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Presentation Title: SCI Digestive and Respiratory System – 11 STEM B

Presented by Group No. 2 – 11 STEM B on September 27, 2019


Transcribed by Jeffrick Danglapen

Nutrition: Getting Food to Cells


The Digestive System

Nutrition
- Refers to the activities by which living things obtain raw materials from the environment
and transport them into their cells.
- All the elements and compound taken by living things are nutrients.

Nutrients
- The chemical substances that organisms need in order to grow and function properly.
- Carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins are called organic nutrients because they are
synthesized within living organisms.

Autotrophs
- Use simple inorganic substances and either light energy (photosynthesis) or
chemical energy (chemosynthesis) to synthesize food.

Heterotrophs
- Obtains energy through intake and digestion of organic substances (animal/plant
tissue)

- Body cells need food for energy, growth and repair.


- When food is eaten, it in a form that can be used by cells in the body.
- Food must be broken into a form that cells can use.
- The body changes food into a usable form by means of a group of organs known as the
digestive system.

Digestive System
- Its function is digestion
- the breakdown of organic compounds into their simple forms for use by the cells.
- the life support job of the digestive system.

- The digestive system breaks down food in two ways: mechanically and chemically
- Organs responsible for chewing, tearing, churning, squeezing and grinding food help in
mechanical digestion.
- Then the organs that make use of chemicals to break apart the food and reduce it to liquid
help in chemical digestion.

September 27, 2019 1


Transcribed by Jeffrick Danglapen
Four Main Components
1. Gastrointestinal track
2. Pancreas, gallbladder, liver
3. Enzymes, hormones, nerves, blood
4. Mesentery

Parts of Digestive System


1. Mouth
- The food tubes
- 9 meters long
- Teeth mechanically chew, chop, break food apart
- Salivary glands produce a chemical that starts the breakdown of carbohydrates
- Product: bolus
- Food moves from mouth to esophagus

2. Esophagus
- A tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
- Muscles of the esophagus push and transport foods and liquids to the stomach

3. Stomach
- A bag-like muscular organ
- Grinds food and mix it with the digestive juices
- Can hold about one liter of liquid and food
- Product: chime
- Has cells in its wall that make gastric juice
- Gastric juice begins the chemical breakdown of proteins
- After 4 hours, the stomach pushes food into the small intestines

4. Small intestine
- Where most of the food is chemically digested
- Makes several digestive juices
- Some of these chemicals digest proteins into amino acids
- Others digest carbohydrates into simple sugar

5. Liver
- The largest organ in the the digestive system
- Has a mass of about two kilograms
- Makes bile and store it in gall bladder
Bile is a green liquid that breaks up large fat droplets into small fat
Enters the small intestine and aids in the digestion of fat if needed
If not needed, it is delivered to the gall bladder

September 27, 2019 2


Transcribed by Jeffrick Danglapen
6. Pancreas
- A small organ that makes three different kinds of enzymes
- Found below the stomach
- Makes about half of the liters of digestive juices made each day
- These juices aid in the digestion of all three organic compounds

7. Gall Bladder
- Small pear shape sac
- Can hold about 50ml of bile
- Stores bile until it’s needed by small intestine to emulsify fats

8. Large Intestine
- Remove the useful liquids from the from the undigested food
- Undigested food a.k.a feces is solidified and pushed out to the anus
- If the large intestine did not return two liters of liquids to the body a day, a person could
die from lack of water
- Also reabsorbs salt for further use by the body

Small intestine receives digestive juices from the liver and pancreas. The liver contributes bile,
which digests fat. But the small intestine makes and receives many digestive chemicals that
complete the digestion food.

Used video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Og5xAdC8EUI

Gas Exchange with the Environment


Respiratory System

The air you breathe is made up of:
Oxygen 21.0%
Nitrogen 78.1%
Carbon Dioxide 0.03%
Other 0.87%

- Life depends on breathing because the cells of the body need oxygen.
- Breathing is a mechanical process.
- Respiratory system’s function is to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air
and the cells

September 27, 2019 3


Transcribed by Jeffrick Danglapen
Parts of the respiratory system
1. Nose
- To filter and warm the entering air with cilia

2. Pharynx
- a.k.a throat
- Connects the nose with the windpipe

3. Trachea
- a.k.a windpipe

4. Bronchus
- The trachea branches into two tubes, the bronchi, inside the luncgs.

5. Lungs
- Two upside-down, cone-shaped organs inside the chest.
- Two bags of thousands of Alveoli.
- The alveoli inside the lungs is the place where gases are exchanged.

6. Diaphragm
- A large muscle that lies flat at the bottom of the chest cavity
- Aids in breathing by moving up and down

7. Rib Muscles
- The tissues between the rib bones (the bones that protects the lungs
- Move the rib bones and cause the chest cavity to enlarge and contract
- Works together with the diaphragm to aid breathing

September 27, 2019 4


Transcribed by Jeffrick Danglapen