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1. Introduction to Welding:

Fig.: Welding Process

Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or
thermoplastics, by using high heat to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool causing
Welding is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and
soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
The history of joining metals goes back several millennia. The earliest examples of this come
from the Bronze and Iron Ages in Europe and the Middle East. The ancient Greek historian
Herodotus states in The Histories of the 5th century BC that Glaucus of Chios "was the man
who single-handedly invented iron welding".
Basically there are four types of welding processes:
1. Gas Welding
2. Arc Welding
3. Resistance Welding
4. Radiant Energy Welding
5. Thermochemical Welding
2. Arc Welding:

Fig.: Arc Welding Process

Arc welding is a welding process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity
to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding
of the metals. It is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an
electric arc between a metal stick ("electrode") and the base material to melt the metals
at the point-of-contact. Arc welders can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC)
current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes.

The welding area is usually protected by some type of shielding gas, vapor, or slag. Arc
welding processes may be manual, semi-automatic, or fully automated. First developed
in the late part of the 19th century, arc welding became commercially important in
shipbuilding during the Second World War. Today it remains an important process for
the fabrication of steel structures and vehicles.

Arc welding is the welding method used for creating this project.

Safety issues while doing arc welding:

1. Heat, fire, and explosion hazard
2. Eye damage
3. Inhaled matter
4. Interference with pacemakers
3. Welding joints created:

3.1.Lap Joint

Fig.: Lap Joint

Lap welding joints are used most often to joint two pieces with differing thicknesses
together. Also considered a fillet type, the weld can be made on one or both sides. A
Lap Joint is formed when 2 pieces are placed in an over lapping pattern on top of each

3.2.Edge Joint

Fig.: Edge Joint

Edge welding Joints are often applied to sheet metal parts that have flanging edges or
are placed at a location where a weld must be made to attach to adjacent pieces. Being
a groove type weld, Edge Joints, the pieces are set side by side and welded on the same
edge. For heavier applications filler metal is added to melt or fuse the edge completely
and to reinforce the plate.
3.3.Corner Joint

Fig.: Corner Joint

Being one of the most popular welds in the sheet metal industry the Corner welding
joint is used on the outer edge of the piece. This weld is a type of joint that comes
together at right angles between two metal parts to form an L. These are common in
the construction of boxes, box frames and similar fabrications.

3.4.Butt Joint

Fig.: Butt Joint

Being the universally accepted method for attaching a pipe to itself it’s also used for
valves, flanges, fittings, and other equipment. A butt welding joint is also known as a
square grove weld. It’s the easiest and probably the most common weld there is. It
consists of two flat pieces that are side by side parallel. It’s a very affordable option.

Fig.: Tee Joint

The Tee Weld Joint is formed when two bars or sheets are joined perpendicular to each
other in the form of a T shape. This weld is made from the resistance butt welding
process. It can also be performed by Extrusion Welding. Usually two flat pieces of poly
are welded at 90 degrees to each other, and extrusion welded on both sides.

4. Reference: