Sunteți pe pagina 1din 169

NORME EUROPÉENNE EN 1991-2

EUROPÄISCHE NORM
Septembre 2003
EUROPEAN STANDARD
ICS 91.010.30 ; 93.040 Remplace l'ENV 1991-3:1995

Version française

EUROCODE 1 : Actions sur les structures - Partie 2 : Actions


sur les ponts, dues au trafic

Eurocode 1 – Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke – Eurocode 1 – Actions on structures – Part 2 :


Teil 2 : Verkehrslasten auf Brücken Traffic loads on bridges

La présente norme européenne a été adoptée par le CEN le 28 novembre 2002 ;

Les membres du CEN sont tenus de se soumettre au Règlement Intérieur du CEN/CENELEC, qui définit les conditions
dans lesquelles doit être attribué, sans modification, le statut de norme nationale à la norme européenne. Les listes
mises à jour et les références bibliographiques relatives à ces normes nationales peuvent être obtenues auprès du
Centre de gestion ou auprès des membres du CEN.

La présente norme européenne existe en trois versions officielles (allemand, anglais, français). Une version dans une
autre langue faite par traduction sous la responsabilité d'un membre du CEN dans sa langue nationale, et notifiée au
Centre de gestion, a le même statut que les versions officielles.

Les membres du CEN sont les organismes nationaux de normalisation des pays suivants : Allemagne, Autriche,
Belgique, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Irlande, Islande, Italie, Luxembourg, Malte, Norvège,
Pays-Bas, Portugal, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Slovaquie, Suède et Suisse.

CEN

Comité Européen de Normalisation


Europäisches Komitee für Normung
European Committee for Standardization

Centre de gestion : rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Bruxelles

© 2003 CEN Ref. No. EN1991-2:2003 E


EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

! "
# $
%
"

$ & '
! "
! # ! "
! # !

# '
% (

!
"
" ! %
" %
$ %! & "
'! &
( & ! !!
) ! ! ! !
* ! %! &
"% # )# %"
+%&! & ! ,
$ %! &
$ %! &
$ %! & - ! .
$ %! & - & ! .
( &
"" * )# "
/ & 0 ! "
/ & !
"$ "
1 ! # !0 2 ! !
* ! !0 2 ! !
3 & ! ,
" "$
3 !
$ %! & & - ! & 2 4$ .
$ %! & & - ! 5 # 5.

2
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

$ %! & & - %! 2 ! # .
$ %! & & - ! 5 5. "
$ %! & & - ! 2 & .
" ( $
6 3 !
6 / 0 ! !
" +,-./ 0!1234-5 -+65,. 7./ 317./ .5 485,./ 9792.65/ 3+,5.8,/ $%
" +,-./ 0!1234-5 -+65,. 7./ 54:71.,/ $%
6 * ! !
" % #9;1-87./ /8, 7./ 5,+55+1,/ .5 7./ 31/5./ -<-74:7./ 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ $%
" % +,-./ 0!1234-5 /8, 7./ :+,08,./ $"
" % % +,-./ 0!1234-5 /8, 7./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. 0./ >9;1-87./ $$
" % " +,-./ 0!1234-5 /8, 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? $
" $
" ( $
' & ! 6
/ 7 ! 6
# $ % &
#
$ ! $
$ $
$ %! &
'! & "
* ! %! & "
$% # )#
3 ! "
$ %! &
$% ;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51.
$% ;4,@. -+6-.65,9.
$% % #9;1-87. 0. /.,>1-.
$" * )#
$$
$ ( %
3 !
/ 0 ! !0 &
$ +,-./ 0!1234-5 /8, 7./ 317./ %
$ +,-./ 0!1234-5 -+65,. 7./ 54:71.,/ "
8 !! ! !0 &
$ & $
$ $
$ ( # $
!

!
) #
% # )# A

3 ! 6
$ %! & 6
$ %! & 9:" 9:
$ %! & 5 2 5
) & ! - %! & 6 9:".
+ & 0 ! ! ;! ! !! 6"
% 934,5151+6 7+6@15801647. 0!86. =+,-. 3+6-58.77. +8 0!86. -;4,@. 0. ,+8. 34, 7. ,417
% 934,5151+6 7+6@15801647. 0./ -;4,@./ 34, 7./ 5,4>.,/./ .5 7. :4774/5
% % 934,5151+6 5,46/>.,/47. 0./ -;4,@./ 34, 7./ 5,4>.,/./ .5 7. :4774/5
% " ;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 9B81>47.65./ 3+8, 7./ ,.2:741/ .5 3+8, 7./ 3+8//9./ 0./ 5.,,./ %
6* ! & ! ! 6
" & "
< 6

3
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

/ ! = ! # 6
+%&! & ! 6
> 0 ! # 0 ! # 6
' # Φ -Φ ; Φ . 6
"$ +2416. 0!43371-451+6
"$ 9=16151+6 08 -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. Φ
"$% +6@8.8, 095.,216465. Φ
"$" ==.5/ 0<6421B8./ ,90815/ %
) & ! 2 !0 ! #
" ;4,@./ .5 -+2:1641/+6/ 0. -;4,@./ "
" #15.//./ C 3,.60,. .6 -+6/109,451+6
" % 4,42D5,./ 0./ 3+65/
" " +0971/451+6 0. 7!.?-15451+6 .5 08 -+23+,5.2.65 0<6421B8. 0. 7!+8>,4@.
" $ #9,1=1-451+6/ 48? 9545/ 71215./ %
" #9,1=1-451+6 /833792.6541,. >1/ C >1/ 0. 74 =451@8. 7+,/B8!86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. ./5 69-.//41,. "
$ * )# $
/ &
) ! ""
* 2 !0 ! & ""
+ % ? & ! "
$" ,16-13./ @969,48?
$" 4,42D5,./ 4==.-5465 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. +8>,4@.
$"% -51+6/ C 3,.60,. .6 -+6/109,451+6 "
$"" +0971/451+6 .5 -47-87 08 /</5D2. -+2:169 >+1. +8>,4@. $
$"$ ,15D,./ 0. 012.6/1+66.2.65
$" 95;+0./ 0. -47-87
&
3 !
! ! !!%! 2! - @ ; ! .
7 ! ! @ ! - ;
! .
7 ! ! & A 2! - # ;
! .
2 ! ! ! ! & ! ; !
7 ! ! - ! # @ ! ; #
.
! ! & ! & ! -, # 02 " . -
7 ! @ !@ & ;
; ! .
#
6 * !! 0 6
6 ( !! 2 0 & ,
!!
6 *
#
3 !
3 & ?1 ! # !0 2 ! !
3 & ?* ! 2 ! !
% #47.8,/ =,9B8.65./ 0./ 4-51+6/ C -+23+/465./ 2875137./ "
% #47.8,/ B84/1 3.,246.65./ 0./ 4-51+6/ C -+23+/465./ 2875137./ $
' & ,
$
' ( ) *) + '
,
!
' #
% #

' & ( ) *
) +
)

4
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

' ( ) * % )! -ϕ

' ( ) *& .
/
& # %
%
% & %
' ( ) * ) ) + + )
+ ' ! + ) #
# "$
"
' ( ) * %
% )! . ! ##

' ( ) *) + ) )
)& % ) ' & "

#
% # ! '
" # ! '

' +( ) *) +

5
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

0 12 3 3 4

. 3,9/.65 0+-82.65 E % 4 959 974:+,9 34, 7. +2159 .-;61B8.


F $ G 8,+-+0./ 5,8-58,48?G 0+65 7. /.-,954,145 ./5 5.68 34, '

.55. +,2. .8,+39.66. 0.>,4 ,.-.>+1, 7. /54585 0. 6+,2. 6451+647.A /+15 34,
38:71-451+6 0!86 5.?5. 10.651B8. /+15 34, .659,16.2.65A 48 378/ 54,0 .6 24,/ "A .5 7./
6+,2./ 6451+647./ -+65,401-5+1,./ 0.>,+65 H5,. ,.51,9./ 48 378/ 54,0 .6 09-.2:,.

. 3,9/.65 0+-82.65 ,.2374-. 7! # %E $

. F $ ./5 ,./3+6/4:7. 0. 5+8/ 7./ 8,+-+0./ 5,8-58,48?

.7+6 7. D@7.2.65 659,1.8, 08 F A 7./ 16/51585/ 0. 6+,2471/451+6


6451+648? 0./ 34</ /81>465/ /+65 5.68/ 0. 2.55,. -.55. +,2. .8,+39.66. .6
43371-451+6E 77.24@6.A 85,1-;.A '.7@1B8.A 46.24,IA /34@6.A 167460.A ,46-.A
,D-.A +6@,1.A ,7460.A /7460.A 5471.A 8?.2:+8,@A 475.A +,>D@.A 4</ '4/A
+,58@47A 938:71B8. 5-;DB8.A +<482. 61A 7+>4B81.A 8D0. .5 81//.

5 1 67 3 5 6 4 7 8 6 4

6 $A 74 +221//1+6 0./ +22864859/ 8,+39.66./ 4,,H54 86 3,+@,422.


0 4-51+6/ 046/ 7. 0+2416. 0. 74 -+6/5,8-51+6A /8, 74 :4/. 0. 7 4,51-7. $ 08 ,4159
+:J.-51= 08 3,+@,422. 95415 7 971216451+6 0 +:/54-7./ 48? 9-;46@./ .5 7 ;4,2+61/451+6
0./ /39-1=1-451+6/ 5.-;61B8./

46/ 7. -40,. 0. -. 3,+@,422. 0 4-51+6/A 74 +221//1+6 3,15 7 16151451>. 0 954:71, 86


.6/.2:7. 0. ,D@7./ 5.-;61B8./ ;4,2+61/9./ 3+8, 7. 012.6/1+66.2.65 0./ +8>,4@./ K -./
,D@7./A .6 86 3,.21., /540.A /.,>1,41.65 0 475.,6451>. 48? ,D@7./ 6451+647./ .6 >1@8.8,
046/ 7./ 545/ .2:,./ .5A =1647.2.65A 7./ ,.2374-.,41.65

.60465 B816L. 46/A 74 +221//1+6A 4>.- 7 410. 0 86 +2159 1,.-5.8, -+23+,5465 0./
,.3,9/.65465/ 0./ 545/ .2:,./A 317+54 7. 09>.7+33.2.65 08 3,+@,422. 0./
8,+-+0./A -. B81 -+6081/15 48 -+8,/ 0./ 4669./ C 74 3,.21D,. @969,451+6 0. -+0./
.8,+39.6/

6 A 74 +221//1+6 .5 7./ 545/ .2:,./ 0. 7 61+6 8,+39.66. .5 0. 7


09-10D,.65A /8, 74 :4/. 0 86 4--+,0 .65,. 74 +221//1+6 .5 7. A 0. 5,46/=9,., 48
A 34, 86. /9,1. 0. 46045/A 74 3,934,451+6 .5 74 38:71-451+6 0./ 8,+-+0./A 4=16 0.
7.8, 0+66., 34, 74 /815. 86 /54585 0. 6+,2./ .8,+39.66./ .-1 954:715 86
71.6 .65,. 7./ 8,+-+0./ .5 7./ 01/3+/151+6/ 0. 5+85./ 7./ 1,.-51>./ 08 +6/.17 .5F+8
9-1/1+6/ 0. 74 +221//1+6 5,415465 0. 6+,2./ .8,+39.66./ 34, .?.237. 74 1,.-51>.
08 +6/.17 F F /8, 7./ 3,+0815/ 0. 74 -+6/5,8-51+6 ) ) .5 7./ 1,.-51>./ 08
+6/.17 %F% F A F$ F .5 F"" F /8, 7./ 5,4>48? .5 /.,>1-./ 38:71-/ 416/1
B8. 7./ 1,.-51>./ 9B81>47.65./ 0. 7 0./5169./ C 74 21/. .6 374-. 08 24,-;9
1659,1.8,

--+,0 .65,. 74 +221//1+6 0./ +22864859/ 8,+39.66./ .5 7. +2159 8,+39.6 3+8, 74 +,2471/451+6 -+6-.,6465 7.
5,4>417 /8, 7./ 3+8, 7. 012.6/1+66.2.65 0./ +8>,4@./ 0. :M512.65 .5 0. @961. -1>17 ' F F %F

6
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

. 3,+@,422. 0./ 8,+-+0./ 5,8-58,48? -+23,.60 7./ 6+,2./ /81>465./A -;4-86.


