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CALCULUS

Trigonometric Identities

Fundamental Identities Even-Odd Identities Addition Formulas

= •^n^^os a
CSC
1
^ sin(-0) = -sin 6
fsin(a + P) sin a cos /3(

(?)
sin
^ cos(-e) = cos e cos(a + P) = cos a cos /3 — sin a sin /3

= -tan a +
@ sec e
1

cos 6
11 tan(-0) 6 tan
-
tan /3

12 cot(-0) = -cot 1

cot = J 13 sec(-0) = sece


(3)
tan Subtraction Formulas
14 csc(-0) = -esc e
sin e - = a - a
^ tan e
cos
22

23
sin(a

-
j8)

=
sin

a
cos /3

+
sin /3

a
cos

Double- Angle Formulas'


cos(a /3) cos cos )8 sin sin ^
cos
®cot 20= tan a — tan 6
sin e
15 sin 2 sin 6 cos
24 tan(a - /3)
=
16 cos 26=2 cos- - 1

^ cos- e + sin- e = 1 = 1-2 sin^


= cos- 6 - sin^
7 1 + tan- = sec- Product Formulas
17 cos- = ^(1 + cos 20)
8 1 + cot- Q = csc^ e 25 sin a cos ^ = 5[sin (a + /3) + sin (a - /3)1

18 sin^ = 5(1 - cos 20)


26 cos a cos /3 = |[cos (a + ^) + cos (a - /3))

27 sin a sin /3 = 5[cos (a - /3) - cos (a + ^)]

Geometry (see Appendix A, page 1015)

Calculus

Differentiation

1 D,u" = nu"~^ D^ 11 Dv sinh M = cosh u Dji


Vl -M^
2 D^u + v) = D^ + D^v 12 D;^ cosh u = sinh m D^m
22 D, cos"' M
3 D,{uv) = mO,v + vD^M 13 D( tanh « = sech- u D^m

uD^v 14 Dt coth M = -csch- u D^ 23 D, tan"' m


= — sech h tanh u D^u
1 + M^
15 D, sech M
5 D^ sin u = cos u D,u 16 Dj csch M = —csch w coth « D^w 24 D, cot"' M :

1 + u^
6 D, cos M = — sin M D,u 17 D^" = e" D^
7 D, tan u = sec^ m D^m 25 D, sec"' M
18 D,a" = a" In a D,m |m|Vm^ - 1

8 Dj cot M = -csc^ u D,M


19 D, log,, « = 26 Dj CSC"' «
9 D^ sec M = sec u tan u D^ u In a u\Vu^ - 1

10 D^ CSC u = —CSC M cot « D^M = = f(u)D,u


20 D. in w 27 D f(t) dt
J
nsw BOOK $51. 45 ijcrn
Tables of .Integrals (constants o^n^^gf'"'^ l^^^^ '*^'' omitted to save space)

Elementary forms

1 du = (n^-l) 10 cot u du = \n |sin u| 19 cosh u du = sinh m


n + 1

J
—u
= In |m|
11 sec u du = \n |sec m + tan u\ 20 sech" M ^M = tanh u

12 CSC M Jm = In |csc M — cot m| 21 csch" u du = -coth m


sin M du = —cos «
J

13 sin^ u du = 2U — 1 sin 2m 22 sech M tanh u du = —sech u


cos M <iM = sin u
I

14 COS" u du = 2U + 4 sin 2m 23 csch M coth u du = —csch u


sec" M c/u = tan u
rfw M
IS
,

24 u dv = uv — \ V du
csc^ M ^« = —cot u

du 25 e" du = e"
7 sec M tan u du = sec m 16
a^ + M- a"
26 a" du =
8 j
CSC M cot u du = —CSC m du In a
17 1—^ 1 ~ ^'
mVm" — a~ a
9 I tan M t/w = —In |cos m|
18 sinh u du = cosh u

IWgonometric Forms

27 tan" u du = ta.n u — u
I

28 cot^ u du = —cot M — M
"-2 r „_,
J H sec " M Jm
/I - 1 J
r sin" ' u cos « n — \ { _,
29 sin" u du = 1
sin" - u du r i

^ " « ' 34 CSC" udu= esc" ^ M cot M


-I -^ "-1
r cos M sin M •
w — ,
1
r
_-,
du = -
I
30 cos" M 1
cos" ~ u du n 2
J n n J -t ^ . + CSC - M du
n - 1

31
J
tan" M du = ——— tan""' m - I tan"~^ u du 35 I u" sin u du = -u" cos u + n \ u" cos M c/«

m" cos u du = u" sin m — n «" ' sin m du


32 cot" u du = cot""' u — cot""- u du
J M- 1 J

;3a^
Inverse Trigonometric Forms
f _, lu^ - 1 mVi -
37 sin"' u du = u sin"' u + Vl — m" 40 M sin u du = sin m +
J 4

38 cos"' // rfw = M cos"' M — Vl — M^ _, 2u- - 1 _,


f =
41 M cos u du cos M -
J 4 4
39 I tan"' u du = u tan"' u In (1 + u^)

42
r
\ u tan
- u du = —
1
(m"
-
+ 1) tan
-.
m —— «
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010

http://www.archive.org/details/calculuswithanalOOmune
SECOND EDITION

CALCULUS
with Analytic Geometry
SECOND EDITION

CALCULUS
with Analytic Geometry

M. A. Muneni Macomb Community College

D. J. Foulis University of Massachusetts

Worth Publishers, Inc.


Calculus with Analytic Geometry, second edition

Copyright © 1984 by Worth Publishers. Inc.


All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Catalog No. 83-50583

ISBN: 0-87901-236-6

First printing, January 1984

editor: Anne Vinnicombe

production: George Touloumes and Pat Lawson

designer: Malcolm Grear Designers

illustrator: Mel Erikson Art Services

typographer: York Graphic Services. Inc.

printer and binder: Kingsport Press

cover: Sinusoidal surface. Computer graphics by Thomas Banchoff. David Laidlaw. and
David Margolis.

Text figure and picture credits appear on page 1033. which constitutes a continuation of the
copyright page.

Wortli Publishers, Inc.


444 Park Avenue South
New York, New York 10016
CONTENTS

Preface
Introduction

CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS 1

1.1 Real Numbers, Inequalities, and Absolute Value 1

1.2 The Cartesian Coordinate System 10

1.3 Straight Lines and Their Slopes 16

1 .4 Functions 22
1.5 Types of Functions 31

1.6 Trigonometric Functions 41

1.7 Limits of Functions 52


1.8 Properties of Limits of Functions 60
1.9 Continuous Functions 69

CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE 85


2.1 Rates of Change and Slopes of Tangent Lines 85

2.2 The Derivative of a Function 92


2.3 Basic Algebraic Rules for Differentiation 98
2.4 Tangent and Normal Lines 109

2.5 Rules for Differentiating Trigonometric Functions 114

2.6 Function Composition 120

2.7 The Chain Rule 124

2.8 Implicit Functions and Implicit Differentiation 132

2.9 The Rational-Power Rule 138

2.10 Higher-Order Derivatives 143

2.1 Algebraic Signs and Zeros of Functions 150

CHAPTER 3 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 165


3 . The Mean- Value Theorem 165

3.2 Monotonicity and the First-Derivative Test 172


3.3 Concavity and the Second-Deiivative Test 180
3.4 Absolute Extrema 188
3.5 Asymptotes and Limits Involving Infinity 194
3.6 Graph Sketching 204
3.7 Applied Maximum and Minimum Problems 211
3.8 Related Rates 221
3.9 Applications to Economics and Business 228

( HAPTiiR 4 ANTIDIFFERENTIATION AND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 243


4.1 Differentials and Linear Approximation 243
4.2 Antiderivatives 251
4.3 The Method of Substitution, or Change of Variable 258
4.4 Differential Equations 264
4.5 Applications of Differential Equations 274
4.6 The Harmonic-Oscillator Equation 281
4.7 Areas by the Method of Slicing 290

CHAPTER 5 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL 299


5.1 The Sigma Notation for Sums 299
5.2 The Definite Integral 307
5.3 Basic Properties of the Definite Integral 316
5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 327
5.5 Approximation of Definite Integrals — The Trapezoidal Rule and
Simpson's Rule 338
5.6 Areas of Regions in the Plane 346

CHAPTER 6 APPLICATIONS OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL 357


6. Volumes of Solids of Revolution 357
6.2 The Method of Cylindrical Shells 365
6.3 Volumes by the Method of Slicing 369
6.4 Arc Length and Surface Area 375
6.5 Work, Force, and Energy 383
6.6 Applications to Economics and the Life Sciences 393

CHAPTER 7 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 401


7.1 Inverse Functions 401
7.2 Inverse Trigonometric Functions 409
7.3 Derivatives of and Integrals Yielding Inverse Trigonometric Functions 418
7.4 The Natural Logarithm Function 426
7.5 Properties of the Natural Logarithms 431
7.6 The Exponential Function 438
7.7 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions with Base Other Than e 445
7.8 Hyperbolic Functions 452
7.9 Exponential Growth and Decay 458
7.10 Mathematical Models for Biological Growth 468
7.11 First-Order Linear Differential Equations 474
CHAPTER 8 TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION 485
8.1 Integrals of Powers of Sines and Cosines 485
8.2 Integrals of Powers of Other Trigonometric Functions 490
8.3 Integration by Trigonometric Substitution 494
8.4 Integration by Parts 499
8.5 Integration by Partial Fractions — Linear Case 507
8.6 Integration by Partial Fractions — Quadratic Case 516
Integration by Special Substitutions 524
Tables of Integrals and Reduction Formulas 528

CHAPTER 9 POLAR COORDINATES AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 534


9. Polar Coordinates 534
9.2 Sketching Polar Graphs 541
9.3 Area and Arc Length in Polar Coordinates 549
9.4 The Ellipse 555
9.5 The Parabola 564
9.6 The Hyperbola 570
9.7 Rotation of Axes 577
9.8 Eccentricity and Conies in Polar Form 585

CHAPTER 10 INDETERMINATE FORMS, IMPROPER INTEGRALS, AND


TAYLOR'S FORMULA 596
10. The Indeterminate Form 0/0 596
10.2 Other Indeterminate Forms 603
10.3 Improper Integrals with Infinite Limits 608
10.4 Improper Integrals with Unbounded Integrands 613
10.5 Taylor Polynomials 617

11 INFINITE SERIES 630


11.1 Sequences 630
1 1.2 Infinite Series 641
11.3 Properties of Infinite Series 650
1 1.4 Series of Nonnegative Terms 658
11.5 Series Whose Terms Change Sign 669
1 1.6 Power Series 680
1 1.7 Differentiation and Integration of Power Series 686
11.8 Taylor and Maclaurin Series 692
11.9 Binomial Series 701

12 VECTORS IN THE PLANE 709


12.1 Vectors 709
12.2 The Dot Product 717
12.3 Vector and Parametric Equations 724
12.4 Vector- Valued Functions of a Scalar 733
12.5 Velocity, Acceleration, and Arc Length 740
12.6 Normal Vectors and Curvature 745
12.7 Applications to Mechanics 750

13 COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE 760


13.1 Cartesian Coordinates in Space 760
13.2 Vectors in Three-Dimensional Space 764
13.3 Cross and Box Products of Vectors in Space 771
13.4 Equations of Lines and Planes in Space 781
13.5 The Geometry of Lines and Planes in Space 789
13.6 Curves in Space 797
13.7 Spheres, Cylinders, and Surfaces of Revolution 806
13.8 Quadric Surfaces 812
13.9 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates 820

14 PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 830


14.1 Functions of Several Variables 830
14.2 Limits and Continuity 837
14.3 Partial Derivatives 845
14.4 Linear Approximation and Differentiable Functions 853
14.5 The Chain Rules 863
14.6 Directional Derivatives. Gradients. Normal Lines, and Tangent Planes 873
14.7 Higher-Order Partial Derivatives 886
14.8 Extrema for Functions of More Than One Variable 894
14.9 Lagrange Multipliers 904

CHAPTER 15 MULTIPLE INTEGRATION AND VECTOR CALCULUS 915


15.1 Iterated Integrals 915
15.2 The Double Integral 920
15.3 Evaluation of Double Integrals by Iteration 928
15.4 Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates 936
15.5 Applications of Double Integrals 944
15.6 Triple Integrals 954
15.7 Triple Integrals in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates 961
15.8 Applications of Triple Integrals 968
15.9 Line Integrals and Green's Theorem 973
15.10 Conservative Vector Fields 985
15.11 Surface Area and Surface Integrals 993
15.12 The Divergence Theorem and Stokes' Theorem 1003

APPENDIX A FORMULAS FROM GEOMETRY 1015


APPENDIX B PROOFS OF BASIC PROPERTIES OF LIMITS AND
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 1016
APPENDIX C MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 1021

APPENDIX D TABLES 1025

ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS A-1


ILLUSTRATION CREDITS 1033
INDEX 1035
PREFACE

PURPOSE The second edition of Calculus has been extensively rewritten and improved. Its
basic purpose, however, remains the same — to provide the necessary background in
calculus and analytic geometry for students of mathematics, engineering, physics,
chemistry, economics, or the life sciences.

PREREQUISITES Students who use this textbook should know the basic principles of algebra, geome-
try, and trigonometry covered in the usual precalculus mathematics courses. No
previous study of analytic geometry is required.

OBJECTIVES This book was written and revised with two main objectives in mind:
First, to provide the reader with a competent working knowledge of calculus. We
have taken pains to insure adequate coverage of the traditional topics and tech-
niques, especially those that will be needed in courses such as engineering, physics,
chemistry, and other sciences. Furthermore, we have tried to attune the textbook to
the —
two outstanding mathematical trends of our time the computer revolution and
the burgeoning use of mathematical models in the life sciences, the social sciences,
economics, and business.
Second, to complement and enhance effective classroom teaching and to allay
students'"math anxiety." Our own classroom experience has shown that success-
ful teaching is fostered by a textbook that provides clear and complete explanations,

cogent illustrations, step-by-step procedures, pertinent examples and problems, and


a multitude of topical, real-world applications. Such a textbook should build student
confidence by beginning with familiar material, explaining new concepts in terms
of ideas already well understood, offering worked-out examples that show in detail
how problems are to be solved, and providing opportunities for students to reinforce
and test their understanding via problem sets in which the level of difficulty in-
creases gradually.

SPECIAL FEATURES Aspects of the book that have worked well have been carried over from the first
edition and a number of new features, designed to enhance readability and stimulate
student interest, have been introduced.
1 Examples and Figures numerous examples, we offer guidance to
In the
students in organizing work and in deciding when a shortcut may h>e
liieir

reasonable. The examples are worked in detail with all substitutions shown.
Figures and graphs are used to enhance verbal explanations whenever possible.
2 Problem Sets Problems at the end of each section progress from simple
drill-type exercises, amply by worked-out examples, to more de-
illustrated

manding conceptual questions. To solve the odd-numbered problems requires a


level of understanding sufficient for most purposes, whereas the even-num-

bered problems toward the end of each problem set are more challenging and
probe for deeper understanding. To generate student interest, the problems
include applications to a wide variety of fields — not only to engineering, ge-
ometry, and the physical sciences but also to biology, business, the earth
sciences, ecology, economics, medicine, navigation, and the social sciences.
Answers to odd-numbered problems are given in the back of the book and
solutions to all problems are provided in a Solutions Manual for instructors.
In each problem set, a group of problems that provide a good representa-
tion of the main ideas of the section has been identified with numerals printed
in color. This feature is helpful for students preparing for quizzes and exams,
and it can be used by instructors in selecting problems for assignment.
3 Review Problem Sets The review problems at the end of each chapter can
be used in a variety of ways: Instructors may wish to use them for supplemen-
tary or extra-credit assignments or for quizzes and exams; students may wish to
scan them to pinpoint areas where further study is needed. In some places,
these problems purposely are not arranged by section so that students can gain
experience in recognizing types of problems as well as in solving them.

4 Use of Calculators In keeping with the recommendations of the National


Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and the Mathematical Associa-
tion of America (MA A), we have de-emphasized the use of tables in favor of
the use of scientific calculators. We feel obliged to prepare students to function

outside the classroom, where virtually everyone using mathematics in a practi-


cal way — from the actuary to the zoologist — routinely employs a calculator.

In this book, we have tried to assign the calculator its rightful place — a tool,
useful at times, unnecessary at other times. Problems and examples that call
for the use of a calculator are marked with the special symbol E
5 Computer Graphics The use of computers to generate graphs is fascinat-
ing and illuminating to students and instructors alike. We have included a
number of computer-generated graphs in Chapters 3, 13, and. 14.

6 SI {Metric) Units In the majority of physics and engineering problems we


have employed the SI (Systeme International) system of units, which is rapidly
replacing the customary British and U.S. systems in all applied work.

7 Historical Notes and Portraits Brief historical notes and portraits of


prominent mathematicians serve to remind the reader that mathematics is a
human endeavor.
8 Design In this edition, a more open design is used for ease of reading and
bettercomprehension. Newly defined terms are indicated in boldface type:
important results and formulas are highlighted in color and .set off by ruled
boxes: and the symbol is used to signal the end of a proof or the end of the
solution to an example.

9 Formulas Pertinent formulas from geometry, trigonometry . and calculus


are listed in the appendix and inside the front and back covers of the book.
ARRANGEMENT OF TOPICS Although the table of contents clearly identifies the topics covered and their order of
presentation, the following supplementary comments may be helpful.

1 Trigonometry Because deficiencies plague many calculus


in trigonometn,'
students, a substantial review of trigonometry precedes coverage
of limits and
continuity of the trigonometric functions in Chapter 1 At the
request of many
.

of our first-edition users, we have introduced early differentiation


the trigo- of
nometric functions in Chapter 2. This provides for more meaningful applica-
tions of the chain rule and enlarges the scope of the applications of the deriva-
tive in Chapter 3.

2 Algebraic Signs and Zeros of Functions An expanded section emphasiz-


ing the use of test values to determine algebraic
signs of functions and present-
ing both the bisection method and Newton's method for approximating zeros is
placed in Chapter 2. This material is particularly well-adapted to the use of
computers and calculators.

3 Concepts Used in Physics and Engineering The tools and


techniques that
are needed by students of engineering and science are developed
as early as
possible in the text. The important idea of setting up and solving simple differ-
ential equations is given suitable emphasis.

4 Geometry Throughout the book, the reader is continually encouraged to


visualize analytic relationships in geometric form. This
is particularly tirie for
the treatment of vectors— all concepts involving
vectors are first introduced
geometrically.

5 New Material To reflect the current needs and interests of students


takins
calculus, new material has been added on the following topics:

(a) Harmonic oscillators (Chapter 4)


(b) Linear differential equations (Chapters 4 and 7)
(c) Logistic growth model (Chapter 7)
(d) Method of least squares (Chapter 14)
(e) Jacobians (Chapter 15)
(f )
Conservative vector fields and potentials (Chapter 15)

6 Optional Material Because a topic that one person regards as optional


could be deemed essential by others, we have refrained
from marking any of
the material in this book as 'optional." However, material
that could'be con-
sidered optional has been placed at the ends of sections
or chapters, where it
can be omitted without loss of continuity.

PACE With adequately prepared students, the entire book can be covered in three semes-
ters or in five quarters. In general, chapters 1 through 5 include enough material for
a fu-st-semester course, chapters 6 through 1 1 are suitable for the second semester,
and the remaining chapters can be covered in the third semester. The book is written
for maximum flexibility; there are many ways to arrange the material coherently to
conform to a wide variety of teaching situations.

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS Study Guide An accompanying Study Guide is available for students who require
more or more assistance in any topic. The Study Guide conforms with the
drill

arrangement of topics in the book and contains many carefully graded fill-in
state-
ments and problems broken down into simple units. Study objectives and tests are
also included for each chapter. Answers are given for all problems in the Study
Guide in order to encourage the building of skills and confidence.

COMPUCALC — Computer Calculus Supplement A microcomputer diskette and


workbook by Robert J. Weaver of Mt. Holyoke College, designed to be used in

conjunction with the textbook, are available for students with access to a microcom-
puter. COMPUCALC consists of 19 "user friendly" computer programs, many of
them employing high-resolution graphics, and related workbook projects that guide
the student to make full use of the computer's ability to vividly demonstrate the
conceptual and computational power of calculus.

Instructor' s Resource Manual This manual provides a comprehensive testing pro-


gram, closely coordinated with the textbook. It includes an examination for each
chapter and three comprehensive examinations. Suggestions are offered on how
each topic might be presented and alternative sequences of topics are suggested.

Solutions Manual The step-by-step solution to each problem in the textbook is

available in this manual for instructors. By glancing through the worked-out solu-
tions, an instructor can select those problems that will provide the kind of practice
students need for each section of the book.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS By the time a book reaches its second edition, a great many people have contributed
to its development. We wish to thank the many individuals who have provided
remarks and helpful suggestions on the first edition. In particular, we would like to
express our gratitude to the following people: Nancy Angle, University of Colo-
rado, Denver. Frank Anger, University of Puerto Rico; Olga Beaver, Williams
College: Murray Eisenberg, University of Massachusetts. Amherst; Robert C. Geb-
hardt, Coimty College of Morris: David Hayes, College of Notre Dame: Herbert
Kamowitz, University of Massachusetts, Boston: Eleanor Killam, University of
Massachusetts, Amherst: William McKinley, Eastern Montana College: Bruce
McQuarrie, Worcester Polytechnic Institute: Robert Piziak, Baylor Universir\': Karl
Rehmer, Blackburn College: Franklin Schroeck, Jr., Florida Atlantic University:
Ronald Smit, Universits' of Portland: Charles Stone, DeKulb Community College:
Thomas Tredon, Lord Faiifax Community College: James Wahab, University of
South Carolina, Columbia: Harry Whitcomb, The Philadelphia College of Phar-
macy and Science: Robert White, North Carolina State University.
In preparing this second edition, we were fortunate to have the advice and guid-
ance of many reviewers; the knowledge and skills they shared with us have greatly
enhanced this book. For their contribution, we thank:

Robert B. Burckel, Bruce Edwards,


Kansas State University University of Florida

Ray E. Collings, August J. Carver,


Tri-County Technical University of Missouri, Rotla
College Louis M. Herman,
Daniel G. Dewey, Kansas State University
College of the Holy Cross Frank E. Higginbotham,
Roger T. Douglass, University' of Puerto Rico,

Alfred University Rio Piedras


Jerry Johnson, Laurence Small,
Oklahoma State University Los Angeles Pierce College
Roy Kelly, Howard E. Taylor,
Jackson Community College West Georgia College
Gary Lippman, John von Zellen,
California State University, Macomb Community College
Hayward Elaine Kirley Whittlesy,
J. J. Malone, Sierra College
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
James L. Moseley,
West Virginia University

Special thanks are due to Hyla Gold Foulis for reviewing each successive stage of
manuscript, proofreading, and solving problems; to Steve Fasbinder, Oakland Uni-
versity, for reviewing the manuscript, reading page proof, and solving problems;
and to Jarema Chypchar. Barbara Bloom, and Lela Grant for reading page proofs.
We also extend our appreciation to the problem checkers:Roger Douglass, Alfred
University: Kathy Franklin, Larry Small, and Ann Watkins, Los Angeles Pierce
College. John Spellman and Ricardo Torrejon, Southwest Texas State University,
and Elaine Kirley Whittlesy, Sierra College. Finally, we wish to express our grati-
tude to the staff at Worth Publishers, especially Rory Baruth, for their constant help
and encouragement.

M. A. Munem
January, 1984 D. J. Foulis
INTRODUCTION

Mathematics has been developed, cultivated, and refined


not only for its practical
applications to science, commerce, and industry,
but also because of its aesthetic
attractions. The ancient Egyptians developed some of the fundamental ideas of
tngonometry for the very practical purpose of relocating
property lines after the
periodic Nile floods; the early Greeks, however,
studied the conic sections largely
because they were intrigued with the beautiful geometry
of these graceful curves
Nearly two thousand years later, the Renaissance astronomer Johannes Kepler
(1571-1630) discovered that the paths of the planets as they orbit the
sun are conic
sections (ellipses). Thus, mathematical ideas,
originally developed because their
elegance appealed to the human mind, later found
practical application in astron-
omy and celestial mechanics.
The Italian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist Galileo
Galilei (1564-
1642), a contemporary of Kepler, showed that objects thrown into the air also

Johannes Kepler Galilfo Galilei


INTRODliCTION

follow conic sections (parabolas). Galileo's experiments and meditation on the prin-
ciples of mechanics moved him to declare that the ""Book of Nature is written in
mathematical characters." Within fifty years of this astonishing proclamation. Sir
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) in England and Gottfried Leibniz 1646-1716) in Ger- (


many independently created calculus the mathematical language with which
many chapters of Galileo's "Book of Nature" have been and continue to be written.
Fired with enthusiasm by this major intellectual triumph, generations of mathemati-
cians and scientists over the next two centuries developed and perfected the subject
of classical mechanics — the foundation of most branches of engineering.
Two more quantum mechanics, were added to the "Book
chapters, relativity and
of Nature" in the twentieth century. As Galileo had foreseen, these chapters are
also "written in mathematical characters," among which the derivatives and inie-
grals of Newton and Leibniz' calculus are especially prominent.
What accounts for the conspicuous role of calculus in Galileo's "Book of Na-
ture"? The fundamental reason is that the world is full of change and calculus is the
mathematics of change. For the same reason, calculus is profoundly involved in the

burgeoning use of maiheinatical models in the life and social sciences, economics,
and business. These mathematical models usually take the form of differential equa-
tions that express relationships among the rates of change of variable quantities.
In this book, we stress the idea of calculus as the mathematics of change and we
emphasize the use of differential equations as mathematical models for real-world
phenomena. We hope that our readers will be able to recapture some of the excite-
ment felt by the architects of calculus when they first began to realize the immense
power and beauty of their creation. Some of these readers, we like to think, may
themselves help to write the next chapter in Galileo's "Book of Nature."

Sir Isao, \ GollJncJ l-cihtiiz


i fTTV
FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

We begin this chapter with a brief review of some precalculus mathematics, after
which we introduce the two critical ideas upon which calculus is based function
and limit. Using the idea of a limit of a function, we formulate and study the
important concept of continuity.

1.1 Real Numbers, Inequalities, and


Absolute Value
The familiar idea of a number scale, number line, or coordinate axis makes it

possible to visualize real numbers as points along an infinite straight line (Figure 1).

Figure 1 o"&"

The real number corresponding to a point on the line is called the coordinate of the
point. An arrowhead may be used to indicate the direction (to the right in Figure 1)

in which the coordinates are increasing. The point with coordinate is called the
origin, and the point with coordinate 1 is called the unit point. The distance be-
tween the origin and the unit point is called the unit distance on the number scale.
On a horizontal number scale, points to the right of the origin have positive coordi-
nates, and points to the left of the origin have negative coordinates. The set of all

coordinates of points on the line is called the set of real numbers and is denoted by
the special symbol U.
Two real numbers .x and v in IR can be combined by the usual arithmetic opera-
tions to yield new real y, x — y, .vy. and (provided y ^ 0) .v/y. If y is
numbers x +
positive, can also raise y to the power x and obtain a definite real number y\
we
however, if y is negative, y' is not always defined as a real number. For instance,
(—1)1/2 _ Y'^Tj jg fiQj defined as a real number.
CHAPTER I FINCTIONS AND LIMITS

The real numbers 1 , 2. 3, 4. 5. and so on are called the natural numbers, or the
positive integers (Figure 2). The integers consist of all the natural numbers, the
negatives of the natural numbers, and zero (Figure 3). Real numbers that can be

Figure 2 the natural numbers Figure 3

written in the form a/h. where a and b are integers and fc 5^ 0, are called rational
numbers. The irrational numbers are those real numbers that are not rational. A
real number is irrational if and only if its decimal representation is nonterminating
and nonrepeating. Examples of irrational numbers are

V2= 1.4142135 •• •
and tt = 3.1415926 • •

Inequalities

Two different real numbers .v and y can always be compared to determine which is

greater. If the point with coordinate .v lies to the left of the point with coordinate y
Figure 4
on the number line (Figure 4). we say that y is greater than .v (or, equivalently that .

X is less than v). and we write

y>x x<y
Note that

.V > means that .v is positive.


.V < means that .v is negative.

The integer is neither positive nor negative.


A statement of the form x <y (or y > .v) is called an inequality. You may
already be familiar with the following rules for handling inequalities.

Let a, h. and c denote real numbers.

1 Trichotomy One and only one of the following is true:

a < b or b < a or a = b

2 Transitivity U a < b and b < c. then a < c.


3 Addition U a < b, then a + c < b + c.
4 Subtraction If a < b. then a - c < b — c.

5 Multiplication U a < b and c > 0, then ac < be.

then — < —
a b
6 Division If a < b and c > 0.

According to the addition and subtraction rules, you can add or subtract the same
quantity on both sides of an inequality. The multiplication and division rules permit
you to multiply or divide both sides of an inequality by a positive number. Accord-
ing to the following rule, if you multiply or divide both sides of an inequality by a
negative number, you must reverse the inequality.
SECTION 1.1 REAL NUMBERS, INEQUALITIES, AND ABSOLUTE VALUE

7 Inequality reversing If a < b and c < 0, then ac > be and —>—


For instance, if you multiply both sides of the inequality 2 < 5 by -3, you must
reverse the inequality and write -6 > - 15; that is, - 15 < -6. Indeed, on a num-
ber line, —15 lies to the left of —6.
Sometimes we know only that a certain inequality does not hold. If .v < v does
not hold, then by the trichotomy rule either .v > y or.v = y. In this case, we say that
X is greater than or equal to y, and we write

X >y (or, equivalently, y ^ x)

Statements of the form y < x (or .v > y) are called strict inequalities; those of the
form y x > y) are called nonstrict.
—x (or
If we < y < z, we mean that < y and y < z. Likewise, x^y>z means
write x .v

that.r S y andy > z. This notation for combined inequalities is used only when the

inequalities run in the same direction.


Statements analogous to Rules 2 through 7 can be made for nonstrict inequalities
and for combined inequalities. For instance, if you know that

-1 <3 - — <5
2

you can multiply all members by -2, provided that you reverse the inequalities to
obtain

2>.v- 6> -10


or -10<a:-6<2
If you are asked to "solve" an equation, it's usually clear what is wanted:

namely, the value (or values) of the variable (or variables) that makes the equation
true. Similarly, you solve an inequality by finding all values of the variable (or
variables) that make the inequality true. The set of all such values is called the
solution set of the inequality.

EXAMPLE 1 Solve the inequality x + 3 < 5a: - 1

SOLUTION jr + 3 < 5.V - 1 (Given)

3 < 4x — 1 (We subtracted x from both sides.)

4 < 4jc (We added 1 to both sides.)

l<x (We divided both sides by 4.)

Thus, the solution set consists of all real numbers that are greater than 1 (Figure 5).

Figure 5 1 does not belong


to the solution set

\ solulion set
-i

In Figure 5, the solution set consists of one connected piece. Such sets, called
intervals, often arise as the solution sets of inequalities.
CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

DEFINITION 1 Bounded Intervals

Let (/ and /; be fixed real numbers with a < b.

(i)The open interval (a, b) with endpoints a and b is the set of all real
numbers .v such that a <x< b.

a does not b does not


belong to the interval belong to the interval
f ) -
a h

(ii) The closed interval [a, b] with endpoints a and b is the set of all real

numbers x such that a < .v < fe.

a belongs b belongs
to the interval to the interval

E 3

(iii) The half-open interval [a, b) with endpoints a and b is the set of all

real numbers .r such that a ^x< b.

a belongs b does not


to the interval belong to the interval

E )

(iv) The half-open interval (a, b] with endpoints a and b is the set of all

real numbers .v such that a < x^ b.

a does not b belongs


belong to the interval to the interval
(
\

Notice that a closed interval contains its endpoints, but an open interval does not. A
half-open interval (also called a half-closed interval) contains one of its endpoints,
but not the other.
Unbounded intervals, which extend indefinitely to the right or left, are written
with the aid of the special symbols +^ and — ^c, called positive infinity and
negative infinity, respectively.

DEFINITION 2 Unbounded Intervals

Let a be a fixed real number.

