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STEP 1

1. Outbreak: the meaning of Indonesian is wabah


2. Natural history of disease: description of natural development of disease that is
happened along time to individual
3. Epidemiology: the study of distribution and determinant of health state or event in
specific population and the application of the study to control the health problem
4. Transmission of Communicable disease: penyebaran penyakit menular
STEP 2
1. What is the trias epidemiology?
2. Explain the classification of epidemiological!
3. What are the criteria of epidemiology?
4. What are the advantages of epidemiology?
5. What are the principal of epidemiology?
6. What is the goal of epidemiology?
7. What is the limitation about epidemiology?
8. How to prevent the outbreak?
9. Explain the natural history of disease!
10. What the difference about pendemic, epidemic, endemic and outbreak?
11. What is the epidemiology studied lectures applied in this cases?

STEP 3
1. What is the trias epidemiology?
Trias epidemiology is the concept describe about three factors, they are host
(pejamu), agent (faktor penyebab) and environment (lingkungan)
a. host: organism in specifically is human
b. agent: age, sex, ethnic, social economic factor, lifestyle, nutrition and immunity
c. environment: physical ( air, weather) , biological (animal, plant, macroorganism),
topography and geography.
It will be good if the three factors above is balance
2. Explain the classification of epidemiological!
They are 2 classification:
a. Epidemiological descriptive: the frequence and spreading of disease based on
variable people, place and time (who, where and when)
Analysis and interpretation one group,
b. Epidemiological analytic : study to test information that to get epidemiological
descriptive. The example is case report history is ratio two group, cohort and
experiment . (why the disease happened  who, where, why, when)
2 group
c. Experiment epidemiology: experiment group subject compare with control group
3. What are the advantages of epidemiology?
a. Study the history of disease. Trend of disease to predict. What are the
possibilities disease happened
b. Diagnosed : etiology, defect can happened
c. To study the risk factors
d. To evaluate the medical facilities is effective and efficient or not?
e. To classify of disease Example: To identification the syndrome. To fix the criteria
of syndrome (down syndrome, fetal alcohol etc)
f. To arrange of health

4. What are the principal of epidemiology?


a. Always concern of resident group not individual
b. Compare one group with another group
c. Resident same group with same characteristic and haven’t

5. What is the goal of epidemiology?


To diagnose community health problem
To determine of natural history of disease
To assign and plan health program can be definited preventive and we can to
connect the trias epidemiology (host,agent, environement) and we can cut one of
three factor to control the health problem. Example: leptospirorsis  can use te
preventive program by doing medicine and influence the factors  health problem
decreased
can be doing surveillance and epidemiology research

6. What is the limitation about epidemiology?


Is three:
a. Epidemiology include the all of disease (infection or not infection)
b. Epidemiology about population  distribution of the society and group
c. Ecology approach  the frequence and distribution of disease analyze physical,
biology and social factors

7. What are the criteria outbreak?


When the disease affect many people in population
The amount of cases bigger than before
Disease distribute with a long time and the largest land
The incident rate two time more than amount of before
Case fatality rate of disease is increased 50% or more than before
8. How to prevent the outbreak?
We have to cut off the one of trias epidemiology
We can increase the immunity of host and detect the disease early
They are have 3 classification:
1. First prevention: promotion of health, specific prevention like decrease the
causes such as disinfectant, sterilization, etc
Reconstruction physical environment such as increase clean water, and sanitation
Increase the immunity of host like immunization, nutrition etc
2. Second prevention : early diagnosed and prompt treatment
3. Third prevention : disability limitation and rehabilitation

9. Explain the natural history of disease!


They are have 4 step:
a. Susceptible: individual that is terpapar oleh agent causal of disease. Belum ada
gejala. In this step we need the 1 prevention like health promotion and specific
protection such as immunization
b. Sub clinic: individual terpapar agent blm muncul gejala dan tanda klinis. Infection
disease (incubation time) and non infection (latent)
c. Clinic: gejala dan tanda sudah muncul  diberikan intervensi  sembuh? Cacat?
Mati?
d. Recovery or defect or mortality

10. What the difference about pandemic, epidemic, endemic and outbreak?
Pandemic: condition of health problem and the frequency is increased with a short
time and the distribution of this disease is very large
Epidemic: condition of health problem where the frequency is increased in
population
Endemic: condition of health problem and the frequency stable for a long time
Outbreak: condition of health problem with the frequency increase very fast and
have a big amount

11. What is the epidemiology studied lectures applied in this cases?


a. Descriptive method
b. Analytic method cross sectional, case control and cohort
c. Experiment method

STEP 4
MIND MAP
Trias epidemiological
outbreak Prevention:
1st
2nd
3rd
epidemiology
The goal

E. Descriptive E. analitik
Ident 1 group Compare 1 group
Ident about who with anaoter group
where, when Ident who, where,
when, why
STEP 6
1. What is the trias epidemiology?
Sumber: Timmreck, Thomas,C, dkk. Epidemiologi suatu pengantar, Edisi 2. ECG, Jakarta,
2005
2. Explain the classification of epidemiological!
Sumber: Basic epidemiology, WHO, 2016

5. What is the goal of epidemiology?

7. What are the criteria outbreak?


Sumber: Permenkes no. 1501 tahun 2010
8. How to prevent the outbreak?

Sumber: Permenkes no. 1501 tahun 2010


10. What the difference about pandemic, epidemic, endemic and outbreak?

Sumber: Timmreck, Thomas,C, dkk. Epidemiologi suatu pengantar, Edisi 2. ECG, Jakarta,
2005