95465A .6 @969,47A -+6/51589. 0 86 -.,5416 6+2:,. 0. 4,51./ E

8,+-+0. E '4/./ 0. -47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./


8,+-+0. E -51+6/ /8, 7./ /5,8-58,./
8,+-+0. E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ .6 :95+6
% 8,+-+0. %E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ .6 4-1.,
" 8,+-+0. "E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ 21?5./ 4-1., :95+6
$ 8,+-+0. $E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ .6 :+1/
8,+-+0. E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ .6 24N+66.,1.
8,+-+0. E 47-87 @9+5.-;61B8.
8,+-+0. E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ 3+8, 7.8, ,9/1/546-. 48?
/91/2./
8,+-+0. E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ .6 478216182

./ 6+,2./ 8,+-+0./ ,.-+6641//.65 74 ,./3+6/4:17159 0./ 485+,159/ ,9@7.2.6541,./ 046/


-;4B8. 545 .2:,. .5 +65 /48>.@4,09 7. 0,+15 0. -.77./ -1 0. 095.,216.,A 48 61>.48
6451+647A 0./ >47.8,/ ,.7451>./ 48? B8./51+6/ ,9@7.2.6541,./ 0. /9-8,159A 7C +O -./ >47.8,/
-+65168.65 C 01==9,., 0 86 545 C 7 485,.

2 272 2 6 1 69 33: 8 2 1 6 4 7 8 6 4

./ 545/ .2:,./ 0. 7 .5 0. 7 ,.-+6641//.65 B8. 7./ 8,+-+0./ /.,>.65 0.


0+-82.65/ 0. ,9=9,.6-. 3+8, 7./ 8/4@./ /81>465/ E

) -+22. 2+<.6 0. 3,+8>., 74 -+6=+,2159 0./ :M512.65/ .5 0./ +8>,4@./ 0. @961. -1>17
48? .?1@.6-./ .//.651.77./ 0. 74 1,.-51>. 08 +6/.17 F F A .6 34,51-871., C
7 ?1@.6-. //.651.77. + ) 54:17159 .5 ,9/1/546-. 29-461B8. ) .5 C 7 ?1@.6-.
//.651.77. P ) 9-8,159 .6 -4/ 0 16-.601. K

) -+22. :4/. 0. /39-1=1-451+6 0./ -+65,45/ 3+8, 7./ 5,4>48? 0. -+6/5,8-51+6 .5 7./
/.,>1-./ 5.-;61B8./ 4//+-19/ K

) -+22. -40,. 0 954:71//.2.65 0. /39-1=1-451+6/ 5.-;61B8./ ;4,2+61/9./ 3+8, 7./


3,+0815/ 0. -+6/5,8-51+6 .5

./ 8,+-+0./A 046/ 74 2./8,. +O 7./ +8>,4@./ .8? 2H2./ /+65 -+6-.,69/ 34, .8?A +65
86. ,.7451+6 01,.-5. 4>.- 7./ +-82.65/ 65.,3,95451=/ >1/9/ C 7 4,51-7. 0. 74 A
B8+1B8 17/ /+1.65 0 86. 6458,. 01==9,.65. 0. -.77. 0./ 6+,2./ ;4,2+61/9./ 0. 3,+0815/%

.7+6 7 4,51-7. % % 0. 74 A 7./ .?1@.6-./ .//.651.77./ 0+1>.65 ,.-.>+1, 86. =+,2. -+6-,D5. 046/ 0./ +-82.65/
65.,3,95451=/ 3+8, 4//8,., 7./ 71.6/ 69-.//41,./ .65,. 7./ .?1@.6-./ .//.651.77./ .5 7./ 246045/ 3+8, 6+,2./ .8,+39.66./
;4,2+61/9./ .5 @810./ 3+8, 7./ 4@,92.65/ 5.-;61B8./ .8,+39.6/ A .5 -./ 4@,92.65/ .8? 2H2./
% .7+6 7 4,51-7. 0. 74 A 7./ 0+-82.65/ 165.,3,95451=/ 0+1>.65 E
4 0+66., 86. =+,2. -+6-,D5. 48? .?1@.6-./ .//.651.77./ .6 ;4,2+61/465 74 5.,216+7+@1. .5 7./ :4/./ 5.-;61B8./ .5 .6 1601B8465
7+,/B8. - ./5 69-.//41,.A 0./ -74//./ +8 61>.48? 3+8, -;4B8. .?1@.6-. K
: 1601B8., 0./ 295;+0./ 3+8, ,.71., -./ -74//./ +8 61>.48? 0 .?1@.6-./ 4>.- 7./ /39-1=1-451+6/ 5.-;61B8./A 34, .?.237. 295;+0./
0. -47-87 .5 0 .//41A ,D@7./ 5.-;61B8./ 3+8, 74 -+6-.351+6A .5- K
- /.,>1, 0. ,9=9,.6-. 3+8, 7 954:71//.2.65 0. 6+,2./ ;4,2+61/9./ .5 0. @810./ 3+8, 4@,92.65/ 5.-;61B8./ .8,+39.6/
./ 8,+-+0./ J+8.65 0. =415 86 ,Q7. /121741,. 3+8, 7 .5 86. 34,51. 0. 7

7
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

6 -+6/9B8.6-.A 7./ 4/3.-5/ 5.-;61B8./ ,9/875465 0./ 5,4>48? .==.-589/ 3+8, 7./
8,+-+0./ 69-.//15.65 0 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+6/109,451+6 0. =4N+6 409B845. 34, 7./ +2159/
.-;61B8./ 08 .5F+8 7./ @,+83./ 0. 5,4>417 0. 7 5,4>4177465 /8, 7./ 6+,2./ 0.
3,+0815/ .6 >8. 0. 34,>.61, C 86. -+237D5. -+23451:17159 0. -./ /39-1=1-451+6/
5.-;61B8./ 4>.- 7./ 8,+-+0./

./ 6+,2./ 8,+-+0./ =+8,61//.65 0./ ,D@7./ 0. -+6-.351+6 /5,8-58,47. -+2286./


0 8/4@. B8+5101.6 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ .651D,./ .5 0./ 3,+0815/ -+23+/465/ 0.
6458,. 5,40151+66.77. +8 166+>465. ./ =+,2./ 0. -+6/5,8-51+6 +8 7./ -+6-.351+6/
16;4:158.77./ 6. /+65 34/ /39-1=1B8.2.65 -+8>.,5./A .5 17 4334,51.60,4 .6 -./ -4/ 48
-+6-.35.8, 0. /. 3,+-8,., 0./ :4/./ /39-1471/9./ /833792.6541,./

4 1 2 1 : 4 2 143 4 12 : 4 7 8 6 4

./ 6+,2./ 6451+647./ 5,46/3+/465 7./ 8,+-+0./ -+23,.60,+65 74 5+547159 08 5.?5. 0./


8,+-+0./ 5+85./ 466.?./ 16-78/./ A 5.7 B8. 38:719 34, 7. K -. 5.?5. 3.85 H5,.
3,9-909 0 86. 34@. 6451+647. 0. 515,./ .5 34, 86 >465 ,+3+/ 451+647A .5 3.85 H5,.
/81>1 0 86. 66.?. 451+647.

66.?. 451+647. 3.85 /.87.2.65 -+65.61, 0./ 16=+,2451+6/ /8, 7./ 34,42D5,./ 741//9/
.6 455.65. 046/ 7 8,+-+0. 3+8, -;+1? 6451+647A /+8/ 74 09/1@6451+6 0. 4,42D5,./
95.,2169/ 48 61>.48 451+647A C 85171/., 3+8, 7./ 3,+J.5/ 0. :M512.65/ .5 +8>,4@./ 0.
@961. -1>17 046/ 7. 34</ -+6-.,69 K 17 / 4@15 E
) 0. >47.8,/ .5F+8 0./ -74//./ 7C +O 0./ 475.,6451>./ =1@8,.65 046/ 7! 8,+-+0.A
) 0. >47.8,/ C 85171/., 7C +O /.87 86 /<2:+7. ./5 0+669 046/ 7! 8,+-+0.A
) 0. 0+669./ 3,+3,./ C 86 34</ @9+@,43;1B8./A -712451B8./A .5- A 34, .?.237. -4,5.
0. 6.1@.A
) 0. 74 3,+-908,. C 85171/., 7C +O 0./ 3,+-908,./ 475.,6451>./ /+65 0+669./ 046/
7! 8,+-+0.
77. 3.85 9@47.2.65 -+65.61, E
) 0./ 09-1/1+6/ /8, 7 8/4@. 0./ 466.?./ 16=+,2451>./A
) 0./ ,9=9,.6-./ C 0./ 16=+,2451+6/ -+23792.6541,./ 6+6 -+65,401-5+1,./ 3+8, 410.,
7!85171/45.8, C 43371B8., 7! 8,+-+0.

14 12 : 4 7 8 6 4 2 : 4 43;8 < 8 2 14 2 8=1 >7 4 = 1 4; 4 ( 2 *


3 7 : 4 3 67 24

4 -+;9,.6-. ./5 69-.//41,. .65,. 7./ /39-1=1-451+6/ 5.-;61B8./ ;4,2+61/9./ 3+8, 7./
3,+0815/ 0. -+6/5,8-51+6 .5 7./ ,D@7./ 5.-;61B8./ 3+8, 7./ +8>,4@./" 6 +85,.A 046/ 5+85.
16=+,2451+6 4--+234@6465 74 4,B8. 0./ 3,+0815/ 0. -+6/5,8-51+6 .5 /. ,9=9,465 48?
8,+-+0./A 17 -+6>1.65 0. =41,. 4334,4R5,. -741,.2.65 B8.7/ 4,42D5,./ 95.,2169/ 48
61>.48 451+647 +65 959 3,1/ .6 -+235.