(i) (a, +0C) is the set of all real numbers x such that a<x.
a does not
belong to the interval

(ii) (-00, a) is the set of all real numbers x such that x < a.
a does not
belong to t!ie interval

(iii) [a, +0O) is the set of all real numbers x such that a < j:.

a belongs
to the intenal
E -

(iv) (-00, a] is the set of all real numbers x such that x^ a.


a belongs
to the interval
^
SECTION 1.1 REAL NUMBERS, INEQUALITIES, AND ABSOLUTE VALUE

It must be emphasized that +=<= and -^c are just convenient symbols they are not
real numbers and should not be treated as if they were. In the notation for un-
bounded intervals, we usually write ^ rather than +^. For instance, (5, oc) denotes
the set of real numbers greater than 5. The notation (-^, oo) is often used to denote
the set R of all real numbers.

In Examples 2 and 3. solve the inequality and show the solution set on a number
line.

EXAMPLE 2 - 11 S Iv - 3 < 7

SOLUTION We begin by adding 3 to all members to help isolate x in the middle:

-8 < 1y < 10

Then we divide all members by 2, to obtain

Figure 6 _4 < ^.
< 5
1-4,51
r ^ Therefore, the solution set is the half-open interval [—4, 5) (Figure 6).
)
-4 5

EXAMPLE 3 X^ -I- 3a + 2 >


SOLUTION We begin by factoring x^ + 3x + 2 = (x + 1) (x + 2) and rewriting
the given inequality as
(x+ l){x + 2)>0
Here, equality holds exactly when .v = —1 or x = —2. Also, the strict inequality

{x+ l)(x + 2)>0


holds if and only if .v -I- 1 and x + 2 have the same algebraic sign. First, let's
consider the case in which both x + 1 and .r -I- 2 are positive. Then

a: -I- 1 > and .v -I- 2 >


that is, .V > -I and x > -2
Note that if .v > - 1 , then .v > -2 automatically holds; hence, both x + 1 and x + 2
will be positive precisely when

x> -1

Next, we consider the case in which both x + 1 and j: -I- 2 are negative. Then

.V -1-
1 < and .x: + 2 <
that is, .v< -1 and x < -2
Note that if.v < —2, then.v < —1 automatically holds; hence, both.v -i- 1 and.x + 2
will be negative precisely when
x< -2
It follows that

.r -I- 3.V -t- 2 >


holds if and only if

Figure? .v<-2 or v > -


(-«,-21 1-1. ~i
^ [ I
^ In other words, the solution set consists of the two intervals (-^, -2] and [-1, 0°)
-2 -1 (Figure 7). I
CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Absolute Value
The idea of absolute value plays an important role in analytic geometry and calcu-
lus, especially in expressions that involve the distance between two points on a
number line.

DEFINITION 3 Absolute Value

if A is a real number, then the absolute value of .v, denoted l.v|

Figure 8
SECTION 1.1 REAL MMBERS. INEQl ALITIES. AND ABSOLLTE \ALVt.

Many of the properties of absolute value can be established by considering all


possible cases in which the quantities involved are positive, negative, or
zero.

EXAMPLE 4 Show that -|.r| < .t < |.r| holds for every real number .v.

SOLUTION > 0, then = x, so < holds. Also, if > 0, then -\x\ =


If .r |jc| a: \x\ .v

-j: < < so -\x\ < X holds. Thus, -|.r| <


jc, < holds when x>0. On .v |.r|

the other hand, if x < 0, then = -.r, so -|.t| = < < -.r = hence, |.t| .t |.r|:

-|.v| < X < also holds when x < 0.


l.vl

One of the most imponant properties of absolute value is the triangle inequality
liven in the following theorem.

THEOREM 1 Triangle Inequality

If a and b are real numbers, then |a + fo| < \a\ + \b\.

PROOF By the preceding example, -|a| < a s |a| and -\b\^ bs \b\. Adding these in-
equalities, we obtain

-(|a| + \b\) ^a + b^\a\ + \b\

U a + b>Q. then \a + b\ = a + b ^\a\ + \b\. On the other hand, if a + b<0,


then |a + fc| = -(a + b) < \a\ + \b\. In either case, we have |a + fc| < \a\ + \b\.

In solving equations and inequalities involving absolute values, you will tlnd the
followina rules useful.

Let ;/ and v be real numbers, and suppose a is a positive real number. Then
(i) |m| = a if and only if w = a or it = -a.
(ii) \u\ = |v| if and only if u = v or u = -v.
(iii) \u\ <a if and only if -a < it < a.
(iv) |h| >a if and only if u < —a or u > a.

Rules (i) and (ii) are obvious from the definition of absolute value. Rules (iii) and
(iv) are easy to understand and remember if you keep in mind that \ii\ is the distance
between u and 0.

In Examples 5 to 7, solve each equation or inequality

EXAMPLE 5 1 1 - lx| = 7

SOLUTION By Rule (i). |l - 2r| = 7 is true if and only if

1
- Iv = 7 or I - 2v = -7
that is,

-Iv = 6 or -2r = -8
Therefore, the equation has two solutions, x = -3 and x = 4. In other words, the
solution set consists of the numbers -3 and 4. i
CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

EXAMPLE 6 |3.r - 2| <4


SOLUTION By Rule (iii), the inequality is true if and only if

-4 < 3jc - 2 < 4

that is, -2 < 3a: < 6

or -§ < ;c < 2

Therefore, the solution set is the interval (-§, 2).

EXAMPLE 7 |3y + 2| > 5

SOLUTION By Rule (iv), the inequality is true if and only if

3.V + 2 < -5 or 3.V + 2 > 5

that is, 3y < -7 or 3^ > 3

Hence, the inequality is true if and only if

y < -i or y> I

In other words, the solution set consists of the two intervals (-oc, -J) and (1, ^).

Problem Set 1.1

V 1 Answer true or false. Use suitable rules for inequalities to justify 8 If .V > 0. is it necessarily true that l/.v > 0? Why?
the true statements, and give examples to show that the false
9 The following are solution sets for certain inequalities. Illustrate
statements really are false.
each solution set on a number line.
(a) If j: is a positive number, then 5;i: is a positive number.
(a) [-2, 3)
(b) If jt <3 and V > 3, then x<y.
(b) All numbers x such that -3 < x < 4 and also —6 < jt < 2
(c) If jc < _v, then -5jc < -5y.
(c) All numbers belonging to [-2, 0] or to [-^, 1] or to both of
(d) If jr2<9, then a: < 3.
these intervals
(e) If j: > 2 and v > -t, then y > 0.
(d) All numbers belonging to (0, ^) or to (-^. 0)

2 Show that if j: t^ 0, then .r > 0. (Hint: By the trichotomy rule, (e) All numbers .v that belong to both intervals (0, ») and (3, «)
if X 7^ 0, then either a: > or x < 0. Consider the two cases
(f) All numbers x that belong to both intervals (— =o, -2] and
x> and .v < separately.) (-°o, -5)

3 Use the rules for inequalities to show that A < ^- [Hint: Begin
10 Use interval notation to represent each shaded set below.
by showing that 3(233) < 28(25). Then use the division rule for
inequalities.]
(a) -) ir ^^
4 Show that ifO<x<y, then \/x > \/y. {Hint: Use the division
rule for inequalities twice.) (b)

5 (a) Under what conditions is -x > 0? Explain, (b) Under what


conditions is -x < 0? Explain, (c) Under what conditions is
(c)

—X = 0? Explain.

6 (a) If < Jr < y. show that .r^ < y^. (b) If < a^ < v, show that
(d)
-E h
3 3 is excluded
Vjt< Vy.
(e)
7 If -ir s 9, is it necessarily true that x > 3? Explain.
SECTION 1.1 REAL NUMBERS, INEQUALITIES, AND ABSOLUTE VALUE

In Problems 1 1 to 24, solve each inequality. Express the solution in

interval notation, and illustrate it on a number line.

11
10 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

1.2 The Cartesian Coordinate System


In Section 1.1, we saw that a point P on a number line can be specified by a real

number A called its coordinate. Similarly, by using a Cartesian coordinate system,


named in honor of the French philosopher and mathematician Rene Descartes
( 1596-1650), we can specify a point P in the plane with two real numbers, also
called coordinates.
A Cartesian coordinate system consists of two perpendicular number lines,

called coordinate axes, which meet at a common origin O (Figure 1). Ordinarily,
one of the number lines, called the x axis, is horizontal, and the other, called the y
axis, is vertical. Numerical coordinates increase to the right along the .v axis and
upward along the v axis. We usually use the same scale (that is, the same unit
distance) on the two axes, although in some figures, space considerations make it

convenient to use different scales.

Figure 1 y axis

Rene Descartes

If P is a point in the plane, the coordinates of P are the coordinates x and y of


the points where perpendiculars from P meet the two axes (Figure 2). The .v coordi-
nate is called the abscissa of P. and the y coordinate is called the ordinate of P. The
coordinates of P are traditionally written as an ordered pair (.v, y) enclosed in
Figure 2 parentheses, with the abscissa first and the ordinate second. (Unfortunately, this is

the same symbolism used for an open interval; however, it is always clear from the
P= ix.y)
context what is intended.)
To plot the point P with coordinates {x, y) means to draw Cartesian coordinate
axes and to place a dot representing P at the point with abscissa x and ordinate y.
You can think of the ordered pair (.v, y) as the numerical "address" of P. The
correspondence between P and (x, y) seems so natural that in practice we identify
the point P with its address (x, y) by writing P = (x, y). With this identification in

\ mind, we call an ordered pair of real numbers (.v, y) a point, and we refer to the set
abscissa of all such ordered pairs as the Cartesian plane, or the xy plane.
The .V and y axes divide the plane into four regions called quadrants, denoted Qi,
Qii, Gni. and 2iv and called the first, second, third, and fourth quadrants (Fig-
ure 3). Notice that a point on a coordinate axis belongs to no quadrant.

Figure 3

Oil al
all (.V, y) with
v < 0, >• >

ll(.v. ,1) witli


.•<0,y<
SECTION 1.2 THE CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM 11

Figure 4
12 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Graphs in the Cartesian Plane


Recall (from prccalculus mathematics) the following definition of the graph of an
equation.

DEFiMTiON I Graph of an Equation

The graph of an equation involving the variables .v and v is the set of all points
(.V, v) in the Cartesian plane, and only those points, whose coordinates x and y
satisfy the equation.

For instance, consider the equation

X- 4- A

We can rewrite this equation as


V.r + v^ = V9
or as VCv - 0)- + (y - 0)- = 3

By the distance formula (Theorem 1 ), the last equation holds if and only if the point
P = {x, y) is 3 units from the origin O = (0, 0). Therefore, the graph of .\r + y^ = 9
Figure 6 is a circle of radius 3 units with its center at the origin (Figure 6).
If we are given a curve in the Cartesian plane, we can ask whether there is an
graph of equation for which it is the graph. Such an equation is called an equation for the
curve, or an equation of the curve. For instance, .v~ + y- = 9 is an equation for the
circle in Figure 6. Two
equations in x and y are said to be e quivale nt if they have
the same graph. For example, .v" + v" = 9 is equivalent to V.x"^ + y" = 3. We often
use an equation for a curve to designate the curve; for instance, if we speak of "the
circle x^ + y^ = 9," we mean "the circle for which .x~ + y" = 9 is an equation."
If r > 0, then the circle of radius r with center (h, k) consists of all points (.v, y)
such that the distance between (.v. y) and (h. k) is /• units (Figure 7). Using the
distance formula (Theorem 1), we can write an equation for this circle as

VU -/?)- + (.V - kf = r

or, equivalently.

'"
(.V -/!)- + O'-^-)" =

This last equation is called the standard form for an equation of a circle of radius r
with center (/i, k).

Figure 7
SECTION 1.2 THE CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM 13

EXAMPLE 3 Find an equation for a circle of radius 5 with center (-2, 3).

SOLUTION Here r = 5 and {h, k) = (-2, 3), so, in standard form, the equation
of the circle is

[x - (-2)]- + Cv - 3)2 = 52

(x + If + 0' - 3)- = 25

If desired, we can expand the squares,

x^ + Ax + A + y~ -(,y + 9 = 25

and combine the constant terms to obtain an equivalent equation in the form

r- + y^ + Ax- 6v -12 =

The last equation can be restored to standard form by "completing the squares."
The work is arranged as follows;

x^ + v- + 4.V - 6v - 12 =
x^ + Ax + ^'^ - 6^ = 12

x^ + 4;c + 4 + 3;- - 6}' + 9 = 12 + 4+ 9


{x + lf ^- (y- 3)- = 25

Here, we added 4 to both sides of the equation to change x^ + Ax to the perfect


square x" + 4x + 4, and we added 9 to both sides to change y^ — 6}' to the perfect
square v" - 6v + 9. Notice that, in general:

An expression
14 CHAKFER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

EXAMPLE 5 Find an equation in the form x^ + y-^ + Ax + By + C = and an


equation in the standard form of the circle containing the three points (-2, 5),
(1, 4), and (-3, 6).

SOLUTION We substitute the and v coordinates of the three points into the
.v

equation x^ + y'^ + Ax + By + C = and thus obtain the three simultaneous equa-


tions
{-2A + 5B + C = -29

A + 4B + C = -17
-2A + 6fi + C = -45

Solving these simultaneous linear equations in the usual way, we get A = —2,
B = - 18, and C= 57. Thus, an equation of the circle is

x~ + r - 2jc- 18y + 57 =

Completing the squares, we have

.r - It + 1 +r - 18y + 81 = -57 + 1 + 81

(A -lf + (y- 9f = 25

Thus, the circle has radius 5 units and center (1, 9).

Problem Set 1.2

1 Plot each point and indicate which quadrant or coordinate axis 15 (-3, -5) and (-7, 16 (-i -i) and (-3, -I)
contains it.
17 (2, -I) and (5, t) 18 Ui. b + \) dnd (a + \. h)
(a) (1, 6) (b) (-2, 3)

(c) (4. 1) (d) (4, -2) [II In Problems 19 and 20, use a calculator to find the distance be-

tween the two points. Round off your answer to three decimal
(e) (-1, -4) (f) (0, 2)
places.
(g) (-3, 0) (h) (0, -4)
19 (-2.714, 7. Ill) and (3.135, 4.982)
] 2 Plot the four points A = {n. Vl), B = (-V3, V2),
C = (VS, -Vl), and D= (i -f ). 20 (tt, ^)3Lnd (,-Vn, H^)

In Problems 3 to 6, plot the point P and determine the coordinates of In Problems 21 to 24, (a) use the distance formula and the converse
points Q, R, and 5 such that (a) the line segment PQ is perpendicular of the Pythagorean theorem to show that triangle ABC is a right

to the .V axis and is bisected by it: (b) the line segment PR is perpen- triangle, and (b) find the area of U-iangle ABC.
dicular lo the y axis and is bisected by it; (c) the line segment PS
passes through the origin and is bisected by it. 21 A = (1, 1), B = (5, 1), C= (5. 7)

= (-4, -3) 22 A = (-1, -2), B = (3, -2), C= (-1. -7)


3 P = {3. 2) 4 P
A = B = (-3, C =
^ = (-1.
/ V3_ _ n 23 (0, 0), 3), (2, 2)

5 3) '' = \~r-~) 24 A = (-2, -5), B = (9, i), C= (4, ¥


25 Show that the points A = (-2, -3), fl = (3, -1), C = (1,4),
In Problems 7 to 18, find the distance between the two points.
and D= (-4. 2) are the vertices of a square.

7 (7, 10) and (I. 2) 8 (-1, 7) and (2, II) 26 Show that the distance between the points (x\.\\) and (.vj, yi) is
the same as the distance between the point (x\ - .vi, Vi - Vj) and
9 (7, -1) and (7. 3) 10 (-4, 7) and (0, -8
the origin.
11 (-6, 3) and (3, -5) 12 (0, 4) and (-4. 0)
27 If A = (-5. I), fi = (-6, 5), and C= (-2, 4), determine
13 (0, 0) and (-8. -6) 14 (/, 4) and U, 8) whether triangle ABC is isosceles.
THE CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM 15

28 Check the derivation of the distance formula (Theorem 1 ) for the 38 (x + 3)- + (y - 10)- = 100
case in which one point is in the second quadrant and the other
39 .r + y- + 2r + 4y + 4 =
point is in the third quadrant.

40 .r + y- - Jc - y - 1 =
29 Find all values of t so that the distance between the points
(-2. 3) and (r, t) is 5 units. 41 4x- + 4v= + 8.V - 4y + 1 = (Him: Begin by dividing by 4.)

30 If Pz and P3 are pwints i n the plan e, the n P 2 lies on the line


P) , -
42 3.r= + 3y- - 6.t + 9y = 27
segment PJP^ if and only if iPiP,! = l/'iP^I + {PiPil- Illustrate
43 Axr + 4r + 4.v - 4y + 1 =
this geometric fact with diagrams.

44 4.v2 + 4r + llv + 20y + 25 =


In Problems 31 to 33. determi ne whethe r P; ies o n the line segment
l

P^P, by checking whether \PiP,\ = |f iPjl + iPiPil (see Prob- In Problems 45 to 47, find the equation in the standard form of the
lem 30). circle or circles in the xy plane that satisfy the conditions given.

31 f, = (1. 2). P: = (0. i), P} = (-1. 3) 45 Containing the points (-3, 1). (7. 1), and (-7, 5)

32 P, = (-i. 0). P2 = (-1. 5), P3 = (2. 11) 46 Containing the points (1. 7), (8. 6). and (7. -1)

33 P, = (2. 3). P2 = (3, -3). P3 = (-1. -1) 47 Radius vT7, center on the x axis, and containing the point

(0, I). (There are two circles in this case.)


34 On a Cartesian coordinate grid, an aircraft carrier is detected by
radar at pwint A = (52, 7 1 ) and a submarine is detected by sonar 48 A point P = (.r, y) moves so that it is always twice as far from
at point 5 = (47, 83). If distances are measured in nautical the point (6. 0) as it is from the point (0, 3). (a) Find the equation

miles, how far is the carrier from a point on the surface of the of the cur\'e traced out by the point P. (b) Sketch a graph of this

water directly over the submarine? curve.

49 Salesperson A is allowed to sell encyclopedias anywhere within


In Problems 35 and 36, find the equations in standard form for the + y- = B allowed to
the circle .\r 100, while salesperson is sell
circles in the Cartesian plane that satisfy the given conditions. - =
them within the circle (.v 20)- + y- 144. Do their sales ter-

ritories overlap? Explain.


35 (a) Radius 3 and center (0, 2)

(b) Radius 2 and center (


— 1, 4) 50 Find conditions on the constants a. b, c, d, r, and R so that
the circle (x — a)' + (y — b)- = ir will intersect the circle
(c) Radius 5 and center (3,4)
(.V - f )- + (y - d)- = R-.
36 (a) Center at (1. 6) and containing the point (—2, 2)
51 Show that the equation of the circle in the standard form
(b) Radius 4 and containing the points (-3. 0) and (5, 0) -
(X - h)- + = r can always be rewritten in the
iy k)-
(c) Points (3. 7) and (—3. —1) are the endpoints of a diameter alternative + y- + Ax + By + C = 0. where A = -2h,
form x^
B = ~2k, and C = h- + kr — n. (Hint: Expand the squares and
In Problems 37 to 44. find the radius r and the coordinates ih. k) of collect the terms.)
the center of the circle for each equation, and sketch a graph of the
circle.
52 Show that the equation xr + y^+Ax + By + C = represents
a circle with center at the point (h. k) = {-A/2. -BID and ra-
37 (.r-i- 1)- + (V - 2)- = 9 dius r = iVA- + B- - 4C. provided that A- + B' > AC.

1.3 Straight Lines and Their Slopes


Perhaps the simplest curves in the plane are straight lines (called simply lines) and
circles. In Section 1.2, we derived equations for circles by using the distance for-
mula. In this section, we derive equations for lines by using the idea of slope.
In ordinary language, the word "slope" refers to a steepness, an incline, or a

deviation from the horizontal. For instance, we speak of a ski slope or the slope of

a roof. In mathematics, the word "slope" has a precise meaning.


16 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Figure 1 Consider the inclined line segment AB in Figure 1. The horizontal distance be-
tween A and B is called the run, and the vertical distance between A and B is called
the rise. The ratio of rise to run is called the slope of the line segment and is

traditionally denoted by the symbol in. Thus, by dcfinitiftn.

slope of AB = in

If the line segment AB is turned so that itbecomes more nearly vertical, then the rise
increases, the run decreases, and the slope m = rise/run becomes very large. When
the line segment becomes vertical, the slope m = rise/run becomes undefined since
the denominator is zero^In this case, we sometimes say that the slope is infinite.
If the line segment AB is horizontal, its rise is zero, so its slope m= rise/run is

zero. If AB slants downward to the right as in Figure 2, its rise is considered


negative; hence, its slope m = rise/run is negative. (The run is always regarded as
being nonnegative.)

Figure 2

negative
rise

Figure 3
SECTION 1.3 STRAIGHT LINES AND THEIR SLOPES 17

Consideration of the similar triangles in Figure 4 shows that two parallel line
segments AB and CD have the same slope. Similarly, if two line segments AB and
CD lie on the same infinite line, as in Figure 5, they have the same slope. The
common slope of all the segments of a line L is called the slope of L.
From two parallel line segments have the same slope, it follows that
the fact that
two parallel lines have the same slope. Conversely, it is easy to see that two distinct
lines having the same slope must be parallel, and we have the following theorem.

Figure 4 Figure 5

THEOREM 2 Parallelism Condition


Figure 6
Two distinct nonvertical lines are parallel if and only if they have the same slope.

Now, consider a nonvertical line L with slope m and containing a point A =


(.V|, \'i) (Figure 6). If P = (.v, v) is any other point on L, then, by Theorem 1,
m= (y - yi)/{x - .Vi); hence,

y ~ .Vi = m{.x - xj)

Note that this equation holds even if P= A, when it simply reduces to = 0. In


fact, we claim that it is an equation of the line L in the sense that not only do all
points (.V, v) on L satisfy this equation, but, conversely, any point (.v, y) that satisfies
this equation lies on line L. (The converse follows from Theorem 2.) The equation
Figure 7
_Vi = mix - .V|)

is called the point-slope form for an equation of L.

EXAMPLE 2 Let L be the line of slope 5 containing the point (3, 4). Write an
equation of form, determine where L intersects the v axis, draw a
Z, in point-slope

diagram showing L and the coordinate axes, and decide whether the point (4, 9)
belongs to L.

SOLUTION The point-slope form for an equation of the line L is y - 4 =


5(.v - This equation can be rewritten as y = 5,v - 1 1 If L intersects the v axis at
3). .

the point (0. b), then b = 5(0) - 1 1 = - 1 1 Since both (0, - 1 1) and (3, 4) belong .

(0.-11) to L, it is easy to draw L by drawing the line through these two points (Figure 7). If
we put .V = 4, y = 9 in the equation for L, we obtain 9 = 5(4) -11, which is true.
Therefore, (4, 9) does belong to L.
18 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Figure 8 Now suppose that L is any nonvertical line with slope w. Since L is not parallel to
the y axis, it must intersect it at some point (0. h) (Figure 8). The ordinate h of this
intersection point is y intercept of L. Since (0. h) belongs to L, we can
called the
write the point-slope equation y - h = m{.x - 0) for L. This equation simplifies to

nL\ + b

which is called the slope-intercept form for an equation of L.

EXAMPLE 3 In 1982 the Solar Electric Company showed a profit of $3.17 per
share, and it expects this figure to increase by $0.24 per share per year. Counting
the years so that 1982 corresponds to .v = and successive years correspond to
.r = 1,2,3, and so forth, find the equation y = nu + b of the line that will enable
the company to predict its profit y per share during future years. Draw a graph
showing this line, and find the predicted profit per share in 1990.

SOLUTION When .v = 0, y = 3.17; hence, 3.17 = m{0) + and so = 3.17. fc, /?

Thus, y + 3.17. When x increases by 1, y increases by 0.24; hence, m =


= ffix

0.24. The equation, therefore, is y = 0.24.V + 3.17. In 1990. x = 8 and y =


(0.24)(8) + 3.17 = 5.09. The predicted profit per share in 1990 is $5.09 (Figure 9).

Figure 9 Figure JO
SECTION 1.3 STRAIGHT LINES AND THEIR SLOPES 19

The equation of any line can be put into the form

Av + B\ + C =

where A. B. and C are constants and not both A and B are zero. This is called the
general form of an equation of a line. If B# 0, the equation Ax + By -'r C= Q can
be rewritten

y
= -X +

and therefore represents a line with slope m = —A/B and y intercept b = —C/B. On
the other hand, if fi = 0, then A ^ and the equation can be rewritten in the form
.V = —C/A. which represents a vertical line.

Perpendicular Lines
In Theorem 2 we have seen that two nonvertical lines are parallel if and only if they
have the same slope. Theorem 3 gives a condition for two nonvertical lines to be

perpendicular.

THEOREM 3 Perpendicularity Condition

Two nonvertical lines are perpendicular if and only if the slope of one of the lines
is the negative of the reciprocal of the slope of the other line.

Figure 12

\
20 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

EXAMPLE 4 If A = (-1, 2) and fi_= (4. -5), find the slope m, of a line that is

perpendicular to the line segment AB.

SOLUTION The slope W: of the line containing the points A and B is given by

= yi - vi
= -5-2 = 7
m-,
JC2-.V, 4-(-l) 5

Therefore, by the perpendicularity condition (Theorem 3),

1 1 5

EXAMPLE 5 Let L be the line 3.v - v — = 0. Find (a) an equation of the line Li
1

that contains the point (-1,2) and is parallel to L; (b) an equation of the line L2 that
contains the point (—1, 2) and is perpendicular to L. Sketch the graphs of these
lines.

SOLUTION

(a) In slope-intercept form, the equation of L is v = 3.v — 1; hence, L has


slope w= 3. Since L| is to be parallel toL, the slope of Li must be/Hi =m = 3.

Because L, contains (—1, 2), its equation is v — 2 = 3[.y — (—1)] in point-

slope form, or y = 3.y -I- 5 in slope-intercept form.

(b) Since Li is to be perpendicular to L, it follows that the slope of Li must


be ott = -1/w = -3. Therefore, because L2 contains (-1, 2), its equation
in point-slope form is y — 2 = ~^[x — (—1)], or, in slope-intercept form,
y = -ix + § (Figure 13).

Figure 13

If two different lines in the plane are not parallel, they will intersect in a single
point. For instance, in Figure 13, the lines Z,| and Li meet in the point (- 1, 2). In

order to find the point at which two nonparallel lines intersect, it is only necessary to
solve the equations of the two lines simultaneously.
- ^^1 SECTION 1.3 STRAIGHT LINES AND THEIR SLOPES 21

Problem Set 1.3

\ In Problems 1 to 6, find the slope of the line that contains the two 26 L has slope m= i and intersects the x axis at (—3, 0).

points.
27 L intersects the x and y axes at (3, 0) and (0, 5).

1 (6. 2) and (3, 7) 2 (3. -2) and (5. -6) 28 L contains the points (5, f) and (§. -6).

3 (14. 7) and (2. 1) 4 (2, 2) and (-4, -1) 29 L contains the point (4, -4) and is parallel to the line

Ix - 5y -1-3 = 0.
5 (-5, 3) and (6. 8) 6 (1. 3) and (-1, -1)
30 L contains the point (-3, §) and is perpendicular to the y axis.
( In Problems 7 to 18. find an equation in point-slope form of the line
31 L contains the point (-3, §) and is perpendicular to the line
L.
5.V + 3y -1=0.
7 L contains the point (5. 4) and has slope m= 2. 32 L is the perpendicular bisector of the line segment AB. where

8 L contains the point and has slope m = -4. A = (3. -2) andB = (7, 6).
(6. 1)

9 L contains the point (3. 2) and has slope m= \. 33 Find a real number B so that the graph of 3x -1-
By — 5 = has y
intercept b = -4.
10 L contains the point (
— 5. —1) and has slope m= 0.

34 Suppose that the line L intersects the axes at (a. 0) and (0, b). If
11 L contains the point (7, —2) and has slope m= -3.
a 7^ and b 9^ 0. show that the equation of L can be written in
12 L contains the point (0. 2) and has slope m= -§. intercept form

13 L contains the point (5. §) and has slope m= 0.


= 1

14 L contains the points (7, 11) and (-1. 1).

15 L contains the points (3, 2) and (4, 8).


In Problems 35 to 38, suppose that m\ and mi are the slopes of the

16 L contains the point (7, 2) and is parallel to the line segment AS. distinct lines Z-i and Lt, respecfively. Indicate whether the lines are

where A = (i 1) and B = (-§. i).


(a) parallel, (b) perpendicular, or (c) neither parallel nor perpendicu-
lar. Then, supposing that Z,, contains the point (3. 2) and Li contains
17 L contains the points (
— 3. 4) and (-4, 4). (-2,
the point 5), draw L; and Z,i on the same diagram.
18 L contains the point (—1. 2) and is perpendicular to the line
segment AB, where A = and B = (-§,
35 mi = § and mi = 5 36 rri] and mi = f
(i, §) 3).

37 m, = f and mi = — 38 m. - 1 and mi = 1

19 Write an equation for each of the following lines, (a) The line

containing the point (-2. 3) and perpendicular to the y axis, A = (-5,


39 If -2), B = (1. -1), C= (4, 4), and D= (-2, 3),
(b) The line containing the point (-2. 3) and perpendicular to show that the quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram. (Hint:
the X axis. Show that opposite sides have the same slope.)

20 Show that if .Vi # .vt. then an equation of the line containing the
40 There are two circles of radius VTO that are tangent to the line
two points (.V|. yi) and (.Vi, Vi) is = 6 at the point (3, -3). Find the equations of these
3.r -(-
y
.V2 - -VaVi - Xjyi circles in standard form. (Hint: The tangent line to a circle is
y = .Vi
X
,

H
perpendicular to the radius at the point of tangency.)

41 (a) Determine d so that the line containing A = (rf. 3) and


Xln Problems 21 to 24, rewrite each equation in slope-intercept form, B = (—2, 1) is perpendicular to the line containing C = (5, -2)
find the slope m and the y intercept b. and sketch the graph. and D= (1, 4). (b) Determine k so that the line containing
E= (k, 3) and B = (—2. 1) is parallel to the line containing
21 - 2y = 6 22 5x - -10 =
3;c 2y C= (5, -2) and£) = (1, 4).

23 V -I- 1 = 24 jc = -iy + i 42 Prove that

In Problems 25 to 32. find an equation of the line L in (a) point-slope vi + X2 yi + y:


form, (b) slope-intercept form, and (c) general form.

25 L has slope m = —3 and y intercept b = 5. is the midpoint of the line segment between (.v, .y,) and (X2, yi).
22 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

43 Use the midpoint foniiula in Problem 42 to find the midpoint of 47 If a piece of property is depredated linearly over a period of n

the line segment between each pair of points. years, then its value y dollars at the end of x years is given by
y = f[l - (x/n)\. where c dollars is the original value of the
(a) (8. 1) and (7, 3) (b) (9, 3) and (-5. 7)
property. An apartment building built in 1975 and originally

(-1. and (5. 3) (d) (1, -3) and (5, 8)


worth $400,000 is being depreciated linearly over a period of 40
(c) 1)
years. Sketch a graph showing the value y dollars of the apart-
44 If mi 7^ 1112. show that the line v = m^x + b, intersects the line ment building .v years after it was built, and determine its value

y = m2X + bn at the point in the year 1995.

( b2 - bi mi/>2 ~ 'n2bi \ 48 Show that the line Ax + By + C is perpendicular to the line


-Bx + A\ + D = Q.

49 In 1980, tests showed that water in a lake was polluted with 7


45 A car rental company leases automobiles for $22 per day plus
milligrams of mercury compounds per 1000 liters of water.
$0.20 per mile. Write an equation for the cost v dollars in terms
Cleaning up the lake became an immediate priority, and envi-
of the distance x miles driven if the car is leased for A^ days. If
ronmentalists determined that the pollution level would drop at
N= 3, sketch a graph of the equation.
the rate of 0.75 milligram of mercury compounds per 1000 liters
46 Find the distance (measured perpendicularly) between the point of water per year if all their recommendations were followed. If
(-4. 3) and the line y = 3.v - 5 by carrying out the following 1980 corresponds to .v = and successive years correspond to

steps: (a) Find the equation of the line through (-4, 3) which is x = 1,2,3, and so on, find the equation y = mx + b of the line

perpendicular to the line y = 3.v - 5. (b) Find the point (.vi, yO that allows the environmentalists to predict the pollution level y
at which the line obtained in part (a) meets the line y = 3.r - 5. in future years if their recommendations are followed. Sketch
(c) Use the distance formula to find the distance between (-4, 3) the graph of the equation and determine when the lake will be

and Ui, free of mercury pollution according to this graph.


yi).

