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Chapter 1:

General Principles

• Basic quantities: Length, time, mass, force


• Units of measurements:
a) SI units (International System)
b) U.S. Customary (FPS: Feet, Pounds, and Seconds)
• Prefixes in the SI units:
G=109 M=106 k=103
n=10-9 µ=10-6 m=10-3
• Some rules:
a) A symbol is never written with a plural "s"
⇒ Confusion with seconds
b) µN2 = (µN)2 = (µN) (µN) = (10-6N) (10-6N) = 10-12 N2
mm2 = (mm) (mm) = (10-3m) (10-3m) = 10-6 m2
• Conversions:
o Force: 1 lb = 4.4482 N
o Mass: 1 slug = 14.5938 kg
o Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m
1 in. = 2.54 cm = 25.4 mm
• Physical properties:
Quantity Abbreviation Formula Unit
3
m
Volume V -----
ft3
kg
Mass m -----
slug
kg/m3
Density ρ (m/V)
slug/ft3
(m.g), g =9.81 (m/s2) kg.m/s2 = N
Weight wt
=32.2 (ft/s2) slug.ft/s2= lb
Unit N/m3
γ w/V
Weight lb/ft3

• Example (1.1) page 12


Convert 2 (km/hr) to (m/s). How many (ft/s) is this?
Solution:
⎛ km ⎞ ⎛ km 1000 m ⎞ ⎛m 1hr 1 min ⎞ ⎛m⎞
2⎜ ⎟ = 2⎜ × ⎟ = 2000⎜ × × ⎟ = 0.556 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ hr ⎠ ⎝ hr 1km ⎠ ⎝ hr 60 min 60 s ⎠ ⎝ s⎠

⎛m⎞ ⎛m 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ ft ⎞
0.556 ⎜ ⎟ = 0.556 ⎜ × ⎟ = 1.82⎜ ⎟
⎝ s⎠ ⎝ s 0.3048 m ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠

Dr. Aslam Al-Omari 1


• Example (1.2) page 12
Convert:
a) 300 (lb.s) and
b) 52 (slug/ft3)
to appropriate SI units.
Solution:
⎛ 4.4482 N ⎞
a) 300 (lb .s ) = 300⎜ lb .s × ⎟ = 1334.5 ( N .s )
⎝ 1 lb ⎠
⎛ kN ⎞
= 1334.5 ⎜ N .s × ⎟ = 1.3345(kN .s )
⎝ 1000 N ⎠
⎛ slug ⎞ ⎛ slug 14.5938 kg 1 3 ft 3 ⎞
b) 52⎜⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ = 52⎜⎜ 3 × × ⎟

⎝ ft ⎠ ⎝ ft 1 slug (0.3048 )3 m 3 ⎠
⎛ kg ⎞
= 26799.51⎜ 3 ⎟
⎝m ⎠
⎛ kg 1000 g ⎞
= 26.79951 × 10 3 ⎜⎜ 3 × ⎟
⎝m 1 kg ⎟⎠
⎛ g ⎞
= 26.79951 × 10 6 ⎜ 3 ⎟
⎝m ⎠
⎛ Mg ⎞ ⎛ Mg ⎞
= 26.79951⎜ 3 ⎟ ≅ 26.8⎜ 3 ⎟
⎝m ⎠ ⎝m ⎠

• Example (1.3) page 13


Evaluate and express with SI units having appropriate prefix
a) (50 mN )(6GN ) = (50 × 10 −3 N )(6 × 10 9 N )
= 300 × 10 6 N 2
⎛ ⎞
= 300 × 10 6 ⎜⎜ N 2 ×
kN 2
(
⎟⎟ = 300 kN 2 )
⎝ 1000 2 N 2 ⎠
b) (400 mm )(0.6 MN )2 = (400 × 10 − 3 m )(0.6 × 10 6 N )
2

( )(
= 400 × 10 −3 m 0.36 × 10 12 N 2 )
= 144 × 10 m .N 9
( 2
)
( ) (
= 144 10 9 m .N 2 = 144 Gm .N 2 )
⎛ ⎞
= 144 (m )(10 N ) = 144 (m )⎜ 10 ×
9 2 9 MN 2 ⎟
Or: ⎜
⎝ ( )
6 2
10 N ⎠2 ⎟

(
= 144 (m ) 10 MN −3 2
)
= 0.144 (m ) MN 2 ( )

Dr. Aslam Al-Omari 2