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• After administering and scoring the test, the teacher should

also analyze the quality of each test item in the test. Through

this you can identify the item that is good, item that needs

improvement or items to be removed from the test. But when

do we consider that the test is good? How do we evaluate the

quality of each item in the test?

• Why is it necessary to evaluate each item in the test?

• To help teachers determine the quality of a test item known as

item analysis. One of the purposes of item analysis is to

improve the quality of the assessment tools. Through this

process, we can identify the item to be retained, revised or

rejected and also the content of the lesson that is mastered or

not.

• There are two kinds of item analysis, quantitative item analysis

and qualitative item analysis

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Item analysis is a process of examining the student’s

response to individual item in the test.

• It consists of different procedures for assessing the

quality of the test items given to the students.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Uses of Item Analysis

1. Item analysis data provide a basis for efficient class

discussion of the test results.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Uses of Item Analysis

1. Item analysis data provide a basis for efficient class

discussion of the test results.

2. Item analysis data provide a basis for remedial work.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Uses of Item Analysis

1. Item analysis data provide a basis for efficient class

discussion of the test results.

2. Item analysis data provide a basis for remedial work.

3. Item analysis data provide a basis for general

improvement of classroom instruction.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Uses of Item Analysis

1. Item analysis data provide a basis for efficient class

discussion of the test results.

2. Item analysis data provide a basis for remedial work.

3. Item analysis data provide a basis for general

improvement of classroom instruction.

4. Item analysis data provide a basis for increased skills in

test construction.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Uses of Item Analysis

1. Item analysis data provide a basis for efficient class

discussion of the test results.

2. Item analysis data provide a basis for remedial work.

3. Item analysis data provide a basis for general

improvement of classroom instruction.

4. Item analysis data provide a basis for increased skills in

test construction.

5. Item analysis procedures provide a basis for

constructing test bank.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Types of Quantitative Item Analysis

There are three common types of quantitative item

analysis which provide teachers with three different types

of information about individual test items. These are:

1. difficulty index

2. discrimination index

3. response options analysis

ITEM ANALYSIS

• 1) Difficulty Index

It refers to the proportion of the number of students in the

upper and lower groups who answered an item correctly.

The larger the proportion the more students who have

learned the subject is measured by the item. To compute

the difficulty index of an item use the formula:

𝒏

DF =

𝑵

where:

DF =difficulty index

n-=number if the students selecting item correctly in the upper

and lower group

N=Total number of students who answered the test

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Level of Difficulty

• To determine the level of difficulty of an item, find first

the difficulty index using the formula and identify the

level of difficulty using the range given below.

Level of Difficulty of an Item

Index Range Difficulty Level

0.00 – 0.20 Very Difficult

0.21 – 0.40 Difficult

0.41 – 0.60 Average/Moderately Difficult

0.61 – 0.80 Easy

0.81 – 1.00 Very Easy

ITEM ANALYSIS

• 2) Discrimination Index

The power of the item to discriminate the students

between those who scored high and those who scored low

in the overall test. In other words, it is the power of the

item to discriminate the students who know the lesson

and those who do not know the lesson. It also refers to the

number of students in the upper group who got an item

correctly minus the number of students in the lower group

who got an item correctly.

ITEM ANALYSIS

in the upper group or number of students in the lower

group or get the higher number if they are not equal.

Discrimination index is the basis of measuring the validity

of an item.

This index can be interpreted as an indication of the extent

to which overall knowledge of the content area or mastery

of the skills is related to the response on an item.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Types of Discrimination Index

1. Positive Discrimination happens when more students

in the upper group got the item correctly those students in

the lower group.

2. Negative Discrimination occurs when more students in

the lower group got the item correctly those students in

the upper group.

3. Zero Discrimination happens when a number of

students in the upper group and lower group who answer

the test correctly are equal. hence, the test item cannot

distinguish the students who performed in the overall test

and the students whose performance are very poor.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Discrimination Index Formula

𝑪𝑼𝑮 −𝑪𝑳𝑮

𝑫𝑰 = 𝑫

where:

DI =discrimination index value

CUG = number of the students selecting the correct answers in the UG

CLG = number of the students selecting the correct answers in the LG

D = number of students in either the lower or upper group

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Level of Discrimination

Index Range Discrimination Level

0.19 and below Poor item, should be eliminated or

need to be revised

0.20 – 0.29 Marginal item, needs revision

0.30 – 0.39 Reasonably good item but possibly

for improvement

0.40 and above Very good item

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Steps in Solving Difficulty Index and Discrimination Index

• 1. Arrange the scores from highest to lowest.