1.4 Functions
Advances in our scientific understanding of the world often result from the discov-
ery that things depend on one another in definite ways. For instance, the gravita-
tional attraction between two material bodies depends on the distance between
them, and the pitch of a guitar string depends on its tension. The idea that a quantity
)• depends upon another quantity .v is nicely symbolized by the mapping notation

This notation indicates that to each value of .v there corresponds a uniquely deter-
mined value of y; or, as mathematicians say, each value of .v is "mapped onto" a

corresponding value of y. Another name for a mapping is di function.

DEFINITION 1 Function

A function
SECTION 1.4 FUNCTIONS 23

have special keys for some of the more important functions.


Scientific calculators
By number x and touching, for instance, the V.r key, you obtain a vivid
entering a
demonstration of the mapping .v > V.v as the display changes from x to its image

Va- under the square -root function. For instance.

25 1 >5
2 I * V2= 1.414

Programmable calculators and microcomputers have "user-definable" keys that


can be programmed for whatever function x * y may be required. The program \

for the required function is the actual rule whereby y is to be calculated from x. Each
user-definable key is marked with a letter of the alphabet or other symbol, so that,
after the key has been programmed for a particular function, the letter or symbol can
be used as the "name"" of the function.
The use of letters of the alphabet to designate functions is not restricted exclu-
sively to calculating machines. Although any letters of the alphabet can be used to
designate functions, the letters/, g, and /? as well as F. G. and H are most common.
(Letters of the Greek alphabet are also used.) For instance, if we wish to designate

the square-root function x i > Vjc by the letter /, we write

X I > vx or /: x i
> \^r

If/:.r I > V is a function, it is customar>' to write the value of y that corresponds


to.vas/(.v), read "/of.r." In other words, /(.v) is the image of .r under the function/.
For instance, if /:.v i > y/x is the square-root function, then

/(4) = V4 = 2

/(25) = V25 = 5

/(2) = \/2= 1.414

and, in general, for any nonnegative value of x,

fix) = Vx
lff:x 1 > y, then, for ever>' value of .v in the domain of/, we have

y=/(.v)

an equation relating the dependent variable y to the independent variable .x. Con-
versely, when an equation of the form

y = an expression involving x

determines a function /:.r i > y, we say that the function /is defined by, or given
by. the equation. For instance, the equation

y = 3.r2 - 1

defines a function /:j: i > y, so that

y=f{x) = 3x^- 1

or simply

fix) = 3x^-1
When a function/ is defined by an equation, you can determine, by substitution,
the image /(a) corresponding to a particular value x = a.
24 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

EXAMPLE I Let/be the function defined by f(.x) = 5.v- + 3.v. Find the indicated
values.

(a)/(2) (b)/(-2) (c)/(r')

(d) [f(-\)\- (e) /(/ + /!) (f) n-x)


SOLUTION

(a) /(2) = 5(2)^ + 3(2) = 20 + 6 = 26


(b) /(-2) = 5(-2)2 + 3(-2) = 20 - 6 = 14

(c) /(r^) = 5(Pf + 3(P) = 5t^ + 3t^


(d) [/(-1)]2 = [5(-l)2 + 3(-l)]- = (5 - 3)2 = 2- = 4

(e) /(/ + h) = 5(t + hf + 3(/ + /i) = 5r + \Qth + 5h^ + 3/ + 3/i

(f) f(-x) = 5{-xf + 3(-;c) = 5;c2 - 3.v

If a function /:x i » y is defined by an equation, you may assume (unless


otherwise stated) that its domain consists of all values of x for which the equation
makes sense and determines a unique corresponding real number v. Then the range
of the function is automatically determined, since it consists of the set of all values
of V that correspond, by the equation that defines the function, to values of ;c in the
domain.

EXAMPLE 2 Find the domain of the function defined by

(a) f(x) = (b) g(x)


,
= V4-J: (c) h(x) = 3.v - 5
X — \

SOLUTION

(a) The domain of/ is the set of all real numbers except 1. In other words, it

consists of the interval (-«>, 1) together with the interval (1, «=).

(b) The expression V4 - x represents a real number if and only if 4 - jc > 0,


that is. A' ^ 4. Therefore, the domain of g is the interval (-=», 4].

(c) Since the expression 3.v — 5 represents a real number for all real values of
X, the domain of h is the set IR of all real numbers.

Functions that arise in applied mathematics may have restrictions imposed on


their domains by physical or geometric circumstances. For instance, the function
X I > TTjr that expresses the correspondence between the radius .v and the area ttv"

of a circle would have its domain restricted to the interval (0, ^), since a circle must
have a positive radius.
The particular letters used to denote the dependent and independent variables are
of no importance in themselves — the important thing is the rule by which a definite
value of the dependent variable is assigned to each value of the independent vari-
able. In appliedwork, variables other than .v and y are often used because physical
and geometric quantities are designated by conventional symbols. For instance, the
radius of a circle is often designated by r and its area by A. Thus, the function
f.r * I
A that assigns to each positive value of r the corresponding value of A is

given by

A =f(r) = ttP-
SECTION 1.4 FUNCTIONS 25

In dealing with a function/, it is important to distinguish among Xhe function itself

f:x H^ y
which is a rule, the image

fix)

which is a number depending on .v, and the equation

v=/(.v)

which dependent variable y to the independent variable x. Nevertheless,


relates the
people tend to take shortcuts and speak, incorrectly, of "the function /(.v)" or "the
function^ =/(j:)." Similarly, in applied mathematics, people often say that "y is a
function of a." for instance, "current is a function of voltage." Although we avoid
these practices when absolute precision is required, we indulge in them whenever it

seems convenient and harmless.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3
26 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Figure 4 It is important to realize that noi every curve in the Cartesian plane is the graph of
a function. Indeed, the definition of a function (Definition 1) requires that there be
one and only one value of y corresponding to each value of .v in the domain. Thus,
on the graph of a function, we cannot have two points (.v, Vi) and {x, Vt) with the
same abscissa x and different ordinates V] and y^- Hence, we have the following
test.

Vertical-Line Test

A set of points in the Cartesian plane is the graph of a function if and only if no
vertical straight line intersects the set more than once.

EXAMPLE 4 Which of the curves in Figure 4 is the graph of a function?

SOLUTION By the vertical-line test, the curve in Figure 4a is the graph of a


function, but the curve in Figure 4b is not.

Graph Sketching
A basic graph-sketching procedure is the following.

The Point-Plotting Method

To sketch the graph of y =/(.v), select several values of .v in the domain of/,
calculate the corresponding values of/(.v), plot the resulting points, and connect
the points with a smooth curve. The more points you plot, the more accurate your
sketch will be.

After you have learned some calculus, you'll find that you can sketch accurate
graphs by plotting relatively few points. This is a case of substituting knowledge for
tedious labor.

Figure 5
SECTION 1.4 FUNCTIONS 27

Figure 6

domain of /

(a)

The domain and range of a function are easily found from its graph. Indeed, as
Figure 6 illustrates, the domain of a function is the set of all abscissas of points on
its graph (Figure 6a) and the range of a function is the set of all ordinates of points
on its graph (Figure 6b).

For each function in Examples 6 to 10. determine the domain, sketch the graph, and
determine the range.

EXAMPLE 6 fix) = \x\

SOLUTION The independent variable .v can take on any value, so the domain is

the set !R of all real numbers. For .v > 0, we have/(.v) = x\ hence, the portion of the
graph corresponding to .v > is part of a line of slope 1 starting at the origin and
extending upward into quadrant I. For x < 0, we have f{x) = -.v, so the corre-
sponding portion of the graph is part of a line of slope - The graph
1 . is sketched in
Figure 7 Figure 7. Evidently, /(.v) cannot be negative but can take on any nonnegative value.
Thus, the range of/ is the interval [0, ^). We call/(.>:) = |.v| the absolute-value
function.

x^ - 4
EXAMPLE 7 g(x)

SOLUTION The fraction


jr -4
x-2
is defined for all values of .v except x = 2 (which makes the denominator zero).
Therefore, the domain of g consists of the two intervals (
— ==, 2) and (2, oc). Note
that

x^ -4 = (x + 2)(x - 2)
Figure 8
hence, for jc t^ 2,

x^ - 4 (X + 2)(.v - 2)
= x + 2
x-2
Therefore, provided that x ¥" 2,

gix) =x+2
It follows that the graph of g consists of all points on the line y = x + 2 except for
the point (2, 4), which is excluded (Figure 8). Evidently, the range of ^ is all real
numbers except 4; that is, the range consists of the two intervals ( - -t. 4) and (4, y^).
28 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Figure 9 El EXAMPLE 8 h(x) = 1 + V4 - A

SOLUTION Since V4 - x is defined only when 4 - .v s 0, that is, when x < 4,

the domain of /i is the interval (-5:. 4|. We select several values of .r in this interval

and calculate the corresponding values of

h(x) = I + V4-X
as in the table in Figure 9. Here, we have used a calculator and rounded off values

of h(x) to two decimal places. (If a calculator isn't available, the table of square
roots in Appendix D may be used.) Using the information in this table and the
point-plotting method, we sketch the graph as in Figure 9. Evidently, the range of /i

is the interval [1, ^).

if ;c<4
EXAMPLE 9 F(.V) =
-Zv-l-9 if x>4
Figure 10 SOLUTION A function such as F that is defined by using different equations in
different intervals is called a piecewise-defined function. Here x can take on any
value, so the domain of f is U. In sketching the graph, we must consider separately
the portions to the right and to the left of the vertical line .v = 4. To the right of

jc = 4, the graph is a portion of the line of slope -2, starting at the point (4, 1 ) and
extending downward to the right. To the left of .v = 4, the graph coincides with

the curve sketched in Figure 9. These parts, taken together, form the graph of F
(Figure 10). Evidently, the range of F is R.

IS EXAMPLE 10 G(.v) =
I
- X
SOLUTION The domain of G consists of the two intervals (-^, 1) and(l, ^). If

X is near 1 but a little smaller than 1, then 1


- .v is small and positive, so G(x) =
I/( 1 - .y) is very large and positive. Similarly, if .v is near 1 but a little larger than 1

then 1
— .V is negative and small in absolute value, so G(x) is negative and very
large in absolute value. Also, if .v is very large in absolute value, then so is 1
- .v,

and it follows that G(x) is very small in absolute value. Plotting a few points and
keeping these facts in mind, we can sketch the graph of G (Figure 11). From this

graph, we can see that the range of G consists of all real numbers except for 0; that

is, it consists of the two intervals (-^c, 0) and (0, ==).

Figure 11
SECTION 1.4 FINCTIONS 29

Problem Set 1.4

In Problems 1 to 14. let 18 Is the graph of the equation .ir + y^ = 9 the graph of a function?
Why or why not?

f(x) = 2x+ \ g(x) = JT - 3.x -4 h(x) = V3.t + 5


Problems 19 to 32. determine the domain, sketch the graph, and
F{x) = 'y\ G{x) = S/x'-A H(x) = |2 - 5.v|
In
determine the range of the given function.
3.V + 7

Find the indicated values. 19 fix) = 4v - 1

1 /(-3) 2 F(i) 3 /i(-i)

4 H(-A) 5 G(VlT) 6 [h(-\)]-

7 5(0) 8/(l/a) 9 «(c + 2)

10 /[U- l)/2] 11 F(a/3) 12 G(Vb)


013 g(4.718) 114 ;i(2.003)

In Problems 15 and 16. find the domain of each function.

15 (a) /(.v) = 1
- 4.\- (b) g(x) = (X + 2)"'

(c) h(x) = Vx (d) F{x) = V5 - 3.V


(e) G(.v) = 7/(5 - dv) (f) A:(a-) = (4 - 5*)'

16 (a) g(.v) = (9 + .v')^-' (b) hlx)


X + \x\

(c) f U) = —
.r^-8
(d) H(x) =
\.v

17 Use the vertical-line test to determine which of the curves in

Figure 12 are graphs of functions.

Figure 12
30 CHAPTER 1 KUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

shrabs at a distance .v kilometers from an industrial city is given shown to be a linear function of h. When h = 0, P =
by p(.r) = 32 - (3.r/50) for 50 < .v s 500. Sketcii a graph of the 1.013 X 10''
newtons per square meter. When h = 1 meter,

function/?, and find /7(50), /?( 100), p(200), p(400), and/7(500). P = 2.003 X 10^ newtons per square meter. Obtain the equation
that defines Z' as a function of h. and use it to find the pressure P
at a depth of h = 100 meters.

042 The period T{l) seconds of a simple pendulum of length / meters


if^mi lt^fitiy.k, ^^-f'f}'. <'**t*'''r^'''
=
swin ging alo ng a small arc is given approximately by r(/)
27rV//9.807. Using a calculator and rounding off your answer
to three decimal places, find 7(0.1), 7(1), 7(1.5), and
7(0.2484).

43 A baseball diamond is a square 90 feet on each side. A player is

running from home plate to first base at a rate of 30 feet per

second. Express the runner's distance .v from second base as a


function of the time / since he left home plate for < < f 3.

44 In Problem 43, suppose the runner continues around the bases at

a constant speed of 30 feet per second. Express his distance i


from second base as a function of r for s s / 12.

1345 A person sketches the graph of/(.r) = 4x* - H.r' + 20.r - 5x


for x > by plotting five points and connecting them with a
smooth curve, as shown in Figure 13. However, the graph is not

correct as shown. Find the error.

Figure 13 y

38 A closed box with a square base x centimeters by x centimeters


has a volume of 100 cubic centimeters. Express the total surface
area A of the exterior of this box as a function of .v. (Assume that
the thickness of the walls is negligible.)

39 An airline chart shows that the temperature T at an altitude of


h = 15,000 feet is 7 = 5° F. At an altitude of h = 20,000 feet,
7 = - 15° F. Supposing that 7" is a linear function of /i, obtain an
equation that defines this function, sketch its graph, and find the
temperature at an altitude h = 30,000 feet.

40 The speed v of a car is measured during a certain time interval

and found to vary according to the equation

_ |60r OS /<
for 5

^"UoO forf>5

where v is measured in meters per minute and the elapsed time t

is measured in seconds. If V is the speed measured in kilometers

per hour and T is the elapsed time measured in minutes, find V


as a function of T.

E41 In physics, the (absolute) pressure P in newtons* per square


meter at a point h meters below the surface of a body of water is
SECTION 1.5 TVPES OF UNCTIONS 31

1.5 Types of Functions


Grouping, or classifying, is a familiar technique in the natural sciences for dealing
with the immense diversity of things in the real world. For instance, in biology,
plantsand animals are divided into various phyla, classes, orders, families, genera,
and species. In much the same way, functions can be grouped, or classified, by
singling out important features possessed by some functions but not by others. In
this section we describe certain types, or classes, of functions that are considered in
calculus. Among these are even functions, odd functions, polynomial functions,
rational functions, algebraic functions, and transcendental functions.

Even and Odd Functions


Consider the graphs in Figure 1 . The graph of/ (Figure la) is symmetric about the
y axis; that is. the portion of the graph to the right of the y axis is the mirror image of
the portion to the left of it. Specifically, if the point (.v, y) belongs to the graph of
/. then so does the point-.v, y ). In other words, /( -x) = f(x). Similarly, the graph
(

of ^ (Figure lb) symmetric about the origin because if the point (.v, y) belongs to
is

the graph, then so does the point (— .v, — y); that is, g(—x) = —g{x).

Figure I
32 CHAPTKR 1 Fl'NCTIONS AND LIMITS

Figure 2 EXAMPLE 1 Determine whether each of the functions whose graphs are shown in
Figure 2 is even, odd, or neither.

SOLUTION In Figure 2a. the graph of/ is symmetric about the origin; thus.
/(— -v) = —/(.v) and/ is an odd function. In Figure 2b, the graph of ^ is symmetric
neither about the y axis nor about the origin, so ^ is neither even nor odd. In
Figure 2c, the graph of h is symmetric about the y axis; thus, h(-x) = h(x) and h
is an even function.

EXAMPLE 2 Determine whether each function is even. odd. or neither.

(a) f(x) = .V* (b) g(x) = x- \

(c) h(x) = Ir - 3|jc| (d) F(x) = X-'

SOLUTION

(a) /(-.v)= (-x)* = x^ =/(.r), so /is an even function.


(b) g(-.v) = -A - 1, while g(x) = x - \ and -g{x) = -.v + 1. Since we
have neither g(-x) = g(x) nor g(-.v) = — gU), g is neither even nor odd.

(c) h(—x) = 2(— .v)- — 3|— = 2ir — 3|.r| = h(x), so is an even function.
.r| /i

(d) F(—x) = (—xf = — .r^ = — F(.v). so F is an odd function.

There are many functions that are neither even nor odd; however, if a function is

found to be either even or odd. the job of sketching its graph becomes easier
because of the symmetry involved.

EXAMPLE 3 Sketch the graph of F(x) = x^.

SOLUTION The domain of F is the set U. Because

F(-.v) = (-v)- = .r' = fU)


the function F is even and its graph is symmetric about the y axis. We already
sketched the portion of this graph for x > in Section 1 .4 (Figure 5, page 26). The
full graph includes the mirror image of this portion on the other side of the y axis
and the point (0, 0) (Figure 3).

Figure 3
SECTION 1.5 TYPES OF FUNCTIONS 33

Figure 4
34 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Figure 6

a>0
SECTION 1.5 TYPES OF FUNCTIONS 35

Illuminated fountain, St. Louis, Missouri,


showing parabolic jets of water

Algebra of Functions
Sometimes functions are classified by the way in whicii they are formed from
simpler functions. For instance, new functions can be formed from old ones by
addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. Thus, if f{x) = x- — 2 and
g(x) = -iv + 1, we can form the new function h{x} = f{x) + g(x) = x^ - ix - 1

simply by adding /(.v) and g{x). Naturally, we refer to the function h as the sum of
the functions / and g and write h =f + g (Figure 8). Notice that the graph of h is

obtained from the graphs of/ and g by adding corresponding ordinates; for instance,
h(-2)=f(-2) + g(-2).
It should be clear that any two functions with intersecting domains can be added
as shown.* In a similar way, subtraction, multiplication, and division of functions
can be accomplished. The following definition shows exactly how this is done.

Figure

;i(.v) = /(.v) + g(.v)

*This idea is crucial in applied mathematics, since the functions that describe natural phe-
nomena (for example, light waves or sound waves) often add when the phenomena are

combined.
36 CHAPIER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

DEFINITION 2 Sum, Difference, Product, and Quotient of Functions

Let/
SECTION 1.5 TYPES OF FUNCTIONS 37

Figure 9

X
38 CHAFTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Discontinuous Functions
Many functions considered in elementary calculus have graphs that are "con-
nected" in the sense that they consist of one continuous piece. Such functions,
which are said to be continuous, are discussed in detail in Section 1.9. In order to
fully understand and appreciate the nature of continuous functions, it is sometimes
useful to examine specific functions that are not continuous. One of the more inter-
esting discontinuous functions is the greatest-integer function . which, like the abso-
lute-value function, has its own special symbol.

DEFINITION 5 Greatest-Integer Function

If .V is a real number, the symbol Uxl] denotes the greatest integer not exceeding .v;

that is, II-vl] is the integer that is nearest to .v but is less than or equal to .v. The
greatest-integer function is the function / defined by/(.v) = H-vJ.

Note that Qa]] is the unique integer satisfying the condition

PB x< + 1

For instance, p. 71) = 3, IM =


= 3. [[-2.7]] = -3,
0, 113.234334]]
[1-2.343341] = -3, 1]-^ = -1, [lV3]l = I, Q21] = 2, and [1-2D = -2. A
table of values of Q.v]] for -3 ^ .v < 4 follows, and the corresponding graph of
f(x) = [].v]] is shown in Figure 10:

-3 for -3 <.x< -2
-2 for -2<.v< -1
-1 for - <X< 1

for < < .V 1

1 for 1 < < .t 2


2 for 2 < < a: 3
3 for 3 <X< 4

In Figure 10, we use small dots to emphasize that the left-hand endpoints of the
horizontal line segments belong to the graph, and we use small open circles to
indicate that the right-hand endpoints do not belong to the graph. The discontinuous
nature of the greatest-integer function is apparent from its graph.

Figure 10
SECTION 1.5 TYPES OF FUNCTIONS 39

Problem Set 1.5

1 For each function in Figure 1 1 . find the domain and range and
determine whether the function is even, odd, or neither.

Figure II
40 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

2 Is there any function that is both even and odd? If not. why not? 30 Sketch the graph of fix) = Ir + k for (a) * = 0, (b) t = 1 , and
If so. give an example. (c) A- = -I.

In Problems 31 to 36, rewrite each function /in the form /(a) =


In Problems 3 to II. decide whether the function is even, odd, or
aix - h)' + k by completing the square.
neither.

31 fix) = AT + 2r - 4 32 fix) =.r - 12x + 5


3 f(x) = jr* + 3 4 g(x) = -X* + Ijr + \

33 fix) = 3.r - lOx - 2 34 fix) = 2xr + 3x - \


S f(x) =x* + x 6 g(t) = i' + \t\

35 fix) = -2x^ + 6.r + 3 36 /(.r) = ir^ - 6x - 7


1 F(x) = 5.r' + 7.r 8 /(/) = -t^ + lt

V8?T7 VTTT In Problems 37 to 40, sketch the graph of each function.


9 h(x) = 10 Av) =
\y\

37 fix) = 2(;( -1)^ + 3 38 /i(.v) = -iix +1)^-4


l./(.v) = 4--^' = -2U + 2)2-3 = Hx+ \)^-i
r+ 1
39 gix) 40 pix)

12 (a) Show that the function f U) = Vjlj is even, (b) Using the 41 Let fix) = -3.ir - lit - 1. (a) By completing the square,
rewrite/ in the form fix) = aix - h)- + k. (b) Sketch the
symmetry implied by the fact that F is even, and Figure 9,
sketch the graph of F. graph of/

42 Prove Theorem 1 . [Hint: Begin by rewriting

In Problems 13 to 20, decide whether the function is a polynomial =


fix) ax' + bx + c
function. If it is a polynomial function, indicate the degree (if any)
and identify the coefficients.
fix ) = a(x^ + ^x )
+
13 fix) = 6a- - 3.t - 8 14 f(x) = .t"' + 2x
Then complete the square.]
15 gix) = (X - 3)U - 2) - .x^ 16 /(.v) = 2-
43 In each case, evaluate if+g)ix), if-g)ix), if-g)ix), and
17 F(x) = VZt" - 5" V + 20 18 /(.«) = 210x"' - 1 l.r - 40 if/g)ix).

19 g(x) = (a) fix) = 2v - 5 and gix) = jr + I

(b) fix) = Vx and gix) = x^ + 4


20 h{x) = ^x-' - 6.r + 12v - 8
(c) fix) = 3a: + 5 and gix) = 1 - 4x
21 Explain in your own words the distinction between the constant (d) fix) = Vjc+ 3 and gix) = \/x
function / defined by the equation f(x) = 2 and the real num- = = -
(e) fix) |jc| and gix) \x 2\
ber 2.
if) fix) = ax + band gix) = ex + d
22 Is the function fix) = .v~' + [(.v - l)/.v] a constant function?
44 Suppose that /and
g are even functions. Show that/ + g,f - g,
f-g, ai\df/g are also even functions.
In Problems 23 to 26, determine a linear function/that satisfies the

condition. 45 Specify whether the algebraic function is a rational function.

3.V .V + 1
(a) fix) = .

gix)
(b) " =
23 /(2) = 5 and/(-3) = 7 24 /(2v + 3) = 2/(.v) + 3 .V - 1 S/l'C + 5

25 f{5x ) = 5/U 26 fix + 1) = fix) + /(7)


(c) fix) = AT + It + 1 (d) /(/) =
2r' + 5
27 A number r is called a zero of a function/ if /(r) = 0. Prove that
6f2
every nonconstant linear function has a zero. (e) /(/) = -T}
't+ 1

28 Let / be a function with domain IR. Prove that


46 Show that

/(fc + (l - t)d) = tfic) + il -t)fid)


fix)
holds for every three numbers c, d. and I if and only if/ is linear. I -.r I +JC

29 Sketch the graph of fix) = or for (a) a = 3, (b) a = -3, is a rational function by rewriting it as a ratio of polynomial
(c) a = i. and (d) a = -J. functions. What is the domain of/?
SECTION 1.6 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 41

In Problems 47 to 53, sketch the graph of the function and specify its (a) Find sgn (-2), sgn (-3), sgn 0, sgn 2, sgn 3, and sgn 151.
domain and its range. (b) Prove that |j:|
=x sgn .v is true for all values of x. (c) Prove
that sgn iab) = (sgn a)(sgn b) is true for all values of a and b.

47 H{x) = \x+ l\ 48 h(x) = -3\x\ +X (d) Sketch the graph of the signum function, (e) Find the domain
and the range of the signum function, (f) Sketch the graph of the
49 f(.x) = II3.VE 50 h(x) = \[x]\+ X
function / defined by/(.v) = sgn (x - 1). (g) Explain why the

51 fix) = dixl] 52 G(x) = IIWI) sgn function is discontinuous.

53 g(x) = lE.TllI
[356 In economics, the profit function P from the sale of goods is
related to the revenue function R from the sale and the cost C of
54 Let/ be any function with domain R. (a) Define a function g by producing the goods by the equation P = R - C. Suppose that

the equation g(x) = {f(x) + f(—x)]/2. Prove that g is even, the revenue function R (in dollars) and the cost function C (in

(b) Define a function h by the equation h{x) = [/(x) — f(—x)]/2. dollars) for a product are given by R(x) = 25.x + (.x-^/250)

Prove that /; is odd. (c) Prove that/(.r) = g{x) + htx) holds for and C(x) = 100 + 3x + (.x^/30), where x is the number of units
all Jr. Thus, conclude that any function with domain U is the sum of the- product manufactured and sold. Find the equation that

of an even function and an odd function, (d) Suppose that G is an describes the profit function P; also find f (350), ^(375), and
even function with domain R, that is an odd function with H /'(400). Sketch the graph of P, and find the smallest and largest

domain IR, = G{x) + H{x) holds for all x. Prove


and that/(.ic) values of the production level .x for which the profit is positive.

that G{x) = = h(x) for all values of x.


gtx) and that H(x) Also find the production level for which the profit is maximum.
(e) Show that/is even if and only if/(.x) = g(x) holds for all x.
057 The sum of all expenses, such as insurance, rent, and salaries,
(0 Show that /is odd if and only iff(x) = h(x) holds for all .v. incurred by a manufacturer even when no items are produced is

55 The signum function (abbreviated sgn) is defined by known as the fixed cost F. The part of the total cost of production
C that varies with the level of production x is called the variable
flvl
cost V. (a) Write an equation for C in terms of F and V. (b) If
sgn A- X F= 500 dollars and V (in dollars) is given by V(.x) = .x^ + 4.x,

if .X = find a formula for C(x) and sketch the graph of C.

1.6 Trigonometric Functions


Figure 1 This section is intended as a concise review of the basic trigonometry that you will
need in the rest of the book. To facilitate your review, much of the material is
arc length = f
presented in somewhat condensed, "outline" form.

Radian Measure of Angles


Although the degree measure of angles is used in most elementary applications of
trigonometry, more advanced applications (especially those that involve calculus)
require radian measure. One radian is the measure of an angle that has its vertex at

Figure 2 the center of a circle (that is, a central angle) and intercepts an arc on the circle
equal in length to the radius r (Figure 1).

A central angle of 2 radians in a circle of radius /• intercepts an arc of length 2r on


the circle, a central angle of | radian intercepts an arc of length |r, and so forth.
More generally, if a central angle AOB of 6 radians (0 is the Greek letter theta)

intercepts an arc AB of length 5 on a circle of radius r (Figure 2), then we have

s = rB
42 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

It follows that the radian measure 6 of angle AOB is given by the foimula

Figure 3
For instance, if a central angle in a circle of radius r = 27 meters intercepts an arc of
length .9 = 9 meters, then the measure of the angle in radians is given by 6 = sjr =
^= 3 radian.

A central angle of 360° corresponds to 1 revolution; hence it intercepts an arc

5 = 2vr equal to the entire circumference of the circle (Figure 3). Therefore, if 8 is

the radian measure of the 360° angle.

27rr
Itt radians

that is. 360° = 2n radians, or

1
80° = 77 radians

You can use this relationship to convert degrees to radians and vice versa. In partic-
ular,

180 \°
1° = radian and 1 radian =
180

so we have the following rule:

Multiply degrees by 77/180° to convert to radians, and multiply radians by


180°/ 77 to convert to degrees.

For instance,

60° =
180°
(60°) radians = — radians
3

137T 180° / 1377


and radians = I
234°
10 77 ^ 10

Note that when radian measures are expressed as rational multiples of n. we may
leave them in that form rather than write them as decimals. Also, when angles are
measured in radians, the word "radian" is often omitted. For instance, rather than
writing 60° = 77-/3 radians, we =
Therefore, when no unit of angular
write 60° 7r/3.

measure is indicated, always understood that radian measure is intended.


it is

Table 1 gives the corresponding degree and radian measures of certain special
angles.

Table I

Degree measure
SECTION 1.6 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 43

Figure 4 A sector OPQ of acircle is th e region inside the circle bounded by the arc PQ and
the radial segments OP and OQ (Figure 4). If the central angle POQ has a measure
of radians and r is the radius of the circle, then the area A of the sector is given by
the formula

er

Indeed, the area of the circle is in^. and the sector occupies a fraction dj(lTr) of this
area, so

e Or-
A =
,
777- =
Itt 2

The Trigonometric Functions


Figure 5 In order to define the six trigonometric functions, we begin with any real number t

and measure out an angle of |r| radians, starting at the positive x axis and turning
counterclockwise about the origin if r > and clockwise if r < (Figure 5). Then
we choose any positive number r and draw the circle .ir + y- = r^ of radius r with
center at the origin. Let (.v, y) be the point at which the terminal side of the angle
meets the circle. Now the values at t of the six trigonometric functions are de-
fined by

sin f = —
r
44 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

By using a little geometry, you can find the exact values of the trigonometric
functions at the special values of / shown in Table 2. (Dashes in the table indicate

that the function is undefined at the corresponding value of /.)

Table 2

Value of 1
SECTION 1.6 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 45

Figure 6

indefinitely. It is precisely the wavelike nature of the sine and cosine functions that
makes thein so useful in applied mathematics. Indeed, many natural phenomena,
from electromagnetic waves to the ebb and flow of the tides, are periodic, and so
these functions are indispensable in the construction of mathematical descriptions or
models for such phenomena.
46 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Trigonometric Identities
The six trigonometric functions satisfy certain identities that are routinely derived in

precalcuius mathematics courses. For your convenience, these standard identities


are listed on the inside front cover of this textbook.

In Examples 2 and 3, use the standard trigonometric identities to simplify the given
expression.

EXAMPLE 2 (sin X + cos .v)- - sin 2x

SOLUTION We use the Pythagorean identity

sin- .V + COS" .V = 1

and the double-angle identity

sin Iv = 2 sin .X cos .v

Thus,

(sin .V + cos ,v)- — sin Zv = sin- .v + 2 sin x cos x + cos" x — sin 2v


= sin- .V + COS" .V + 2 sin x cos x — sin Zx
= 1 + sin 2v - sin It
= 1

EXAMPLE 3 sin (.V + 77)

SOLUTION We use the addition formula

sin (x + y) = sin x cos v -I- sin y cos .v

with y = T. Recall that


cos TT 1 and sin 7J- =
Thus, sin (.V -I- tt) = sin x cos tt + sin ir cos x
= (sin.v)(-l) -I- (OKcosA-)
= —sin X

Right-Triangle Trigonometry
If we denote one of the two acute angles in a right triangle by 6. we can abbreviate
the lengths of the side opposite 6. the hypotenuse, and the side adjacent to 6 as opp.
hyp, and adj, respectively (Figure 7). Then

Figure 8
sin e = -^^
hyp

cos e = —adj
hyp

tan e = -^ opp
adj
SECTION 1.6 TRIGONOMETRIC FL'NCTIONS 47

Figure 9 EXAMPLE 4 Find the values of the six trigonometric functions of the acute angle i

in Figure 9.

