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Complex Analysis (EE2M11)

Complex numbers and the complex plane


(B&C Chapter 1 except S12)
version September 3, 2018

Joost de Groot

Faculty EWI, Applied Mathematics

Lecture 1.1

Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1


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Goal of this lecture
In 1572, Rafaello Bombelli was the first to describe complex
numbers. They were used to find the solutions to
third-degree polynomials. Later, people discovered that
these sorts of numbers could be used to find the solution to
many more problems. Through this, the analysis of complex
functions was established, an analysis we are going to learn
in this course: we will define complex functions (functions
from complex numbers to complex numbers) and will study
limits, continuity, differentiability, and integrability of these
functions. This will then be used in future courses (signals
and systems).
In this lecture, we will repeat the first year introduction into
complex numbers.

Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1


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Complex numbers (§1)
In the class Analysis 1 and Linear Circuits you all saw that:

Definition: Complex numbers z are ”numbers” of the form


z = x + iy with x en y real and i so that i 2 = −1. Here, x is
called the real part of z and y is called the imaginary part.
Notation: x = Re z and y = Im z. Eg

Furthermore:
Definition: Two complex numbers z 1 and z2 are equal iff
their real and imaginary parts are equal. Eg

Remark: You have learned how to perform basic mathema-


tical operations with these numbers (addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division, see next slide). We expect, for
every homework question, you give your answer in the form
z = x + iy with x en y real, unless stated otherwise.
Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1
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Calculating with complex numbers (§3)

 Adding and subtracting complex numbers is entirely


what is to be expected.
 Multiplication is done (for the moment) with the form
x + iy. Multiplication is done by “pretending these are
just normal numbers”. During the calculation, replace
every instance of i 2 with −1. ’. Eg

 Dividing z1 = x1 + iy1 by z2 = x2 + iy2 is done by


multiplying both numerator or denominator by x 2 − iy2
and working out the results (see example on page 7):

x1 + iy1 (x + iy1 )(x2 − iy2 )


= 1 .
x2 + iy2 (x2 + iy2 )(x2 − iy2 )

The denominator then becomes a real number! Eg

Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1


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Notes:
 A complex number z = x + iy can be interpreted as the
point (x, y) in a certain plane: the complex plane.
 The x-axis is then called the real axis and the y-axis is
called the imaginary axis.
 C is the set that contains all complex numbers.
 Naturally, one must wonder whether doing so isn’t
completely ridiculous. Section 1 of the book gives the
formal introduction of complex numbers from already
existing mathematics. This isn’t official course material.
We only take a look at the mathematical rules of
complex numbers (see sheets 6 and 7), but you
probably wont find anything surprising there.

Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1


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Formal: Rules (§2)
For all complex numbers z1 , z2 (and z3 ), we see that
 z1 + z2 = z2 + z1
 z1 · z2 = z2 · z1
 (z1 + z2 ) + z3 = z1 + (z2 + z3 )
 (z1 · z2 ) · z3 = z1 · (z2 · z3 )
 z1 · (z2 + z3 ) = z1 · z2 + z1 · z3
 z1 + 0 = z1 whereby 0 = 0 + 0i
 z1 · 0 = 0
 z1 · 1 = z1 whereby 1 = 1 + 0i
 For every z ∈ C there exists a complex number w so
that z + w = 0, notation w = −z, so z + (−z) = 0.
 For every z ∈ C, z = 0 there exists a complex number
w  so that z · w  = 1, notation w  = z −1 , so z · z −1 = 1.
Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1
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Formal: More rules (§3)
From the set of rules of the previous sheet, we see that:
 z1 z2 = 0 =⇒ z1 = 0 or z2 = 0
Furthermore we can also give the definition for subtracting
and dividing complex numbers:

Definition: For complex numbers z1 and z2 we say:

z1 − z2 = z1 + (−z2 )

If z2 = 0 then
z1
= z1 · z2−1 .
z2

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Complex conjugate (§6)

Definition: The (complex) conjugate z of z = x + iy is the


complex number Eg

z = x − iy.

Note: In the complex plane, z and z are each others mirror


image over the real axis.

Rules: [for conjugating]


z=z z ∈ R ⇐⇒ z = z
z1 + z2 = z1 + z2 z1 − z2 = z1 − z2
 
z1 z
z1 z2 = z1 z2 = 1
z2 z2
1 1
Re z = (z + z) Im z = (z − z)
2 2i
. Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1
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Modulus (§4)
We have seen that complex numbers z = x + iy can be
associated with the points (x, y). You can also associate
them with vectors [ x y ]T . You then see that