• 2. Separate the scores into UG and LG. There are different

methods to do this:

• A) if a class consists of 30 students who takes an exam,

arrange their scores from highest to lowest, then divide

them into two groups. The highest score belongs to the

upper group. The lowest score belongs to the lower

group.

• B) other literatures suggested to use 27%, 30%, or 33% of

the students for the UG and LG. However, in the LET the

test developers always used 27% of the students who

participated in the examination for the UG and LG.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Steps in Solving Difficulty Index and Discrimination Index

• 3. Count the number of those who chose the

alternatives in the upper and lower group for each item

and record the information using the template:

Options A B C D E

Upper Group

Lower Group

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Steps in Solving Difficulty Index and Discrimination Index

• 4. Compute the value of the difficulty index and the

discrimination index and also the analysis of each

response in the distracters.

• 5. Make an analysis for each item.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Checklist for Discrimination Index

• It is very important to determine whether the test item will

be retained, revised or rejected. Using Discrimination Index

we can identify the non-performing question items; just

always remember that they seldom indicate what is the

problem. Use the given checklist below:

Yes No

1. Does the key discriminate positively?

2. Does the incorrect options discriminate negatively?

• If the answers to questions 1 and 2 are either YES or NO,

revise the item.

• If the answers to questions 1 and 2 are both NO, eliminate or

reject the item.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• 3) Analysis of Response Options

• Aside from identifying the difficulty index and

discrimination index, another way to evaluate the

performance of the entire test item is through the

analysis of the response options. It is very important to

examine the performance of each option in a multiple-

choice item. Through this, you can determine whether

the distracters or incorrect options are effective or

attractive to those who do not know the correct answer.

The attractiveness of the incorrect options is

determined when more students in the lower group

than in the upper group choose it. Analyzing the

incorrect options allows the teachers to improve the

test items so that it can be used again in the future.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Distracter Analysis

• 1) Distracter

• Distracter is the term used for the incorrect options in the

multiple choice type of test while the correct answer

represents the key. It is very important for the test writer to

know if the distracters are effective or good distracters.

Using quantitative item analysis we can determine if the

options are good or if the distracter are effective.

• Item analysis can identify non-performing test items, but this

item seldom indicates the error or the problem in the given

item. These are factors to be considered why students failed

to get the correct answer in the given question.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• A. it is not taught in the class properly.

• B. it is ambiguous.

• C. the correct answer is not in the given options.

• D. it has more than one correct answer.

• E. it contains grammatical clues to mislead the students.

• F. The student is not aware of the content.

• G. The students were confused by the logic of the

question because it has double negatives.

• H. the student failed to study the lesson.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• 2) Miskeyed Item

• The test item is a potential miskey if there are more

students from the upper group who choose the

incorrect than the key.

• 3) Guessing Item

• Students from the UG have equal spread of choices

among the given alternatives. Students from the UG

guess their answers because the following reasons.

• A. the content of the test is not discussed in the class or in

the test.

• B. the test item is very difficult.

• C. the question is trivial.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• 4) Ambiguous Item

• This happens when more students from the UG choose

equally an incorrect option and the keyed answer.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Qualitative Item Analysis

• Qualitative Item Analysis is a process in which the

teacher or expect carefully proofreads the test before it

is administered, to check if there are typographical

errors, to avoid grammatical clues that may lead to

giving away the correct answer, and to ensure that the

level of reading materials is appropriate. These

procedures can also include small group discussions on

the quality of the examination and its items, with

examinees that have already took the test.

ITEM ANALYSIS

• IMPROVING TEST ITEMS

• To improve multiple choice test item we shall consider

the stem of the item, the distracters and the key answer.

• How to Improve the Test Item

the group into two(UG/LG). Option B is the correct

answer. Based from the given data on the table, as a

teacher, what would you do with the test item?

Options A B* C D E

Upper Group 3 10 4 0 3

Lower Group 4 4 8 0 4

𝑛 14

n = 10 + 4 = 14 DF = 𝑁 DF = 40 DF = 0.35

N = 40

Level of Difficulty of an Item

0.00 – 0.20 Very Difficult

0.21 – 0.40 Difficult

0.41 – 0.60 Average/Moderately Difficult

0.61 – 0.80 Easy

0.81 – 1.00 Very Easy

• How to Improve the Test Item

the group into two(UG/LG). Option B is the correct

answer. Based from the given data on the table, as a

teacher, what would you do with the test item?