1< 2 14 66 2 11 :: 4 43;8 < >7 4 ? :9

09=1615 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/A
0./ 34//.,.77./ .5 0./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./ +8, 7. -47-87 0./ 3+65/ 6.8=/A 17 ./5 3,9>8 86.
43371-451+6 01,.-5. 0. 7 A .6 4//+-1451+6 4>.- 7./ 8,+-+0./ C

" #+1, 7 4,51-7. % % .5 7 4,51-7. 0. 74 A 416/1 B8. 7./ -748/./ " A " % A " % .5 $ 08

8
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

./ :4/./ 0./ -+2:1641/+6/ 0. -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- .5 0. -;4,@./ 6. ,.7.>465 34/ 08 5,4=1-


/+65 0+669./ 046/ 7! A

./ ,D@7./ -+23792.6541,./ 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 3+8, 0./ 3,+J.5/ 1601>108.7/ E


) 7+,/B8!17 ./5 69-.//41,. 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 0./ -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- 6+6 09=161./ 046/
74 3,9/.65. 4,51. 0. 7! 8,+-+0. -;4,@./ 0. -;4651.,A -;4,@./ 2171541,./A -;4,@./ 0.
5,42S4<A 34, .?.237. K
) 046/ 7. -4/ 0. 3+65/ 0./5169/ C 74 =+1/ 48? 5,4=1-/ ,+851., .5 =.,,+>141,. K
) 3+8, 0./ 4-51+6/ C 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 046/ 7./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./ K
) 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ .6 4,-/ .6 24N+66.,1.

+8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/A 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. .5 09=161/ .6 " % .5 " % %A 3,1/ .6
-+235. 4>.- 7./ -+.==1-1.65/ 0!4J8/5.2.65 α .5 β 9@48? C A /+65 -.6/9/ ,.3,9/.65., 7.
5,4=1- 7. 378/ /9>D,. 485,. B8. -.781 0./ >9;1-87./ /39-148? /+821/ C 485+,1/451+6
+:/.,>9 +8 3,9>8 /8, 7./ @,460/ 15169,41,./ 0./ 34</ .8,+39.6/ 8, 0!485,./ 15169,41,./
0. -./ 34</ .5 046/ -.,5416/ 485,./ 34</A 7. 5,4=1- 3.85 /!4>9,., /.6/1:7.2.65 378/ 79@.,A
+8 H5,. 21.8? -+65,Q79 .3.60465A 17 -+6>1.65 0. /1@647., B8!86 @,460 6+2:,. 0. 3+65/
.?1/5465/ 6. ,.2371//.65 34/ 7./ -+60151+6/ 0. 74 3,9/.65. 61 -.77./ 0./
8,+-+0./ 5,8-58,48? C

7 ./5 0+6- -+6/.1779 48? 485+,159/ 6451+647./ 0. -;+1/1, 7./ >47.8,/ 0./ -+.==1-1.65/
0!4J8/5.2.65 α .5 β 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ .6 7./ =41/465 -+,,./3+60,. /1
3+//1:7. 48? 01==9,.65./ -74//./ 0!15169,41,./ /8, 7./B8.7/ /+65 /1589/ 7./ 3+65/ .5 0. 7./
-;+1/1, 48//1 3.8 6+2:,.8? .5 48//1 /1237./ B8. 3+//1:7.A .6 5.6465 -+235. 0./
,D@7.2.65/ 6451+648? ,.7451=/ 48 5,4=1- ,+851., .5 0. 7!.==1-4-159 0./ 2./8,./ 0. -+65,Q7.
4//+-19./

+8, 7./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./A 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 09=161 .6 % 85171/9


-+6-8,,.22.65 4>.- 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ C 5,4>9./ -+65168./ A
,.3,9/.65. 7!.==.5 /5451B8. 0!86 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. /54604,0 /8, 7./ @,460./ 71@6./ 08 ,9/.48
.8,+39.6A /8, >+1./ C 7!9-4,5.2.65 /54604,0 +8 C @,460 9-4,5.2.65 . 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.
TF A 09=161 .6 % %A ,.3,9/.65. 7!.==.5 /5451B8. 0!86 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. 7+8,0 ./ 71@6./A
+8 5,+6N+6/ 0. 71@6./A /8, 7./B8.7/ 0. 5.77./ -;4,@./ 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ .6 -+235. /+65
09=161/ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. >+1, -1 43,D/ +8 3,9-1/9/ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

./ 01/3+/151+6/ /+65 3,1/./ 3+8, 2+087., 74 -;4,@. /39-1=19. 4=16 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./
>4,1451+6/ 0. 5<3.A 0. >+782. .5 0. 3+10/ 24?1247 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. /8, 7./
01==9,.65./ 71@6./ 416/1 B8. 0./ 01==9,.65./ B847159/ 0. >+1./ +8, 7./ 71@6./ /833+,5465
86 5,4=1- 378/ 7+8,0 +8 378/ 79@., B8. 7. 5,4=1- /54604,0A 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./
0+669./ 3+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. .5 TF 3.8>.65 H5,. 287513719./ 34, 86
-+.==1-1.65 α

.8? 485,./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ /+65 9@47.2.65 0+669/ 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./ E
− 7. 2+0D7. 08 G5,416 6+6 -;4,@9GA 3+8, 74 >9,1=1-451+6 0. 74 /54:17159 7459,47. 0./
3+65/ C >+1. 861B8. .5
− 7. 2+0D7. A B81 ,.3,9/.65. 74 -;4,@. 0. 5,416/ 0. >+<4@.8,/ -1,-87465 C 0./
>15.//./ /839,1.8,./ C I2F;

9
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

./ 1601-451+6/ /+65 9@47.2.65 0+669./ -+6-.,6465 7./ 4-51+6/ 49,+0<6421B8./ /8, 7./
+8>,4@./ 40J4-.65/ 48? >+1./ =.,,9./ 08./ 48 34//4@. 0./ 5,416/ 0!86. 34,5A .5 0!485,./
4-51+6/ 719./ 48? 16=,4/5,8-58,./ =.,,+>141,./ 0!485,. 34,5

./ 3+65/ /+65 3+8, 7!.//.651.7 0./ +8>,4@./ 38:71-/ E


) 48?B8.7/ 74 1,.-51>. .8,+39.66. F"" F ,.7451>. 48? 24,-;9/ 38:71-/ 0.
5,4>48? /!43371B8. 5+85 34,51-871D,.2.65A
) 3+8, 7./B8.7/ 7./ 485+,159/ 38:71B8./ +65 0./ ,./3+6/4:17159/ .6 5465 B8. 3,+3,19541,./
0./ +8>,4@./

. 378/A 7./ 485+,159/ 38:71B8./ 3.8>.65 0.>+1, 954:71, 7./ ,D@7.2.65/ ,.7451=/ 48 5,4=1-
485+,1/9 .6 34,51-871., .6 -. B81 -+6-.,6. 7. 3+10/ 0./ >9;1-87./ .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A
0!4--+,0., .5 0. -+65,Q7., 7./ 09,+@451+6/A 046/ 7. -4/ 0. >9;1-87./ /39-148?A 34,
.?.237.

4, -+6/9B8.65A 7 ./5 0./5169. C H5,. 85171/9. 34, E


) 7./ -+2159/ ,901@.465 7./ 6+,2./ 0. -47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ 416/1 B8. 7./ 6+,2./ 0.
3,+0815A 0!.//41 .5 0!.?9-851+6 4//+-19./ K
) 7./ -71.65/ 3+8, 74 =+,287451+6 0. 7.8,/ .?1@.6-./ /39-1=1B8./ .6 2451D,. 0. 5,4=1- .5
0. -;4,@.2.65 -+,,./3+60465A 34, .?.237. K
) 7./ -+6-.35.8,/ .5 7./ -+6/5,8-5.8,/ K
) 7./ 485+,159/ -+6-.,69./

+,/B8 86 54:7.48 +8 86. =1@8,. =+65 34,51. 0 86. A 7. 6829,+ 08 54:7.48 +8 0. 74


=1@8,. ./5 /81>1 34, 74 7.55,. 6 34, .?.237.A 54:7.48 " $ 6

11 @ 2 1 : 3 7 :9

4 3,9/.65. 6+,2. 3,9>+15 0./ 3,+-908,./ 475.,6451>./ 416/1 B8. 0./ >47.8,/ .5
,.-+22460451+6/ 3+8, 7./ -74//./ K 0./ 6+5./ 1601B8.65 7C +O 0./ -;+1? 6451+648?
0+1>.65 H5,. .==.-589/ 7 -+6>1.65 34, -+6/9B8.65 0. 0+5., 74 6+,2. 6451+647.
5,46/3+/465 7! 0!86. 66.?. 451+647. -+65.6465 7!.6/.2:7. 0./ 4,42D5,./
95.,2169/ 48 61>.48 451+647 B81 0.>,+65 H5,. 85171/9/ 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 3+65/ 0./5169/
C H5,. -+6/5,815/ 046/ 7. 34</ -+6/109,9

./ -;+1? 6451+648? /+65 4021/ 046/ 7 48? 34,4@,43;./ /81>465/ E

.-51+6 E 969,47159/
% D@7./ -+23792.6541,./ 3+8, 7./ 28,/ 0. /+85D6.2.65A 7./
+8>,4@./ .65.,,9/ .5 7./ 5866.7/

.-51+6 E 74//1=1-451+6 0./ 4-51+6/


5171/451+6 0./ >47.8,/ 6+6 =,9B8.65./ 0./ -;4,@./ 3+8, 7./ 3+65/
,+851.,/
% 9=16151+6 0!86. 3,+5.-51+6 433,+3,19. -+65,. 7./ -;+-/
%" D@7./ -+6-.,6465 7./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 0!+,1@16./ 01>.,/./

.-51+6 % E 158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5


$ D@7./ ,.7451>./ 48? 3+65/ /833+,5465 C 74 =+1/ 86 5,4=1- ,+851., .5 86
5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.

