mean
3.83335 Satisfied .98384
Effectiveness
1. Knowledge of the benefits of physical activity.
3.9667 Satisfied .99943
2. Knowledge of the principles of exercise that is frequency,
intensity, and duration. 3.9000 Satisfied .99481

3. Positive attitudes toward physical activity.


3.8333 Satisfied 1.11675
4. Regular participation in physical activity.
4.0667 Satisfied 1.04826
5. Maintenance of a healthy fitness level.
3.9667 Satisfied .92786
34

6. Development of fundamental motor skills such as running,


skipping, throwing, or striking. 4.0333 Satisfied 1.03335

7. Development of specialized motor skills such as catching


with a glove, a swim stroke, or a tennis serve. 3.8333 Satisfied 1.05318

8. The ability to perform a wide variety of movement forms at a


basic skill level. 3.9333 Satisfied .86834

9. The ability to perform two or more movement forms at an


advanced level. 3.9667 Satisfied .88992

10. Demonstration of responsible personal and social behavior in


physical activity settings. 4.0333 Satisfied 1.06620

Grand Mean 3.95333 Satisfied .99981


Descriptive Equivalent of Mean
1.0 – 1.49 Very Dissatisfied/ Rarely
1.50 – 2.49 Dissatisfied/Sometimes
2.50 – 3.49 Average/Frequently
3.50 – 4.49 Satisfied/Generally
4.50 – 5.0 Very Satisfied/Almost Always

As reflected on the data, indicator four (4) “Regular participation in physical


activity” gotten the highest mean, and indicator ten (10) “Demonstration of responsible
personal and social behavior in physical activity settings” and six (6) “Development of
fundamental motor skills such as running, skipping, throwing, or striking” accumulated
the second highest mean. In opposite, indicator three (3) “Positive attitudes toward
physical activity” and seven (7) “Development of specialized motor skills such as
catching with a glove, a swim stroke, or a tennis serve” obtained the lowest mean. As a
whole, the grand mean of effectiveness of programs is 3.95333 “Satisfied” and standard
deviation of .99981.

Part IV describe the materials needed in implementing the programs in terms of


availability and usability
35

Table 9 Presents the level of availability of materials needed in implementing the


programs

Descriptive Standard
Indicators Mean
Equivalent Deviation

1. Goals, objectives, and expected outcomes for PE. 4.1000 Satisfied .99481
2. A PE curriculum. 4.1667 Satisfied .94989
3. A chart describing the scope and sequence of instruction for
PE. 4.0667 Satisfied 1.08066

4. Lesson plans or learning activities for PE. 4.3333 Satisfied .92227


5. Plans for how to assess or evaluate students in PE. 4.3000 Satisfied .91539
6. Do PE teachers at this school have their own copy of the
curriculum. 4.3667 Satisfied .96431

Grand Mean 4.22223 Satisfied .97122

As seen on the data, indicator six (6) “Do PE teachers at this school have their
own copy of the curriculum” attained the highest mean, indicator four (4) “Lesson plans
or learning activities for PE” attained the second highest mean. However, indicator three
(3) “A chart describing the scope and sequence of instruction for PE” attained the lowest
mean. Generally, the level of availability of materials needed in implementing the
programs was “satisfied” and standard deviation of .97122.

Table 10 Shows the level of usability of materials needed in implementing the


programs

As presented in the data, badminton accumulated the highest mean (4.1333)


“satisfied”, gymnastics accumulated the second highest mean (3.9) “satisfied”.
Conversely, soccer (3.3) “average” and tennis (3.3) “average” accumulated the lowest
mean. Totally, the level of usability of materials needed in implementing the programs
was “satisfied”. And standard deviation of 1.38171.
36

Descriptive Standard
Indicators Mean
Equivalent Deviation

1. Badminton
4.1333 Satisfied 1.10589
2. Bowling
3.6000 Satisfied 1.61031
3. Gymnastics
3.9000 Satisfied 1.39827
4. Tennis
3.3000 Average 1.39333
5. Baseball
3.5333 Satisfied 1.40770
6. Basketball
3.6000 Satisfied 1.22051
7. Soccer
3.3000 Average 1.53466
8. Volleyball
3.8667 Satisfied 1.38298

Grand Mean 3.65416 Satisfied 1.38171

 Part V identify which among the variable taken singly or in combination greatly
affect the mastery in teaching Physical Education

Table 11 Correlation Matrix for Socio-demographic Profile, Program,


Materials, and Mastery in Teaching Physical Education.

It can be deduced from table 11 that there is significantly “strongrelationship”


between Experience in Physical Education (r = .735**) and Availability of Materials (r =
.776**), and Mastery in Teaching Physical Education. Also there is significantly
“moderate relationship” with Implementation (r = .528**), Effectiveness (r = 591**),
and Usability of Materials (r = 533**). On the other hand, there is no significant
relationship between Mastery in teaching PE and (sex, age, height, weight, and numbers
of seminar).
37