Options A B* C D E

Upper Group 3 10 4 0 3

Lower Group 4 4 8 0 4

𝑛 14

n = 10 + 4 = 14 DF = 𝑁 DF = 40 DF = 0.35

N = 40 Difficult item

• How to Improve the Test Item

the group into two(UG/LG). Option B is the correct

answer. Based from the given data on the table, as a

teacher, what would you do with the test item?

Options A B* C D E

Upper Group 3 10 4 0 3 DF = 0.35

Lower Group 4 4 8 0 4

CUG = 10 CLG = 4 𝐶𝑈𝐺 − 𝐶𝐿𝐺 10 − 4

𝐷𝐼 = 𝐷𝐼 = = 0.3

D = 20 𝐷 20

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Level of Discrimination

Index Range Discrimination Level

0.19 and below Poor item, should be eliminated or

need to be revised

0.20 – 0.29 Marginal item, needs revision

0.30 – 0.39 Reasonably good item but possibly

for improvement

0.40 and above Very good item

• 3. Make an analysis about the level of difficulty,

discrimination and distracters.

Options A B* C D E

Upper Group 3 10 4 0 3 DF = 0.35

Lower Group 4 4 8 0 4 DI = 0.30

• a. Only 35% of the examinees got the answer correctly,

hence, the item is difficult.

• b. More students from the upper group got the answer

correctly. Hence, it has a positive discrimination.

• c. Retain options A, C and E because most of the

students who did not perform well in the overall

examination selected it. These options attract most

students from the lower group.

Options A B* C D E

Upper Group 3 10 4 0 3 DF = 0.35

Lower Group 4 4 8 0 4 DI = 0.30

• 4. Conclusion: Retain the test item but change option

D, make it more realistic to make it effective for the

UG and LG. At least 5% of the examinees choose the

incorrect option.

• How to Improve the Test Item

to get the upper and the lower groups. Analyze the item

given the following results. Option D is the correct

answer. What will you do with the test item?

Options A B C D* E

Upper Group(27%) 3 1 2 6 2

Lower Group(27%) 5 0 4 4 1

𝑛 10

n = 6 + 4 = 10 DF = 𝑁 DF = DF = 0.36

28

N = 28

• How to Improve the Test Item

to get the upper and the lower groups. Analyze the item

given the following results. Option D is the correct

answer. What will you do with the test item?

Options A B C D* E

Upper Group(27%) 3 1 2 6 2

Lower Group(27%) 5 0 4 4 1

DF = 0.36

• 2) Compute the discrimination index.

CUG = 6 CLG = 4 𝐶𝑈𝐺 − 𝐶𝐿𝐺 6−4

𝐷𝐼 = 𝐷𝐼 = = 0.14

D = 14 𝐷 14

• 3. Make an analysis about the level of difficulty,

discrimination and distracters.

Options A B C D* E

Upper Group(27%) 3 1 2 6 2

Lower Group(27%) 5 0 4 4 1

DF = 0.36 DI = 0.14

• a. Only 36% of the examinees got the answer correctly,

hence, the item is difficult.

• b. More students from the upper group got the answer

correctly, hence, it has a positive discrimination.

• c. Retain options A and C because most of the students

who did not perform well in the overall examination

selected it. A and C are effective distracters.

• 3. Make an analysis about the level of difficulty,

discrimination and distracters.

Options A B C D* E

Upper Group(27%) 3 1 2 6 2

Lower Group(27%) 5 0 4 4 1

DF = 0.36 DI = 0.14

the upper group chose them compare with the lower

group, hence, they are not effective distracters because

most of the students who performed well in the overall

examination selected them as their answers.

Options A B C D* E

Upper Group(27%) 3 1 2 6 2

Lower Group(27%) 5 0 4 4 1

DF = 0.36 DI = 0.14

and E.

• How to Improve the Test Item

to get the upper and the lower groups. Analyze the item

given the following results. Option E is the correct

answer. What will you do with the test item?

Options A B C D E*

Upper Group(27%) 2 3 2 2 5

Lower Group(27%) 2 2 1 1 8

𝑛 13

n = 5 + 8 = 13 DF = 𝑁 DF = DF = 0.46

28

N = 28

Level of Difficulty of an Item

0.00 – 0.20 Very Difficult

0.21 – 0.40 Difficult

0.41 – 0.60 Average/Moderately Difficult

0.61 – 0.80 Easy

0.81 – 1.00 Very Easy

• How to Improve the Test Item

to get the upper and the lower groups. Analyze the item

given the following results. Option E is the correct

answer. What will you do with the test item?