SOLUTION For angle 0. we have


adj = 5 and hyp = 13

but opp isn't given. However, by the Pythagorean theorem,

adj- + opp- = hyp-


Figure 10
so that

opp- = hyp- - adj- = 13- - 5" = 144

Figure 11

Figure 12
48 CHAPTKR I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Figure 13
SECTION 1.5 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 49

Figure 16
(see Figure 4). In right triangle OQS. we have

tan, = ^ MMadj
=
\0Q\
=
1

so that

\QS\ = tan ;

Therefore, the areaA^ of right triangle OQS (one-half height times base) is given by

AT=i\QS\\OQ\ =|(tan/)(l) = itanr


Evidently, the area Ac of the circular sector POQ is smaller than the area Ar of
triangle OQS\ that is,

Ac<At
or

I? < 5 tan t

Therefore,

r < tan /

It follows that

r cos r < sin ;

that is,

The inequality

< 1

follows from Theorem Combining


1. the inequalities we have obtained, we have
sm t
< cos / < < 1

as claimed in Theorem 2.

THEOREM 3 Comparison of 1 - cos t and r^/2

If < \r\ < 77-, then 1


1 - cos /I <—
'
1

PROOF From the half-angle formula

. . t 1

Sin-Y = y(l - COS t)

(see inside front cover), we have

|l - cos t\ = 2 sin--
50 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

If < |/| < 77. then < |//2| < 7t/2; hence, by the remark following Theorem I

sin —
t \

<
\

—t

I 2 1 I 2

Therefore,

|sin-y| = |smy| <\-\ =-


and it follows that

— = ^ ' 1 .( '^\ ^
1 cos t\ 2 sin

Problem Set 1,6

In Problems 1 to 6, s denotes the length of the arc intercepted on a

circle of radius r by a central angle of radians. Find the missing

quantity.

1 r = 2 meters, S = 1 .65 radians, s = ?

2 r = 1.8 centimeters, 0=8 radians, s = ?

3 r = 9 feet, s= 12 feet. 0= ?

4 i = 477 kilometers, 6 = tt/1 radians, r = ?

5 r = 12 inches, S = Stt/IS radian. s = l

6 r = 5 meters, s = 1377 meters, 9 = ?

1 Convert each degree measure to radians. Do not use a calculator.


Write your answers as rational multiples of 77.

(a) 30° (b) 45° (c) 90° (d) 120°

(e)-150° (f) 520° (g) 72° (h) 67.5°

(i) -330° (j) 450° (k) 21° (1) -360°

51 8 each degree measure to an approxi-


U.se a calculator to convert

mate radian measure expressed as a decimal. Round off all an-


swers to four decimal places.

(a) 7°
SECTION 1.6 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 51

25 Use the standard identities (inside front cover) to simplify each


expression.

(a) (1 — cos /)(! + cos I) (b) 2 sin t cos r esc t

(c) sec" I (csc" / - l)(sin I + \) - esc i

1 + cot- /
(d) (e)
sec t sec / — 1

38
26 Show that

(a) cos
(f
(b) sin (?-') =

(c) tan (f + 77) = tan / (d) tan I f + -cot I

27 (a) Use the fact that 45° + 30° = 75° to find the exact values of
sin 75° and cos 75°. (b) Find the exact values of tan 75°.
39 If < < n/2 and x = 2 sin 6. find sec 6 in terms of .r.

cot 75°, sec 75°, and esc 75°. =


40 If < < 77/2 and .t 3 tan 0, find esc 6 in terms of x.

28 Using the standard trigonometric identities, prove that 41 < 8 < and r = 5 sec 0. find cos in terms of
If 77/2 z.
cos 3r = 4 cos^ / - 3 cos t. Then use this to show that

cos (7r/9) is a solution of the equation 8.v^ — 6ic — 1 = 0. 42 If < e < 77/2 and 3m = 2 tan S, find sin 6 in terms of u.

29 Simplify, 43 If Z, is a line with inclination and slope m, show that m= Ian 6

sin" 2t cos f - sin t in the cases where 6 = and where 7r/2 < < tt.

(a) .. ,, .... + 1 (b)'


(1 +
.

cos 2t)- '


"
sin 2r 44 An irrigation ditch has a cross section in the shape of an isosce-
(c) cos^ 2r - sin- t (d) tan f - esc f (1 2 cos- r) sec t les trapezoid that is wider at the top than at the bottom (Fig-

(e) cos {s - t) cos t — sin {s - t) sin t


ure 17). The bottom and equal sides of the trapezoid are each 2
meters long. If 6 is the acute angle between the horizontal and
30 Suppose that sin / = if and cos s = - i, where tt/2 < t <tt the side of the ditch, show that the cross-sectional area A of the
and IT12 < s <Tr. Find the exact values of ditch is given by A = 4 sin fl (1 -I- cos 6).

(a) sin (s - t) (b) cos (s + t) (c) cot (.s


- t)

In Problems 31 to 38, find the values of the six trigonometric func- Figure 17
tions of the acute angle 6.

31

]45 From a point on level ground 75 meters from the base of a


television transmitting tower, the angle of elevation of the top of
the tower is 68. 17°. Find the height h of the tower (Figure 18).

33 34

Figure 18

35 36

2v^
52 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

E146 A high-altitude military reconnaissance jet photographs a missile panel and the ground be equal to the latitude of its location.

silo under construction near a small town. The jet is at an alti- Assuming that this recommendation has been followed, find the

tude of 57. 000 feet, and the angles of depression of the town and surface area of the panel. (Round off your answer to three deci-

silo are 60° and 30°. respectively (Figure 19). Assuming that the mal places.)
jet, the silo, and the town lie in the .same vertical plane, find the
048 Biologists studying the migration of birds are following a mi-
distance between the town and the silo.
grating flock in a light plane. The birds are flying at a constant
altitude of 1200 feet, and the plane is following at a constant
Figure 19 altitude of 1700 feet. The biologists must maintain a distance of
at least 600 feet between the plane and the flock to avoid disturb-
liorizontal line
ing the birds; therefore, they must monitor the angle of depres-
sion of the flock from the plane. Find the maximum allowable
angle of depression, rounded off to the nearest degree.

49 (a) Use the half-angle formulas


57,000 fcot

= —-( 1
- cos .v) and cos" —=— (1 -I- cos x)

to help show that

y<cos-y for < <— .r


2

(b) Using the result of part (a), show that < sin f < cos ; holds
E147 A rectangular panel to collect solar energy rests on flat ground
for < < f 7r/4. (Hint: Let x = It. ) (c) Use the result of part (b)
and toward the sun. The edge resting on the ground is
is tilted
to show that < tan / < 1 holds for < <
f 7r/4.
3.217 meters long, and the upper edge is 1.574 meters above the
ground. The panel is located near Chicago, and its latitude is 50 For small values of t, sin t = tan ;. Prove this by establishing
41.8°. Solar engineers recommend that the angle between the the inequality |sin ; - tan /| < r/2 for < |f| < Tr/4.

1.7 Limits of Functions

Figure I
SECTION 1.7 LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 53

More generally, if/ is a function and a is a number, we understand the notation

lim f(x) = L

which is read "the limit oi f{x) as .v approaches a is L," to mean comes


that/(jr)

closer and closer to the number L as x comes closer and closer to the number a.
Although we give a more formal definition at the end of this section, you can
acquire a working understanding of limits by considering further examples and
geometric illustrations.

EXAMPLE 2 Determine lim (5x + 7).

SOLUTION As X comes closer and closer to 4, 5x comes closer and closer to 20,

and 5x + 1 comes closer and closer to 27. Therefore, lim {5x + 7) = 27.

Unfortunately, it isn't always possible to determine the limit of a function by


simple arithmetic considerations as in the preceding example. In the first place, the
function values may jump around so erratically that they never settle down and
approach a limit, inwhich case we say that the limit does not exist. (Later we give
some examples in which limits do not exist; however, in the present section, our
examples are chosen so that all required limits exist.) In the second place, the
function may be so complicated that the limit, even though it exists, is not evident

by superficial inspection.
For instance, let

-ir - Ax
/(.v)

and consider the problem of determining lim f{x). Here, it is not immediately clear

just how/(jf) behaves as .v approaches 2; however, we can gain some insight into
this behavior by using a calculator to find some values of /(x) as x gets closer and
closer to 2 but stays less than 2. These values are shown in the following table:
54 CHAPTER 1 FlINCTIONS AND LIMITS

This guess can be verified by some elementary algebra, as in the following


example.

3a- - 4.V - 4
EXAMPLE 3 Determine lim
.V - 2

SOLUTION Let

3.x- - 4.V - 4
fix)

Then the domain of/consists of all real numbers .v except for .v = 2 (which makes
the denominator zero). We are only concerned with the values of /(.r) as .v ap-
proaches 2 — what happens when .v reaches 2 is not in question here. For j: # 2,

3.V- - 4.V - 4 (3.V + 2)(.v - 2)


fix)
= = = 3.V + 2
.V - 2 .V — 2

Therefore, as .v comes closer and closer to 2,/(.v) comes closer and closer to 8; that
is,

3.x- - 4.V - 4
lim f(x) = lim = lim (3.v + 2) = 8
x->2-' .x-*2 x-2 x^2

The limit found in the preceding example can be illustrated geometrically by


sketching a graph of the function

3.x- - 4.V - 4
f(x) =
.V - 2
Figure 2
(Figure 2). Since /(.v) = 3.v + 2 holds for x ¥^ 2, this graph is a line with the point
(2, 8) excluded. Figure 2 makes it clear that the value of/(.v) can be made to come
as close to 8 as we please simply by choosing x to be sufficiently close to 2 (but not
x*2 equal to 2).
We see from Figure 2 that:

In finding the limit of/(j:) as a' approaches a, it does not matter how/ is defined
at a (or even whether it is defined there at all). The only thing that does matter is

how / is defined for values of .v near a.

Sometimes, you can use special algebraic tricks to simplify an expression so that

its limit becomes apparent.

V^-1
IS EXAMPLE 4 Find lim and check your result numerically with a cal
V — I
.V - 1

culator.

SOLUTION The desired limit, if it exists at all. is certainly not clear as things
stand. But, by multiplying both the numerator and the denominator of the fraction
by Vx + 1, we "rationalize the numerator" and obtain

Vx - 1 (Va - 1)(Va+ 1)

(.v-1)(Va+1) (.v- 1)(Va + 1) Va+1


SECTION 1.7 LLVllTS OF FUNCTIONS 55

Now, as .r comes closer and closer to 1 , Vjc comes closer and closer to 1 , V? + 1

comes closer and closer to 2, and \/(\G. + 1) comes closer and closer to s. There-
fore,

V^- 1
=
1
lim lim
..-1 X - 1 ^-1 V^ + 1 2

Using a calculator, we find several values of (\^v — \)/(x — 1) for values of a: less

than 1. but approaching 1. Thus.

X
56 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Consider, for instance, the problem of finding

sin X
lim
JT—O X

It's difficult to think of any algebraic trick that will simplify (sin .v)/.v so that its limit

as jc -* will become apparent. Using a calculator (in radian mode), you can verify

the entries in the following table:

v
SECTION 1.7 LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 57

Geometrically, lim f(x) = L means that, for a; ¥= a, we can guarantee that /(a:) is in

any given small open interval around L if we make sure that jr is in a suitably small
open interval around a.
Now, we summarize these considerations in a formal definition of limit.

DEFINITION 1 Limit

Let/be a function defined on some open interval containing a, except possibly at


the number a itself. The statement lim /(.v) = L means that, for each positive

number e, there exists a positive number 5 such that |/(.v) - L\ < e holds when-
ever < l.v
— n| < 6.

EXAMPLE 5 Given e = 0.03, determine a positive 8 so that |(3.v + 7) - l| < e


whenever < |jc
— — 2)| < 5.
(

SOLUTION We have

|(3.x-l-7)- 1| = |3.r-l-6| = |3(.v + 2)1 = 3|x + 2| and |a:


- (-2)| = |a: + 2|

hence, we must find a positive 8 such that

3|.v + 2| < 0.03 holds whenever < |.v + 2| < 5

The condition 3|.v + 2| < 0.03 is equivalent to |.v + 2| < 0.03/3 = 0.01; hence, we
must determine a positive 8 such that

|.v + 2| < 0.01 holds whenever < |.v + 2| < 5

Obviously, 8 = 0.01 works. So does any smaller positive value of 5.

EXAMPLE 6 Use Definition 1 to prove that lim (3.v + 7) = 1.

SOLUTION Let e > 0. We must find 6 > such that |(3x + 7) - l| < e holds
whenever < |.v - (-2)| < 6, that is, whenever < |jr -I- 2| < 5. Just as in Exam-
ple 5, we have
|(3.v + 7) - 1|
= 3|jf + 2|

Therefore, the condition |(3.v + 7) - l| < e is equivalent to 3|.v + 2| < e, that is,

|x + 2| < e/3. Hence, we must determine a positive 8 such that

\x -I- 2 < holds whenever < Lv + 2 < 5

Obviously, 8 = e/3 works. So does any smaller positive value of 5. This proves
that

lim^ (3.V -^ 7) = 1

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the creators of calculus had to man-
age with something like the intuitive idea of limit that we first introduced — and they
had no electronic calculators with which they could quickly check their results. In
finding limits, they had to depend on geometric and numerical insights that were
developed and sharpened by laborious calculations. It wasn't until 1821 that the
great French mathematician Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-1857) proposed a more
precise definition of limit. Definition 1 is a somewhat refined and perfected version
Augustin Louis Cauchy of Cauchy 's idea of the meaning of limit.
58 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Problem Set 1.7

In Problems 1 to 6, determine the limit and sketch a graph of each X


function to illustrate the limit involved.

1 lim ix 2 lim (3.r - 6)

3 lim^ (2 - 3x) 4 lim —2


x^i X

r -9 6 lim -2x\
5 lim |1
3 .V - 3

In Problems 7 to 14, use elementary algebra to simplify each expres-


sion so that its limit becomes apparent. Then IS check your result

numerically by using a calculator to fill in the blanks in the accom-


panying table.

*^ - 5.t -I- 6
7 lim
-2 x-2
SECTION 1.7 LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 59

14 lim [Hint: Multiply numerator and denominator by


>r->i X-—
X 1

( Vx)- + V(v + 1

X
60 CHAPIER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

1.8 Properties of Limits of Functions

Although graphs, "hunches," and numerical evidence generated by a calculator


can provide means for guessing the value of a limit, such a value must be viewed
with suspicion until it is confirmed. The formal e, 8 definition (Definition 1, Sec-
tion 1 .7) is a reliable means for confirming the true value of a limit, but it provides
few clues for finding such a value in the first place. Furthermore, direct use of the
definition can be difficult — it may not be easy to find a d that works for a given e.

In practical work, limits are often determined by using certain properties that can
be shown to follow deductively from the e, 8 definition. If you have managed a
good intuitive grasp of the idea of a limit, most of these properties should seem
quite reasonable, if not obvious. We recommend that you become familiar with
these properties and their use before studying their proofs (in Appendix B). At first,

in order to show you how the limit properties work, we have deliberately chosen
some very simple examples in which the limits themselves are more or less appar-
ent. Later in this section we use these properties to help prove some important
theorems about limits of trigonometric functions.

The Constant and Identity Properties

1 lim c = c
SECTION 1.8 PROPERTIES OF LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 61

The Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division Properties

Suppose that lim /(.v) = L and lim ^(.y) = M. Then

4 Im [fix) + g(x)] = lim /U) + lim g{x) =L + M


5 |im [fix) - gix)\ = lim fix) - lim gix) = L- M
6 Im [fix) -gix)] = [lim/(jc)][Jim gix)] = LM

, ,. fix) J!iP/(^> L
' '™ ~7T ^ T TT = TT provided that A/ ^

EXAMPLE 3 Find:

(a) lim
v^3
ix+ \) (b) lim
.v^3
U- D (c) lim ix
.v^3
+ l)ix - 1) (d) lim ^^
v^3 X - 1

SOLUTION
(a) lim ix + 1) = lim a + lim 1 (Property 4)

= 3+1 (Properties 2 and 1)


= 4
(b) lim (jT - 1) = lim .v - lim 1 (Property 5)

= 3—1 (Properties 2 and 1)


= 2

(c) jim (x + 1)(a: - 1) = [jim ix + l)][lim (jc - 1)] (Property 6)

= (4)(2)

^^ J
lim^ ix + 1)
(d) lim
V— 3 X -
= ^j^
hm (.V - (Property
f J 7) '
I 1)

_ 4_

= 2

The Power, Root, and Absolute- Value Properties


62 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

EXAMPLE 4 Find:
SECTION 1.8 PROPERTIES OF LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 63

Therefore,
64 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

EXAMPLE 8 Find lim x cos — 1

SOLUTION Because values of the cosine always lie between — and


1 1 inclusive,
we have

Lv cos —Mill
= cos — |.v|
1 1

< I

|jr|
I


1 = \x\
I .V I I X \

for all values of .v other than 0. Therefore,

— II ^ |.r| X cos —< 1 I

\x\
,

holds for all values of ^ other than 0. By Properties 10, 3, and 2,

lim l.vl = and lim (-U|) =

Hence, by Property 12,

lim A cos —=
1

The following properties can be used to rewrite limits in equivalent alternative


forms.

The Alternative-Form Properties

13 lim/(.v)
SECTION 1.8 PROPERTIES OF LEVUTS OF FIINCTIONS 65

SOLUTION By Theorem 3 in Section 1.6,

s |cos x — 1 1 < ijr


holds for every value of .r in the open inter\al (-77, tt) except for .v = 0. By
Properties 1, 3, 8, and 2, we have both

lim =

and

lim ic^ = i lim r^ = * • 0- =


JT^O x-*0

Therefore, by the squeezing property (Property 12),

lim Icos x — 1 1
=

Hence, by Property 13, it follows that

lim cos jc = 1

THEOREM 1 Limits of sin x and cos x


66 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

In Section 1.7. our calculator work suggested that

sin X
lim = 1

Now we can prove this important tact.

THEOREM 2 Limit of (sin x)/x

sin .V
lim = 1

PROOF By Theorem 2 in Section 1 .6.

sin X
cos A < < 1

holds for < A- < tt/2. If -77/2 <x< 0, then < -x < tt/2. and we have

sin (-.v)
cos -a) < < 1

Because cos (— .v) = cos x and sin (—a) = —sin a, it follows that

sin A
cos X < < 1

also holds for -n/2 < x < 0. Therefore, it holds for every value of a in the open
interval (
— 7r/2, it/2), except for a = 0. Hence, by the squeezing property (Property
12) together with the facts that

lim cos A = 1 and lim 1 = 1

we can conclude that

sin A
lim = 1
V ^O A

sin 5a:
EXAMPLE 12 Evaluate lim

SOLUTION Let V = 5a, and note that v -^ when a -^ 0. Because a = v/5, we


have

lim
x^O
sin 5a
= hm,.

V—
—sm7^ = v^O
v ,,
lim
/^sin v\
5
X /5
v/5 \ V '

sin V
= 5 lim — (Property 3)

= 5(1) (Theorem 2)

= 5

The method used in Example 12 substituting y — for 5a — is generalized and made


more precise by the following property.
SECTION l.g PROPERTIES OF LIMITS OF Fl-NCTIONS 67

The Substitution Property*

Suppose that lim Av) exists and that lim g(.v) = c. Then, provided that/(g(.r))
is defined
fined and g(x) # c for all va
values of .t in an open interval containing a except
possibly
ibly for jr = a, it follows that
tl

15 lim/(g(.r))= lim/(.v)

EXAMPLE 13 Find lim cos r^ - —


SOLUTION Here, the idea is to make the substitution v = x- - (7r/3), so that
cos [.V- - (7r/3)] = cos v. Informally, we would proceed by notina that as .v -^ 0,
y -^ -~tt/1>: hence.

lim cos (a- --) = ^Jim^^ cos v = cos (- ~) (Theorem 1

This procedure justified by taking /O) = = - (V3)


is
cos v, g(x) .v^ a = and
c = -(-/3) in Property 15.

THEOREM 3 Limit of (1 - COS x)lx

1 — cos A
hm =

PROOF By the half-angle formula.


sin- —= 1 cos X
2
Therefore.

1 - cos A ^ 2 sin- (A-/2) _ sin- (.v/Z)

Now we use the substitution property (Property


15) with v = -^
v/2 Note that v
when A ^ Therefore.
0.

lim i-Zf^= H„ i!5l(V2l^ j^^


^iiry
(Property 15)
-0 a/2

= lim sin v ) (Property 6)


v-^o \ •
V /

,. / s
= dim .

sin V) lim -
y-»o • Vv—O
= (0)(1) = (Theorems 1 and 2)

*The function h(x) = f{g(x)) obtained by evaluating at g(x)


/ is called the composition off
and g. The composition of functions is studied in detail in Section
2.7.
68 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Problem Set 1.8

In Problems 1 to 66, find the limit by using the properties and theo-
rems ol" this section.

I lim 5

3
SECTION 1.9 CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 69

73 Prove that Property 3 follows from Properties 6 and 1. sold. The marginal profit at production level x is defined by

74 Prove that Property 11 follows from Property 12.


„. P(x + h)- P{x)
P ^
(.V) = ,.
lim
75 Prove that Property 5 follows from Properties 4 and 3. 'i-o h

76 Suppose lim f(x) = and that there exists a constant B such that where, in taking the limit as /; -^ 0. .v is to be held constant.
Suppose that the profit in dollars from the manufacture and sale
\g(x)\ < B for all values of a in some open interval containing a.
of x quartz travel alarm clocks is
except possibly for.v = a. Use the squeezing property (Property
12) to prove that lim [flx)g{x)] = 0.
P{x) = 20.r - 50,000 -
1000
77 In economics, the profit function P gives the profit Fix) dollars
to the manufacturer if x units of a commodity are produced and Find the marginal profit P'{x).

1.9 Continuous Functions


As we mentioned, there are many functions/for which lim f{x) is the same as /(a).

For such a well-behaved function, there's no problem in finding lim fix) — all you
have to do is evaluate /(a). A function that has this useful property is said to be
continuous at the number a.

DEFINITION 1
Continuous Function at a Number
A function /is continuous at the number a if the following conditions hold:

(i) /(a) is defined

(ii) lim fix) exists

(iii) lim fix) =f(a)

Figure 1 EXAMPLE 1 Is the absolute- value function /(x) = |.v| (Figure 1) continuous at 0?

SOLUTION

(i) Here, /(O) = |0|


= 0, so/(0) is defined,

(ii) By Property 10 in Section 1.8,

lim fix) = lim \x\ = |0| =

so lim fix) exists.

(iii) By (i) and (ii) above,

lim/(.v) = 0=/(0)

so /is continuous at 0.

EXAMPLE 2 Show that the absolute- value function /(.r) = \x\ is actually continu-
ous at every number a.
70 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

SOLUTION Here. f{a) = \a\ is defined. Also, just as in Example 1

lim/(.v) = lim |.v| = \a\ = f(a)

so /is continuous at every number a.

If any of conditions (i). (ii), or (iii) of Definition 1 fail, we say that/ is discon-
tinuous at the number a. Condition (iii),

lim/(.v)=/(a)

means that/(.v) comes closer and closer to /(a) as .v comes closer and closer to a.
This condition will fail if the function value takes a sudden "jump" when .v = a.

EXAMPLE 3 Is the function

+ 3.V + 1

(^\- if .V 7^ -
.v+ 1

3 if .V = - 1

contmuous at — 1
.'

Figure 2
SOLUTION Here, /( - 1 ) = 3, so /( - 1 ) is defined. For .v r^ - 1

Ir^ + 3.V + 1 (Iv + 1)(.Y + 1)


fix) = ;
= = Iv + 1
.V + 1 .V + 1

Hence, by Property 11 of Section 1.8,

lim /(.v) = lim (Zv+ 1) = -1

so lim fix) exists. However, because lim fix) = -1 and /(-I) = 3, we have

lim _/{.v) #/(-!)

and it follows that /is discontinuous —1. The graph of/ (Figure 2) is the line at

y = 2x + 1 everywhere except at .v = -
1. where a "hole" appears. The defined

value of/ at —1 produces a point (-1. 3) on the graph of/ but above this hole.
Figure 3

Another example of a discontinuous function is provided by

f3.t-2 if.r<3
fix)
=
5- X if .V > 3

The graph of/(Figure 3) visually indicates a discontinuity at the number v = 3. In

order to study this apparent discontinuity, it is convenient to introduce the idea of a


one-sided limit, that is, a limit of/(.\ ) as .v approaches 3 through values entirely on
one side of 3. Figure 3 clearly shows that the numerical value /(.v) approaches 7 as
.V approaches 3 through values that arc always less than 3. We write this fact sym-
bolically as

lim /(.v) = 7

the condition that .v approaches 3 from the left being denoted by .v -^ 3~.
SECTION 1.9 CONTINL'OUS FXINCTIONS 71

Likewise, tlie condition that .v approaches 3 through values that are always greater
than 3. so that .v approaches 3 from the right, is denoted by .v -^ 3" From pfgure 3 .

we see that

lim fix) = 2

Because the two one-sided limits of/(.v) as .v ^3^ and as .v -^ 3* are not the same,
it follows that lim /(a) cannot exist. Therefore (as we have already guessed from

our inspection of Figure 3). / is discontinuous at the number 3.


A
formal definition of one-sided limits can be patterned after
Definition 1 in
Section 1.7 (Problem 44). The basic idea is simple. Indeed,
lim f(x) just =L
means that we can make |/(.v) - L\ as small as we please by taking x close enough to
a but less than a. Likewise, Hm^ f(x) = R means that we can make |/(.r)
- R\ as

small as we please by taking .v close enough to a but greater than a.\fL¥=R (as in
Figure 3). then jim cannot More
^^°
/(jc) exist. generally, we have the following
theorem.

THEOREM Limits and One-Sided Limits

The limit ^lini /(.v) exists and equals L if and only if both of the one-sided limits

hm f{x) and lim_/(jr) exist and have the common value L.

We leave the proof of this theorem as an exercise


(Problems 47 to 50).
One-sided limits
satisfy appropriate analogs of the properties in Section
1.8. For
instance, if lim f(x) = L and lim. ^(.v) = M, then

lim_ \f(x) + g(x)] =L+ M


lim, [fix) gix)] = LM

and so forth.

In Examples 4 and 5. (a) sketch the graph of the function, ih) find the one-sided
limits of the function as x -^ a' and as x^
a*, (c) determine the limit of the
fiinction as x -^ a (if this limit exists), and (d) decide
whether the function is
continuous at the number a.

-'"
Figure 4 EX.AMPLE 4 = \]~ '^•' - =
gix) \ « 1
U + .V- if .V > 1

SOLUTION

(a) A sketch of the graph is shown in Figure 4.


(b) lim gi.x) = lim (3 - .<^) = 2

lim, gi.x) = lim (1 -I- .v^) = 2

(c) Because both of the one-sided limits exist and have the same value, 2, it
follows that lim gix) = 2.
72 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

(d) Here. ^'(1) = 3 - 1^ = 2, so ^ is defined at 1 . Also, lim ^(.v) exists and

hm ^(.v) = 2 = g(\)

hence, g is continuous at 1.

I.V
- 21 if X 9^2
EXAMPLE 5 /(a) ,a = 2
1 ifx = 2

SOLUTION

(a) A sketch of the graph of/ is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5

(b) By Property 11 of Section 1.8,

lim fix) = lim |.v


— 2|

hence, by Property 10 of Section 1.8,

lim f(x) = I
lirn^ (.v - 2)| = |0| =

It follows from Theorem 1 that

Vm fix) = liin. f(x) = Hm_/(.v) =

(c) We have already seen in part (b) that lim /(,v) = 0.

(d) /(2) = 1, lim f(x) = 7^ 1; hence, /is discontinuous at 2.

Properties of Continuous Functions

Suppose that /and g are two functions that are continuous at the number a. Then
f(a) and g{a) are both defined, so that {/+ g)(a) = f(a) + g(a) is defined. More-
over, by Property 4 of Section 1.8,

hm^ (/+ g)(x) = lim^ L/(.v) + ^(.v)) = lim /(.v) + \\m g(.v)

= f(a) + g(ii) = {/+ g)(a)


SECTION 1.9 CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 73

Figure 6 y

Figure 7
74 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

The following continuity properties of the trigonometric functions follow from


Theorem in Section 1.8 (Problem 46).
1

Continuity Properties of the Trigonometric Functions

6 The sine and cosine functions are continuous at every number.

7 The tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant functions are continuous at

every number for which they are defined.

InExamples 9 and 10, use the properties of continuous functions to determine the
numbers at which the given function is continuous.

EXAMPLE 9 /i;,v) = tan X

SOLUTION Because
sin .V

f(x) = tan .V
=

f(x) is undefined when cos x = 0; that is, when

A-= ±— , ±3- — :5- —


2 2

and so on. Therefore, by Property 7, /is continuous at all real numbers except for

odd integer multiples of 7r/2. The graph in Figure 9 clearly shows the periodic
discontinuities of the tangent function.

Figure 9 y

EXAMPLE 10 F(r) = 2 cos (^TT/ - — I

SOLUTION The polynomial function

g(t) = Trt - — 77

is continuous every number by Property 3, and the cosine function is continuous


at

at every number by Property 6; hence, by the substitution property (Property 5), the
function

h{t) = cos ( 7)7 - — ) = cos g{t)


SECTION 1.9 CONTINVIOUS FUNCTIONS 75

is also continuous at even' number. The constant function

fit) = 2

is continuous at even' number by Property 3; hence, by Property 1,

F(t) = 2 cos (777 - ^) = fit) hit)


6

is continuous at every number. (See Figure 10 for the graph of F.)

Figure 10 y

Continuity on an Interval
To say that a function /is continuous on an open interval means, by definition,
that /is continuous at every number in the intenal. For instance, the function

fix) = V'9 - x^

is continuous on the open interval (-3, 3) (Figure 11).


Similarly, to say that a function / is continuous on a closed interval [a, b]
means, by definition, that /is continuous on the open intenal {a. b) and that/
'
satisfies the following "one-sided" " continuity conditions at the endpoints a and b:

lim^/(jc) = f(a) and \\mj(x)=f{b)

Figure 11 For instance, the function f(x) = V9~ X- is actually continuous on the closed
interval [-3, 3] (Figure 11).

EX.\MPLE 11 Determine whether the rational function

x + 1
fix)
x^ - 36
is continuous on the following intervals: (-x, -6), [-6. 6], (-6, 6), and (6, x).

SOLUTION Here, fix) is defined for all real numbers x except for the values
jr = -6 and .v = 6 (which make the denominator zero). Thus, the rational function/
iscontinuous on (-x, -6), (-6, 6). and (6. ^) by Property 4. Since -b and 6 do
not belong to the domain of /, it follows that / is not continuous on the closed
interval [
— 6, 6].
76 CHAKIER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

Problem Set 1.9

= x+ I

In Problems 1 to 14, (a) sketch a graph of the function; (b) find the 17 hlx) = X- 2\x\ 18 Fix)
one-sided limits of the function as v approaches a from the right and
X- 1

approaches
from the
a (if this
left; (c)

limit exists);
dctemiinc the limit of the function as
and (d) using the definition
v

of continuity, 19 C(A) =
I

20 fix) = —
decide whether the function is continuous at the number a.
A- - 4a + 3 \x^ if A <
21 ^(A) = 22 hix)
15 -l-.v if .V < 3 Ix' if A >
1 fix) a = 3
>
'

if .V 3 - 4a + - -
.V- 3 .r Iv 3
23 Fix) = + I

if v < A - I

2 F(.v) = i
if .V = ; o =
I
if .X > 24 Gix) 25 Hix) =
A - 2
13 + X if .V < I

a= 1
if .V > I 26 Tix) -
27 fix) = cot A

flv- I if .v< I

4 G(x) =
Ia-
, .^
if X s ,•.«=!
I 28 fix) = sec — 29 gix) = CSC x

= if .V # 5
5 W(.v) a = 5 I
- sin r
if .V = 5 30 hit) = tan |;t
31 fit)
=
cos t

x-2 if .V 5^ 2
6 Hlx) = - a = 2
<j
|.v 2| ;
if A ^
if X = 2 32 fix) = < X
if A =
\2- X i{x> \

7 fix) = a = 1 ( tan X if A < 7T/4


if .r < I
;

33 /;(A)
l^V^sinA if A > 77/4

if .V ^ 2
8 Q(x) = {
x-2 ;a = 2 I

sm if A 9^
if x = 2 34 fix) = < X
if A =
r - 9
''^ "^
9 Fix) = <! v - 3 * -\ a = 3 In Problems 35 to 40, determine whether each function is continu-
if .V = 3 ous or discontinuous on each interval.