10
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

.-51+6 " E -51+6/ 08 5,4=1- ,+851., .5 485,./ 4-51+6/ /39-1=1B8./ /8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/
" -51+6/ 08 5,4=1- ,+851., 046/ 7. -4/ 0. 7+6@8.8,/ -;4,@9./
/839,1.8,./ C 2
" +0D7./ 0. -;4,@. /39-1=1B8./ 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ C 5+664@. 712159
" 9=16151+6 0. 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. -+23792.6541,./
" 9=16151+6 0. 2+0D7./ 0. >9;1-87./ /39-148?
" % 485.8, -+6>.651+66.77. 0./ :+,08,./
"% 5171/451+6 0.
"% % #47.8,/ 0./ -+.==1-1.65/ α
U
"% 5171/451+6 0. 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ /12371=19/ 475.,6451=/
"%% #47.8,/ 08 -+.==1-1.65 β
"%% " ;+1? 0. 74 /8,=4-. 0. -+654-5 0./ ,+8./ 3+8,
"%" 9=16151+6 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. % >9;1-87./ /39-148?
"" 1215. /839,1.8,. 0. 74 =+,-. 0. =,.164@. /8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/
"" % +,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ 4//+-19./ C %
"" +,-. 0. =,.164@. 5,46/21/. 34, 7./ J+165/ 0. 01745451+6
"" " +,-./ 7459,47./ /8, 7./ 54:71.,/ 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/
" $ ) 4:7.48 +6/109,451+6 0./ =+,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ 046/ @, 4
" "4 +5./ 4 .5 :
"$ % 5171/451+6 0./ >47.8,/ 6+6 =,9B8.65./ 0./ 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./
" 5171/451+6 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8.
" % 9=16151+6 0./ -459@+,1./ 0. 5,4=1-
" 9=16151+6 08 -+.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. /833792.6541,.
=451@8.
" "% J8/5.2.65 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. %
" $ 4,4-59,1/51B8./ 08 5,4=1- ,+851., 3+8, 7!85171/451+6 08 2+0D7. 0.
-;4,@. 0. =451@8. "
" 5171/451+6 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. $
" 9=16151+6 0. 74 =+,-. 0!1234-5 .5 0. 74 ;485.8, 0. 7!1234-5
" 9=16151+6 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 /8, 7./ 54:71.,/

" %% 9=16151+6 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 /8, 7./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. 0./
>9;1-87./
" %% 9=16151+6 0. 74 =+,-. >.,51-47. 4@1//465 /128754692.65 4>.- 74
% =+,-. 0!1234-5 ;+,1L+6547.
" %% ;4,@. 0. -47-87 3+8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ /833+,5465 86. :4,,1D,. 3+8,
+8>,4@./ 0!4,5
" %" 9=16151+6 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 /8, 7./ 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48?
>.,51-48? 6+6 3,+59@9/
" 9=16151+6 0./ 4-51+6/ /8, 7./ @4,0. -+,3/
" % 9=16151+6 0./ -;4,@./ 0. -47-87 43371B89./ 34, 7./ @4,0. -+,3/ /8,
74 /5,8-58,. 3+,5.8/.
" 9=16151+6 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. /8, 7./ ,.2:741/

.-51+6 $ E -51+6/ /8, 7./ 5,+55+1,/A 7./ 31/5./ -<-74:7./ .5 7./ 34//.,.77./
$ % 9=16151+6 0. 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 3+8, 7./ 34//4@./ 0. /.,>1-.
$% 9=16151+6 0. 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. 861=+,292.65

11
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

,934,51.
$% 9=16151+6 0. 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. -+6-.65,9. /8,
7./ 34//.,.77./
$% % 9=16151+6 0./ >9;1-87./ 0. /.,>1-. 3+8, 7./ 34//.,.77./

$" #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. ;+,1L+6547. /8, 7./ 34//.,.77./


$ 9=16151+6 0. =+,-./ 0!1234-5 /39-1=1B8./
$ +,-./ 0!1234-5 /8, 7./ 317./
$ +,-./ 0!1234-5 /8, 7./ 54:71.,/
$ % 9=16151+6 0!86 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. -+,,./3+60465 C 74 3,9/.6-.
4--10.65.77. 0!86 >9;1-87. /8, 74 34//.,.77.
$ % 9=16151+6 0. 2+0D7./ 0<6421B8./ 0. -;4,@./ 08./ 48? 3195+6/

.-51+6 E -51+6/ 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. .5 485,./ 4-51+6/ /39-1=1B8./ /8, 7./ 3+65/
=.,,+>141,./
,4=1-/ ;+,/ 08 -;423 0!43371-451+6 0. 7 A 2+0D7./ 0.
-;4,@. 475.,6451=/
% 85,./ 5<3./ 0. >+1./ =.,,9./
4:71.,/ 48?17141,./
% % #47.8,/ 08 -+.==1-1.65 α
%% " ;+1? 0. 71@6./ 3+8, 86 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. 7+8,0
"" ,15D,./ 475.,6451=/ 3+8, 86. 4647</. 0<6421B8.
"$ % ;+1? 08 -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8.
"$% #47.8,/ 475.,6451>./ 0. 7+6@8.8,/ 095.,216465./
"$% +6@8.8, 095.,216465. 0./ .6-+,:.77.2.65/
4:7.48
" ?1@.6-./ /833792.6541,./ -+6-.,6465 7!43371-451+6 08 2+0D7.

" ;4,@./ .5 295;+0+7+@1. 3+8, 7!4647</. 0<6421B8.


" % 4/ 0. -;4,@. 400151+66.7/ .6 =+6-51+6 08 6+2:,. 0. >+1./
4:7.48 $
" % % #47.8,/ 0. 7!42+,51//.2.65
4:7.48
" % % 85,./ 3+10/ >+7821B8./ 0./ 2459,148?
" %% %
+087. 0!&+86@ 24J+,9 .5
485,./ 3,+3,1959/ 0./ 2459,148?
" "" 908-51+6 08 31- 0. ,93+6/. C 74 ,9/+646-. .5 >47.8,/ 475.,6451>./
0. 7!42+,51//.2.65 /833792.6541,.
" "$ ,1/. .6 -+235. 0./ 09=485/ 0. >+1./ .5 0./ 123.,=.-51+6/ 0./
>9;1-87./
$ .7D>.2.65 08 -.65,. 0. @,4>159 3+8, 7./ =+,-./ -.65,1=8@./
$% $ -51+6/ 08./ 48 =,.164@. 046/ 7. -4/ 0. 7+6@8.8,/ -;4,@9./
/839,1.8,./ C % 2
$% ?1@.6-./ 475.,6451>./ 3+8, 7!43371-451+6 0./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6
.5 0. =,.164@.
$" $ 93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. +8>,4@. ?1@.6-./ 046/ 7. -4/
0!86 54:71., C 3+/. 0. >+1. 01,.-5.
$"% ?1@.6-./ 475.,6451>./ -+6-.,6465 7./ >4,1451+6/ 0. 5.239,458,.

12
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

.5
$"" 9/1/546-. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 .65,. 74 >+1. .5 7. 54:71.,

$"$ 85,./ -,15D,./ 0. 012.6/1+66.2.65


$"$ #47.8, 2161247. 08 ,4<+6 0. 74 >+1.
$"$ #47.8,/ 71215./ 0./ -+65,4165./ 046/ 7./ ,417/
$" 85,./ 295;+0./ 0. -47-87
$" ,15D,./ 475.,6451=/ 3+8, 7!43371-451+6 0. 295;+0./ 0. -47-87
/12371=19./
$" " 9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 .65,. 74 >+1. .5 7.
54:71.,
% -51+6/ 49,+0<6421B8./A >47.8,/ 475.,6451>./
9,4177.2.65A .?1@.6-./ -+23792.6541,./
9,4177.2.65A 01/3+/151+6/ ,.7451>./ 48? 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? /1589/
48 0.//8/ 08 61>.48 0./ ,417/ .5 .?1@.6-./ >1/465 C ,.5.61, 86 5,416
09,41779 /8, 7!+8>,4@.
% 85,./ 4-51+6/
+2:,. 0. >+1./ -;4,@9./ 7+,/ 0. 74 >9,1=1-451+6 0. 7!9>4-8451+6 0./
4:7.48 .48? .5 0./ @4:4,15/
95.,216451+6 0./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@./
4:7.48
% #47.8,/ =,9B8.65./ 0./ 4-51+6/ C -+23+/465./ 2875137./
% #47.8,/ B84/1 3.,246.65./ 0./ 4-51+6/ C -+23+/465./ 2875137./
+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8.A 08,9. 0. >1. 0. 7!+8>,4@.
+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8.A 5,4=1-/ 34,51-871.,/
66.?. % +.==1-1.65 0<6421B8.
66.?. % 95;+0. 0!4647</. 0<6421B8.
66.?. +.==1-1.65 34,51.7 0. /9-8,159 3+8, 7./ -;4,@./ 0. =451@8.

13
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

82 1 ;1; : 2;4

1 6. 33: 8 2 1

/39-1=1. 7./ -;4,@./ 0!.?37+15451+6 2+0D7./ .5 >47.8,/ ,.3,9/.65451>./


4//+-19./ 48 5,4=1- ,+851.,A C 74 -1,-87451+6 0./ 3195+6/ .5 48 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.A < -+23,1/A
7. -4/ 9-;9465A 7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./A 7./ =+,-./ -.65,1=8@./A 7./ =+,-./ 0. =,.164@. .5 7./
=+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 416/1 B8. 7./ 4-51+6/ 3+8, 7./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./

./ -;4,@./ 0!.?37+15451+6 09=161./ 046/ 7 /+65 0./5169./ C H5,. 85171/9./


3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 3+65/ 6.8=/A 317./A -879./A 28,/ @4,0. @,D>.A 28,/ .6 417. .5 .6 ,.5+8,A
.5- A 416/1 B8. 0. 7.8,/ =+60451+6/

% 7 -+6>1.65 9@47.2.65 0!85171/., 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. .5 7./ >47.8,/ 0+669/ 046/
7 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 28,/ 0. /+85D6.2.65 :+,0465 7./ ,+85./ .5 7./ >+1./
=.,,9./

./ -+60151+6/ 0!43371-451+6 6. /+65 09=161./ 046/ 7 B8. 3+8, -.,5416/ 2+0D7./ +8, 7.
-47-87 0./ +8>,4@./ .65.,,9/A 0./ 28,/ 0. /+85D6.2.65 .5 0./ 5866.7/A 0!485,./ 01/3+/151+6/ B8. -.77./
09=161./ 046/ 7./ C 3.8>.65 H5,. 69-.//41,./ ./ -+60151+6/ -+23792.6541,./
9>.658.77./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

" ./5 0./5169. C H5,. 85171/9. .6 4//+-1451+6 4>.- 7! 6+5422.65


.5 7./ C

$ 4 /.-51+6 3,9-1/. 7./ 09=16151+6/ .5 7./ /<2:+7./

4 /.-51+6 09=1615 7./ 3,16-13./ 0. -;4,@.2.65 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/A 0./ 34//.,.77./
3+8, 3195+6/ +8 0.8? ,+8./ .5 0./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./

4 /.-51+6 % 5,415. 0./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 .5 0+66. 0./ 1601-451+6/ /8, 74


/12875469159 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0. 5,4=1- .5 /8, 7./ -+2:1641/+6/ 4>.- 0./ -;4,@./
485,./ B8. -.77./ 08./ 48 5,4=1-

4 /.-51+6 " 09=1615 E

) 7./ -;4,@./ 0!.?37+15451+6 2+0D7./ .5 >47.8,/ ,.3,9/.65451>./ 08./ 48? 4-51+6/ 08


5,4=1- /8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ .5 7.8,/ -+60151+6/ 0. -+2:1641/+6 2858.77. .5 0.
-+2:1641/+6 4>.- 7./ 5,4=1-/ 0. 3195+6/ .5 0. 0.8? ,+8./ >+1, /.-51+6 $ K

) 0!485,./ 4-51+6/ /39-1=1B8./ 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/

4 /.-51+6 $ 09=1615 E

) 7./ -;4,@./ 0!.?37+15451+6 2+0D7./ .5 >47.8,/ ,.3,9/.65451>./ /8, 7./ 5,+55+1,/A 31/5./
-<-74:7./ .5 34//.,.77./ K

) 0!485,./ 4-51+6/ /39-1=1B8./ 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 34//.,.77./

14
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

./ /.-51+6/ " .5 $ 09=161//.65 9@47.2.65 7./ -;4,@./ 5,46/21/./ C 74 /5,8-58,. 34,


7./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. 0./ >9;1-87./ .5F+8 7./ @4,0. -+,3/

4 /.-51+6 09=1615 E
) 7./ -;4,@./ 0!.?37+15451+6 08./ 48 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. /8, 7./ 3+65/ K
) 0!485,./ 4-51+6/ /39-1=1B8./ 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./ .5 7./ +8>,4@./
-+651@8/ C 74 >+1.