Definition: The length or modulus (or absolute value) of


z = x + iy is the real number,
 
|z| = x + y = (Re z)2 + (Im z)2
2 2

that is the length of vector [ x y ]T or the distance between


the point (x, y) and the origin. Eg

Definition: The distance between two numbers z 1 and z2


is |z2 − z1 | = |z1 − z2 |. Eg

Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1


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We have the following important characteristic:
 The complex numbers z satisfying |z − z0 | = R (z0 a
given complex number) lie in the complex plane on a
circle with center z0 and radius R.
 The triangle inequality (§6): For all z 1 , z2 ∈ C we see
that
|z1 ± z2 | ≤ |z1 | + |z2 |,
the statement only has an equal sign when z 1 , z2 and 0
lie on the same line in the complex plane.
 The reverse triangle inequality: For all z 1 , z2 ∈ C we
see that  
|z1 ± z2 | ≥ |z1 | − |z2 |.
Later we will
 use this often!
 And thus |z1 | − |z2 | ≤ |z1 ± z2 | ≤ |z1 | + |z2 |.
Note: You can not order complex numbers!! So for example
z < 2 − i has no meaning. Eg

Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1


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Modulus rules (§6)

Rules:

|z| = |z| |z|2 = zz


 
 z1  |z1 |
|z1 · z2 | = |z1 | · |z2 |  =
 z  |z |
2 2

Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1


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Argument (§7)

Definition: The angle θ between the real axis and the ray
originating in the origin and going through the complex
number z is called a argument of z, notation: arg z.

Note: Every complex number z = 0 has infinitely many


arguments, all differing 2π from each other. (arg is a multiple
valued function). If θ is an argument of z, then the other
arguments of z are of the form θ + 2kπ for some k ∈ Z. Eg

Definition: The argument of z where θ is chosen sucht


that −π < θ ≤ π is called the principle value of the argument
(dutch: hoofdwaarde). Notation Arg z. Eg

Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1


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For every complex number with argument arg z = θ (we
have chosen just one argument) and modulus |z| = r , we
see that
Re z = r cos θ and Im z = r sin θ
in other words

z = r cos θ + ir sin θ = r (cos θ + i sin θ).

This is the polar notation of a complex number. This


notation is often used when θ is known and its sine and
cosine aren’t “nice” values. Eg

Note: It is always true that


y
tan θ = if z = x + iy.
x

Take care: θ and arctan(y/x) do not have to be equal!! Eg

Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1


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Argument rules (§9)

Rules: If arg(z1 ) = θ1 and arg(z2 ) = θ2 then

arg(z1 · z2 ) = arg(z1 ) + arg(z2 ) + 2kπ


 
z1
arg = arg(z1 ) − arg(z2 ) + 2kπ
z2

Opmerkingen:
 The argument of the product of two complex numbers is
the sum of the two arguments (mod 2π). The argument
of the quotient is the difference of the two arguments.
 If z1 = r1 (cos θ1 + i sin θ1 ) and z2 = r2 (cos θ2 + i sin θ2 )
then Eg
 
z1 z2 = r1 r2 cos(θ1 + θ2 ) + i sin(θ1 + θ2 )

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The exponential form (§7 en §8)
Because the rules for calculating with arguments from the
previous slide are very similar to the those of taking powers,
we often write (Euler’s formula).
cos θ + i sin θ = eiθ and so r (cos θ + i sin θ) = re iθ .
In §27 a proof is given that this is a true equality. Eg

Properties: If z1 = r1 eiθ1 and z2 = r2 eiθ2 then


z1 z2 = r1 r2 ei(θ1 +θ2 )
z1 r
= 1 ei(θ1 −θ2 )
z2 r2
z = r n einθ
n

Thus, you can work with complex numbers just like you
would with the powers of e. Eg Eg

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Consequences

Corollary: [de Moivre’s Formula]


(cos θ + i sin θ)n = cos(nθ) + i sin(nθ)

Corollary:
 The complex numbers of the form z = e iθ lie on the
circle with center 0 and radius 1.
 The complex numbers of the form z = Re iθ (R > 0
fixed) lie on the circle with center 0 and radius R.
 The complex numbers of the form z = z 0 + Re iθ
(z0 ∈ C and R > 0 known) lie on the circle with center
z0 and radius R.

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nth roots (§10)

Question: Does n
z0 exist for a (fixed) complex number z0 ?
It is a solution to z n = z0 . This equation is (for example, via
the exponential form) solved relatively quickly.
Brown-Churchill gives the formula:
  
√ θ0 2kπ
z = r0 exp i
n
+ (k = 0, ±1, ±2, · · · ).
n n
Here r0 = |z0 | and θ0 = arg z0 . [This formula you don’t need
to remember if you can solve z n = z0 .] Eg

Conclusion: Every complex number z0 has exactly n nth


roots

that are uniformly distributed on the circle with radius


n
|z0 |.
Note: We can’t talk about “the” 3rd root of 8i. Which third
root do we mean?
Complex Analysis (EE2M11) Lecture 1.1
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Suggested Exercises

Practice exercises/homework
B-C: 5(5), 9(2), 11(2,3,4)
E1: 1,2,3,8,9,11,15,16
Extended exercise
B-C: 5(2,4), 9(10), 11(6)
E1: 4,5,6,7,10,12

Note:
 Important: Practice exercises are always homework,
to be made before the next instruction lecture!
 “B-C: 9(2)” points to exercise 2 of §9 from the book of
Brown and Churchill.
 “E1” points to the extra exercises for chapter 1 (found
on Brightspace).

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