3 + x^ if.r<-2
35 fix) = VA - .r on |-2, 2), [2, 3], (-2, 2), and (-1, 5)
10 mx) = i
if A = -2; u =
II -V- if A> -2
36 gix) on (-^, I), (-3. -I), (-X, -I), (-1, =0),

11 5(A-) = 5 + |6.r- 3|, a = i


[-1, =c). and [-2. 2]
12 «(A) = llAll + [15 - aH. « = 4
= -A ;-on(-oo, 61,(-oc, -4], (-6. o:),[-6. 9], and
13 /(A)
= A- -
A +

Iv
I
- 3
,«= -1
37 Fix)

[-7,00)
.r - 36

14 T{x) = 111 -aH + Ha- ID, a= 1 X - 5


38 fix) = on 1-1, l|, (-1. I). (-5, =c), {-X, 51. and
A - 5
1-8.61
in Problems 15 to 34. use the properties of continuous functions to
determine the numbers at which the function is continuous.
39 Gix) = ,'^\ ^„ on 1-i 01. 1-J, 01. (-i x). [-2. x), and
16a- -9
15 fix) = 2\x\ 16 8ix) = \\ -A-l (-1, -i)
REVIEW PROBLEM SET 77

44 Give a formal definition of (a) lim fix) =L and (b)


40 fix) = cot .V on (
- ^ ^ .
)
. - ^ y . I , (0. 17). and [0. v]
lim^ f(x) =R patterned after Definition 1 in Section 1 .7. {Hint:

41 The weight of an object is given by Note, for instance, that < |.v — a| < 5 and v < a if and only if

ax if ,v R -8<x - a <0.)

iv(.v) = ! b 45 Find lim^ V.x - 2 and explain why lim V.v — 2 does not exist.
if v >R

where .v is the distance of the object from the center of the earth. 46 Use Theorem 1 in Section 1 .8 and Properties 2 and 3 of continu-

R is the radius of the earth, and a and b are constants. What ous functions to prove the continuity Properties 6 and 7 of the

relation must exist between these constants if vc is to be a contin- trigonometric functions.

uous function? Assuming that w is continuous, sketch its graph.


47 Suppose that lim f(x) = L. Give an informal argument to ex-

42 If a hollow sphere of radius a is charged with one unit of static plain why it should follow that lim fix) = L.

electricity, the field intensity £ at a point P depends as follows

on the distance .v from the center of the sphere to P: 48 Suppose that lim /(.v) = L. Use the formal definition in Prob-

r if < .V < a lem 44 to prove that lim_ fix) = L.

if -V = a 49 Suppose that lim^ fix) = lim fix) = L. Give an informal argu-


E(x)
ment to explain why it should follow that lim fix) = L.
- if .V > a

(a) Sketch a graph of E. (b) Discuss the continuity of £. 50 Suppose that lim /(.v) = lim /(.v) = L. Use the formal defini-

tions to prove that lim fix) = L.


43 If g is defined by the equation

51 State the analog of Property 1 1 of Section 1.8 for limits from the
,^ = J^-^I-i if.v#l
1 V -
«(-^' right.
1

U( if .v= 1
52 State the analog of Property 1 2 of Section 1 .8 for limits from the
determine the value of o so that g will be continuous at 1. left.

Review Problem Set, Chapter 1

1 Assume that a and b are real numbers such that a < b. Which 10 >0 ll^i^<0
.x-l- 3
of the following are necessarily true and which could be false?
(a) a < 5b (b) -3a < -3b
(c) 5a < -i-Sb) id) a + 5 <b + 5
12^^.1
- V 2
13
x + 2
>3
(e) 1/a > l/b ii) a - 1 > b - 1

In Problems 2
on the number
to 13, solve the inequality

line.
and illustrate the solution
(a)
11,11
14 State the conditions under which each inequality

—<
.T
— 10
(b)
x
<
100
(c) -:;
x^-
1

\
is

<
true.

1000

(d) -.V < X (e) -.ir < T-


2 .V - 5 < 7 3 3.»: -I- 2 > 8
15 Give two different examples of real numbers a. b, c. and d with
4 3j: - 2 > 1 -I- 2x 5 5 > 8.V - 3 > -6
a < b and c < d but ac > bd.

t-
,
"2
1
2+ 7 .^ -I- .V - 20 < 16 For positive real numbers a and b. show that
3
lab a + b
8 -r' - 6.V - 7 s 9 2r -I- 9 < 5 Vab£
a + b
78 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

17 A student on academic probation must earn a C in his calculus 35 Determine which equations or inequalities are true for all val-

course to avoid being expelled from college. Since he is lazy ues of the variables.

and has no interest in earning a grade any higher than neces- (a) \x'-4\ = \x- 2\\x + 2| (b) |jr - 4| = .r + 4
sary, he wants his final numerical grade for calculus to lie in - = - = -
(c) I
-tp ;r (d) |.t >•! |v .t|

the interval 170, 80). This grade will be determined by taking


three-fifths of his classroom average, which is 68, plus two- (e) |.r + ix\^x' + \3x\ (f ) \x-y\^ \x\ + \y\

fifths of his score on the exam. Since he has always had


final
36 It is predicted that the number N of cars to be produced by an
trouble with inequalities, he can't figure out the range in which automobile industry in the coming year will satisfy the inequal-
his score on the final exam should fall to allow him to stay in ity \N - 4,000.000| < 500,000. Describe the anticipated pro-
school. Can you help him? duction as an interval of real numbers.

El 18 A runner leaves a starting point and runs along a straight road at


InProblems 37 to 42, plot each pair of points and find the distance
a steady speed of 8.8 miles per hour. After a while, she turns
between them by using the distance formula.
around and begins to run back to the starting point. How fast
must she run on the way back so that her average speed for the
37 (I. 1) and (4, 5)
entire run will be greater than 8 miles per hour but no greater
than 8.5 miles per hour? {Caution: The average speed for her 38 (-1,2) and (5, -7)
entire run ciiniwt be found by adding 8.8 miles per hour to her
39 (-3, 2) and (2, 14)
return speed and dividing by 2.)
[g 40 (4.71, -3.22) and (0, tt)
19 Find the distance between the numbers in each pair and illus-

trate your answer on a number line. 41 (-2, -5) and (-2, 3)

—3 and 4 V2
(a)

(b) and -5
_
El 42 (Vtt,
r-
77) and
/
— 1 -I-

f)
31

[c)(c) -2.735 and -TT (-1,


El 43 What is the perimeter of the triangle with vertices 5),
(d) -3.2 and 4.1 (8, —7), and (4, 1)? Round off your answer to two decimal
(e) -§ and I
places.

[c](f) 1.42 and Vl 44 Are the points (-5, 4). (7, -11), (12, -ID. and (0, 4) the

vertices of a parallelogram? Justify your answer.


20 Use the absolute-value notation to write an expression for the
distance between the two given numbers. Simplify your an-
In Problems 45 to 48, find the radius r and the coordinates (/i, k) of
swer.
the center of each circle, and sketch a graph of the circle.

(a) —6 and 5 (b) — and


x+ 1
45 (.V - 2)- + (v + 3)- = 25

(O— and 3 .
— 4
(d)
.v-i- 1
and — 46 .r -I- 2v -I- y- + 2y + I =

47 .r -I- y- - 3.v -I- 4y -I- 4 =


In Problems 21 to 26, solve the absolute-value equation.
48 4.x- -h 4.V- -I- 4.V - 4y -H I =
21 Ix-t- 1| = 3 22 |2t - 3| = 5
In Problems 49 to 52, find the slope of the line segment AB and an
23 \2y+ 1| = 5 24 \2t H- 3| = |f -t-
2|
equation in point-slope form of the line containing -4 and B.

25 |2ir - M - 2i = 26 |5 - 3z| = 2z
49 A = (3, -5), B = (2, 2)

Problems 27 to 34, solve the absolute-value inequality and show


In
50 A = (0, 7). B = (5, 0)
your solution on a number line.
51 A = (1, 2), B = (-3, -4)
27 |2x + 5| s 6 28 |3.v -I- 4| < 2 = B = (i -I)
52 A (i, 5),

29 |1 -.t|<0.01 30 ll - 4.v| ^x
In Problems 53 and 54, sketch the line L that contains the point P

- > S3 and has slope m, and find an equation in point-slope form for L.
31 |7.r 6| .r 32
U - 1

1 1
53 P = (5, 2), m= -i
33 34 >5
|2v -1-31 4 |3^-1| 54 P = {-L i).m = ?
REVIEW PROBLEM SET 79

In Problems 55 and 56, (a) find an equation of the line that contains In Problems 77 to 82. find the domain of each function.

the point P and is parallel to the line segment AB. and (b) find an
equation of the line that contains the point P and is perpendicular to
=
1

77 fix)
line segment AB.

55 P = (7. -5). A = (1. 8). B = (-3, 2)

56 P = (i, I), A = (4. -f). S = (l, I)

In Problems 57 and 58, rewrite each equation in slope-intercept

form, find the slope m and the y intercept b of the graph, and sketch
the graph.

57 4.V - 3y + 2 =

58 f.Y - iv + 3 =
80 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

84 Which of the graphs in Figure 2 are graphs of functions? ciency. For a certain wind-powered generator, the constant
it = 3.38 X lO""*. Sketch the graph of the function P for this
Figure 2 y generator, and determine how many horsepower are generated
when the wind speed is 35 miles per hour.

92 In economics, it is often assumed that the demand for a com-


modity is a function of selling price, that is,q = /(/>), where p
dollarsis the selling price per unit of the commodity and q is

thenumber of units that will sell at that price, (a) If p increases,

\kr\m^ would you expect q to increase or decrease? What does this


mean about the graph of/? (b) Write an equation for the total
amount of money F{p) in dollars spent by consumers for the
commodity if the selling price per unit is p dollars, (c) What
would it mean to say that there is a value p^^ dollars for which
/(Po) = 0?

93 In economics, it is often assumed that the number of units 5 of

a commodity that producers will supply to the marketplace is a


function of the selling price p dollars per unit, that is, 5 = g(p).
(a) If/) increases, would you expect i to increase or decrease?
What does this mean about the graph of ^?? (b) Write an equa-
tion for the total amount of money (in dollars) C(p) spent by
consumers for the commodity if the selling price per unit is p
dollars and all supplied units are purchased, (c) What would it

mean to say that there is a value p\ dollars for which g(/7| )


=
0?

94 A manufacturer finds that 100.000 electronic calculators are


sold per month at a price of $50 each, but that only 60,000 are
sold per month if the price is $75 each. Suppose that the graph
of the demand function /for these calculators is a straight line
in the pq plane (see Problem 92). (a) Find a formula for/(p),
where p dollars is the selling price per calculator and q = f{p)
is the number per month that will sell at that price, (b) Find the
selling price per calculator if the monthly demand is 80,000
calculators, (c) What price would be so high that no calculators
would be sold?

In Problems 85 to 90. find the domain of the function, sketch its


In Problems 95 to 100, determine without drawing a graph whether
graph, and find the range of the function. El If you wish, use a
the function is even, odd, or neither, and discuss any symmetry of
calculator to help sketch more accurate graphs.
the graph.

85 /(.v) = 5.V - 3 86 g(.v)


95 /(.v) = 5.x-'^ -I- 3.r^ +x 96 g(x) = (X* + X' + 1)-

88 G(.v) = x' 97 hlx) = tx+ l).r"' 98 Fix) = -x^\x\

89 /lU) = 99 G(.v) = x^° - 5.t'' -I- 9 100 Hix) =


if .V < 1 +x

if .V < In Problems 101 to 110, find


90 wu) = ; 1, if < .r < 1
(b)(/-g)(.r)
(a) (/-(-,<?)(.x) {c){J-g){x) (d) (f/g)(x)
y 3.x- - I if .r > I

m 91 The power delivered by a wind-powered generator is given by 101 f(x) = x + 2. g{x) = 3.r - 4

P{x) = kx' horsepower 102 f(x) =x^ + It. g{x) = -x- - It

where x is the speed of the wind in miles per hour and *: is a =


1
= 1

103 f(x) Six)


constant depending on the size of the generator and its effi- x+ 1
REVIEW PROBLEM SET 81

+ 3 X 131 Convert each degree measure to radian measure. Do not use a


104 /U) = jt
-, g(x) = -
X - 2 X - 2 calculator. Write your answer as a rational multiple of tt.

(a) 80° (b) 570° (c) -355°


105 fix) = .^^ g(x) = VTTT
(d) -810° (e) -310° (f) 765°
106 f(x) = X, gix) = \x-2\-x
132 Use a calculator to convert each degree measure to an approxi-
107 fix) = W, gU) = -X mate radian measure, rounded off to four decimal places.

108 /(x) = VVT7. gix) = 7r|jf|


(a) 5° (b) 27.7533° (c) -17.173° (d) 35.2819°

109 /U) =.r'-' + 1, g(A) = V^ 133 Convert each radian measure to degree measure. Do not use a
calculator.
110/U) = -U-,g(j:) = --
X 277 1377 777
\x\
(b)
- (c)
5
In Problems 111 to 122, find the vertex of the graph of the quadratic 3577 5177 1877
(e) (f)
function, determine whether the graph opens upward or downward,
3
sketch the graph, and find the domain and range of the function.
O 134 Use a calculator to convert each radian measure to an approxi-
Ill fix) = 4x^ 112 gix) = W mate degree measure, rounded off to four decimal places.

113 hix) = -ir 114 Fix) = 3.r + 2 (a) 5 (b) 3.9 (c) -7.63 (d) -21.403

115 Gix) = 3U - 2)- + 116 Hix) = i[ix + 3)- + 2]


1
In Problems 135 and 136, find the area A = ir-0 of a sector of a
117 fix) = ,r - 3x + 2 118 gix) = 6;r + 13x - 5 circle of radius r with central angle 0.

119 hix) = -6.r - 7.V + 20 120 Gix) = -2jr + X + 10


135 r = 25 centimeters, = 77/6 136 r = 3.5 meters, 6 = 60°

121 Fix) = 10.V - 25 - r^ 122 Hix) = 7;c + 2r - 39


137 The minute hand on a tower clock is 0.6 meter long. How far
El 123 Suppose a manufacturer of sports trophies knows that the total does the tip of the hand travel in 4 minutes'?
cost C (in dollars) of making .v thousand trophies is given by
138 In Problem 137, what the area of the sector swept out by the
C= 600 + 60-v, and the corresponding sales revenue R (in dol-
is

lars) is given by R = 300.v - 4.v-. Let Fix) be the manufactur- minute hand in 4 minutes?

er's profit if X thousand trophies are manufactured and sold, E) 139 Find the approximate diameter of the moon if its disk subtends
(a) Find a formula for P{x). (b) Find Pi 10) and P(35). (c) Find an angle of 0.5° on at a point the earth 240,000 miles away
the largest and smallest values of the production level x, (Figure 3). iHini: Approximate the diameter \DE\ by the length
rounded off to the nearest trophy, for which the profit is posi-
of the arc BC.
tive.

124 Suppose that/ is a quadratic function and that /(.vi) = Figure 3


fix2) = 0. Show that the .v coordinate of the vertex of the graph
of/ is 5(.lCi + Xi).

In Problems 125 to 130, i denotes the length of the arc intercepted

on a circle of radius r by a central angle of radians. Find the


missing quantity.

= = =
El 140 A satellite in a circular orbit above the earth is known to have a
125 r 5 meters, 6 0.57 radian, s 1
speed of 9.92 kilometers per second. In 10 seconds it moves
126 r = 40 centimeters, .s = 4 centimeters, 0=1 along an arc that subtends an angle of 0.75° at the center of the
earth. If the radius of the earth is 6371 kilometers, how high is
127 .J = 37r feet, 6 = tt radians, r = ?
the satellite above the surface of the earth?
37T
128 / = 13 kilometers, = ^— radians, i = ?
Elln Problems 141 to 158, use a calculator to find the approximate
values of the trigonometric functions.
129 r = 2 meters, s = tt meters, 0=1
141 sin 27.33° 142 sin 421.25°
5-77
130 i = 1777 micrometers, = radians, r = '?

6 143 cos 53.47° 144 cos(- 113.81°)


82 CHAPTER I FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

145 ian(- 117.2583) 146 lan( -281. 5236) 180 Assume that « is in quadrant IV. cos a = ?, /3 is in quadrant I,

sin /3 = rV. y is 'i quadrant II, cos y = -M. is in


147 sec 16.43° 148 sec( -248.2°)
quadrant II, and sin fl = ^. Find the exact numerical value of

149 CSC —
47r
150 CSC 5.132
each expression.

(a) sin(a + fi) (b) cos(y + 0) (c) sin(/3 + 0)

(d) sin(a - y) (e) cos(/3- y) (f) sin(/3 - y)


151 cot(-3.18) 152 cot(-7.167)
(g) tan(/3 - y) (h) sec(/3 - y) (i) simO - y)
153 cos(- 19.213) 154 CSC 18.113
(j) cos(/3 - 0)
155 sin 3.015 156 cot V3
Problems 181 to 188, simplify each expression.
157 cos —-- 158 sin|tan(- 7 1.32)1
In

181 cos- 2v - sin- 2v 182 1


- 2 sin- —
2

In Problems 159 to 178. simplify each expression.


183 2 sin — cos — 184 cos-* 20 - sin-* 20
2 2
sin(-6») -sin(-a)
159 160 sin 4in
cos(-e) -cos(-a) 185 2 sin" -— + cos 186
2 4 sin TTt cos TTt

161 CSC .V - cos .r cot .r 162 sec e - sin e tan


cos-(r/2) - cos f
163 CSC" / tan- I - 1 164 (cot .V + 1)- - csc^ jc
187 188
sin-(iV2)

see' M + 2 tan u sec fi


165 166 189 If < e < 7r/2 and x = V7 sin 0. find cot in terms of
1 + tan M cot /3 + tan /3
.v.

sin'S + 2 cos-0
190 If < < r 7r/2 and .v = vTT tan f. find cos l in terms of .v.

167 2 cot
sin d cos El 191 A broadcasting antenna tower 200 meters high is to be held
vertical by three cables running from a point 10 meters below
1
168 the top of the tower to concrete anchors sunk in the ground
CSC V - cot y esc y + cot y
(Figure 4). If the cables are to make angles of 60° with the

169 cos(360° - 0) 170 tan(2Tr - /3)


horizontal, how many meters of cable will be required?

171 sin(270° + a) 172 cos(270° - <f>)

Figure 4
173 sin(27r + I) 174 cot (
-^ + xj
175 sin 37° cos 23° + cos 37° sin 23°

.,^ tan(7r/5) + tan(7r/20)


176 ; :

1
- tan(7r/5) tan(7r/20)

177 sin .V cos y - sinl.v + —I sin(-y)

178 cos(77 - t) - tan / cosi i]

179 Use the fact that 77r/l2 = (Tr/4) + (7r/3) to find the exact 192 An electronic echo locator on a commercial fishing boat indi-
numerical value of cates a school of fish at a slant distance of 575 meters from the
ItT boat with an angle of depression of 33.60°. What is the depth of
(a) sin
12 the school of fish?

(b) cos
In El In Problems 193 and 194. use elementary algebra to simplify each
12
expression so that its limit becomes apparent. Then check your re-

777 sults numerically by using a calculator to fill in the blanks in the


(c) tan
accompanying table.
REVIEW PROBLEM SET 83

193 Urn
r-2 1 - (2A)

A
84 CHAPTER 1 FUNCTIONS AND LIMITS

239 The air freight charge for shipping merchandise between two

231 g(.v) =-\ .\


- 2 ; lim s(.v), lim, ^U), lim g(.x) cities is given by the equation
'"* '"*• '""
if = 2
1 .V
0.5a if < .t < 10

5.V + 5 C(.v) 0.4a if lOs A<30


^ 0.3 a 30 s X
232/(.v)=-j |.v+l| '
"^
: lim^ /(.v), Im .
/(.v), lim /(.v)
if

lo if.v= -1 where a is the number of pounds being shipped and C(a) is the
charge in dollars. Sketch the graph of C, and find tho.se values
In Problems 233 to 236, sketcli tiie graph of the given function and of A for which C is discontinuous.
indicate whether the function is continuous at x = a.

240 A function / is defined by the equation

if .r ?^ 3 -X if A <
233 f(x) =< v - 3 a = 3 C
;
if < A s I

if A = 3 -
,A.v) A if 1 < A < 2

X- - 1
if A > 2
if V 7^ 1

234 i'U) =< A- 1 a = 1


:
(a) Sketch the graph of/, and discuss the continuity of/ at 0. 1

if .V = 1
and 2. (b) Determine the constants A, B,C, D. and E so that

v- 1
= Ax + B + C\x\ + D\x - l\+ E\x -
if X ^ 1
f(x) 2|
235 fix) : a = 1

:'A if A- = 1
241 Determine the values of the constants A and B so that the func-
tion/is continuous at every real number and sketch the graph
of the resulting function.
if A ?^ 2
236 /i(.x) : a = 2
3a if a s2
if A = 2
fix) Av B -I- if 2 <A< 5
—6a if a 2: 5
237 Taxi fare is 90 cents plus 50 cents for each quarter-mile or

portion thereof. If we let /(a) denote the fare for a ride of 242 Let [IaD denote the greatest integer not exceeding a. and con-
X miles, sketch the graph of/ and indicate where it is discon- sider the function /(a) = dl/Aj for a > 0. Sketch a graph of/,
tinuous. and indicate where /is discontinuous.

238 Assume that it takes 0.5 calorie of heat to raise the temperature 243 Determine whether each function is continuous or discontinu-
of 1 gram of ice 1 degree Celsius, that it takes 80 calories to ous on each of the indicated intervals.
melt the ice at 0°C, and that it takes 1 calorie to raise the
3
temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. Suppose that (a) fix) 1. 11. [-ill. (-1.1). [5.==)
Zx -
-40 s A < 20, and let Q{x) be the number of calories of heat
1

required to raise gram of water from -40°C to a°C. Sketch


1
'^'^'.(-oc.l).
(b) g(.r) = ^-^ ^ (1,2), [1.21
the graph of Q. and indicate where Q is discontinuous. '^
l
- X lf|SA£2
THE DERIVATIVE

The limit concept, introduced in Chapter 1, is used in this chapter to define a


mathematical procedure called differentiation. A variety of problems that cannot be
handled by strictly algebraic techniques— including problems involving the rate of
change of a variable quantity — can be solved by procedure. From
this a geometric
point of view, such problems can be interpreted as questions involving a tangent
line to the graph of a function.

2.1 Rates of Change and Slopes of Tangent Lines


In this section we use the concept of limit to solve two apparently unrelated prob-
lems; later, we same problem. The first problem is to find
see that they are really the
the rate of change of a variable quantity, for instance, the time rate of change of
distance (speed). The second problem is to find the slope of the tangent line to the
graph of a function at a given point.

Speed of an Automobile
Suppose you are driving along a straight road from city A to city B, perhaps at a

variable rate of speed r. The distance d of your automobile from city A depends on
the elapsed time t since the start of the journey (Figure I). Suppose that the func-

tions / and g give the distance d and the speed /• at time /, so that

d=f(t) and r = g(t)

Figure I For instance, if the rate of speed r is constant, say / = 55


position of automobile
^iles per hour, we have the familiar formula
at time t

city A / city B distance = rate x time

d = rt = 55f

85
86 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

Hence, in this case, /and g are given by

/(/) = 55f and g(t) = 55

In the more general case in which your speed is variable, the functions /and g are
more complicated.
We now find a relationship between the distance function /and the speed function
g. Let's choose and (temporarily) fix a value / of the time variable. Thus, at time /.

your automobile is d = fit) miles from city A. and the speedometer reads r = g(t)
miles per hour. Suppose a short additional interval of time h passes. At time / + h.

your automobile is at a distance /(/ + h ) miles from city A (Figure 2), and its speed
is git + h) miles per hour. Evidently, the automobile has gone/(r + h) —fit) miles
Figure 2 during the time interval h: hence its average speed (distance divided by time)
during the time interval h is

/(/ + /)) -fit)


average speed = miles per hour
-m h
—Al + h)-
If the time interval h is very short, the speedometer reading git) at time / will not

differ much from the speedometer reading git + /;) at the slightly later time / + h.

Furthennore. during this short interval of time, the speedometer readings should be
approximately the same as the average rate of speed.

fit + h) -fit)
.?(')

As the time interval /; becomes shorter and shorter, this approximation will become
more and more accurate. In other words, the speedometer reading at the instant / is
given by
/(/ + /() -fit)
ij(r) = lim

This equation expresses the promised relationship between the distance function/
and the speed function g. In fact, it shows that you can calculate or derive the
instantaneous speed git) from the distance function/by evaluating a suitable limit.

Instantaneous Rate of Change in General


The above considerations concerning the rate of change of distance with respect to
time can be generalized to any variable quantities whatsoever. Indeed, let x and y
denote variable quantities, and suppose that y depends on .v. so that y = fix), where
/ is a suitable function.
To find the rate of change of y per unit change in x. we naturally begin by
considering a change in .v, say from the value .V| to the value .v^. Now, let

.v, =/(.v,) and .V2=/(-V2)

so that as x changes from .Vi to .v^, y undergoes a corresponding change from


y\ to v..
It is traditional to denote the change in .v by the symbol A.v (read "delta x").* so
that

Av = V,

*The expression A.v must be regarded as a single symbol representing a change in the

.v; it must not be thought of as a product of A and .v.


variable
2.1 RATES OF CHANGE AND SLOPES OF TANGENT LINES 87

Similarly, the resulting change in y is denoted by the symbol Ay (read "delta y"),
so that

Aa- = V- /(v.) -fix,)

The ratio of thechange in y to the change in x that produced it is called the average
rate of change of y per unit change in x (or with respect to x). More formally, we
have the following definition.

DEFINITION 1 Average Rate of Change

If y =/lv). then the ratio


88 CHAPIKR 2 THK DKRIVATIVK

Hence, the average rate of change of y with respect to v over the interval A.r is

given by

—Av— = 0.120601
= 12.0601 cubic centimeters per centimeter of edge length
Ax 0.01

(b) More generally, if .v changes by an amount A.v from 2 to 2 + A.v centime-


ters, then y changes by a corresponding amount

Ay = (2 + A.V)' - 2' = 8 + 12 A.v + 6(A.O- + (Axf - 8

= 12 A.v + 6(A.v)- + (A.v)' cubic centimeters

Therefore, the required instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x is

given by

Av \2 Ix + 6(Axf + (Ax)^
lim -^-= lim ^^ ^^
-= lim [12 + 6 A.v + (Ax)-]
A-V— Ax A-V— A.V Av— O
= 12 cubic centimeters per centimeter of edge length

Figure 3
In calculating the rate of change of one variable with respect to another, it is not
necessary to use the symbols y and .v. For instance, suppose that a particle P is

moving away from a starting point A along a straight line (Figure 3). It is traditional

to denote the distance between A and P at time i by the letter s. If .? = fU). the
speed* of the particle at the instant when / = /[ is given by

,. A.V /(f, +A/)-/(fi)


"
= lim
A(— At A(— At

EX.\MPLE 2 A particle is moving along a straight line in such a way that at the

end of / seconds, its distance 5 in meters from the starting point is given by 5 =
2r + t. Find (a) the average speed As/ At of the particle during the interval of time
from / = 3 to / = 5 seconds and (b) the instantaneous speed of the particle when
/ = 3 seconds.

SOLUTION Here s =/(/) = 2r + f.

(a) When / = 3 seconds, s = 2(3)~ + 3 = 21 meters. As increases by Af = 2 /

to 3 + 2 = 5 seconds, s increases to s + As = 2(5)- + 5 = 55 meters. Thus,


during these 2 seconds, the particle moves through a distance

As = 55 - 21 =34 meters

Its average speed during the interval of time from / = 3 to r = 5 seconds is

therefore

As 34
= = 17 meters per second
^
Af 2

(b) The change in s as the value of t changes (by an amount At) from 3 to
3 + At seconds is given by

As =/(3 + At) -/(3) = [2(3 + At)- + (3 + At)] - [2(3)- + 3] meters

* Actually, there is a difference between speed and velocity-, however, for the simple cases
considered in this section, it isn't necessary to distinguish between the two. (See page 143.)
2.1 RATES OF CHANGE AND SLOPES OF TANGENT LINES 89

The average speed during the interval of time Ar between 3 and 3 + Af seconds
is

A^ /(3 + Af)-/(3)
meters per second
Ar \t

Hence, the instantaneous speed of the particle when t = 3 seconds is, by Defi-
nition 2.

A5 /(3 + An -/(3)
hm = Imi
Af— \t A/^0 Af

Figure 4 [2(3 + At)- + (3 + A/)] - [2(3)- + 3]


= hm
A,^0 A?

[18 + 12 It + 2{Ar)- + 3 + Af] - 21


= lim
Ar-.0 A;
13 It + 2(Af)-
= lim
Af
— lim (13 + 2 Ar) = 13 meters per
'^ second
Ar->0

Slope of a Tangent Line to a Graph


Suppose you want to draw the tangent line to the graph of a function /at a point P
(Figure 4). Since the tangent line is the line that contains P and 'best approxi-
Figure 5
mates" the graph of/ near P. it's easy to sketch it roughly '"by eye."" However,
suppose you need to draw the tangent line accurately. Since a straight line in the
plane is completely determined once you know its slope and one point P on it, you
(x^ + A-i;. ,v, + 4i only need to find the slope m of the tangent line.

Q = (.r, + A.r. v, + Av) on the graph of/ near the point


Figure 5 shows a point
P = (.Vi Thus, A.Y and Av are the differences between the coordinates of Q and
. y, ).

the corresponding coordinates of P. A line segment such as Pg joining two points of


a cur\'e is called a secant, and the line containing P and Q is called a secant line.
Because both P and Q lie on the graph of/

.vi =/(.v,) and y, + Ay =/Ui + A.X)

Therefore,

Ay=/(.v, + A.v)-/(.v,

Figure 6 By the slope formula, the slope of the secant line through P = (.v,, /(.v,)) and
G= Ui + Ajc, /(.r, -I- Ax)) is given by

/(.Y| + A.v)-/(.v,) Ay
.Vi -I- A.V — .v. A.V

Now. if we let A.v approach 0. the point Q will move along the curve y = f(x) and
approach the point P: furthermore, the secant line will pivot about the point P and
approach the tangent line (Figure 6). Thus as A.\ approaches 0, the slope Ay/A.v of
the secant line approaches the slope m of the tangent line; that is.

Ay /(.vi + A.r)-/(.vi)
m = hm ,.
lim
A-v^o A.r Ax
90 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

The preceding considerations lead us to the following formal definition.

DEFINITION 3 Tangent Line to a Graph

Let /be a function defined at least in some open interval containing the number
.V|, and let V| =/(.Vi). If the limit

/(A, + A.V) -/Ui)


m = lim :

A> -II A.V

exists, we say that the line in the vv plane containing the point (.\ i
. y, ) and having
slope m is the tangent line to the ^iniph offiit (.V|, Vi).

In Examples 3 and 4, find the slope m of the tangent line to the graph of the given
function f at the indicated point P. Sketch a graph off showing the tangent line
at P.

Figure 7
2.1 RATES OF CHANGE AND SLOPES OF TANGENT LINES 91

Problem Set 2.1


I At a certain instant the speedometer of an automobile reads r 20 A projectile is fired vertically upward and is s feet above the
miles per hour. During the next \ second the automobile travels ground t seconds after being fired, where i = 256r — 16r. Find
20 feet. Estimate r from this information. (a) the speed of the projectile 4 seconds after being fired, (b) the

time in seconds required for the projectile to reach its maximum


~ Explain why the answer in Problem 1 is only an estimate for r
height (at which point its speed is feet per second), and (c) the
and need not be exactly the same as /•.

maximum height to which the projectile ascends.

In Problems 3 and 4. assume that y =/(.v) as given, (a) Find the 21 An equilateral triangle made of sheet metal is expanding because
average rate of change of y with respect to x as .v changes from .Vi to it is being heated. Its area A is given by A = (V3/4).r square
.V;. (b) Find the instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x centimeters, where x is the length of one side in centimeters.
at the instant when .v = .vi. Find the instantaneous rate of change of A with respect to.v at the

instant when .v = 10 centimeters.


[S 3 y =/(A-) = X- + x+ I. .V, = 3, X2 = 3.5
22 A spherical balloon of radius R meters has volume V = lir/?'
4
4 V =/(.v) = — , xi = 5, .V, = 6
cubic meters. Find the instantaneous rate of change of V with
.V respect to R at the moment when R = 5 meters.