;<; 18 4 1 20 4

4 3,9/.65. 6+,2. .8,+39.66. -+651.65A 34, ,9=9,.6-./ 0459./ +8 6+6 0459./A 0./
01/3+/151+6/ B81 3,+>1.66.65 0!485,./ 38:71-451+6/ ./ ,9=9,.6-./ 6+,2451>./ /+65 -159./
48? .60,+15/ 433,+3,19/ 046/ 7. 5.?5. .5 7./ 38:71-451+6/ /+65 96829,9./ -1 43,D/ +8, 7./
,9=9,.6-./ 0459./A 7./ 42.60.2.65/ +8 ,9>1/1+6/ 8759,1.8,/ 0. 7!86. B8.7-+6B8. 0. -./
38:71-451+6/ 6. /!43371B8.65 C 74 3,9/.65. 6+,2. .8,+39.66. B8. 7+,/B8!17/ 781 /+65
16-+,3+,9/ 34, 42.60.2.65 +8 ,9>1/1+6 +8, 7./ ,9=9,.6-./ 6+6 0459./A 74 0.,61D,.
90151+6 0. 74 38:71-451+6 C 74B8.77. 17 ./5 =415 ,9=9,.6-. /!43371B8. < -+23,1/ 7./
42.60.2.65/

% 1/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. ,+851.,/


4,51. E .,216+7+@1. .5 -,15D,./ @969,48? 3+8, 7./ 295;+0./
0 .//41/
4,51. E 74//./ 0. 3.,=+,246-./A -,15D,./ 0 4--.35451+6 0./
.//41/ 0. -;+- .5 295;+0./ 0 .//41/ 3+8, 7./ :4,,1D,./ 0. /9-8,159
4,51. E 4,0. -+,3/
./ 8,+-+0./ +65 959 38:719/ .6 5465 B8. 3,96+,2./ .8,+39.66./ ./ 6+,2./ .8,+39.66./ -1
43,D/A B8!.77./ /+1.65 09JC 38:719./ +8 .6-+,. .6 3,934,451+6A /+65 -159./ 046/ 7./ -748/./ 6+,2451>./ +8
046/ 0./ ,.7451>./ 48? -748/./ 6+,2451>./ E

8,+-+0. E '4/./ 0. -47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./


8,+-+0. E -51+6/ /8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ E 4,51. E -51+6/
@969,47./ ) +10/ >+7821B8./A 3+10/ 3,+3,./ .5 -;4,@./
0 .?37+15451+6 0./ :M512.65/
% 8,+-+0. E -51+6/ /8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ E 4,51. % E -51+6/
@969,47./ ;4,@./ 0. 6.1@.
" 8,+-+0. E -51+6/ /8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ E 4,51. " E -51+6/
@969,47./ ) -51+6/ 08./ 48 >.65
$ 8,+-+0. E -51+6/ /8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ E 4,51. $ E -51+6/
@969,47./ ) -51+6/ 5;.,21B8./
8,+-+0. E -51+6/ /8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ E 4,51. E -51+6/
@969,47./ -51+6/ .6 -+8,/ 0 .?9-851+6
8,+-+0. E -51+6/ /8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ E 4,51. E -51+6/
@969,47./ ) -51+6/ 4--10.65.77./
8,+-+0. E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ .6 :95+6
% 8,+-+0. % E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ .6 4-1.,
" 8,+-+0. " E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ 21?5./ 4-1., :95+6
$ 8,+-+0. $ E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ .6 :+1/
8,+-+0. E 47-87 @9+5.-;61B8.
8,+-+0. E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ 3+8, 7.8, ,9/1/546-. 48?
/91/2./
8,+-+0. E 47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ .6 478216182

15
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

42 182 1 12 18 3 4 2 A5: 4 69 33: 8 2 1

.7+6 74 6458,. 0./ 01==9,.65/ 4,51-7./A 7 954:715 86. 01/516-51+6 .65,.


,16-13./ .5 D@7./ 0 3371-451+6

./ ,16-13./ -+23,.66.65 E
) 0./ 96+6-9/ 0!+,0,. @969,47 .5 0./ 09=16151+6/ 6. -+23+,5465 34/ 0!475.,6451>.A
) 0./ 3,./-,1351+6/ .5 0./ 2+0D7./ 4647<51B8./ 3+8, 7./B8.7/ 48-86. 475.,6451>. 6!./5
485+,1/9.A /48= 1601-451+6 -+65,41,.

% ./ ,16-13./ /+65 10.651=19/ 34, 7. 6829,+ 08 34,4@,43;.A /81>1 0. 74 7.55,.

" ./ D@7./ 0 3371-451+6 /+65 0./ ,D@7./ @969,47.2.65 ,.-+668./A B81 /+65
-+6=+,2./ 48? ,16-13./ .5 /451/=+65 7.8,/ .?1@.6-./

$ 7 ./5 4021//1:7. 0 85171/., 0./ ,D@7./ 0. 012.6/1+66.2.65 01==9,.65./ 0./ D@7./


0 3371-451+6 0+669./ 046/ 7 3+8, 7./ +8>,4@./A C -+60151+6 B8. 7.8,
-+6=+,2159 48? ,16-13./ -+6-.,69/ /+15 092+65,9. .5 B8 .77./ 0+66.65 48 2+16/ 7.
2H2. 61>.48 0. /9-8,159 /5,8-58,47.A 0 4351580. 48 /.,>1-. .5 0. 08,4:17159A B8. -.781 B81
/.,415 ./-+2359 34, 7 85171/451+6 0./ 8,+-+0./
1 86. D@7. 0! 3371-451+6 ./5 ,.2374-9. 34, 86. ,D@7. 0. -47-87 01==9,.65.A 7. 012.6/1+66.2.65
B81 .6 ,9/875. 6. 3.85 H5,. 09-74,9 37.16.2.65 -+6=+,2. C 7 A 2H2. /1 7. 012.6/1+66.2.65
/451/=415 7./ ,16-13./ 0. 7 6 -4/ 0!85171/451+6 0. 7 3+8, 86. 3,+3,1959 =1@8,465
046/ 7! 66.?. * 0!86. 6+,2. 0. 3,+0815 +8 046/ 86 @810. 3+8, 4@,92.65 5.-;61B8. .8,+39.6A 7!8/4@.
0!86. ,D@7. 0. -47-87 01==9,.65. 3.85 6. 34/ H5,. 4--.354:7. 3+8, 86 24,B84@.

46/ 7 A 7./ D@7./ 0 3371-451+6 /+65 10.651=19./ 34, 86 6829,+ .65,.


34,.65;D/./A -+22. 34, .?.237. 046/ 7. 3,9/.65 471694

4 2 6;< 1 2 14
+8, 7./ :./+16/ 0. 74 3,9/.65. 6+,2. .8,+39.66.A 0./ 09=16151+6/ @969,47./ /+65 0+669./ 046/
7! .5 0./ 09=16151+6/ -+23792.6541,./ 3,+3,./ C 74 3,9/.65. 4,51. /+65 0+669./ -1 0.//+8/

4 5.,216+7+@1. ,.7451>. 48? 01/3+/151=/ ,+851.,/ 0. ,.5.68. ./5 09,1>9. 0. 7! %

4= 1 4;4 2 6;< 1 2 14 8 71 4

2 B:
34,51./ 0!86 3+65 /833+,5465 74 -;4,@. 0. 5,4=1- 48 0.//8/ 0./ 317./A -879./ .5 485,./
28,/A C 7!.?-.351+6 0./ 3<7Q6./

6 43 4 2 < 6 2 17
5.,2. @969,47 09/1@6465 7./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. 0./ >9;1-87./ .5 7./ 01/3+/151=/ 0.
,.5.68. 3+8, 3195+6/

16
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. ,+851.,/ 3.8>.65 H5,.A /.7+6 7.8, 85171/451+6 E


) 3.,246.65/ =1?./ +8 3,+>1/+1,./ 092+654:7./A -!./5 C 01,. 42+>1:7./ .5 85171/9/ 7+,/ 0. 5,4>48?
,+851.,/ 5.23+,41,./A .6 -4/ 0!8,@.6-. +8 7+,/ 0. /158451+6/ 4647+@8./ A
) 09=+,24:7./ +8 ,1@10./A
) /1237./ 17/ 6. 3.8>.65 H5,. ;.8,59/ B8. 0!86 -Q59 +8 0+8:7./ 17/ 3.8>.65 H5,. ;.8,59/ 0./ 0.8? -Q59/

B A 6 4;87 2;
01/3+/151= 0. ,.5.68. 0./ >9;1-87./ 16/54779 .6 4--+5.2.65 +8 .6 5.,,. 37.16 -.65,47 0!86.
,+85.

B A 3 7 70 5 6. 2
:4,,1D,. 0. /9-8,159 16/54779. .6 :+,08,. 0. 3+65 +8 C 3,+?12159A /8, 86 28, 0.
/+85D6.2.65 +8 86. /5,8-58,. /.2:74:7. 4>.- 0961>.79. >.,51-47.A .5 B81 3.85
-+23,.60,. 86 01/3+/151= -+23792.6541,. 3+8, 74 ,.5.68. 0./ 3195+6/ +8 485,./ 8/4@.,/
0. 74 ,+85.