Options A B C D E*

Upper Group(27%) 2 3 2 2 5

Lower Group(27%) 2 2 1 1 8

DF = 0.46

• 2) Compute the discrimination index.

CUG = 5 CLG = 8 𝐶𝑈𝐺 − 𝐶𝐿𝐺 5−8

𝐷𝐼 = 𝐷𝐼 = = −0.21

D = 14 𝐷 14

• 3. Make an analysis about the level of difficulty,

discrimination and distracters.

Options A B C D E*

Upper Group(27%) 2 3 2 2 5

Lower Group(27%) 2 2 1 1 8

DF = 0.46 DI = – 0.21

• a. Only 46% of the examinees got the answer correctly,

hence, the item is moderately difficult.

• b. More students from the lower group got the answer

correctly, so, it has a negative discrimination.

• c. No need to analyze the distracters because the item

discriminates negatively.

• 3. Make an analysis about the level of difficulty,

discrimination and distracters.

Options A B C D E*

Upper Group(27%) 2 3 2 2 5

Lower Group(27%) 2 2 1 1 8

DF = 0.46 DI = – 0.21

effective. Most of the students in the upper group

choose the incorrect options. The options are effective

if most of the students in the LG chose the incorrect

options.

Options A B C D E*

Upper Group(27%) 2 3 2 2 5

Lower Group(27%) 2 2 1 1 8

DF = 0.46 DI = – 0.21

discrimination index.

• POTENTIAL MISKEYED ITEM

• AMBIGUOUS ITEM

• GUESSING ITEM

• INEFFECTIVE DISTRACTERS

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Level of Discrimination

Index Range Discrimination Level

0.19 and below Poor item, should be eliminated or

need to be revised

0.20 – 0.29 Marginal item, needs revision

0.30 – 0.39 Reasonably good item but possibly

for improvement

0.40 and above Very good item

Level of Difficulty of an Item

0.00 – 0.20 Very Difficult

0.21 – 0.40 Difficult

0.41 – 0.60 Average/Moderately Difficult

0.61 – 0.80 Easy

0.81 – 1.00 Very Easy

• Potential Miskeyed Item

Options A* B C D E

Upper Group 1 2 3 10 4

Lower Group 3 4 4 4 5

𝑛 4

n=1+3=4 DF = 𝑁 DF = DF = 0.10

40

N = 40

• Potential Miskeyed Item

Options A* B C D E

Upper Group 1 2 3 10 4

Lower Group 3 4 4 4 5

DF = 0.10

• 2) Compute the discrimination index.

CUG = 1 CLG = 3 𝐶𝑈𝐺 − 𝐶𝐿𝐺 1−3

𝐷𝐼 = 𝐷𝐼 = = −0.10

D = 20 𝐷 20

• 3. Make an analysis about the level of difficulty,

discrimination and distracters.

Options A* B C D E

Upper Group 1 2 3 10 4

Lower Group 3 4 4 4 5

DF = 0.10 DI = – 0.10

• a. More students from the UG choose option D than

option A even if A is the correct answer.

• b. Most likely teacher has written the wrong answer

key.

• c. The teacher checks and finds out that he did not

miskey the answer that he thought is the correct

answer.

• 3. Make an analysis about the level of difficulty,

discrimination and distracters.

Options A* B C D E

Upper Group 1 2 3 10 4

Lower Group 3 4 4 4 5

DF = 0.10 DI = – 0.10

• d. If the teacher miskeyed it, he must check and retally

the scores of the students’ test papers before giving

them back.

• e. If option A is really the correct answer, revise to

weaken option D, distracters are not supposed to draw

more attention than the keyed answer.

• 3. Make an analysis about the level of difficulty,

discrimination and distracters.

Options A* B C D E

Upper Group 1 2 3 10 4

Lower Group 3 4 4 4 5

DF = 0.10 DI = – 0.10

• f. Only 10% of the students got the answer correctly,

hence the test item is very difficult.

• g. More students from the LG got the item correctly,

therefore, a negative discrimination resulted.

• h. No need to analyze the distracters because the test

item is very difficult and discriminates negatively.