In Problems 5 to 8. a particle is moving along a straight line accord- 23 The pressure P of a gas depends on its volume V according to
ing to the equation given, where 5 is the distance in meters of the Boyle's law. P = C/V, where C is a constant. Suppose that
particle from its starting point at the end of r seconds. Find (a) the C = 2000. that P is measured in pounds per square inch, and
average speed ls/\t of the particle during the interval of time from that V is measured in cubic inches. Find (a) the average rate of
r = fi to f = fi and (b) the instantaneous speed of the particle when change of P with respect to V as V increases from 100 to 125
cubic inches and (b) the instantaneous rate of change of P with
respect to V at the instant when V = 100 cubic inches.
5 i = 6r, f, = 2. /2 = 3 6 i = 7r\ i, = I. h = 2
24 Ecologists studying acid rain determine that the concentration C
of sulfur dioxide in parts per million at a distance .v kilometers
from a coal-burning power plant is given by C= SOO/.i". Find
the instantaneous rate of change of sulfur dioxide concentration
In Problems 9 to 18, find the slope m of the tangent line to the graph in parts per million per kilometer at .v = 10 kilometers.
of each function at the indicated point, sketch the graph, and show
25 In respiratory physiology it has been found that a person's respi-
the tangent line at that point.
ration rate R in breaths per minute is related to the partial pres-

'^
fix) = Iv-A- at (1. 1) 10 /(.v) = (.V- 2)- at (-2. 16) sure P in newtons per square meter of carbon dioxide in the

lungs by an equation of the form R = AP - B, where A and B


11 fix) = r - 4v at (3, -3) are constants depending on the particular individual involved. If

12/(.v)=.v' at (-1, -1) A = 0.0044 and B = 10.4 for a certain person, what is the in-
stantaneous rate of change of R with respect to P when P =
13 fix) = i + Zx-x' at (0, 3) 8000 newtons per square meter?

26 Respiratory physiologists sometimes use the simplified mathe-


14/U) = -^at(^. 2)
matical model p = a — b iXn ct for the air pressure p (in new-
tons per square meter) in the lungs of a person t seconds after
3
15 fix) at ( 1 . 1 inspiration begins. Here a denotes ambient atmospheric pres-
.v+ 2
sure. 1.013 X 10" newtons per square meter at sea level, and b

16 fix) = Vx - 3 at (7, 2) and c are constants depending on the particular individual in-

volved. If i) = 100 and c = 1.26. find the instantaneous rate


17 fix) = V.v + 1 at (3. 2)
when =
of change of p with respect to time 1 at the instant 1

18 fix) = \9 - Ax at (-4. 5) (the beginning of inspiration). {Hint: Use the fact that

lim (sin .v)/.v =1.1


<—
19 An object falls from rest according to the equation s = I6r.
where s is the number of feet through which it falls during the 27 The current / in amperes in a certain electric circuit is given by
first t seconds after being released. Find (a) the average speed the formula / = 100//?. where R is the resistance in ohms. Find
during the first 5 seconds of fall and (b) the instantaneous speed the instantaneous rate of change of / with respect to R when
at the end of this 5-second interval. R= \Q ohms.
92 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

2.2 The Derivative of a Function


In Section 2. 1 we found that it' .x and v are two variables related by an equation
y = f(x), then the instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x when .v has the
value Xi is given b.y

Ay /(.V| + A.v)-/(.vi)
,.
lim = lim
A<— A.V A 1-^(1 A.v

We also found that the slope m of the tangent line to the graph of /' at the point

Ui./Ui)) is given by the same limit m= lim (Av/Ax). Therefore, the problem of

finding the rate of change of one variable with respect to another and the problem of
finding the slope of the tangent line to a graph are both solved by calculating the
same limit.

Limits of the form lim Av/A.v arise so often in calculus that it is useful to
Av^O
introduce some special notation and terminology for them. If 3' =/(.v), then a quo-
tient of the form
Ay _ /(v+ A.V) -fix)
A.V Ax
is called a difference quotient. The limit of such a difference quotient as Av
approaches defines a new function/', read "/prime." by the equation

/(.V + A.V)-/(.Y)
fix) = lim
A.v^O A.V

Since the function/' is derived from the original function/, it is called the derivative
of/. Thus, we have the following definition.

DEFINITION 1 The Derivative

Given a function /, the function /' defined by

+
/(.v A.v)-/(.v)
lim —Av—
A.V Av— Ax
is called the derivative of /.

In the definition it is understood that the domain of the derivative function f is the
set of all numbers x in the domain offfor which the limit of the difference quotient
exists. In calculating this limit, you must be careful to treat x as a constant while

letting Ajc approach zero.

In Examples 1 and 2. find fix) for the given function by direct ilw of Definition I

EXAMPLE 1 fix) = .\-^

fix + A.V) - fix) ix + Ax)' - x'


SOLUTION fix) = lim : = lim
A.V A.i — A.v

v' + 3.Y- A.Y + 3.Y(A.v)- + (A.V)' - .v'


= lim
A.-*ll Ay
= lim (3a- + 3.Y A.Y + (A.y)-] = 3.y-
A.v—
2.2 THE DERIVATIVE OF A FUNCTION 93

EXAMPLE 2 fix) = Vx

SOLUTION For X > 0, we have

= hm ,. /(A- + A.v)-/(.v)
=
,. V.v + Ax-V^
f (A)
Ar^O
lim
A.X Ar^O Ax
(Vat + Ajc - Vx)(Vx + A.v + \/x) (,r + A.v) - a
= lim .
= lim
Av^o Aa(Vv + Aa + Va) A.v^o A.v(Va + Aa + Va)
Aa
= lim = lim
Aa^o Aa(Va + Aa + Va) '^-v^o Va + Aa + Vx

Vx+\G 2Va

The Derivative Notations


The derivative was invented independently by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz
in the seventeenth century. Newton used the notation i to denote the time rate of
change lim (Ai/AO of a variable quantity j, where 5 =/(?). Thus, Newton wrote i

for what we write as /'(/), the value of the derivative/' at the time t. Newton's
notation is still used in many physics textbooks.
Leibniz, on the other hand, realizing that the numerical value of a derivative is

the limit of A>'/Aa, wrote this limit as dy/dx; that is.

Av
—^
lim =
/'(.v)
A<-o Aa

Henceforth, we make extensive use of the Leibniz notation; however, until the
"differentials" dy and dx are given separate meanings (in Section 4.1), we do not
regard dy/dx as a fraction, only as a convenient symbol for the value of a derivative.
In the eighteenth century, the French mathematician Joseph Louis Lagrange
(1736-1813) introduced the notation/' for the derivative of the function/. Lagrange
is perhaps best known for his book Mecaniqiie which not only summa-
analytiqiie.
rized all previous work in mechanics since the time of Newton, but also contained
many of Lagrange's own highly original and important contributions to the field.
The Lagrange notation/' is the preferred notation for the derivative whenever preci-
sion and absolute clarity are demanded. Indeed, using this notation, you can easily
distinguish between the derivative/' (which is a function) and the numerical value
f'(x) of the derivative function at the number a.
The operation of finding the derivative/' of a function /or of finding the value
/'(a) is called differentiation. Thus, the incomplete symbol

jl_
~dx

Joseph Louis Lagrange


can be regarded as an instruction to differentiate whatever follows. For instance, the
result of Example 1 can be written in the Leibniz notation as

-x^ = S.r^
dx
94 CHAPTKR 2 THK DERIVATIVE

Popular alternative notation for the symbol d/dx is the simpler symbol D, (or
sometimes just D if the independent variable is understood), which is called the
differentiation operator. Thus, if v = a', then

Dj- = D^x^ = 3x'

In Example 2, we showed that if/U) = Va, then/'(.v) = l/(2V.v). This useful


result can be rewritten in Leibniz and operator notation as follows:

— yx^ = D.Vxr = —-
d \

2\ X
dx

Preference for one notation over another is often just a matter of taste and conven-
ience. In the remainder of this book, we use whichever symbolism seems appropri-
ate to the problem at hand. Also, as the following example shows, we can use
symbols other than y and .v to denote the dependent and independent variables.

KXAMPLK 3 A body dropped from rest will fall .v meters in i seconds according
to the equation s = 4.9r. Find the speed ds/di of the falling body at the end of
t seconds.

SOLUTION

—=
ds

di
Imi
A^—
\s
A/

4.9(/ -I- A;)- - 4.9r


lim
Af

4.9[r + 2t\t + (Al)-] - 4.9r


lim
A^^

9.8/ A? + 4.9(A/)-
lim
Af— A?
= lim (9.8/ + 4.9 A/)
Al^O
= 9.8/

Up to this point, we have taken care to distinguish between the derivative/' of a


function/and the value/'(.v) of this derivative function at the number .v. In practice,
however, it is customary to use the word "'derivative" to refer to both the derived
function/' and the value /'(a) of this function at a.

In summary, if

y=.nx)
then the insicintaiwous rate of change of y with respect to x. or, what is the same
thing, the sh)pe of the tangent line to the graph offat the point (x. y). is given by

+ Ax) - f(x)
dx
D,y = DJlx) = f'(x)
fix

Av
= ,.
lim
A>--0

Av
Aa
2.2 THE DERIVATIVE OF A FUNCTION 95

Differentiability and Continuity


Consider the function / defined by the equation

U.v-13 ifx>3
Figure 1 (See Figure 1.) Since lini /(.v) = -1 =/(3), it follows that /is continuous at the

number 3. However, if we form the difference quotient

/(3 + A.v)-/(3) f{3 + Ax)+ 1


_
Ax A.V

and calculate its limits as Ax approaches zero both from the right and from the left,*
we obtain

+ A.t)-/(3) + Ax) -
—4 —
,. /(3 [4(3 13] + 1 Ax
lim ^
= hm hm :
= 4
A.v-*0* Ax A.v^O+ Ax i.v-.o* Ax
whereas

,. /(3 + A.r)-/(3) [5 - 2(3 + Ax)] + 1 -2 Ax


lim = hm = lim = -2
A.v^O A.V A.v^O' Ax Ax
Since the right and left limits of the difference quotient are not equal, the limit of the
difference quotient cannot exist; that is, the derivative /'(3) cannot exist. The non-
existence of the derivative of/ at 3 might have been anticipated from the graph in
Figure 1. since this graph has no tangent line at (3, -1).
In general, we define the derivative from the right of a function /by

f(x+ Ax)-/(x)
/V(x) = lim
Aa-^O'

Similarly, the derivative from the left of/ is defined by

/'-(-
96 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

Here.

/(I + A.v)-/(1)
A(l)= lim

[2(1 + A.V)- 1] - 1 ,. 2A.V ^


= lirn = lim = 2
A.V -c A.V

Also,

/(I + Aa:)-/(1)
/'-(I) lim
Ax
(1 + Ax)^ - 1

lim = lim (2 + A.V) = 2


A;r

Since/'+(l) =/'-(l) = 2, we conclude that/'(l) exists and equals 2. This example


shows that a function defined "piecewise" can have a derivative at the boundary
number between the "pieces."

DEFINITION 2 Differentiable Function

A function/ is said to be differentiable at the number x if/ is defined at least on


some open interval containing v and /'(.v) exists.

Evidently, /is differentiable at x if and only if both of the one-sided derivatives


/V(.v) and/'_(.v) exist and are equal. A function/is said to be differentiable on the
open interval (a, b) if it is differentiable at each number in this interval. If a

function is differentiable at each number in its domain, it is called a differentiable


function.
Geometrically, to say that a function/is differentiable at a number .v is to say that
the graph of/has a tangent line with slope/'(.v) at the point (jr. f(x)). Obviously, if

a graph has a tangent line at a point, it cannot have a discontinuity at that point.

Theorem 1 confirms this analytically.

THEOREM 1 Continuity of a Differentiable Function

If a function / is differentiable at the number .v. then it is continuous at .v.

Assume that/is differentiable at the number .v. By Property 14 on page 64, /will be
continuous at x if lim f(x + A.v) = f(x). Since the limit of a product is the product

of the limits, we have


r f(x + Aa) - f(x)
— . 1
lim |/(.v + A.V) -f(x)] = lim A.v
A.t^O A.V— L A.V J

LA.V-.0 Ajr J VA.V— /

= /'(.v)-0 =

Therefore, since the limit of a sum is the sum of the limits, we have
lim fix + Ax) = lim \f(x + A.t) - f(x) + /(.v)]
A.r —'0 A.V —'0
= lim l/(.v + A.V) -/(.v)] + lim /(.v) = +/(.v) =/(.v)
2.2 THE DERIVATIVE OF A Fl'NCTION 97

Figure 3 Although, as Theorem 1 shows, a differentiable function is automatically contin-


uous, there are contimums functions that are not differentiable. The simplest exam-
ple is the function /defined by/(.v) = |.v| (Figure 3). Note that/is continuous at the
number 0. but it is not differentiable at since /V(0) = 1 and/'_(0) = -1. A
similar example is provided by the function graphed in Figure 1

Approximating Derivatives with a Calculator


A calculator or computer may be used
ed to find the approximate
apprc value of a derivative
by using the fact that
f{x + ^x)-f(x)
f'M

holds for small values of A.v. Up to a point, the approximation becomes more and
more accurate as A.v is chosen to be smaller and smaller. However, if A.v is chosen
to be too small, the calculator may not be able to resolve the difference between
fix + Ax) and/U), and the result of the calculation is useless. For most practical
purposes, the value A.v = .v/lO"' will provide a good approximation.

3 EXAMPLE 5 Use a calculator to find the approximate value of/'(77-/3) if/Cv) =


sin.r. Use A.v = (77-/3)/10-*.

SOLUTION With the calculator in radian mode, we find that

sin [(7J-/3) + A.v] - sin (7r/3)


/(!)-
3 / A.V
0.499956

[The exact value of/'(77-/3) happens to be O.5.]

Problem Set 2.2

In Problems 1 to 10, find/'(.v) by direct use of Definition 1. In Problems 17 to 20, find/'(.vi) for the given value of .vi by direct
calculation of
1 fix) = 4x + l 2 fix) = 13 - 7.x-

+ A.v)-/(.vi)
3 fix) = A 4 fix) = 3 -I- V^ ,. /(.v,

A.V
5 fix) = .r + 4x 6 fix) = 2r' - 1

x^ 3 17 fix) = - 2r=; = - 18 f(x) = sin x: .v, =


^ + y^
I .T,
7 fix) = Ir* - 4v 8 fix) =
(Use Theorem 2. page 66.)

9 fix) = — 10 fix) 19 fix) = -, -v, = 3 20 fix) = cos x\ =


X- 3 Iv- 1
-r,

(Use Theorem 3, page 67.)

In Problems 11 to 16, find the required derivative by direct use of


In Problems 21 to 23, find the value of the derivative for each func-
Definition 1.
tion at the number indicated.

ill ^ = —r-^=
/
3
- I
ds
dt
12 s =
1+ I
.D,s = ?
21 /'(4) \ffix) =
X- 1

13/(v) = Vv- l,/'(v) = ? 14 —- (Vl - 9m-) = ?


du 22 D,s at f = 3 if J = V'2r + 3

2 d\ 2
15 V D,y = 16 hit) h'it) 23 -^ at .V = 2 if V =
x+ I 't+ I dx Iv + 1
98 C HAPl ER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

24 Find D,P \( P = I'R and /? is a constant. x + 2 \fx> -2


34 /(.v) = ,x,^ -2
odd-numbered Problems
< -2
ifjf
25 Rewrite your answers to 1 to 15 in both
Leibniz and operator notation. |(.v- 1)' if .V >
35 fix) : .t, =
26 Given that i = f(t), write the value of the derivative /'(/) in as
iix- + 3.V - 1 if .r <
many different ways as you can. 36 fix) = I
- |.v - 3|; .V, = 3

In Problems 27 and 28, find the indicated derivative. 37 (a) Explain, in your own words, why it is geometrically reason-
able that a differentiable function must be continuous, (b) Is it

27 D,.v if i-
^
\br + 30/ + 10 geometrically reasonable to believe that every continuous func-
tion is differentiable? Why or why not?

28 —du- ..
it u 16v- + 30v + 10
dv 38 Suppose that

In Problems 29 to 36, (a) sketch the graph of /, (b) determine =


if a: < -
fix)
whether/is continuous at the number .V| and , (c) determine whether lav -I- b if -v s -
/is differentiable at .V| by finding /'+(.Y| ) and/'-(.V|).
Find values of the constants a and b so that/'(- 1) exists.

29 f(x) = X- - Ix; .vi = 3


In Problems 39 and 40, sketch the graph of the function and indicate
flv + 9 if.r<-l where the function is not differentiable.

39 fix) = |3.v 40 fix) k'-H


O In Problems 41 to 44, use a calculator to find the approximate value
of the indicated derivative.
.V, =4
41 /'(7r/3) for/(.v) = cos .v 42/' (77/4) for/(jc) = tan.r

43 /'(lO) for/(A) = V-v- 1 44 /'(7r/6) for/(jr) = Vsin x


if .V > 2

2.3 Basic Algebraic Rules for Differentiation

In Section 2.2 we differentiated functions by direct use of the definition of the


derivative as a limit of a difference quotient. Direct calculation of derivatives in this
way can be tedious, even for the relatively simple functions considered up to now.
Relief from this tedium is forthcoming — there are general rules for differentiation
which permit straightforward calculation of derivatives. In this section, we present
rules for differentiating sums, products, powers, quotients, and square roots. At
first, we simply state these rules informally and illustrate their applications in exam-
ples. Later in the section, we state them precisely and give rigorous proofs.

Constant Rule
!.3 BASIC ALGEBRAIC RILES FOR DIFFEREMTUTION 99

In using the constant rule, it is often convenient to deliberately confuse a constant


number such as 7 and the constant function / which it determines according to the
equation /(.v) = 7. Thus, we often write "D,(7) = O"" or dl/dx = 0" instead of
writing "/' is the function defined by the equation/'(.v) = 0." Since vom can differ-
entiate only functions — never numbers — an expression of the form D,(7) = could
only be interpreted sensibly as above.

EXAMPLE I Let/be the constant function defined bv the equation /(a) = 5 + tt.

Find/'.

SOLUTION By the constant rule,/' is the constant function defined by the equa-
tion /'(.v) = 0.

EXAMPLE 2 Find D,{5 + V3).


SOLUTION By the constant rule. D,(5 + Vl) = 0.

Identity Rule

EXA.MPLE 3 If/ is the function defined by f(x) = x, find/'.

SOLUTION By the identity rule,/' is the constant function defined by/'(.v) = 1.

Power Rule

The derivative of a positive integer power of .v is the exponent of .v times x raised


to the next lower power. In symbols, if n is a fixed positive integer, then

D,x'

EXAMPLE 4 Differentiate the function /(a) = x^.

SOLUTION By the power rule, fix) = 7a-''"' = 7.v*

du
EXAMPLE 5 If « = / , find
dt


By
,

the power rule,


du
dt
= — d
dt
t
.,
= 13f
,-,

Homogeneous Rule

The derivative of a constant times a function is the constant times the derivatl\e
of the function. In symbols, if c is a constant and u is a differentiable function of
X. then

Djcu) = cDji or —d
dx
(cu) = c—-
du
dx
100 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

EXAMPLE 6 Differentiate the function /(.r) = 5.x'*.

SOLUTION Using both the homogeneous rule and the power rule, we have

fix) = DASx"*) = soy = 5(4.x') = 20a:'

EXAMPLE 7 Find
"m
SOLUTION By the homogeneous and power rules,

IvM
DA
/
= D. I
V

2
.v^
,\
= — oy = —
2 ., 2
(7.v")
,
= 14 ,
.v"
= U.v"
\ 3 ' 3 / 3 3 3 3

EXAMPLE 8 If c is a constant and n is a positive integer, find —d


dx
(c.x").

(c.x") .x" = f(/u" ) = nc.x"


dx d.x

One important consequence of the homogeneous rule is that

D,(-ii) = -D,u
This follows from putting r = - 1 in Rule 4.
Many functions encountered in practice are (or can be rewritten as) sums of
simpler functions. For instance, the polynomial function /(.v) = Iv" + 5.v — 1 is a
sum of lv~, 5.x. and —1. Thus, one of the most useful differentiation rules is the
following.

Sum Rule, or Addition Rule

The derivative of a sum is the sum of the derivatives. In symbols, if u and v are
differentiable functions of .v, then

d dti dv
D,(M + I) = D,u + D,v (// + V) = +
dx d.x d.x

EXAMPLE 9 Find D,(3.v'^ + ll.v**).

SOLUTION We have

Dv(3.v-' + 1 l.v**) = Dv(3.v') + D,(l l.v**) (sum rule)


= ID^ + llD,.v'* (homogeneous rule)
= 3(5.v-*) + ll(8.v^) (power rule)
= IS.v-* + 88.v^

If II. V. and vr are three differentiable functions of v, then, by the sum rule,

DM + V + IV) = DAu + (V + w)]


= D,u + DAv + H')
= D,« + D,v + D,ir

More generally, the derivative of the sum of three or more differentiable functions
is the sum of their derivatives. This rule is also called the sum rule.
2.3 BASIC ALGEBRAIC RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION 101

Using the sum, homogeneous, power, identity, and constant rules, you can dif-
ferentiate any polynomial function term by term. This is illustrated by the following
examples.

EXAMPLE 10 Given /(.v) = 3.v"^ 24.Y^ + 7.r- - .V - 2. find/'(.v).

SOLUTION

fix) = D,(3;c'°° - 24.V-' + 7.Y- - .r - 2)


= D,(3,r"») + D,{-24.v-') + D,(7.v-) + D,(-.v) + D,(-2)
= BOOa-^*^ - 72v- + 14.V - 1

EXAMPLE II Find -^if


du
v = Vlu^ - —+
4
5u^ + u + tt'.

—=dV
du
5V2m^
r- ,

(4«-) + 15m- +1+0


= 5V2M-* - i/' + 15«- + 1

The rule for differentiating the product of two functions is more complicated than
the rule for differentiating their sum. Early in the development of calculus, Leibniz
found that, in general, the derivative of a product is not the product of the deriva-
tives. He did manage to find the correct rule, which is the following.

Rt^'LE 6 Product Rule, or Multiplication Rule

The derivative of the product of two functions is the first function times the
derivative of the second function plus the derivative of the first function times the
second function. In symbols, if u and v are differentiable functions of .t, then

D^iuv) = u(D^v) + (D,u)v or —


dx
{uv) = u
d.\
1-

d.x
v

EX.AMPLE 12 Find D,[(3.v- + l)(7.v^ + .v)] by using the multiplication rule.

SOLUTION

DAOx^ + l)(7.v3 + X)] = Ox^ + 1)[D,(7a-3 + .x)] + [D,(3.v- + IWx^ + x)


= {3x^ + 1)(21a:- + 1) + (6.r)(7.v- + x)
= (63^" + 24.V- + 1) + (42v-* + 6.v-)
= 105.Y-* + 30.V- + 1

EXAMPLE 13 Suppose that/ and g are differentiable functions at the number 2 and
that/(2) = 1, g(2) = 10, /'(2) = h and g'a) = 3. If h=f-g, find h\2).

SOLUTION By the multiplication rule.

h'(x)=fi.x)-g'{x)+f'(.x)-g{.x)

so that

h'{2)=f{2)-g'i2)+fa)-g(2)

/!'(2) = (1)(3) + {*)(10) = 8


102 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

Reciprocal Rule

The derivative of the reciprocal of a function is the negative of the derivative of

the function divided by the square of the function. In symbols, if v is a differen-

tiable function of v, then

Da- d_ dv/dx
'\{
dx

EXAMPLE 14 Find D .(7)^

SOLUTION By the reciprocal rule.

D,x
<l)-
Quotient Rule

The derivative of a quotient of two functions is the denominator times the deriva-
tive of the numerator minus the numerator times the derivative of the denomina-
tor, all divided by the square of the denominator. In symbols, if u and v are
differentiabie functions of v, then
du dv
\ /(

I'D,;/ — uD^v d I u \ d\ d.\


DA V V /
dx

EXAMPLE L*; Find D>


.v-^ + 7 /

SOLUTION By the quotient rule,

\ (v-' + l)D,x^ - x~D,(x^ + 7)


D,
x' + 1 (A-' + 7)-
(.v' + 7)(lv) - .v-(3.v-)
(.v' + 1)-

14.V

(x^ + 7f
EXAMPLE 16 Suppose that/ and g are differentiabie functions at the number 3 and
that/(3) = -2, gO) = -5,/'(3) = 3, and g'{3) = 1. If /? =f/g. find the slope of

the tangent line to the graph of /; at the point (3, i).

SOLUTION By the quotient rule,

g(x)f'{x)-nx)g-{x)
h'ix)
[gix)f

so the required slope is given by

g(3)/'(3) -/(3)^'(3) (-5X3) - (-2H1) 13


h'0) =
U'(3)l- (-5)- 25
2.3 BASIC ALGEBRAIC RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION 103

Since a rational function is a quotient of polynomial functions and you can now

differentiate any polynomial function, you can use the quotient rule to dijferentiate
any rational function. Example 15 above illustrates the technique.
In Example 2 in Section 2.2 (page 93), we obtained the following result.

RULE 9 Square-Root Rule

The derivative of the square root oix is the reciprocal of twice the square root of
X. In symbols.

_d_
0,V.v = r.-_L^
2\ dx 2\ T\

EXAMPLE 17 Find D,-


V.v

By the reciprocal and square-root rules,

1 DvV^ 1/(2Vt)
Vx (Vx)- ItVx

It"s interesting to note that because

Vx = .r'^- and
2V^
the square-root rule is just an extension of the power rule (Rule 3) to the case n = h.

The power rule can also be generalized to arbitrary integer powers as follows.

RULE 10 Power Rule for Integer Exponents

If n is any integer, then


104 CHAPTKR 2 THE DERIVATIVE

/ , V5 7j-\ d ^ /- ,
TTX'")
dx dx
= lx- iVlx-^ + 5i

Later we show that the power rule D,.v" = nx"' '


actually works for any constant
real number n.

Proofs of the Basic Differentiation Rules


We now give precise statements and rigorous proofs of the basic differentiation
rules. It is convenient to prove the theorems in an order other than that in which the
rules were stated.

Constant Rule

U r is a constant and / is the constant function defined by /(.v) = c, then / is

differentiable at every number v and /' is the function defined by /'(.v) = 0.

fix) = lim
fix +
— A.V)
—- ^— /(.Y)
^ = lim
r - f
= lim =

THEOREM 2 Identity Rule

If/ is the function defined by/(.v) = .v, then/is differentiable at every number .v

and/' is the constant function defined by /'(.v) = 1.

/ (.v) = hm
/U + A-Y)-/(.v)
: = lim
.V + A.V
— = lim 1 = 1

A.V— A.V A.V-.0 A.V

THEOREM 3 Sum Rule

Let/and g be functions both of which are differentiable at the number .V| and , let

'' ~
f ^ 8- Then /; is also differentiable at .v, and
/!'(.V|) =/'(.V|) + fi'iXi)

/?(.Y| + A.V) - /U.vi)


h'ix, ) = lim
Ax—O A.V

L/(.v, + A.V) + gix, + A.V)] - [/(.r, ) + g(.v,


Mm
Aa ^0 A.V

,. fix, + A.V) -fix, ) + gix, + A.V) - g(.V|


= hm
Aa ^o A.V

r /Ui + A.V) -fix,) ^


g(.V| + A.V) - gU,) 1
lin,
A.(-»o L Aa: A.v J

fix, + Ax) -fix,) gix, + Ax)- gix,)


= hm ,

1- Iim :

Aa^— A.V A.v-»o A.V

= /'(.v,) + ^'(.v,)
2.3 BASIC ALGEBRAIC RULES FOR
DIFFERENTUTION 105

THEOREM 4 Product Rule

Ley and g be functions both of which are differentiable


at the number v, and let
n ~J-g. Then /; is also differentiable at .v, and

^i^'i '
= /(vi )

g 'Ui ) + fix, ) gi.x, )

PROOF /,'(.v,)= l.m Jl^^-lA^LJli^

= /'-V|+A-v)-g(-V|+A.v)-/Ui)-^(.v,)
lim
AV-.0
^^

We now use
curious a
but effective algebraic trick-the expression
/U, + A.r)-^U,) subtracted from the numerator and then
IS
added back again
(which, of course, leaves the value of
the numerator unchanged). The result is

h'(xi) = lim
A-r—O
Ax

limUv, + A.t)g'''+-^'^)-^'-^i) ^ /Ui


,
+A.t) -/(.>-,) 1
^'-4 Ax ^^ S<'i»J

= .ti + A.X) - ,^(.V|


lim fix, + A-x)\-\ lim

+r ,:„ /(.v. + A.v)-/t .r,)1 r ,. ]

[^im /(.r, + A.r)j .g'u,) +/'(.x-,) |^^i,m g,.,. ,

Since/is differentiable at.v, it is continuous


. at.v, (Theorem 1, Section 2.2); hence.

2im/(.v, + A.V) = lim /(.v)=/(A,)

Also, since ^(.v,) is a constant.

2im^g(.v,)=^(.r,)

It follows that

/''(•vi)=/(.v,)-g'(.vi)+/'(.v,)-g(.v,)

THEOREM 5 Homogeneous Rule

Let 5 be a function that is differentiable at the number x, and let c be aconstant


,

Let the function h be defined by htx) = cg(x). Then h is differentiable at .t, and

^''(Vl) = Cg'i.Xi)

PROOF Let/be the constant function defined =


by/(.v) c. By Theorem l,/'(v)>
= Evi-
dently, j ^

'>M = cg{x)=f(x}-g(x)
• Therefore, by Theorem 4,

h'i.xi) =/(A-,)-g'(.v,) +/'(.v,)-g(.v,) = cg'(xi) + 0-g(xO = cg'{xi)


106 CHAPTKR I THE DERIVATIVE

THEOREM 6 Power Rule

Let n be an integer greater than 1 , and let/be the function defined by /(.v) = x"
Then / is differentiable at every nuinber x. and /' is the function defined by

fix) = /a" '

The proof proceeds by mathematical induction.* starting with n = 2. For /i = 2 we


have, by the product and identity rules.

/"(A) = D,.v- = D,(.v.v) = .v(D,.v) + (D,.v).v

= .v + .V = 2v = Ir-"'

Hence, the theorem holds when n = 2. Now. if we assume that n is greater than 2
and that the theorem holds for exponents less than n. Theorems 4 and 2 imply that

f'(x) = D,x" = D,(.v""' -A) = .r"~'(D,.v) + (D,a"'')a


= A-""' + ((/; - 1)a""-]a = a"~' + (n- Da"^'

THEOREM 7 Reciprocal
2.3 BASIC ALGEBRAIC RILES FOR DIFFERENTUTION 107

Since g is continuous at .V|

^im^ g(.vi + A.V) = Im g(.x) = g(.v,)

Thus,

1
g'Ui)
ll'{.Xi) = (-\)g'{.\l)'

THEOREM 8 Quotient Rule

Let /and ^? be functions both of which are differentiable at the number .v, , and
suppose that g(A , ) # 0. Then, if h = f/g. it follows that h is differentiable at Xi
and

g(.Vl)-/'(.Vl)-/(.V,)-g'(.V|)
/;'(-v,) =
[g(-v,)]-

PROOF Note that h =f- il/g): hence, by the product and reciprocal rules,

h\x,)=f{xi)- "^'-''i +/'(.Yi)-


[g(-xi)]- gixi)
-/(.V|)-g'(.Y,) ^ g(A-, ) -/'(.V, )

[g(-v.)]' [g(-v,)]-

(.vi)-/'(.vi)-/(.vi)-g'(,ri)

THEOREM 9 Power Rule for Integer Exponents

If the function /is defined by/(.v) = a", where /; is any fixed integer, then /is
differentiable and

fix) = nx"^

Here we understand that

(i) If ;; s 0. then x can be any number except 0.

(ii) If /; = 1. we interpret O" as being the number 1 (for purposes of this


theorem only).