Mastery in Teaching Physical Education

Pearson’s r Sig. (0.05) Remarks

Sex -.169 .372 No Relationship

Age -.094 .621 No Relationship

Height .318 .087 No Relationship

Weight .065 .732 No Relationship

Seminars .350 .058 No Relationship

Experience in PE .735** .000 Strong Relationship

Implementation .528** .003 Moderate Relationship

Effectiveness .591** .001 Moderate Relationship

Availability .776** .000 Strong Relationship

Usability .533** .002 Moderate Relationship

*Correlation is significant at .05 Alpha level


**Correlation is significant at .01 Alpha level

Range of
Degree of
Correlation
Correlation
Coefficients

Very Strong
0.80 – 1.00
Positive

0.60 – 0.79 Strong Positive

Moderate
0.40 – 0.59
Positive

0.20 – 0.39 Weak Positive

Very Weak
0.00 – 0.19
Positive
38

Very Weak Table 12 The correlation coefficient between


0.00 – (-0.19)
Negative two continuous level variables is also called
Pearson’s R or Pearson product-moment
(-0.20) – (-0.39) Weak Negative correlation coefficient. A positive r value
Moderate expresses a positive relationship between the
(-0.40) – (-0.59) two variables (the larger A, the larger B) while
Negative
the negative r value indicates a negative
(-0.60) – (-0.79) Strong Negative relationship (the larger A, the smaller B). A
correlation coefficient of zero indicates no
Very Strong
(-0.80) – (-1.00) relationship between the variable at all.
Negative
However, correlations are limited to linear
relationship between the variables. Even if the
correlation coefficient is zero a non-linear relationship might exist. Statistical analyses
quote P-values as ≥ 0.05 (not significant), <0.05 (significant), <0.01 (highly significant).

Table 13 Regression Analysis (Step Wise)

Mastery in Teaching PE (Dependent Variable)


Independent
ANOVA t statistic
Variable Model B Coefficient R2
F Sig. t Sig

Constant .700 1.430 .164


Availability .603 42.461 .000
Availability .740 6.516 .000

Availability Constant .336 .756 .456

+ Availability .496 3.902 .001


.706 32.449 .000
Experience in Experience in
PE .358 3.085 .005
PE

a. Dependent Variable: mastery


b. Predictors: (Constant), availability
c. Predictors: (Constant), availability, experience in physical education
39

The "R Square" column represents the R2 value (also called the coefficient of
determination), which is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable that can be
explained by the independent variables (technically, it is the proportion of variation
accounted for by the regression model above and beyond the mean model). You can see
from our value of 0.603 and 0.706 that our independent variables explain 60.3%
(Availability) and 70.6% (Availability plus Experience in PE) of the variability of our
dependent variable. The F-ratio in the ANOVA table tests whether the overall regression
model is a good fit for the data. The table shows that the independent variables
statistically significantly predict the dependent variable, F = 42.461, p < .0005 (i.e., the
regression model is a good fit of the data).

Unstandardized coefficients indicate how much the dependent variable varies


with an independent variable when all other independent variables are held constant.
Consider the effect of availability in this example. The unstandardized coefficient, B1, for
availability is equal to .740 (see Coefficients table). This means that for each one
increase in Availability there is an increase in Mastery in teaching PE of 0.740.

The general form of the equation to predict Mastery in Teaching PE from


Availability and Experience in PE is predicted Mastery = 0.336 + (0.496 x availability) +
(0.358 x experience in PE).
40

Chapter 5

Conclusion

The primary attempt of this study was to determine the Factors that affect the Mastery of
4th year MAPEH students in teaching Physical Education in K to 12 curriculums. The
findings of this study provide a profile of socio- demographic profile of the respondents
in terms of sex, age, height, weight, numbers of seminars and training related to Physical
Education attended from year 2017 – 2018, and experience in Physical Education. This
study, in particular, was divided in five aspects. First, this study provided insightful
information regarding the level of socio- demographic profile of the respondents. Second,
this study presented diagnostic information about the Mastery in Teaching Physical
Education in K to 12 curriculums in terms of: learning environment, students and
teacher’s assessment, application and content of physical education, teaching strategies
and use of technology. Third illustrate the level of programs in terms of implementation
and effectiveness. The fourth one is by describing the materials needed in implementing
the programs in terms of availability and usability. Finally, by identifying which among
the variable taken singly or in combination greatly affect the Mastery in Teaching
Physical Education? The study shows that in terms of sex, age, height, weight and
seminars it is not greatly affect the Mastery of 4th year MAPEH students but in terms of
Experience in PE, Implementation, Effectiveness, Usability and Availability its greatly
affect the Mastery of the students. This study was analyzed using the Statistical Package
for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as
frequencies, tables, percentages and correlation test were used in the data analysis.
Relationships between variables were identified using Pearson’s Correlation and
Regression Analysis. This will help to encourage physical educators to become more
active in the study of standards. Pre-service teachers will be the future agents of standard-
based educational reform in the classroom of the future. They will play a paramount role
in holding K-12 students accountable for content standards and helping students achieve
desired learning outcomes in psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains. The
successful implementation of teacher standards is related directly to whether pre-service
teachers possessed a broad and deep knowledge base, a repertoire of teaching skills, and
positive dispositions toward teaching and learning. The interlocked relationship between
41

K-12 school and teacher education powerfully demands preparing prospective teachers
according to The National Standards for Beginning Physical Education Teachers.

Recommendation

The importance of knowing the problems that should be address. To accurately determine
the factors greatly affect the Mastery in Teaching Physical Education of 4th year
MAPEH students, up-to-date assessment must be maintained.

1. It is recommended that another study of Mastery of teaching Physical Education


conducted with a larger sample.

2. The quantitative findings of this study suggest that school should focus in the
experience and other needed materials, facilities of the school, school-university
collaboration have greatly affected to the needs of the students. It is recommended that
qualitative studies be further conducted to identify the factors and predictors of Mastery
in Teaching Physical Education, school-university collaboration, and learning outcomes.
Additional qualitative study may yield further information and understanding to
compensate for findings of this and other quantitative studies.

3. The study showed that it is greatly affect the Mastery of teaching of students in terms
of availabilities of materials so that the school university should always have a found that
will support for the needs of the students for them to truly understand the lesson in
Physical Education.

4. To teach content standards effectively, teachers must be empowered with content


knowledge, pedagogical skill, and professional disposition. It is recommended that a
study be conducted to identify how well teachers are prepared according to the standards.
Teachers will be evaluated as to whether they have mastered knowledge and skills
required by standards.