#
6 43 4 2 < 6 2 17 3 7 3 ;2 14
01/3+/151= 16/54779 3+8, ,.5.61, .5 @810., 7./ 3195+6/

5 6 8 34
01/3+/151= 0. ,.5.68. 3+8, 3195+6/ +8 485,./ 8/4@.,/A 16/54779 .6 :+,08,. 0. 3+65A /8, 86
28, 0. /+85D6.2.65 +8 86. /5,8-58,. /121741,.A 6+6 0./5169 C 74 ,.5.68. 0./ >9;1-87./

,
B A 3 7 3 ;2 14
01/3+/151= 0. ,.5.68. 3+8, 3195+6/ +8 485,./ 8/4@.,/A 16/54779 .6 :+,08,. 0. 5,+55+1, +8 0.
34//4@. 0. /.,>1-. 3+8, 7./ .23H-;., 0. 34//., /8, 74 ,+85. +8 86. 485,. 41,. B81
3+8,,415 H5,. 046@.,.8/.A +8 0. 7./ 5,4>.,/.,

. 5.,2. G485,./ 8/4@.,/G 3.85 .6@7+:., 7./ -4>471.,/A 7./ -<-71/5./ .5 7. :95417

/
;8 1 12 B 7 2
9-,46 0./5169 C ,9081,. 74 3,+34@451+6 08 :,815

3 44 :: < @ 6 0 4 2
4--D/ 3.,246.65 3+8, 7!16/3.-51+6A 6+6 4--.//1:7. 48 38:71-

"
3: 2 < B: 6 042
9792.65 0!86 >9;1-87.A 6+6 /+71041,. 08 3+65A 85171/9 3+8, 16/3.-51+6

3 44 ::
3+65 3,16-1347.2.65 0./5169 C 3+,5., 7./ -;4,@./ 0. 3195+6/ .5F+8 0. 0.8? ,+8./ .5 /8,
7.B8.7 7./ -;4,@./ 08 5,4=1- ,+851., 6+,247A C 7 .?-.351+6 0./ >9;1-87./ 485+,1/9/A 34,

17
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

.?.237. 7./ >9;1-87./ 3+8, 7 .65,.51.6A 416/1 B8. 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. B8.7 B8!17 /+15A /+65
165.,015./

4 2 6;< 1 2 14 3 3 4 7@ 3 124 72 4

8= 744;
3+8, 7!43371-451+6 0./ /.-51+6/ " .5 $A 34,51. 0. 74 /8,=4-. 0. 74 ,+85. /833+,59. 34, 86.
/5,8-58,. 861B8. 54:71.,A 317. .5- .5 -+23,.6465 5+85./ 7./ >+1./ 0. -1,-87451+6 ,9.77./
-!./5 C 01,. 5.77./ B8!.77./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 2459,1471/9./ /8, 7. ,.>H5.2.65 A 7./ :460./
0!4,,H5A :460./ 09,4/9./ .5 :460./ 0. 24,B84@. >+1, " %

B 16 6. C2
:460. ,.>H58.A ;4:158.77.2.65 0. 74 74,@.8, 0!86. >+1. 0. -1,-87451+6A /1589. 7. 7+6@
0!86. >+1. 0. -1,-87451+6 ,9.77.A 08 -Q59 .?59,1.8, 0. 74 -;48//9.A 85171/4:7. .6 -4/ 0.
01==1-8759/ +8 0!+:/5,8-51+6 0./ >+1./

B 16 6; 4;
:460. ,.>H58.A ;4:158.77.2.65 0. 2 0. 74,@. 48 378/A /1589. 7. 7+6@ 0!86. >+1. 0.
-1,-87451+6 ,9.77.A .65,. -.77. -1 .5 86. :4,,1D,. 0. /9-8,159 +8 86. :4,,1D,. 3+8, +8>,4@.
0!4,5

2 3: 1 8 12 :
L+6. /934,465 7./ >+1./ 0. -1,-87451+6 ,9.77./ 0!86. ,+85. C 0.8? -;48//9./ 77.
-+23,.60 .6 @969,47 86. :460. 290146. .5 0./ :460./ 09,4/9./ 7459,47./ /934,9./ 0. 74
:460. 290146. 34, 0./ :4,,1D,./ 0. /9-8,159

#
0 8 10 12 11 ::
:460. 0. -;48//9.A 34,477D7. C 86 :+,0 0. -.77. -1A B81A 046/ 74 /.-51+6 "A ./5 -+6/109,9.
/833+,5., 86. =17. 0. >+158,./ .5F+8 0. -421+6/

;4 67 ::
01==9,.6-.A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A .65,. 7!41,. 5+547. 0. 74 -;48//9. .5 74 /+22. 0./ 41,./ 0./
>+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ >+1, 1@8,. "

,
2 16
4//.2:74@. 0. 0.8? .//1.8? -+6/9-851=/ -;4,@9/ /128754692.65

/
8= 5 @8 32 11 ::
-;4,@. ,+87465. 6. 3+8>465 -1,-87., /8, 86 15169,41,. 0+669 /46/ 485+,1/451+6 0. 7!485+,159
-+6-.,69.

18
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

4 2 6;< 1 2 14 3 3 4 7@ 3 124 < 0 4

0 4
7./ >+1./ -+23,.66.65 7./ ,417/ .5 7./ 5,4>.,/./ 77./ ,.3+/.65 /8, 86 715 0. :4774/5 +8
/+65 01,.-5.2.65 =1?9./ 48 54:71., 08 3+65 77./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 9B8139./ 0. J+165/ 0.
01745451+6 C 7!86. 0./ .?5,92159/ 08 54:71., +8 48? 0.8? 8 -+8,/ 0. 74 >1. 0./ +8>,4@./A
74 3+/151+6 0./ >+1./ .5 7!9341//.8, 0. :4774/5 3.8>.65 H5,. 2+01=19./ 08 =415 0./
+39,451+6/ 0!.65,.51.6 0. 74 >+1.

3 44 5 6 4 0 8
:460. /1589. 7. 7+6@ 0./ >+1./A .65,. -.77./ -1 .5 7./ 34,43.5/

0 2 44 6 ;4 1 18
>15.//. 08 5,4=1- C 74B8.77. 86. =,9B8.6-. 08 -;4,@.2.65 +8 86 2875137. 0. -.77. -1
-+V6-10. 4>.- 86. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 7!+8>,4@. +8 86 2875137. 0. -.77. -1

0 2 44 6. @3: 2 2 1 < ;>7 12


>15.//. 74 378/ 3,+:4:7. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9 3+8, 86 5<3. 0+669 0. 5,416 ,9.7 85171/9.
3+8, 7./ 3,+:7D2./ 0. =451@8.

#
0 2 44 @ : 6 : 51 7 3 12 8 14 6; ;
>15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9. 08 5,4=1- 48 3+165 -+6/109,9A 5.77. B8. /39-1=19. 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5
1601>108.7 @969,47.2.65 712159. 34, 7./ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0. 7!16=,4/5,8-58,. +8 7./
.?1@.6-./ 0. /9-8,159 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.

0 2 44 @ : 72 4; 67 0;= 87:
>15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9. 0./ 5,416/ ,9.7/A 719. C 0./ -+6/109,451+6/ 0. >9;1-87./A
@969,47.2.65 16093.60465. 0. 7!16=,4/5,8-58,.

,
0 2 44 @ : 1 1 :
@969,47.2.65 9@47. C 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9 +,/B8. -.74 ./5
/39-1=19 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7A 86. >15.//. ,90815. 3.85 H5,. -+6/109,9. 3+8, >9,1=1.,
7./ 5,416/ 1601>108.7/ ,9.7/ 4>.- 7.8, >15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9. 0. >9;1-87. 4//+-19.

/
0 2 44 @ : 6 8 :87:
@969,47.2.65 A × 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 6+21647.

0 2 44 @ : 6 8 44 11 12
>15.//. 24?1247. 85171/9. 3+8, 7. -+221//1+66.2.65 0!86 6+8>.48 5,416 4>465 /4 21/.
.6 /.,>1-.A 3+8, -.,5416/ 5./5/ /39-1=1B8./ .5- 77. 0934//. @969,47.2.65 74 >15.//.

19
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

24?1247. 485+,1/9. 08 >9;1-87. ./ .?1@.6-./ ,.7451>./ C 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0.


-+221//1+66.2.65 0+1>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

# D B : 4

+8, 7./ :./+16/ 0. 74 3,9/.65. 6+,2. .8,+39.66.A 7./ /<2:+7./ /81>465/ /!43371B8.65

# D B : 48 714

./ /<2:+7./ 85171/9/ .6 86 /.87 .60,+15 6. /+65 34/ /</592451B8.2.65 ,.3,1/ -1 0.//+8/

$ , ! !

4 6 @969,47A 7+6@8.8, -;4,@9.

$ ! !

& ,+83. 0. -;4,@./A 95465 86 6+2:,. W C


4<+6 .6 3746 0. 7!4?. 0!86. -;48//9. +8 0!86. >+1. =.,,9.A
1/546-. .65,. 3+165/ 0!43371-451+6 0./ -;4,@./ 0. ,+8./ 1@8,. %

# D B : 4 43;8 < >7 4 3 7 : 4 4 82 14 2#

$ , ! !

B4I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0!86. -;4,@. 0!.//1.8 861B8. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.


3+8, 86 3+65 ,+851., >+1, " % %
B=7I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. ;+,1L+6547. /8, 86. 34//.,.77.
B=SI #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. -+6-.65,9. -;4,@. 0. ,+8. /8, 86.
34//.,.77. >+1, $ %
B1I 65.6/159 0. 74 -;4,@. 0!.//1.8 -4,4-59,1/51B8. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. /8, 74
>+1. -+6>.651+66.77. 6829,+59. W A /8, 86 3+65 ,+851.,
B7I 65.6/159 0. 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0./ =+,-./ 7+6@15801647./ =+,-. 0.
=,.164@. .5 0!4--979,451+6 /8, 86 3+65 ,+851.,
B/.,> +0D7. 0. -;4,@. -+,,./3+60465 C 86 >9;1-87. 0. /.,>1-. 3+8, 7./
34//.,.77./
B5I 65.6/159 0. 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0./ =+,-./ 5,46/>.,/47./ +8 -.65,1=8@./
/8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/
B5,I +,-. 0. =,.164@. 5,46/>.,/47. /8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/
460.2 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.
C(4 ;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.

$ ! !

;
969,47.2.65A =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. ;+,1L+6547. 0!86 3+65
>
969,47.2.65A =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. >.,51-47. 0!86 3+65
7
+2:,. 0. >+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ 0!86 3+65 ,+851.,
#.B 65.6/159 0. 74 -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. 9B81>47.65. 3+8, 7./ -;4,@./
0!.//1.8? /8, ,.2:741/ >+1, "
#=I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. >.,51-47. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. /8, 7./

20
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

5,+55+1,/ +8 7./ 34//.,.77./


#1I 65.6/159 0. 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. >.,51-47. ,934,51. 2+0D7.
0. -;4,@. /8, 74 >+1. -+6>.651+66.77. 6829,+59. W A 0!86 3+65
,+851.,
#,I 65.6/159 0. 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. >.,51-47. ,934,51. /8,
7!41,. ,9/108.77. 0. 74 -;48//9. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.
D 4,@.8, 0. 74 -;48//9. 0!86 3+65 ,+851., 16-78465 7./ :460./ 0!4,,H5/A 7./
:460./ 09,4/9./ .5 7./ :460./ 0. 24,B84@. >+1, " %
D7 4,@.8, 0!86. >+1. -+6>.651+66.77. /8, 86 3+65 ,+851.,

$ , ! & #

∆ϕ =45 +.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. /833792.6541,. 3+8, 74 =451@8. C


3,+?12159 0./ J+165/ 0. 01745451+6 >+1, "

$ ! & #

α 1 A α B1 +.==1-1.65/ 0!4J8/5.2.65 0. -.,5416/ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. /8, 7./ >+1./ W


A A 09=161/ .6 " %
α B, +.==1-1.65 0!4J8/5.2.65 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. /8, 7!41,. ,9/108.77.A 09=161
.6 " %
β +.==1-1.65 0!4J8/5.2.65 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. A 09=161 .6 " % %
ϕ =45 +.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 3+8, 74 =451@8. >+1, 466.?. '

# D B : 4 43;8 < >7 4 3 7 : 4 82 1

;5 16
746 0. ,+87.2.65
+,-./ 7+6@15801647./ 4@1//465 7. 7+6@ 0. 7!4?. 0. 74 >+1.