Theorem 6 takes care of the case /! > 2. while Theorem 2 takes care of the case
/! = 1 .
= 0. a" = a" = (except for x = 0); hence, for x 7^ and n = 0,
For ;; 1

fix) = D,x" = D,l = = 0-.v~' = O-a"-' = nx"-\ as desired. Finally, sup-


pose that n < and that x ¥ 0. Note that -n is a positive integer; hence, by what
was already proved for positive exponents and by Theorem 7,

D,A""
/'(A-) = D,.r" = D,(^) =
108 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

Problem Set 2.3

In Problems
basic rules. Rules
1 to 40, differentiate

1 through 10.
each function by applying the
39 fix) =
/

Vr +
3a +
2
I \

'
(A + ^
7)
^„
40 p(x) = —Va
A + 1
-7=-

41 Find /'(2) in each case.


= yAr'
1 /(.v) = 3.r 2 g(x)
(a)/(.v) = W- 1 (b)/(A) = (l/.r')- 1

= - = (— +
3 h(x) = -S.r" 4 GU) = —' 8 ,, (c) fix) {X- + 1)(1 A) (d) fix)
2) ( 1^

4v^ (e) fix) = — (f) fix)


5 F{y) = 6 //(v) X- + 2 x+1
30
42 Suppose that/, g. and h are differentiable functions. Let k be a
7 //(r) = 5? - 7 8 G(vv) = V3(7 - 8vv)
= fix)
function defined by <:(a) • g{x) •
h(x). Use the product rule

to show that
9 f(.x) = a' - 3.r^ + I 10 fix) = —a'' - 9./
6 k'(x) = fix) g(x) h'ix) + fix) g '(A) •
h(x) + fix) g(x) h(x)

11 /(A) = — + ^+ 6 12 f (.t) = —-^+4 3


1
43 Use the
tions.
result of Problem 42 to differentiate the following func-

- = + 7/+ (a) fix) = (It - 5)(A + 2)(A- -


13 /(n = + + 3/- I
'" 2/^ 3/ 1 14/(/) 17

(b)/(.v) = (l - 3.v)=(2r + 5)

»5^^-^> = -^ +
i 16/0 = ^-^^+1
2r = (4- + - -
3r' (c) fix) 1) (3a 1)(A- 3.t)

17/(v) = 4--— 18/(«) = v;; (d) fix) = ax- + 1?

44 Using the sum and the homogeneous rules, show that the deriva-

19 g(x) = 3a"- - 7a"' + 6Va tive of a difference is the difference of the derivatives: that is,

D,(u - V) = D,ii - D,y.


20 G(A) = —A"-' a"- + -^^
3 2 Va 45 Let / and ^1; be differentiable functions at the number 1 , and let

/(I) = I, /'(I) = 2, g(l) = k. ands'(l) = -3. Use the differ-

21 fix) = - + -^ 22 fix) = \G{x^ - A) entiation rules to find


5a 3a^ Va (b)(/-s)'(l) (c) (2/+3g)'(I)
(a) (/+ sj'd)
23 F(x) = a-(3a' - = + +
1)

-
24 fix)

=
(a-

-
l)(2r' 5)

-
(d) {fg)'(\) (e) l-^l
(f)'
(1) (f) ^ g
(1)

25 G(A) = (A- + 3a)(a' 9a) 26 g(x) (3a a-)(3a-' 4)


46 Suppose that/, g. and h are differentiable functions at the num-
27 /(y) = V^(4y' + 7) 2% fit) = (6f- + 7)- ber 2, and let fil) = -2, /'(2) = 3, g(2) = -5, g'{2) = I,
h{2) = 2, and h'{2) = 4. Use the differentiation rules to find
= (a'-8)(y- 30/(A)=(i- +
29/(a) i)
3)(| + 7) (a) {f+g + /i)'(2) (b) (2/- g + 3/i)'(2)

(c) {/ghy{2) (d)


[y) (2)
31,(A) = (-i^ +
3)(Jr + .v)

47 Find the slope of the tangent line to the graph of the function /
at the point whose a coordinate is 4.

3
(a) fix) = X- - 4a- - I lb) fix)
= r-
It + 7 3a^ — I
33 fix) =
4a"
34 =
fix)
3a - 1 A- 2
48 Determine the rate of change of volume with respect to the ra-
2x- +A + 1
/-'
dius (a) of a sphere and (b) of a right circular cylinder with fixed
^^^''-^= 36 G{/) =
a^-3a.2 2/" + 5 height h.

3r + 7 A- - 19 49 Find the slope of the tangent line to the graph of fix) =


37 FU) 38 fix) = -
/- - 1 A- + 19 a/(a' 2) at the point (1, -1).
2.4 TANGE?>JT AND NORMAL LINES 109

50 For a thin lens of constant focal length p. the object distance .v is correct, find the rate of change dN/dt of the population 20
and the image distance v are related by (l/.v) + (1/y) = \/p years from now. {Note: Here N really isn"t a continuous varia-

(Figure 1 ). (a) Solve for y in terms of v and p. (b) Find the rate of ble, but we treat it as if it were, in order to obtain an approxima-
change of v with respect to x. tion to the rate at which the population will be declining in 20
years.)
Figure 1
56 The cost C (in dollars) to a refinery for refining .v million
gallons of gasoline in 1 month is given by the equation
C= 120.000 + 200.000.V - 16.00G.r. Find the rate of change
dC/dx of C with respect to x when .v = 4.5 million gallons.

1 57 Environmentalists determine that if untreated sewage is dis-

charged into a lake, it will decrease the amount A of dissolved


oxygen in moles per cubic meter of water in such a way that

t +
51 Criticize the following erroneous argument: We wish to compute 14.4
I- + 16/ -I- 65'
the value of the derivative of/(.v) + = 2v" 3.v — at 1 = 2. To
.v

this end, we put x = 2 and we have/(2) = 2(2)" + 3(2) - 1


= where i is the number of days the sewage has been flowing into

13. But D,13 = 0. so/'(2) = 0. the lake. Find the rate of change dA/dt of dissolved oxygen per
dav when / = 4 davs.
52 Show that the reciprocal rule is a special case of the quotient rule
when the numerator is the constant function /(.v) = 1

53 An object is moving along a straight line in such a way that at the

end of t seconds its distance s in feet from the starting point is

given by s = 8r + (2/0. with t > 0. Find the speed of the object


at the instant when i = 2 seconds.

3 54 In a certain electric circuit, the electric power P (in watts) is

related to the load resistance R P =


(in ohms) by the equation
100/?(0.5 + R)~- for /? > 0. Find the rate of change dP/dR of
the power P with respect to the resistance R when /? = 10 ohms.

55 Wildlife biologists predict that the population N of a certain en-


dangered species after t years will be given by the equation
N= {2,t+ 150)(50 - /) for </< 50 years. If this prediction

2.4 Tangent and Normal Lines


Suppose that the function/ is differentiable at .v, , so that/'(.Vi ) is the slope of the
tangent line to the graph of/ at the point (.r, ./(.Ti )). If y, = /(.Xi ). an equation of this
Figure 1 tangent line in point-slope form is

.*' - yt =/'(-vi)(.v --vi)

EXAMPLE 1 Find an equation of the tangent line to the graph of /(.v) = 4 - .v" at

the point (I. 3). Sketch the graph.


f(x) = 4-x-
SOLUTION Here,/'(.v) = -Iv, so that /'(I) = -2. An equation of the tangent
line is

y - 3 = -2(.\ - 1) or y = -Zv + 5

(See Figure 1.)


110 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

The normal line to the graph of /at the point (jC), Vi) is defined to be the line
through (.V|. yi ) that is perpendicular to the tangent line at (.V|, y, ) (Figure 2). Since
/'{.vi) is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of /at (.V), Vi) it follows from
Theorem 3 in Section 1.3 that — l//'(.Vi ) is the slope of the normal line at Ui, Vi).
Consequently, an equation of the normal line in point-slope form is

/ (-V| )

Figure 2

EXAMPLE 2 Find the equations of the tangent and normal lines to the graph of
= 1/x
fix) at the point (i, 2). Illustrate graphically.

SOLUTION Here,/'(jr) = -\/.x~, so that/'(2) = -1/(1)- = -4. Therefore, an


equation of the tangent line is

-4(.v - I) V = -4.V + 4

Since the tangent line at (1. 2) has slope -4, the normal line at this point has slope
— 1/(— 4) = 5. Hence, an equation of the normal line is

-i('-i) V = —+
4

(See Figure 3.)

Figure 3
2.4 TANGENT AND NORNUL LINES 111

It is sometimes useful to be able to find the point (or points) (.r, ,/(.t,)) on the
graph of a differentiable function /at which the tangent line has a prescribed direc-
tion. If the slope of a line in this direction is m. it is only necessary to solve the
equation /'(.v, )
= m for.v, in order to find the desired value (or values) of X]. This
technique is illustrated by the following example.

EXAMPLE 3 If/(.Y) = Zv- -


-v. find the point on the graph of/ where the tangent
line is parallel to the line 3.v - y - 4 = 0, find an equation of the tangent line at this
point, and sketch the graph.

SOLUTION Here, fix) = 4.v - 1 . The line 3.v - v - 4 = has slope 3: hence,
the .V coordinate .Vi of the desired point must satisfy the equation/'(.x, ) = 3; that is,
4.vi - 1 = 3. It follows that .Vi = 1: hence, the desired point on the graph of/ is

given by (.v,,/(.v,)) = (1,/(1)) = (1, 1). An equation of the tangent line at (1 , 1) is

>•- 1 =3(.v- I) y = 3.t - 2

(See Figure 4.)

Figure 4

Horizontal Tangents
A tangent line with slope zero is called a horizontal tangent.

EXAMPLE 4 Find all points on the graph of /(.i) = x^ - 3.\- + 5 at which the
tangent line is horizontal.

SOLUTION The slope of the tangent line at (.v, /(.v)) is given by

fix) = 3.r^ - 6.V

The tangent line at the point (.v,/(.v)) is horizontal if and only if/'(.v) = 0: that is. if

3.V- - 6.Y = or 3.x(.v - 2) =


The solutions of the last equation are .v = and x = 2. Since

/(O) = 0' - 3(0)- + 5 = 5

and /(2) = 2^ - 3(2)- + 5=1


the graph of/ has horizontal tangents at the two points (0, 5) and (2, 1).
112 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

In Figure 5. we have sketched the graph of /(.v) = x^ — 3.xr + 5 and drawn the
horizontal tangents at (0, 5) and (2, 1 ). Notice that the point (0, 5) is at the "crest of
a hill," and the point (2, 1) is at the "bottom of a valley" on this graph. Thus, the
point (0, 5) is higher than all its immediate neighboring points on the graph, al-

though the graph eventually climbs even higher. A point such as (0, 5) is called a
relative maximum point of the graph of/. Similarly, a point such as (2, 1) that is

lower than all its immediate neighboring points on the graph is called a relative
minimum point of the graph of/ (Figure 6). The following definitions apply to the
X coordinates (abscissas) of such points.

Figure 5 Figure 6
lion/ontal
2.4 TANGENT AND NOR.NLAL LINTS 113

Using Property 14 on page 64. we can rewrite this limit in the alternative form

/ (c) = hm

We must prove/'(c) = 0. If we prove that/'(c) can be neither positive nor negative,


then must be zero, and our argument will be complete. We prove that /'(c) is not
it

negative by showing that if it were, then, contrar)' to hypothesis. /could not have a
relative maximum at c. [That /'(c) is not positive can be shown similarly.] Thus,
suppose /'(c) is negative. Since we can make [/(.v) - f(c)]/(x - c) as close as we
please to the negative number/'(c) by taking .v sufficiently close to c (but not equal
to c). there is a small open interval / containing c such that \J(x) - f(c)]/(x - c) is

negative if x is different from c and belongs to /.

If .V belonas to / and v < c. then .v — c < and

f(x) -f(c)
<0
But, if a fraction and its denominator are both negative, then the numerator must be
positive; hence,

if X belongs to / and .v < c then /(.r) > f(c)


The last statement contradicts the hypothesis that / has a relative maximum at c,
since it says that the function values /(.v) are larger than /(c) for values of .v slightly
to the left of c. This is the promised contradiction, and the proof is complete.

We study relative extrema in more detail in Sections 3.2 and 3.3. As you can see,
horizontal tangents will have an important role to play in this coimection.

Problem Set 2.4

In Problems 1 to 14, find the equations of the tangent and normal H rlx) at (2, 3)
lines to the graph of the function at the indicated point. Illustrate
graphically in Problems 1 to 5. + + .r-
., „ = I .T
12 R(x) T at (1, 1)

1 /(.r) = 2r- 7 at (2, 1)

2 F(x) = 5 + 2v - .X- at (0. 5) 13 s(x) = at (4. 4)


Vx- 1

3 g(x) =.r^ + .X+ 1 at (1. 3)


14 5(.r) = arr + bx + c at (0. c)
4 G(x) = (.r- 1)- at (1, 0)
15 Find the point where the tangent line to the graph of/(.t) = 2Vx
5 ;i(.v) at (3. 1) 6 Hix) = xVx at (9, 27) at (1. 2) crosses (a) the .t axis and (b) the y axis.

16 Find the point where the normal line to the graph of/(.r) = 2/x at
7 pix) = x^ - 8.\- + 9.T + 20 at (4. -8)
(1, 2) crosses (a) the x axis and (b) the y axis.

2
8 P(x) =x + —^ at (4. 5)
17 At what point on the curve y = .ir + 8 is the slope of the tangent
Vx line 16? Write an equation for this tangent line.

9 q(x) = 4.r^ - 4.1^ - 25.r^ + v + 6 at (3. 0) 18 Suppose that the function / is differentiable at a and that
/'(a) # 0. Show that the tangent line to the graph of /at the
10 Q{x) at (0. II point {a,f(a)) intersects the x axis at the point « ith v coordinate
a - U(a)/f'(a)].
114 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

In Problems 19 to 24. find a point on the graph of the given function 31 ^(.r) = iVx - X + \

where the tangent or normal Hne satisfies the indicated condition,


.r + 2v - 1
and then write an equation for this Hne. 32 Q{x) =
.V - 3

19 The tangent line to /(.v) = x - .\- is parallel to the line

.t + V - 2 = 0.
33 r(.v) = —
20 The tangent line to f{x) = Zx^ - x~ is parallel to the line
34 «(.v) = av' + hx- + ex + d
4.V - V + 3 = 0.

21 The nomial line to = xG is parallel to the line 35 Determine a value of the constant b so that the graph of
fix)
4.t + y - 4 = 0. y = x'^ + bx + 17 has a horizontal tangent at (2, 21 + lb).

22 The nomial line to J\x) = .v - (l/.v) is parallel to the line 36 Complete the proof of Theorem I by considering the case in

X + 2v -3 = 0. which / has a relative minimum at c.

23 The tangent line to/(.v) = 5 + .v" intersects the v axis at the point 37 Let /(.v) = A" Show that the graph of/ has a horizontal tan-
. (a)

(2. 0). gent at (0, 0). (b) Show that/has neither a relative maximum nor
a relative minimum at 0. (c) Explain why the results in (a) and
24 The normal line to /(.v) = 3.r + Iv + 1 contains the point
(b) do not contradict Theorem I

(9, 5).
38 In Section 1.5,we showed that the vertex of the parabola

In Problems 25 to 34, find all points on the graph of the function at fix) = axr + hx + c is
which the tangent line is horizontal.

25 fix) = ix - 3)(.v - 2) 26 g(x) = x + .r'


(-i-'(-i))
Derive this same result by using Theorem I
27 F(x) = 3.V- + 5.r + 6 28 G(.v) = x' - 6.r + 9.r + 4
39 If the graph of a function / has a horizontal tangent at the point
29 /,(., + Ir - 5.V - I 30 Hix) = .r"' + x~~ (r, /(<)), what is the equation of the normal line at this point?

2.5 Rules for Differentiating


Trigonometric Functions
In Section 1.8, we showed that

sin A- 1 - cos X
lim and lim =

(See Theorem 2, page 66, and Theorem 3, page 67.) Using these two special limits,
we can prove the following theorem, which provides a rule for the derivative of the
sine function.

THEOREM 1 Derivative of the Sine Function

The sine function is differentiable at each real number, and the derivative of the
sine function is the cosine function. In symbols,

d
=
.

D, sin .V = cos v sin .V cos .V


dx

i
2.5 RILES FOR DIFFERENTUTING TRIGONOMETRIC FINCTIONS 115

sin (.V + Ax) - sin x


D. sin .V = lim
A.< -.0

We have sin (.v + A.r) = sin v cos Ax + sin A.v cos .v by the addition formula for
sine; hence.

sin X cos A.V + sin A.v cos x — sin x


D, sin X = Hm
Ax
(cos A.V — 1 ) sin A.v cos x
- +
A.r Aa
1 — cos A.V sin A.v
hm ,

( -sm .v) 1-
cos .v
Ax^U L A.V A.V

1
- cos A.V sin Ax
= (-sm .v) hm ; 1-
cos x
.

hm
Xx^o Ax Ajt^o Ax
= (-sin .v)(0) + (cos .v)(l) = cos .r

EXAMPLE 1 Differentiate /(.v) = a- sin x.

SOLUTION By the product rule, the power rule, and Theorem 1,

fix) = D,(.ir sin a) = (D,A-)(sin .v) + a-(0, sin x)


= Ix sin X + x^ cos .v

Figure 1 shows the graph of the sine function and its derivative, the cosine
function, on the same coordinate system. Because

cos X = sm (-")
A
I H

the graph of y = cos a ""lags behind" the graph of y = sin a by tt/2 units, although
both graphs have exactly the same shape. The fact that the cosine function is the
derivative (rate of change) of the sine function is nicely illustrated by Figure 1. For
instance, notice that when the sine function is increasing most rapidly — namely at
A = 0, ±277, ±477, and so on — its derivative, the cosine function, takes on its

ma.ximum value 1. Likewise, when the sine function is decreasing most rapidly
namely at a = ±77. ±377, ±577, and so on — its derivative, the cosine function,
takes on its minimum value — 1

Figure 1
116 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

According to Theorem 1 in Section 2.4, when the sine function taices on maxi-
mum or minimum values, its derivative, the cosine function, should have the value
0. This is also confirmed by the graphs in Figure 1. Indeed, when x = ±7r/2,

±37r/2, ±57r/2, and so on, sin .x takes on maximum or minimum values ± 1 and ,

cos X = 0.

The rule for the derivative of the cosine is established in Theorem 2, whose proof
is similar to the proof of Theorem 1 .

THEOREM 2 Derivative of the Cosine Function

The cosine function is differentiable at each real number, and the derivative of
the cosine function is the negative of the sine function. In symbols.

D, cos .V = —sin x cos .V = —sin X


dx

COS (.V + Ax) — cos X


D, cos X = lim

We have cos (.v + A.v) = cos x cos Ax — sin .v sin A.v by the addition formula for
cosine; hence,

cos X cos A.v - sin .v sin A.v — cos .v


D, cos .V = lim
Aa-^O A.V

r cos X (cos A.V - 1 ) sin .V sin A.v


= lim
A.v-^0 L A.V A.V

1
— cos A.v sin A.v
= lim ( — cos X )
:
sin .v
A.x-^O L A.v

1
— cos A.v sin A.v
= — cos
( x) lim sin x lim
A.v^o A.v A.v^o A.V

= (-cos.v)(0) - (sinx)(l)
= — sin .V

cos ;
EXAMPLE 2 Differentiate fiU)
r + 4
SOLUTION By the quotient rule and Theorem 2,

cos t (r + 4)(D, cos t) - (cos t)[D, (r + 4)]


g'U) = D,—
r + 4 (r + Ay
(?- + 4)(-sin t) - (cos t)(2t)

(f- + 4)-

-(f- + 4)(sin t) - 2t cos t

(t- + 4)-

Now the derivatives of the remaining trigonometric functions are easily obtained
by using the derivatives of the sine and cosine functions together with the differenti-
ation rules for quotients and reciprocals.
2.5 RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 117

THEOREM 3 Derivatives of Tan, Cot, Sec, and Csc Functions

(i) O.
118 CHAPTKR 2 THE UERIVATIVE

KXAMPl.K 6 Find all values of .v with —it<x-^ it that are v coordinates of points
where the graph of v = sin .v — cos x has a horizontal tangent.

SOLUTION Here,

dy
dx
d
dx
,sin
_
X - cos a) = —
dx
sin x
dx
cos X = cos X sin x)

= cos .V + sin X

The condition for a horizontal tangent is dy/dx = 0; that is,

cos .V + sin .V = or sin .v = -cos x

Squaring both sides of the last equation, we obtain

sin" X = COS" X or sin" .v = 1 - sin" .v

that is.
2 sin- X = 1

Therefore,
V2
sin A- = ±
V2 2

The values of x between - n and tt that satisfy the last equation are

377 7T 77 377

4 '
4 " 4" 4

Because we squared both sides of an equation, we may have introduced extraneous


roots, so we must check each of these possible values of a in the original equation
cos X + sin A = 0. Doing so, we find that the only solutions are

3t7
and
4

The functions sin x and cos a are said to be cofunctions of each other. The same
terminology is applied to tan a and cot a as well as to sec a and esc a. As you can
see from Theorems 1, 2, and 3, the rule for differentiating a cofunction is obtained

from the rule for differentiating the corresponding function by changing function to

cofunction and introducing a negative sign. Thus, if you learn only the three rules

D, sin A = cos A

D, tan A = sec- a

D, sec V = sec v Ian v

you can easily recall the corresponding cofunction rules

D, cos
2.5 RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 119

Problem Set 2.5

In Problems 1 to 30. differentiate the function

1 /(.v) = 7 sin A 2 g(.v) = —X cos X

3 hit) = 4 sin r - r cos / 4 F{r) = V7cos r

5 g(.v) = 3 tan x + sec x 6 G(i) = f' - 5 cot r

7 H(y) = 8 sec v - iy^ 8 f(z) = 4 CSC z - 3 sec z

9 g{r) r sin r + 4 esc r 10 H{u) = (\^ + 5)(cos u)

11 /(z) = cotz + Vi
120 CHAPIER 1 THE DERIVATIVE

42 Suppose that o is a constant, (a) Using the substitution property Figure 4


for limits, show that

sin (a A.v) cos (a A.v)


=
A.v

(b) Using the results of part (a) and arguments similar to those in

Theorems 1 and 2, show that

n. sin ax = a cos ax and /), cos ax = -a sin ax


1344 Because of seasonal variations in demand, the revenue /? to a
43 A tractor is pulling a heavy sledge weighing W newtons with a
swimsuit manufacturer on the .vth day of the year, starting with
cable making an angle with the horizontal (Figure 4). If /n is
.V = I on January I. is given by
the coefficient of sliding friction between the sledge and the
ground, then the tension T newtons in the cable is given by
R = 3800 - 1 800 cos dollars
365
^iW
T =
cos 6 + /Li sin f^ Find the rate of change dR/dx of revenue per day on June 1 when
X = 152. {Hint: Use the result in Problem 42b.)
Assuming that y, and W are constants, find a formula for the rate

of change dT/dO of the tension T with respect to the angle 6. 45 Complete the proof of Theorem 3 by proving parts (ii) and (iv).

2.6 Function Composition


We now introduce the idea of fiinciion composiiion; in Section 2.7 we use this idea
to develop an impoitant differentiation rule called the chain rule.

Suppose we have three variable quantities y. ii. and .v. If v depends on u and if

u. in turn, depends on .v, then clearly y depends on .v. In other words,


y is a if

function of u and w is a function of .v, then y is a function of .v. For instance, suppose
that

and u = 3.V

Then, substituting the value of ii from the second equation into the first equation,
we find that

Ox- \)~

More generally, if

y =/((/) and // = g(x)

then, substituting ii from the second equation into the first equation, we find that

.v=/(^(.v))

To avoid a pileup of parentheses, we often replace the outside parentheses in the last
equation by .square brackets and write

y=f\fiM\
If / and i; are functions, the equation y =/l,i;(.v)] defines a new function h:

hix) =f[g{x)]

The function h obtained by "chaining" /and g together in this way is called the
composiiion of /'and g and is written h =f°g- The idea of function composition is
made precise in the following definition.
2.6 FirNCTION COMPOSITION 121

DEFINITION 1 Composition of Functions

Let./ and be two functions satisfying the condition that at least


f;
one number in
the range of g belongs to the domain of/. Then the composition of/ and g. in
symbols /°g, is the function defined by the equation

(f°g)M=f[g(-x)]

Evidently, the domain of the composite function/" g is the set of all values
ofx
in the domain of g such that g{x) belongs to the domain off. The
range of f°g is
just the set of all numbers of the form/[^?(.v)] as v runs
through the domain of/° g.

E^^^'PLE 1 Let/(.r) = 3.V - 1 and g(.v) = a-\ Find

(a) {fog)a) (b) (gof)(2)

(C) (/°g)(.V) (d) {gof)(x)

(e) (/°/)U) [3(f) (/og)(3.007)

SOLUTION

(a) if°g)i2) =f[g(2)] =/(2^) =/(8) = 3(8) - 1 = 23


(b) (g°/)(2) = glfil)] = g[3i2) - 1] = g(5) = 5^ = 125
(c) (f°g){x) =flgix)] =/(.r^) = 3.r' - 1

(d) {g°f){x) = glfix}] = gax - 1) = (3.V - 1)-'


(e) (/°/)(.v) =/L/t.v)] =/(3.v - 1) = 3(3.v - 1) - = -
1 9.v 4
(f) (/°g)(3.007) =/[g(3.007)] = 3(3.007)^' - I
- 80.57

EX.4MPLE 2 Let/(.v) = - g(x) = and h{x) = V^.


3.V 1 , .r\ Find (/o (g <>
h)](x).

SOLUTION

[f°ig°h)](x) =fHgoh)(x)] =f{glhM]} =/[g(\^)] =/[(V^)^]


= /(.r3/2) = 3x^/2- 1

EX.AMPLE 3 Let fix) = 3.V - 1. g(x) = x\ and p{x) = + Show


i(.v 1). that
f°(g + p) is not the same function as (f°g) + {f°p).
SOLUTION On the one hand,

[/° (g + p)]{x) =fUg+ p){x)] =f[gix) + p(x)] =/[.r' + i(x + 1)]


= 3[a-' + ^(.v+ D] - = 3.v3 +.V
1

On the other hand,

[(J°g) + (f°p)](x) = {f°g){x) + (fop)(x) =f[g(x)] +f[p{x)]


= /(^)+/[3(.v+ 1)]
= 3x^-1 +3[Rt+ 1)]- 1

= 3.r' +x- I

Therefore, the functions/" (g + ;,) and (fog) + (fop) are not the same.

Although the symbolism /°g for the composition of/ and


g looks \aguely like
some kind of a "product," you must not confuse it with the actual product
f-g
of / and g. Whereas
f-g = g •/, note (in Example 1 ) that f°g¥^ g °/
122 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

Whereas f-(g + p) = if-g) + if-p). note (in Example 3) that /"(g + p) #


(f°g) + (f°P)- 't does turn out, however, that function composition is associative;
that is.

fo(goh) = {fof,)ol,

(Problem 12). Because of the associative property of composition, parentheses


aren't really necessary when three or more functions are to be composed. Thus we
simply write/° g ° h.f° g° h° p. and so forth. Composing a function/with itself is

called iteration. The successive iterates oi f dst f ° f. f ° f ° f, f ° f ° f ° f. and so forth.


For an interesting account of the use of function iteration in building mathematical
models for phenomena in physics, engineering, economics, and the life sciences,
see Douglas R. Hofstadter. "Strange attractors; Mathematical patterns delicately
poised between order and chaos." Scientific American, Vol. 245. No. 5. pp. 22-
43. November 1981.
Using programmable calculator, you can see a vivid demonstration of function
a
composition. Suppose that the/ and g keys are programmed with functions of your
choice. If you enter a number .v and touch the g key. you see the mapping

.V I > g{x)

take place, and the number g(.v) appears in the display. Now. if you touch the/key.
the mapping

g(.v)i >f\gix)]

will take place. Therefore, after you enter the number .v. you can perform the
composite mapping

-VI >(/°g)(.v)
Figure I

by touching first the g key. then the f key. This fact is represented by the diagram in
Figure 1.

In using a programmable calculator or a computer, it is important to be able to tell

when a complicated function can be obtained as a composition of simpler functions.


.'l.i;(vi|
jj^g same skill is essential in calculus. If

h(x) = {fog)(x)=f[g(.x)]

lefs agree to call g the inside function and /the outside function because of the
positions they occupy in the expression /[?(.v)]. In order to see that h can be ob-
tained as a composition /; = f° g. you must be able to recognize the inside function

g and the outside function /in the equation that defines h.

EXAMPLE 4 Express the function /i(.v) = (3.v + 2)- as a composition h =f°g of


two functions / and g.

SOLUTION Here we can take the inside function to be gi.x) = 3.v + 2 and the
outside function to be/(.v) = a". so that

(fog){.x) =f[gtx)] =/(3.v + 2) = (3.V + 2)- = hix)

The substitution property for limits (page 67) and the substitution property for
continuous functions (page 73) can be restated in terms of function composition.
2.6 FX'NCTION COMPOSITION 123

For instance, the siibstiiution property for continuous functions can be restated as
follows:

If/and g are functions, g is continuous at a, and/is continuous at g(a), then/° g


is continuous at a.

We leave it as an exercise for you to restate the substitution property for limits in
terms of function composition (Problem 44).

Problem Set 2.6

In Problems 1 to 10. let/(.v) = .v - 3 and gix) = .v" + 4. Find the 3.V - 1


23 fix)
indicated value.

24 fix) = 2. g(.v) = 7
1 (/°g)(4) 2 (/°g)(V2)

[a 3 (^°/)(4.73) E 4 (go/H-^.OS)
= = - = \
In Problems 25 to 32, let/U) 4jt, g(.r) .v" 3. and /j(.v) .x.

5 (/»/)( 3) 6 (g<'gK-3) Express each function as a comfwsition of functions chosen from/,


g, and h.
7 If^igo/m) 8 [(/°g)°/](2)

9 ifogKx) 10 (go/IU) 25 f (A) = V.Y= - 3 26 GU) = (V^)- - 3

27 Hix) = iVx 28 A:(.v) = 4.V- - 12


11 Let/U) = sin x, gtx) = .r". and /;{.v) = cos .v. Find a formula
for the given function. 29 Qix) = 4Vx 30 ^(.v) = 16.V- - 3

(a) fog (b)g°/ {c)gog 31 r{x) = V^ 32 six) = x^ - 6.V- + 6


(d) go(f+h) (e) g =
(/A) (f ) (//A) « (/i//)

(g)/o(g<'/!) (h) (/°g)°/i as a composition


In Problems 33 to 40. express each function /;

h = /° g of two simpler functions / and g.


12 Show that function composition is associative; that is. show that
fo(goij) = (jog)oij for any three functions/, g. and h (pro-
34 /!(.v) = sin (.v'' + 1)
vided, of course, that either side of the equation is defined).

36 /!(.v) = 5 CSC |x|

In Problems 13 to 24. find (a) (/°g)U). (b) (g°/)(.v). and (c)


1
(/°/)(-v).
38 /!(.v) =
(4.V + 5)'

13 /(,v) = .r, g(.v) = V^


39 /i(;r) = 40 hi v) = V] - 1 V.V - 1

14 fix) =x^ + I. gtx) = \/x - I

15 /(.v) = tan.v. g{x) = Vx


41 Suppose that user-definable keys / and g on a programmable
16 fix) =x + x-\ g{x} = V.v- I
calculator are programmed so that f:x i > 3.r - 2 and
17 = = esc X g.x I > 5.V - 3. Draw mapping diagram (see Figure 1) to
a
/(.c) |x|, gtx)
show the effect of entering a number v and touching (a) first the
18 /W = lA, g(.v) = lA
g key. then the /key; (b) first the /key. then the g key.

19 /U) = .r - I. g(.v) = 1 + cos -v


42 Give examples of (a) a function/ for which/°/is not the same
as /•/ and (b) a function g for which g° g is the same as g g.
20 fix) = ax + = •
b. g(.v) ex + d
1
43 Explain why the function fix) = sin |.r| is continuous at x = 0.
21 fix) = . g(.v) Iv- 3
2v- 3 44 Restate the substitution property for limits (page 67) in terms of
function composition.
22 /(.v) = Ax + B on: + fc

Cx + D Cr + rf 45 Explain why the function g(.v) = sin(sin .v) is continuous on R.


