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The Philippine Context of Public Policy and Policy-Making

Faculty-Marked Assignment no. 2

PM 201 (Theory and Practice of Public Administration)

Submitted to:
Prof. Juvy Lizette M. Gervacio

Submitted by:
Jonathan J. Lumanog, Jr.


Master of Public Management

The Philippine Context of Public Policy and Policy-Making

I. Introduction to Public Policy

Public policy is a government action to achieve a certain goal in addressing

social problem that are of major public interest. Such policies are oriented to solve
issues in housing, welfare, crime, illegal drugs, tax, corruption, and international affairs.
It is governed by officials and administrators inclined in policy-making that is finalized by
a policy decision and implementation of that decision. Regulatory policy, distributive
policy, and redistributive policy comprises the three major types of public policy
(“Objective 5: Public administrators and public policy”, n.d.)
Regulatory Public Policy is conceived to preserve orderliness in a community by
prohibiting behaviors perceived negatively by the general society. This can be attained
by setting up a set of restrictions that hinders citizens, groups, or corporations from
engagement in activities that disrupts political and social order. An example of this are
policies that hinders creation of monopolies. Distributive Public Policy provides
incentives to citizens groups or corporations to encourage them and inherently provide
positive economic impacts. One example is the distribution of farm subsidies for farmers
that is expected to increase supply of agricultural products that can positively affect
supply and demand. Lastly, Redistributive Public Policy is purposely created to promote
equality. Societal wealth is redistributed within groups that benefits the community by
implication of social programs such as welfare. An example of this is progressive
taxation where tax rates simultaneously increase with the individual’s income.

II. The Policy-Making Process

In policy-making, policy analysis is detrimental in ensuring the quality of the

policies that are of major public interest. It integrates science with art that is oriented to
improve good governance (Lynn, 1999). The Philippine policy-making process can be
viewed in a legislative and executive perspective (Trillanes, 2017). Cochran (1999),

stated that it is divided it into two stages, pre-policy stages and policy stages. The pre-
policy stages are listed as follows: problem definition, policy demands, and agenda
formation. On the other hand, the policy stages are listed as follows: policy adoption,
policy implementation, policy evaluation, and problem redefinition.
The policy formation is categorized into rational planning (systematic planning)
and subjective reacting (haphazard planning). The former is perceived to be a proactive
approach while the latter is passive (“PPA 503 – The Public Policy-Making Process”,
The next steps are crucial to which stages included are policy adoption and
policy implementation. It is referred as a detrimental part in policy-making because it
heavily depends on public support, government’s availability of resources, allocation of
budget, and additional manpower/infrastructures. The policy evaluation is then carried
out by Philippine Institute for Development Studies that will help in the problem
redefinition to complete the policy-making process.

III. Reforms in the Public Policy

Mendoza (2015) stated that the government is now focused on delivering quality
service that promotes good governance and administration. She stated that two major
factors influence policy reforms; (1) the public sector inefficiencies and (2) liberal
economic ideology It stressed uniform quality, efficiency, responsiveness, and constant
improvement that provides transparency and accountability. It aims to reduce
corruption, inclusive public services for the marginalized sector, and better economic
environment for businesses. Specific issues included that affects reforms in public
policy are government procurement, bottom up budgeting, seal of good local
governance, anti-red tape, and citizen satisfaction index system (Mendoza, 2015)
Other issues are raised by Abonyi (2007) wherein he explores the policy reform
as an evolving experiment than following blueprints set in stone. He elaborated it by
stating policy reform involves change in rules, structures, systems, processes,
incentives, expectations, behaviors, power alignments, relationships, capabilities, and

IV. Critique

All the topics discussed is of great importance because it embodies a lot of

theories in public administration and for it to be represented in a scientific way. It also
affects various social issues that inherently deviates from treating public administration
as mere form of art. It elevates the social relevance of public administration by
acknowledging its scientific nature while respecting its artistic features.
In the Philippine setting, the relevance of policy-making and its reforms are highly
look upon. The public do not only listen when policies get implemented, most Filipinos
nowadays have something to say. Even though public opinion is arguably given
importance by the current administration, it cannot be denied that their participation is
detrimental to the policy making process in the Philippines.

V. References:

Cochran, C. E., et. al. (1999). American Public Policy: An Introduction. Wadsworth
Cengage Learning. Retrieved from
/introduction_public_ policy.pdf
Lynn, L. Jr. E. (1999). A place at the table: Policy analysis, its postpositive critics, and
the future of practice. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 18(3), 411-
425. Retrieved from
Trillanes, A. S. (2017). Understanding the Philippine Public Policy Process.
Retrieved from
Mendoza, M. V. (2015) Policy Reforms to Improve the Quality of Public Services in the
Philippines. National College of Public Administration and Governance,
University of the Philippines (UP) Diliman Retrieved from http://ncpag.upd.

VI. Slides/HTMLs:

Abonyi, G. (2007). PUBLIC POLICY REFORM PROCESS: Political Economy

Perspective. Dep’t of Public Administration & Executive Education Program
Maxwell School, Syracuse University. Retrieved from
Objective 5: Public administrators and public policy. (n.d.) Retrieved from
PPA 503 – The Public Policy-Making Process (n.d.). Retrieved from