57 E D B : 4 26 14 14 43;8 < >7 4 3 7 : 4 0 4< ; 4

$ , ! !

* Fλ 3λ @,.//1>159 >+1, 9B8451+6/ " .5 $


( +6@8.8, 0. >+158,. +8 0. >9;1-87. =.,,+>141,.

21
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

( +6@8.8, 0./ >+158,./ 165.,290141,./ 046/ 7. -4/ 0!86 5,416 C .//1.8?


,9@871D,.2.65 ./34-9/A 4>.- 86 .//1.8 34, >+158,.
)-2 +087. /9-465 0!974/51-159 0!86 :95+6 0. 24//. >+7821B8. 6+,247.
/ 94-51+6 0 43381 5+547. 046/ 7. /.6/ 7+6@15801647
/ I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. 7+6@15801647. 34, >+1. 43371B89. 48?
43381/ =1?./ 08. C 74 09=+,2451+6 08 54:71.,
/ I +,-. 7+6@15801647. 43371B89. C 86 4334,.17 0!43381 =1?.A 08. C 74 ,93+6/.
-+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. ) +8>,4@. C 74 5.239,458,.
/TXX +,-. 08 >.65 -+23451:7. 4>.- 7. 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.
/71 94-51+6 0!43381 7+6@15801647. 1601>108.77. -+,,./3+60465 C 7!4-51+6
3 +10/ 3,+3,. -4/ @969,47
E 485.8, .65,. 7!4?. 0. ,+5451+6 ;+,1L+6547 0. 7!4334,.17 0!43381 =1?. .5 74
/8,=4-. /839,1.8,. 08 54:71., /+8/ =4-. 08 :4774/5 /+8/ 7./ >+1./
F 410.8, 7+6@15801647. 5+547. 08 /</5D2. 3+,5.8,
%
F 410.8, 7+6@15801647. 0./ 43381/ 34, >+1. .5 34, 2A I F2
%
F$ 410.8, 7+6@15801647. 0./ 43381/ 34, >+1. .5 34, 2A $ I F2
%
F 410.8, 7+6@15801647. 0./ 43381/ 34, >+1. .5 34, 2A I F2
4 +6@8.8, -4/ @969,47
4 +6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6
4 +6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 24?1247. 4021//1:7.
4= +6@8.8, 0!16=78.6-. 0. 74 34,51. -;4,@9. 0!86. >+1. .6 -+8,:.
41 +6@8.8, 0!16=78.6-.
4Φ +6@8.8, G095.,216465.G 7+6@8.8, 4//+-19. C Φ
$ +2:,. 0. =+,-./ 3+6-58.77./ 43371B89./ 34, 7. 5,416
> +2:,. 0. >+158,./ +8 0. >9;1-87./ ,93959/ ,9@871D,.2.65 0!86 -+6>+1A +8
6+2:,. 0!.//1.8?A +8
6+2:,. 0. =+,-./ 3+6-58.77./ 9@47./
8 +,-. 3+6-58.77.
;4,@. 0!.//1.8 1601>108.77.
B +,-. -+6-.65,9. +8 4-51+6 >4,14:7. -4/ @969,47
B 0 ;4,@. 3+6-58.77. -+,,./3+60465 48 09,4177.2.65
B; +,-. ;+,1L+6547. -4/ @969,47
BI #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0 86. =+,-. -+6-.65,9. +8 0 86. 4-5,1+6 >4,14:7.
34, .?.237.A >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0 86. -;4,@. >.,51-47. /8, 86 34//4@.
0. /.,>1-. 6+6 4--.//1:7. 48 38:71-
B74I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. 0 4--979,451+6
B7:I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. 0. =,.164@.
B, -51+6 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. -4/ @969,47 K ,9/875465. 0. 7!4-51+6 08 >.65 .5
0. 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@.A 34, .?.237.
B/I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 7 .==+,5 0. 74-.5
B5I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@.
B> ;4,@. 0!.//1.8 >.,51-47.
B>1 ;4,@. 0. ,+8.
B>I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0 86. -;4,@. >.,51-47. =+,-. -+6-.65,9.
∆ #4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,.

22
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

∆ #4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,. 08 54:71.,


∆ #4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,.
∆ #4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,. 08 ,417
1 #15.//. .6 I2F;
#15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9A .6 I2F;
G1 +6@8.8, 0. 74 ,42. -+6/51589. 0. .//1.8?

$ ! !

1/546-. .65,. /833+,5/ 0. ,417/A


7+6@8.8, 0!43371-451+6 0./ -;4,@./ 716941,./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. TF .5
TF
&
1/546-. ;+,1L+6547. 48 -.65,. 0. 74 >+1.
H@ 1/546-. ;+,1L+6547. 9B81>47.65. 48 -.65,. 0. 74 >+1.
+6@8.8, 0. 74 ,934,5151+6 7+6@15801647. 0!86. -;4,@. 34, 86. 5,4>.,/. .5 7.
:4774/5
65.,>477. .65,. -;4,@./ ,934,51./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. TF .5 TF
/34-.2.65 ,9@871., .65,. @,+83./ 0!.//1.8?
1/546-. .65,. 4?./ 0./ .//1.8? 0!86 :+@1.
/34-.2.65 0./ =+,-./ 3+6-58.77./ 046/ 7. 2+0D7. '
' 1/546-. .65,. 4?./ 0./ .//1.8? 0!86 :+@1.
' 65,!4?. 0. :+@1./ >+1/16/
?-.65,1-159 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 046/ 7. 3746 0. ,9=9,.6-. A
?-.65,1-159 0. 7!4-51+6 ,9/875465. 046/ 7. 3746 0. ,9=9,.6-.
- 1/546-. .65,. .//1.8? 40J4-.65/ /1589/ 0. 34,5 .5 0!485,. 0. 7!4--+837.2.65
0. 0.8? ,42./ C .//1.8? ,9@871D,.2.65 ./34-9/
+.==1-1.65 0. ,908-51+6 3+8, 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@.
-I; -IA -8:. 9/1/546-. C 74 -+23,.//1+6 08 :95+6 2./8,9. /8, 93,+8>.55. -<7160,1B8. F
/8, 93,+8>.55. -8:1B8.
& --979,451+6 0. 74 3./465.8,
485.8, -4/ @969,47
341//.8, 0. 74 -+8>.,58,.A 16-78465 7. :4774/5 0.381/ 7. 61>.48 /839,1.8, 08
54:71., J8/B8!48 61>.48 /839,1.8, 0./ 5,4>.,/./
@
1/546-. >.,51-47. .65,. 7. 3746 0. ,+87.2.65 .5 74 /+8/ =4-. 0. 7!+8>,4@.
48 0.//8/ 0. 74 >+1.
5
485.8, 08 3+165 0!43371-451+6 0. 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@.A 2./8,9 34, ,433+,5
48 3746 0. ,+87.2.65
S
485.8, 08 3+165 0!43371-451+6 0. 7!.==+,5 0Y 48 >.65A 2./8,9 34, ,433+,5 48
3746 0. ,+87.2.65
I 9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 48 -1/4177.2.65 0. 74 >+1. 046/ 7. /.6/ 7+6@15801647
I +.==1-1.65 0. =+,2. 08 5,416
I +.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 3+8, 7./ .==.5/ 0. /+8==7. /8, 0./ /8,=4-./
>.,51-47./ 34,477D7./ 48? >+1./
I% +.==1-1.65 0. ,908-51+6 3+8, 7./ .==.5/ 0. /+8==7. /8, 0./ /8,=4-./
;+,1L+6547./ /1237./ -+651@8Z/ C 74 >+1.
I" +.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 3+8, 7./ .==.5/ 0. /+8==7. /8, 7./ /8,=4-./
.6>.7+33465 7./ >+1./ 4-51+6/ ;+,1L+6547./

23
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

I$ +.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 3+8, 7./ .==.5/ 0. /+8==7. /8, 7./ /8,=4-./


.6>.7+33465 7./ >+1./ 4-51+6/ >.,51-47./
I 9/1/546-. 48 -1/4177.2.65 374/51B8. 0. 74 >+1. 046/ 7. /.6/ 7+6@15801647A
I F2 0. >+1.
I" 9/1/546-. 48 -1/4177.2.65 374/51B8. 0. 74 >+1. 046/ 7. /.6/ 7+6@15801647A
" I F2 0. >+1.
I 9/1/546-. 48 -1/4177.2.65 374/51B8. 0. 74 >+1. 046/ 7. /.6/ 7+6@15801647A
I F2 0. >+1.
,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. =7.?1+6 0. 7!+8>,4@. 6+6 -;4,@9
,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 5+,/1+6 0. 7!+8>,4@.
# 0; # 0 ;4,@. 716941,. .6 -4/ 0. 09,4177.2.65
# =I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. >.,51-47. /8, 34//4@. 0. /.,>1-. 6+6
4--.//1:7. 48 38:71- -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51.
# 1I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 7 4-51+6 ,934,51. 9B81>47.65. ,9/875465 0./ .==.5/
49,+0<6421B8./
# 74I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. 0. 5,4-51+6 ,934,51.
# 7:I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. 0. =,.164@. ,934,51.
#5I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@. ,934,51.
#> A # ;4,@. >.,51-47. -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51.
#>I #47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. >.,51-47. -;4,@. 861=+,292.65
,934,51.
4<+6 0. -+8,:8,. 0. 74 >+1.
01/546-. 5,46/>.,/47. .65,. -;4,@./ 0. ,+8./
-4,5.2.65 0./ ,417/
9>.,/A 01/546-. >.,51-47. .65,. 0.8? 3+165/ 7./ 378/ ;485/ 0./ =4-./
/839,1.8,./ 0./ 0.8? ,417/ .6 86 3+165 0+669 0. 74 >+1.
#15.//. 24?1247. 6+21647. .6 2F/
#15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9. 08 >9;1-87. .6 2F/
#15.//. .6 2F/
#15.//. 24?1247. 0. -47-87 .6 2F/
1 #15.//. 0. ,9/+646-. .6 2F/
0<6 A /545 93+6/. 0<6421B8. 24?1247. .5 ,93+6/. /5451B8. 24?1247.
-+,,./3+60465. .6 86 3+165 0+669

$ , ! & #

Θ +5451+6 0!.?5,92159 0!86. /5,8-58,. -4/ @969,47


Φ - Φ ;Φ % . +.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. 3+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. =.,,+>141,. A TF
.5 TF

$ ! & #

α +.==1-1.65 0. -74//1=1-451+6 0./ -;4,@./


+.==1-1.65 0. >15.//.
+.==1-1.65 0. 01745451+6 5;.,21B8. 716941,.
β 433+,5 0. 74 01/546-. .65,. 7!4?. 6.85,. .5 74 /8,=4-. 08 54:71., C 74 ;485.8,
E
δ 9=+,2451+6 -4/ @969,47
7D-;.