124 CHAFIKR 2 THE DERIVATIVE

46 A baseball diamond is a square 90 feet on each side. Suppose a 48 Show how to modify the procedure in Problem 47 to find the
ball is hil directly toward third base at the rate of 50 feet per values /(.v), (/»/)(.<;). (/°/°/)(.v), (/°/°/°/)(.v). and so on of
second. Let y denote the distance in feet of the ball from first the successive iterates of/ at x. The set consisting of .v and these
base, let .v denote its distance from home plate, and let / denote values is called the orbit of x under the iterates of /. (See
the elapsed time in seconds since the ball was hit. Here y is a Douglas R. Hofstadter's article, referred to on page 122.)
function of .v. say y = /(.v). and .v is a function of i, say .v = gU)-
E149 In the life sciences, a simple recursive model for population
(a) Find formulas for /(.v) and s(r). (b) Find a formula for
= growth is a function / that predicts the population /(p) of an
(/m;)(0. (c) Explain why y (/"g^t).
organism I unit of time later if the current population is p. (For
47 Show that ij'° )>)(.\) can be obtained graphically as follows: Start instance, the unit of time might be the gestation period of the
at the point (v, 0) on the .v axis. Move vertically to the graph of organism.) Thus, according to this model, if/) is the current
g. then horizontally to the graph of y = .v, then vertically to the population, then /(/>) is the population 1 unit of time later,
graph of/, and finally horizontally to the point (0. y) on the ,/l/(p)l - if°f)(p) is the population 2 units of time later.

y axis (Figure 2). Conclude that y = (f°g)(.x). f[(.f°f)ip)\ = (/".f °./)(/') is the population 3 units of time later,
and so forth. One of the most popular simple recursive growth
models is the discrete logistic model /(/)) = Bp - Ap-. where
Figure 2 i
A and B are nonnegative constants depending on the birth and
death rates of the organism. Suppose that 8 = 2.6 and A = 0.08
for a certain organism in a particular habitat. Starting with p = 4
organisms, use the discrete logistic model to predict the popula-
tion 1, 2, 3, 4. 5. and 6 units of time later according to the
discrete logistic model.

ISI50 Draw an accurate graph of the function /(/>) = 2.6p - 0.08p-


for < p < 32.5. (U.se a calculator to help plot points.) (a) Use
the graphical procedure obtained in Problem 48 to work Problem
49. (b) Use the same graphical procedure, starting with several
different values of the initial population p. Can you draw any
(tentative) conclusions?

2.7 The Chain Rule


Suppose that y = (x~ + 5xf and we wish to find dy/cLx. One approach is to expand
(.V- + 5xf and then differentiate the resulting polynomial. Thus,

y = (X- + 5jr)-' = .v'' + IS.r'^ + 75.V-* + 125.V-'

and so = 6.V-' + 75.V-* + 300.V-' + 375.V-


dx

Another approach is to let

u = X' + 5x

so that ,, _ ,,3

Then,
dy
3(r and
dll
-- = —d -(.v-
,
+ 5.v) = 2v + 5
dii dx dx

from which we might conclude that

dx d\ dll
-- = -^ -— = 3/r(2.v
,
+ 5) = 3(.v-
,
+
,
5.v)-(2v + 5)
d\ du dx
= 6.V-' + 75.v-^ + 30av' + 375.V-
2.7 THE CHAIN RULE 125

The second approach produced the correct result, but there's a catch to it! The
expressions dy/dii and du/dx are just symbols for derivatives which the "numera-
in
tors'" and ""denominators" have not yet been given any separate meanings, so we
weren't really justified in supposing that

^v _ dy dii

dx dii dx

In fact, the legitimacy of this calculation is guaranteed by one of the most important
differentiation rules in calculus — the chain rule. Although we give a precise state-
ment and proof of the chain rule later (see Theorem 1), we begin with the following
informal version.

The Chain Rule


126 CHAriER 2 THK DERIVATIVE

The following crude but effective memory device shows the basic pattern of the
chain rule:

D /(whatever) = /'(whatever) •
D(whatever)

For instance, using this device with /as the square-root function, we would have

D Vwhatcvcr = ,
• D(whatcver)
2Vwhatever

Thus, the calculation in Example 2 could have been abbreviated as follows:

D.VrTT = ,
,

D,(.v- + 1

2V.V- + I

2V.V- + 1

V.x" + 1

The chain rule is often used to calculate derivatives of the form D,m", where u is

a differentiable function of .v and n is an integer. Thus, letting /(i<) = u", so that

/'(//) = hh"~'. we obtain the important formula

D,ii" = mi"' 'D,ii

In other words, we have the pattern

D(whatever)" = ^(whatever)""' D(whatever)

In Examples 3 to 6, fiiul the derivative of each function with the aid of the chain
rule.

EXAMPLE 3 f(x) = {x- + 5.Y)'""

SOLUTION f'(x) = D,(.V- + 5.V)""


= 100(.v- + 5.v)^^Dvtv- + 5.v)
= 100(.v- + 5.v)''''(2.v + 5)

EXAMPLE 4 Fix) =
Ox- \f

SOLUTION F'(.V) = D,— -


—r =)"*
D,{}A - I )
"*

(3.V 1

= -4(3a 1)"-*^'
D>(.\v -
-
1)
= -4(3.v- l)-\3)
= -12(3.v- 1)^'

EXAMPLE 5 ;i;(.v) = Sin- X i


SOLUTION ^'(.v) = Dv(sin v)' = 3(sin x)-(D^ sin .v)

= 3 sin- X cos .v
2.7 THE CHAIN RULE 127

EXAMPLE 6 G(0 = (/- + 6/)'"(l - 3?)""

G'U) =D,[U- + 60"'(1 -3/)'*]


= [D,{r + 60'°](1 - 3?)-* + {r + 6/)'"[D,(l - ^if]
= 10(r + btf[D,{r + 6?)](i - 3tf + (r^ + 6?)'°[4(1 - ^'f AC 3/)]
= 10(f- + 6tf{2t + 6)(1 - 3/)'* + it- + 6ty°[m - 3f)3(-3)]
= mt' + ttfilt + 6)(1 - Sr)-* - 12(r + 6/)'°(l - 3?)^
= 2(/2 + 6f)''(l - 3/)^[5(2f + 6)(1 - 30 - 6(f2 + 6r)]
= 2(t- + 6/Al - 3?)\-36f- - 116/ + 30)
= -4(?- + 6/)'(l - 3r)'(18r + 58/ - 15)

Sometimes in calculating derivatives, you have to use the chain rule repeatedly.

EXAMPLE 7 Find D^(V.r' - \f.

SOLUTION A first use of the chain rule gives

D^(V.v-' - 1)5 = 5(VV - O^D^Vx-' - 1

Now. to work out DrV.v'' - 1, we use the chain rule again. Thus.

D,(Vjr^ - \f = 5(V.r' - l)^D,\/?~~

= 5(V.r'- 1)-* -0,(.v'- 1)


2V^
= f(V.r' - \fOx-)
= ^ .r^( V.v^ - 1
)-'

If (/ is a differentiable function of .v. we can combine the chain rule with the rules
for differentiating the sine, tangent, and secant functions to obtain the following:

D, sin u = cos it D,«


Dv tan u = sec- u D^u
D, sec II = sec ii tan u Djt

Similar rules hold for the corresponding cofunctions:

D, cos u = —sin ii Dji


Dj cot i( = —CSC" II D^ii
Dv CSC (/ = -CSC u cot M D,/<

/« Examples 8 to 10. find the derivative of each function with the aid of the chain
rule.

EXAMPLE 8 /(.v) = sin (5.\-)

SOLUTION /'(A) = D, sin (5.V-) = cos (5.v-) D^5,r


= [cos (5.x-)](iar)
= lO.r cos (5.ir)
128 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

EXAMPLE 9

SOLUTION
2.7 THE CHAIN RILE 129

Now, using function composition, we can give a formal statement and proof of
the chain rule.

THEOREM 1 The Chain Rule

If is a differentiable function
g at the number .t, and/is a differentiable function
at the number g(.x,). then/og is a differentiable function at the number
.r, and

(/°.?)'(-Ti)=/'[g(.r,)]g'(.v,)

Usmg the substitution property


for limits (page 67) with =
.v .v, + A.v, we have
=
g(.r, +A.r)-g(.v,) gW-g(.v,)
g'ixO lim _

lim
jLt^O xx X - Xi
Let M, - g(.Y,). Then we also have

Likewise,

a°5)'U,) = bm ^f°SKx)~(fo,)(xO ^ j^ /[gW]-/[g(.t,)]


"""*"
^ -^i ''-*'"
x - .r,

provided that the limit exists. Now define a function Q by

if ;< 5=^ H|
21") = -^ H - Ui

if M = i/i

Then

I^.^^"^ = .}^JJ!,,~^-nu.^=rui.^.n
Also, for /< 5^ «,,

/(«) -/(«,) = e((0((/ -;/,


Note that the last equation holds even =
.f u u, . when it simplv reduces to =
Now, we substitute u = g(.v) in the last equation and divide both
sides by v - v,' to
obtain ' '

/[g(-v)]-./'[g(-V,)]
= Q[gix)]
M - 8(xi )

for AT 5^.r,. Therefore, by the multiplication property for limits.

flsixn-flgixQ]
jjnj
lim e[.?(.v)] lim ^'"'"g^-^'V

(/°g)'(.v,) = ^hm^ Q[g(x)]-g'(xO

provided that jim^ Qlg(.x)] exists. The proof


will be complete if we can show that
130 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

this limit is equal to/'[g(.V|)). Because g is differentiable at .V|, it follows from


Theorem 1 on page 96 that g is continuous at .V|. Therefore,

Jim g(x) = g(A|) = W|

and it follows from the substitution property for limits that

lini QlfiU)] = lim Qdi) = flfUx^n

Problem Set 2.7

In Problems I to 4, find the required derivative by using the chain 21 ^(.t) = V.v- + 2\ - 1

rule.

1 y = Vm, u = X- +X + I , find dy/dx.

2 y = «' - 2«'/-, u = x' + Ix. find dy/dx.

3 y = u~\ u=x-* + \. find dy/dx.

4 y = H. M = (7 - .v-)(7 + A-) '. find D,y.

in Problems 5 to 62, find the derivative of each function with the aid
of the chain rule.

5 fix) = (5 - Iv)'"

6 fix) = {2x- 3)"

'^'•^"=(4y+l,'

8 Fit) = (2r^-/+ 1)"^

9 gix) = (3.v= + 7)=(5 - 3.xf

10 G(o = (5r + l)-(3r-' + 2)-'

11. /'(.v) = ('-tJ (6.V- I)'

12/(0 = (3/- l)-'{2r + 5)^'

13,?(y) = (7y + 3)--(2y- I)"*

14 /(H) = (6m +
^
—M )
'
(2m - 2)'

l9/(.r) = -!^ = (V^r' 20 F(x)


V.1C
2.7 THE CHAIN RULE 131

sec- 3f
59 git)
--
132 CHAPTKR 2 THK DERIVATIVE

2.8 Implicit Functions and


Implicit Differentiation

An equation such as

V = 3jt^ - 5.V + 12

that is already solved for y in terms of .v is said to give y explicitly as a function of


X. On the other hand, an equation such as

.ry + 1 = 2.V — >>

which can be solved for y in terms of x but is not solved for y as it stands, is said
to give y implicitly as a function of .v. (Shortly, we shall give a more precise
definition of an implicit function.) In this section we introduce a technique called
implicit differentiation which allows us to calculate the derivative dy/dx of an im-
plicitly given function without bothering to solve explicitly for y in terms of .v.

Implicit Differentiation

The equation 2v + 3y = 1 can be solved fory in terms of x to give y = 3 — f.v, and


so we have dy/dx = — § The same result can be obtained directly from the original
equation 2x + 3y = 1 simply by differentiating both sides, term by term, to get
2 + Mdy/dx) = and then solving for dy/dx = -ff The latter technique
. is called
implicit differentiation. More generally, we have the following.

Procedure for Implicit Differentiation

Given an equation that determines y implicitly as a differentiable function of x,


calculate dy/dx as follows:

Step 1 Differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to x\ that is, apply
d/d\ to both sides of the equation, term by term. In so doing, keep in mind that
y is regarded as a function of .v, and use the chain rule when necessary to
differentiate expressions involving y.

Step 2 The result of step 1 will be an equation involving not only .v and y but
also dy/dx. Solve this equation for the desired derivative dy/dx.

When the procedure for implicit differentiation is executed, the result is often an
equation that gives dy/dx in terms of both x and y. In this case, in order to calculate
the numerical value of dy/dx. it is necessary to know not only the numerical value
of X but also the numerical value of y.
The procedure for implicit differentiation can be used legitimately only if it is

known that the equation in question really does determine y implicitly as a differen-
tiable function of .v. However, in what follows we routinely apply the procedure and
simply assume that this requirement is fulfilled.

In Examples I to 5. use implicit differentiation to solve each problem.

EXAMPLE 1 If .v' - 3.vy -I- 4y^ = 6x + 1 , find dy/dx.


2.8 IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION 133

SOLUTION We begin by differentiating both sides of the given equation, term


by
term, with respect to .v:

—x^
ax
- — 3.ry + —
dx dx
4v-^ = _6.x +
dx

dx
1

3x^ - 3(2v)v^ - 3.v2(4v^


^
^)
dx
+ 12v- ^= dx
6 +

3.V- - 6.n-^ - llv\-^ ^+


dx
12v- ^= dx
6

This completes step 1 of the procedure for implicit differentiation. To carry out
step 2, we must solve the last equation for dy/dx in terms of ;r and
y. Subtracting
3x - 6xy^ from both sides of the equation, we obtain

-llxy -j- + I2v- -- = -3.Y- + dn-* + 6


dx dx

Now, factoring dy/dx out of the left side and multiplying both
sides of the equation
by - 1 , we have

(\ZxY - 12v-) ^=
dx
3.V- - 6.n'-* - 6

"^^ 3x'- - 6.xy^ ~ 6 .r^ - In-^ - 2


Hence
dx llr-v^ - 12v- 4y\x-y - 1)

EXAMPLE 2 U(2x + yf - (3.V - .v)^ = y-\ find dy/dx.

SOLUTION Differentiating the equation term by term with respect to .v, we ob-
tain

3(2v + y)' —
dx
(Iv + y) - 3(3.r - v)-
'
-^{3x -
dx
v) = 5v''
^ dx

dy^

3<2..,,=(2.f)-3,3,^,,=(3-f).5,- dx
Thus,

6(2v + yr- + 3(2v + v)- -~ -


dr
9(3.v - v)- + 3(3.v - v)-
-
^= ^
dx
5v^
- dx
Rewriting the last equation so that the terms involving dy/dx are on the left, we have

3(2x + yf -^ + 3(3.v - yf -^ - 5y' -£ = 9(3.v - y)^ - 6(2v + yf

[3(2v + yf- + 3(3.r - yf - 5y*] -^ = 9(3.v - yf - 6(2r + yf

Therefore.

dy _ 9(3j: - yf - 6(2c + yf
dx 3(2x + yf + 3(3.r - yf - Sy"*
134 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

EXAMPLE 3 If X COS v + V sin A^ = 5, find dy/dx.

SOLUTION
—d
dx
(x COS v) H
d
dx
(v sin
'
.

.v)
d
= -—5^
dx

cos y. + X —
dx
d
cos V
'
H —^dx
dx
sin
.

x + v
'
— sm
dx
d .

.v = ^

dv dv
cos y — X sin v -^- H — sin
.

.v + v cos v =
dx dx
dv
(sin X — X sin v) —^ = —v cos x — cos y
dx

Multiplying both sides of the last equation by - 1 and solving for dy/dx. we obtain

dy y cos .v + cos y

dx X sin y — sin .v

EXAMPLE 4 Find the equations of the tangent and normal lines to the graph of
X IT
— + ^- = 6 at the point (2. 1).
y V'

SOLUTION Differentiating the given equation term by term with respect to x. we


obtain
2.8 IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION 135

Consequently, the slope of the tangent line at (2, 1) is i , the slope of the normal line

is —1/5 = —2, and the corresponding equations are

Tangent line: y - I = ^(x — 2) or y = \x

Normal line: y — \ = —2{x — 2) or y = —2x + 5

EXAMPLE Given the equation x^ + xy + y^


5 = 2, considers: to be a differentia-
ble function of v and find dx/dy.

SOLUTION Applying d/dy to both sides of x' + rv + y^ = 2, we obtain

3x^
,
—+ +—
dx
dy
x
dx
dy
V + 3y-
T
=

Solving this equation for dx/dy, we have

dx _ —X — 7>y-
"
dy 2,x^-\-y

The idea of an implicit function is made more precise by the following definition.

DEFINITION 1 Implicit Function

A continuous function /, defined at least on an open interval, is said to be


implicit in an equation involving the variables x and >' provided that when y is

replaced by /(a) in this equation, the resulting equation is true for all values of .v
in the domain of/.

Figure 1 Thus, a continuous function /is implicit in an equation if and only if the graph of/
is contained in the graph of the equation (Figure 1).

graph of the equation


In Examples 6 to 8, if possible, find the functions implicit in the given equation by
solving for y in terms of x.

EXAMPLE 6 7 +X= y^ - 3y

SOLUTION We havey^ - 3y + (-7 - x) = 0. Using the quadratic formula, we


obtain

graph of an
implicit function/ =
3± V(-3f-4{l){-7-x)
y
2(1)

3± V4x + 37

The last equation does not give y as an explicit function of x because of the ambigu-
ous ± sign. However, the function / defined by

= 3 + y/4x + 37
fix)

is implicit in the given equation. But so is the function h defined by

3 - V4jc + 37
h(x) =
136 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

Figure 2 Figure 2 shows us geometrically just what's happening here. Indeed, the graph of
7 + j: = y^ — 3y is a parabola with a horizontal axis of symmetry. By the vertical-
line test (page 26), this parabola is not the graph of a function. However, it can be
broken up into two pieces, each of which is the graph of a function. The graph of
the implicit function/is the top half of the parabola, and the graph of /i is the bottom
half.

EXAMPLE 7 x- + V- + 1 =

SOLUTION This equation has no (real) solution, so it cannot define y implicitly


as a function of x.

Figure 3
2.8 IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS AND IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION 137

Problem Set 2.8

In Problems 1 to 26, find dy/dx by using implicit differentiation. 39

2 4xy^ + 3.r-y = 2

A xy'^ + x^ + y^ = 5

6 jrv' + 2v^ = X- — Ay-

i X- - Vxy - v =

10 vVr + Vv = 9

12 (Ax - \)^ = 5y^ + 2

14 (5;v-v + A)' = x^

16 + -=4
17 y = sin (Zr + y) 18 .V cos y = (.V + y)-

19 tan -vy + .vy = 2 20 tan" X + tan" \' = 4


21 sin" .t + COS" y = 1

22 sec (.V + y) + esc U + y) = 5

23 cos .vy + y- = 2 24 sin .V tan y = y'

25 cot Ox + y) = 5jy 26 sec (.V- + y-) = 5.v'

In Problems 27 to 32, find the equations of the tangent and normal


lines to the graph of the implicit function determined by each of the
following equations at the given point.

27 X- + xy + 2y- = 28 at (2, 3)

28 x^ - 3.ty2 + y^= 1 at (2, -1)

29 Vlx + V3y = 5 at (2, 3)

30 x^ - iVxy-y- = 52 at (8, 2)

31 sin .xy = y at (7r/2, 1)

32 (5 + tan xy)- = 36 at (7r/12, 3)

In Problems 33 to 36, consider.* to be a function of y and find dx/dy


by implicit differentiation.

33 3.r- + 5xy = l 34 x-y- = .V' + y''

35 r2 = v2 - V 36 Vxy + .rv" = 5

In Problems 37 to 46, find all functions implicit in each equation by


solving for y in terms of x.

37 5jc - 4y = 6

38 5jc- - 4y- = 6
138 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

53 A civil engineer is designing a curved access road leading from a Figure 5


point O on a state highway to a point P on an interstate high-
way. She sets up a Cartesian coordinate system with O as the
origin and the state highway along the .v axis (Figure 5). With
distances in meters. P = {150. 100). The access road is to be

tangent to the state highway at O and tangent to the interstate

highway at P. To provide for acceleration up to interstate high-

way speeds, the curvature of the access road is to decrease

uniformly from O to P. To meet these conditions, the access


road is designed to follow the graph of the equation
4.v= + 3(y - 200)- = 120.000. Find the x coordinate of the
point / where the interstate highway intersects the state highway.

2.9 The Rational-Power Rule


In Theorem 9 of Section 2.3, we established the power rule

d
dx

for integer exponents. In this section, we show that the same rule works for rational
exponents. We begin by considering the case in which the exponent is the reciprocal
Figure I of a positive integer.
Recall that if n is a positive integer, then

where Vx denotes the principal /nh root of Thus, if is even and x is nonnega- .v. /t

tive, Wx denotes the nonnegative number whose «th power is Similarly, if n is .v.

odd, Va denotes the real number whose nth power is but there is no restriction on .v,

the algebraic sign of .v.

If the positive integer n is even, then the graph of y = V.v has the general appear-
ance shown in Figure la; but if n is odd, the graph looks like the curve in Figure lb.
In either case, it is visually apparent that the graph of y = V.v has a definite tangent
line at every point, except perhaps at (0. 0).* If .v t' and there is a tangent line at
the point (x, Vx), then its slope must be given by the derivative dvx/dx. Thus,
Figure provides graphical evidence that dVx/dx exists, provided that Vx is de-
fined and
1

.V 7^ 0. In what follows, we shall assume this. A more formal argument I


can be given by using Theorem 1 on page 406.
Now, suppose that n is a positive integer, and let

y = Vx
Then,
i
*In fact, for n odd. the graph does have a tangent line at (0. 0). namely, the y axis (see page
201).
2.9 THE RATIONAL-POWER RLXE 139

Applying the implicit differentiation procedure to the last equation and assuming
that-v 7^ 0, we have

_d_ „__d_
dx ' dx

or ny"
^
,
' ^=
dx
dx
1

Therefore,

dy
dx m" ' nv"

Because y = \^ and \-" = x. the last equation can be rewritten as

dx nx

Using the alternative notation .v'"' for \^, we can rewrite this equation as

d
" l/„ _ ^r'^" _ J_ 1
l/n -1
dx rix n

^v'
140 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

Now we can prove the following theorem, which shows that the rule for differen-
tiating rational powers of v follows the same pattern as the rule for differentiating
integer powers of x.

THEORKM 1 Power Rule for Rational Exponents

Let r = m/n be a rational number, reduced to lowest terms so that n is a positive


integer and the integers m and n have no common factors. Then

d _,
y= rx'^
dx

holds for all values of .v for which x^ = (.v'^")'" is defined, except possibly for
A = 0. It also holds for .v = 0, provided that n is odd and m> n.

Suppose that x^ is defined and that x ¥= 0. Then, using the chain rule, the rule for

differentiating integer powers, and the rule obtained above for differentiating x^^",
we have

— dx
x' = —dx
(x''"r
,l/«.m-l
= m(x"")
dx
^\/n
X ' = mx /,.(l,n..-)
^^(m-1)/-

= _^_(m-l)/n + (l/n)-l = ^,(m/n)-l


n n

To complete the proof, assume that m> n and n is odd. Let/(.v) = .v'', noting that
r>\. Thus, when x = 0, rx"^' ' = 0, and so we must prove that/'(0) = 0. We have
/(0 + A.r)-/(0) [(^x)'/"^ -
/ (0) = lim : = lim
Av^o Ajc A-v—o Ajc

[(A.V)'
= lim lim [(^x)^'"]"'~" =
Aa^U [(A.V)'/"1" -i'-^O

If we combine the power rule for rational exponents in Theorem 1 with the chain
rule, we obtain the following important result:

If r is a rational number and u is a differentiable function of a, then

d du
—-U = ru —— or D^u"^ = ru^ '
D,m
dx dx

Of course, if u = 0, this rule may not apply, unless r = m/n. where m and n have
no common factors, m> n> 0. and n is odd.

In Examples 2 to 7, find the derivative.

EXAMPLK 2 fix) = X^''^

SOLUTION For A^ > 0.

/'(.,) = ^,.3/2 =
dx
|,.,,/2,-.
1 11
= l,./2 = |V]^
2.9 THE R^^TIONAL-POWER RULE 141

EXAMPLE 3 git) = r"'^^

SOLUTION For t ^ 0,

d 1'"-"
(,) = = -fl-7/3)-l = Lj-10/3
dt 3 3

EXAMPLE 4 h{x) = V Iv- + 3

d
SOLUTION h'{x) = Vlr- + 3 = (2v- + 3)'^^
(ir dx

= —3
(2V- + 3)"/''-'— (2X-- +
^v
3)

= Hlx- + 3)-"/\4r) = ir(lr- + 3)-^^^

EXAMPLE 5 Fix) = (1 - .v)-*/^(l + x^)~-^^

SOLUTION

F'{X)= (1 - .v)-*^-'(l + .V-)-2/3


dx

= [*(!- .r)-'/-'(-l)]{l + A-)--'-^ + (1 - .v)^'''5[-f (1 + x-r'^Mx)]


= (1 - x)-'/Hi + x-r^'\-i(i + .v^) - 3(1 - A-)(iv)]
= Ad - A-)^'''^(l + x-r^^Hlx- - 5x - 3)

This calculation illustrates a useful rule: To factor an algebraic sum in which each
term contains a rational power of the same expression, take as a common factor the
smallest rational power to which the expression is raised. For instance, in the
third line of the calculation, the expressions (1 - x)~^^^ and (1 - x)*^^ occur.
Since -i <, we factor out (1 - a) '/^. Likewise, since -§ < -f, we factor out
(1 + a:2)-5/3.

EXAMPLE 6 G(a) = sin Va^* + 5

G'(x) = —^v
sin \/x* + 5 = cos Va^* + 5 —dx
V'.r"* + 5

cos Va-* + 5 —
dx
U'* + 5)'

= cos Va-* + 5 -(A-' + 5)--^'3--(.v-' + 5)


dx J

= cos V7n liix'' + 5)--''\4x^)]

_ 4x^ cos ^x'* + 5

3(A^ + 5)-^-^

_ 4a-^ Va-* + 5 cos \^x-* + 5

3(x* + 5)

In the last step, we rationalized the denominat or by m ultiplying numerator and


denominator of the fraction bv (a-* + 5)''^ = Va"* + 5.
142 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

EXAMPLE 7 Hill) = (1 + tan (/')"''"*

SOLUTION If tan //-^-l,


H'(u) = -id + tan /r)' '*^'*'"'|(sec-«-)(2«))
= -JM(1 + tan u-)"'-^''*' sec- m"

Problem Set 2.9

In Problems I to 30. find the derivative of each function.

1 fix) = V^
2 /(.r) = V(?"

3 A'(.t) = 36Lr-'"''

4/(.v) = 2Lr'''

5 hU) = (\ - t)-^'^

6/U) =
^
7 /(«)= 1 + —

8 g(s) =
2.10 HIGHER-ORDER DERIVATIVES 143

2.10 Higher-Order Derivatives


As we have seen, a derivative can be interpreted as a rate of change. For instance,
the derivative dP/dt of the consumer price index P with respect to time / can be
taken as a measure of monetary inflation. When government economists say that the
rate of inflation is decreasing, they are talking about a rate of change of a rate of

Figure 1 change — a derivative of a derivative.


The idea of a "second derivative" also arises in the study of the motion of a
particle P along a linear scale (Figure 1). Call the scale the s axis, and denote the
variable coordinate of P by s. so that

s=f{t)

where/ is a function determining the location off at time /. The equation s -mis
called the law of motion, or the equation of motion, of the particle.
The velocity v of the particle P is defined to be the instantaneous rate of change of
its position coordinate s with respect to time:

The absolute value of the velocity is called the speed of the particle:

speed

In physics, the instantaneous rate of change of velocity with respect to time is

called the acceleration a of P:

Therefore, A ^'
-
~
A(^
dt dt\ dt

so the acceleration is the derivative of the derivative, or, as we say, the second
derivative of the position coordinate s with respect to time. If distances along the i
axis are given in meters and time t is measured in seconds, then the velocity v is

given in meters per second (m/s). Consequently, the acceleration a is given in

meters per second per second read "meters per second squared" (ni/s~).

EXAMPLE 1 Suppose that a particle is moving along the s axis according to the
law of motion s = +
lOOr^ lOf + 5, with s in meters and t in seconds. Find the
values of v and a when f = 0.5 second.

SOLUTION Here,

V = —=—ds

dt dt
d
(lOOr + lOr + 5) = 200/ + 10

= —= —
dv d
and a (200/ + 10) = 200
dt dt
144 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

Hence, when t = 0.5 second,

V = 110 m/s and a = 200 m/s"

EXAMPLE 2 Suppose that a particle is oscillating about the origin on the a axis

according to the law of motion .v = 10 cos [(7r/12)f - (7r/3)], with s in centimeters


and / in seconds. Find the values of v and a when i = 6 seconds.

SOLUTION Here,

V = — = —d
ds

dt dt
10 cos
IOtt

StT / 77
2.10 HIGHER-ORDER I»:RIVAT1\TS 145

If/ can be successively differentiated /; times in this way. we say that /is n times
differentiable, and we write its /ith-order derivative, or nth derivative, as

/" or /"

The parentheses around the n are to prevent its being confused with an exponent.
For instance.

and /"'=/'^'
f"=r-'

EXAMPLE 3 Find all the higher-order derivatives of the polynomial function


= 15.r^ -
fix) 8x^ + 3.r - Iv + 4.

SOLUTION = /'"(.v) = 60a-' - 24a- + 6x-2


f'(.x)

f"(x)=f'\x) = 180a- - 48a + 6


/"'W=/'^'W = 360a-48
f""(x)=f^\x) = 360
r"ix)=f'\x) =
Since/'"' is a constant function, all subsequent derivatives are zero; that is.

/""(a) = for n>5

Just as with first derivatives, we often deliberately ignore the distinction


between
the num-
the wth-order derived function/""' and the value /""(a) of this function at
ber a; both are referred to as "the nth derivative."
Operator notation for higher-order derivatives is self-explanatory:

D;/(a)=/"'(a)

The corresponding Leibniz notation is developed as follows: If

y=/(A)

d\
so that
dx

then the second derivative is given by

V dx '

= Dl fix) = fix)
dx

The symbolism
dy_'

dx
dx

second derivative cumbersome. Formal algebraic manipulation, as if ac-


for the is

tual fractions were involved, converts this to

idxf
146 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

In practice, the parentheses in the "denominator" are usually dropped, and the
second derivative is written as dry/dx'. Similar notation is used tor higher-order
derivatives (assuming these exist), as shown in Table 1.

Table I

V =/(A)
2.10 HIGHER-ORDER DERIVATIVES 147

EXAMPLE 6 Let/(.v) = v COS Iv. Find

(a) fix) (b) /"(A) (c) f'Xx)


(d)/'(0) (e)/"(7r/6) (f) /"'(-7r/4)

SOLUTION
(a) f'tx) = COS Ix - Ix sin 2x
(b) /"(.v) = -2 - 2 sin Iv - 4.x cos Zv
sin 2t
= -4 - 4.x cos Iv
sin 2a:

(c) /'"(.v) = -8 cos Iv - 4 cos Ix + 8.v sin Ix

= -12 cos 2v + 8.V sin It


(d) By (a)./'{0) = cos [2(0)] - 2(0) sin [2(0)]
= cos - = 1

,.,B,,.,,r(^) = -4.„[2(^)]-4(f)c„s[2(^)]

= -4 , .

sin
TT Itt
cos —n
3 3 3

-^(^)-f(l)
2

= -2V3

(f)By,c,./-(-f) = -,,cos[2(-^)].8(-f)s,„[2{-f

= -12cos(-y)-27rsin(-^)
2

= -12(0) -27r(-l)

Many of the differentiation rules developed earlier have generalizations for


higher-order derivatives. (Most of these are proved by mathematical
induction on n.
the order of the derivative involved.) For instance, the
addition rule and the homo-
geneous rule work for the ;!th-order derivative; that is.

D':U\x) + g(.x)] = D'iflx) + D'iglx)

^d D"Acf(x)] = cD", f(x) c constant

The product (or Leibniz) rule for higher-order derivatives (/• g)'">
is more compli-
cated. For example, if n = 2. we have

if-g)" = (f-g' +f'-gy = (f-g'Y + (J'-gY


= f-8"+f'-g'+f'-g' +f"-g
Hence,

U'-g}"=f-g" + 2f'-g' +f"-g


I

As Example 7 illustrates, higher-order derivatives can be found b\ implicit differ-


entiation.
148 CHAPTER 2 THE DERIVATIVE

EXAMPLE 7 If -r^ - 2y^ = 4, find D^y and Dly by implicit differentiation.

SOLUTION Differentiating both sides of r^ — 2y- = 4 with respect to .v, we have


Ix - 4vD,y =

2x X
hence, D,v =
4v 2v

Differentiating both sides of the last equation with respect to v and using the quo-
tient rule, we obtain

D:y = — - .vD,(2v)
—2vD,.v 2v - 2jfD,v
;- '— = — ^—^ =