Options A* B C D E

Upper Group 1 2 3 10 4

Lower Group 3 4 4 4 5

DF = 0.10 DI = – 0.10

• 4. Conclusion: Reject the item because it is very difficult

and has a negative discrimination index.

• Ambiguous Item

Options A B C D E*

Upper Group 7 1 1 2 8

Lower Group 6 2 3 3 6

𝑛 14

n = 8 + 6 = 14 D =

F 𝑁 DF = 39 DF = 0.36

N = 39

• Ambiguous Item

Options A B C D E*

Upper Group 7 1 1 2 8

Lower Group 6 2 3 3 6

DF = 0.36

• 2) Compute the discrimination index.

CUG = 8 CLG = 6 𝐶𝑈𝐺 − 𝐶𝐿𝐺 8−6

𝐷𝐼 = 𝐷𝐼 = = 0.10

D = 20 𝐷 20

• Ambiguous Item

Options A B C D E*

Upper Group 7 1 1 2 8

Lower Group 6 2 3 3 6

DI = 0.10 DF = 0.36

• a. Only 36% of the examinees got the answer correctly,

hence, the item is difficult.

• b. More students from the upper group got the answer

correctly, so, it has a positive discrimination.

• c. About equal numbers of top students went for option A

and option E, this implies that they could not tell which is

the correct answer. The students do not know the content

of the test, thus, a reteach is needed..

• Ambiguous Item

Options A B C D E*

Upper Group 7 1 1 2 8

Lower Group 6 2 3 3 6

DI = 0.10 DF = 0.36

• 4. Conclusion: Revise the test item because it is

ambiguous.

• Guessing Item

Options A B C* D E

Upper Group 4 3 4 3 6

Lower Group 3 4 3 4 5

𝑛 7

n=4+3=7 D =

F 𝑁 DF = 39 DF = 0.18

N = 39

• Guessing Item

Options A B C* D E

Upper Group 4 3 4 3 6

Lower Group 3 4 3 4 5

DF = 0.18

• 2) Compute the discrimination index.

CUG = 4 CLG = 3 𝐶𝑈𝐺 − 𝐶𝐿𝐺 4−3

𝐷𝐼 = 𝐷𝐼 = = 0.05

D = 20 𝐷 20

• Guessing Item

Options A B C* D E

Upper Group 4 3 4 3 6

Lower Group 3 4 3 4 5

DI = 0.05 DF = 0.18

• a. Only 18% of the examinees got the answer correctly,

hence, the item is very difficult.

• b. More students from the upper group got the answer

correctly, so, it has a positive discrimination.

• c. Students respond about equally to all alternatives, an

indication that they are guessing.

• d. If the test item is well-written but too difficult,

reteach the material to the class.

• Guessing Item

a test item:

• a. the content of the test item has not yet been

discussed in the class because the test is designed in

advance;

• b. test item was badly written that students have no

idea what the question is really all about; and

• c. test item was well-written but too difficult, as shown

by the DI.

• Guessing Item

Options A B C* D E

Upper Group 4 3 4 3 6

Lower Group 3 4 3 4 5

DI = 0.05 DF = 0.18

difficult, and the discrimination index is very poor, and

options A and B are not effective distracters.

• Ineffective Distracters

Options A B C* D E

Upper Group 5 3 9 0 3

Lower Group 6 4 6 0 4

𝑛 15

n = 9 + 6 = 15 D =

F 𝑁 DF = DF = 0.38

40

N = 40

• Ineffective Distracters

Options A B C* D E

Upper Group 5 3 9 0 3

Lower Group 6 4 6 0 4

DF = 0.38

• 2) Compute the discrimination index.

CUG = 9 CLG = 6 𝐶𝑈𝐺 − 𝐶𝐿𝐺 9−6

𝐷𝐼 = 𝐷𝐼 = = 0.15

D = 20 𝐷 20

• Ineffective Distracters

Options A B C* D E

Upper Group 5 3 9 0 3

Lower Group 6 4 6 0 4

DI = 0.15 DF = 0.38

• a. Only 38% of the examinees got the answer correctly,

hence, the item is difficult.

• b. More students from the upper group got the answer

correctly, so, it has a positive discrimination.

• c. Options A,B and E are attractive and effective

distracters.

• d. Option D is ineffective; therefore, change it with

more realistic one.

• Ineffective Distracters

Options A B C* D E

Upper Group 5 3 9 0 3

Lower Group 6 4 6 0 4

DI = 0.15 DF = 0.38

• 4. Conclusion: Revise the item by changing option D.

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