24
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

δ 7D-;. C 21 3+,59. 08. 48? 4-51+6/ 3.,246.65./


δ' 9374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 ,.7451= C 7!.?5,92159 08 54:71., 0Y C 74 5,4-51+6 .5
48 =,.164@.
δ 9374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 ,.7451= C 7!.?5,92159 08 54:71., 0Y C 74
09=+,2451+6 0. -.781 -1
δ 9374-.2.65 ;+,1L+6547A
9374-.2.65 ;+,1L+6547 .6@.60,9 34, 7. 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 0./
=+60451+6/
δ3 9374-.2.65 ;+,1L+6547 .6@.60,9 34, 74 09=+,2451+6 7+6@15801647. 0./
43381/
δ# 9374-.2.65 >.,51-47 ,.7451= C 7!.?5,92159 08 54:71.,
δϕ 9374-.2.65 ;+,1L+6547 .6@.60,9 34, 74 ,+5451+6 7+6@15801647. 0./
=+60451+6/
γ= +.==1-1.65 34,51.7 0. /9-8,159 3+8, 7./ -;4,@./ 0. =451@8.
γ = +.==1-1.65 34,51.7 0. /9-8,159 3+8, 74 ,9/1/546-. C 74 =451@8.
ϕ Aϕ ! Aϕ G +.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 0./ -;4,@./ /5451B8./ 3+8, 7./ 5,416/
,9.7/
ϕ !0<6 +.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 0./ -;4,@./ /5451B8./ 3+8, 86 5,416
,9.7A 095.,2169 34, 7!4647</. 0<6421B8.
κ +.==1-1.65 ,.7451= C 74 ,410.8, 0 86. -879. 34, ,433+,5 48? 317./
λ +.==1-1.65 0!.60+224@.2.65 9B81>47.65 3+8, 74 =451@8.
7+6@8.8, 0!+60. 0!.?-15451+6
λ +6@8.8, 0!+60. -,151B8. 0. 7!.?-15451+6
λ1 +6@8.8, 0!+60. =+6042.6547. 0. 7!.?-15451+6
λ# +6@8.8, 0!+60. 0. 7!.?-15451+6 C 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. -47-87
ρ +10/ >+7821B8.
σ +65,4165.
σ * A σ J Aσ $ ,.//1+6 /8, 74 34,51. /839,1.8,. 0 86 54:71., 3,+>.6465 0./ 4-51+6/ 08
5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.
∆σ #4,1451+6 0. -+65,4165. 08. 48 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A
TF
∆σ #47.8, 0. ,9=9,.6-. 0. 74 ,9/1/546-. C 74 =451@8.
ξ +.==1-1.65 0. ,908-51+6 3+8, 74 095.,216451+6 0./ =+,-./ 7+6@15801647./
046/ 7./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ 0./ 54:71.,/ 861B8./ 08 =415 0. 7!4--979,451+6
.5 08 =,.164@.
ζ 1215. 16=9,1.8,. 08 -+.==1-1.65 0!42+,51//.2.65 -,151B8. [ +8
-+.==1-1.65 0!42+,51//.2.65
ζ K *4
2+,51//.2.65 5+547 [
∆ζ 2+,51//.2.65 /833792.6541,. [

25
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

82 1 : 44 < 8 2 1 6 4 82 14

;1; : 2;4

7 -+6>1.65 0. -74//., 7./ 4-51+6/ 0. 5,4=1- -+6-.,69./ .5 7./ 485,./ 4-51+6/ /39-1=1B8./
.?.,-9./ /8, 7./ 3+65/ -+6=+,292.65 C 7! A /.-51+6 " "

./ 4-51+6/ 0. 5,4=1- /8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/A 7./ 34//.,.77./ .5 7./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./
-+6/1/5.65 .6 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./ .5 .6 4-51+6/ 3+8, /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./A
,.3,9/.659./ 34, 01==9,.65/ 2+0D7./

% 7 -+6>1.65 0. -74//., 5+85./ 7./ 4-51+6/ 0. 5,4=1- -+22. 0./ 4-51+6/ 71:,./A 046/ 7./
71215./ 3,9-1/9./ 046/ 7./ /.-51+6/ " C

" ./ 4-51+6/ 0. 5,4=1- /+65 0./ 4-51+6/ C -+23+/465./ 2875137./

82 14 0 B: 4

46/ 7./ -+60151+6/ 6+,247./ 0!85171/451+6 -!./5 C 01,. C 7!.?-78/1+6 0. 5+85.


/158451+6 4--10.65.77. A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., -+22. >4,14:7./ 7./ -;4,@./ ,+87465./
.5 -.77./ 08./ 48? 3195+6/ 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 16-78/. 7. -4/ 9-;9465
./ 01>.,/./ >47.8,/ ,.3,9/.65451>./ /+65 7./ /81>465./ E

) 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./A /+15 0!+,1@16. /5451/51B8.A -!./5 C 01,. -+,,./3+60465 C 86.
3,+:4:17159 712159. 0. 0934//.2.65 3+8, 86 3+65 48 -+8,/ 0. /4 08,9. 0!85171/451+6 0.
3,+J.5A /+15 6+21647./A >+1, 7 A" K
) 7./ >47.8,/ =,9B8.65./ K
) 7./ >47.8,/ B84/1 3.,246.65./

. 4:7.48 =+8,615 0./ 16=+,2451+6/ /8, 7. -471:,4@. 0./ 3,16-1348? 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. C
7!.?-78/1+6 0. 74 =451@8. 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ .5 7./ 34//.,.77./ ./ -;4,@./ =.,,+>141,./ .5 7./
-+.==1-1.65/ γ .5 ψ 4//+-19/ +65 959 974:+,9/ C 7!410. 0. 74 295;+0. 4 0. 74 1@8,. 0. 7!

26
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 (1* E & 4 4 3 7 : 8 : B 5 6 4 3 18 3 7@ 6A: 4 6 8= 5 (? :. @8:74 1 6 :


< 2 57 *

) 6A: 4 6 : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4 : 7 4 < ;>7 12 4 : 7 4 >7 4 3 1 12 4


8= 5 6 2 < 8
124 72 4
9,1+0. 0. ,.5+8, 0. 46/ 9,1+0. 0. ,.5+8, 0. 471:,4@. -+6=+,292.65 C 74
"% +8 3,+:4:17159 0. /.2416. 3+8, 7. 5,4=1- /8, 09=16151+6 0+669. 046/ 7!
0934//.2.65 0. $[ .6 $ 7./ ,+85./ 3,16-1347./
46/ 3+8, 7. 5,4=1- /8, 7./ 0! 8,+3. -+.==1-1.65 α 9@47 C
,+85./ 3,16-1347./ 0! 8,+3. A >+1, " %
-+.==1-1.65 α 9@47 C A >+1,
"%
9,1+0. 0. ,.5+8, 0. 46/ 9,1+0. 0. ,.5+8, 0. 46/ +:J.5
"%% +8 3,+:4:17159 0. /.2416. 3+8, 7. 5,4=1- /8,
0934//.2.65 0. $[ .6 $ 7./ ,+85./ 3,16-1347./
46/ 3+8, 7. 5,4=1- /8, 7./ 0! 8,+3. -+.==1-1.65 β 9@47 C
,+85./ 3,16-1347./ 0! 8,+3. A >+1, " % %
-+.==1-1.65 β 9@47 C A >+1,
"%%
% 6/.2:7. 0. >47.8,/ 46/ +:J.5 46/ +:J.5
"%" 6+21647./ ./ >47.8,/ 0.
:4/. 09=161./ C 7!466.?.
/+65 1//8./ 0!86. /<65;D/. 0.
01==9,.65/ ,D@7.2.65/
6451+648?
" #47.8, 6+21647. -+6/109,9. 46/ +:J.5 46/ +:J.5
"%$ ,.3,9/.65., 7./ .==.5/ 0!86.
=+87. 9=161. 34, ,9=9,.6-. C
0./ 6+,2./ 6451+647./
.?1/5465./
44 :: 4
;4,@. #47.8, 6+21647. -+6/109,9. +,-. /5451B8. 9B81>47.65.A 471:,4@. -+6=+,292.65 C 74
861=+,292.65 ,.3,9/.65., 7./ .==.5/ 0!86. -471:,9. /8, 74 :4/. 0. 09=16151+6 0+669. 046/ 7!
,934,51. =+87. 9=161. 34, ,9=9,.6-. C 3195+6/F2 .6 7!4:/.6-. 0.
$% 0./ 6+,2./ 6451+647./ -+23+,5.2.65 0<6421B8.
.?1/5465./ 34,51-871., +8, 7./
34//.,.77./ .6 L+6./ 8,:416./A
+6 3.85 -+6/109,., B8. 74
39,1+0. 0. ,.5+8, 0. 74 -;4,@.
./5 0. /.2416.
;4,@. -+6-.65,9. #47.8, 6+21647. 9=161. 34, 46/ +:J.5 46/ +:J.5
$% ,9=9,.6-. C 0./ 6+,2./
6451+647./ .?1/5465./
#9;1-87. 0. #47.8, 6+21647. +22. 46/ +:J.5 46/ +:J.5
/.,>1-. 1601B89 .6 $ %
$% %

+8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/A 7! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 123+/., 7!85171/451+6 0. >47.8,/ 6+6 =,9B8.65./
-+,,./3+60465A 3+8, 7. 5,4=1- /8, 7./ ,+85./ 3,16-1347./ 0! 8,+3.A C 86. 39,1+0. 0. ,.5+8, 2+<.66.
0!.6>1,+6 86 46 #+1, 9@47.2.65 A " .5 A

% +8, 7. -47-87 0./ 08,9./ 0. >1. >1/ C >1/ 0. 74 =451@8.A 0./ 2+0D7./ 01/516-5/A 7./
>47.8,/ 4//+-19./ .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 0./ .?1@.6-./ 34,51-871D,./ /+65 0+669/ .6 " 3+8,
7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ .5 .6 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./ 416/1 B8. 046/ 7./ 466.?./
-+,,./3+60465./

27
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

82 14 3 7 4 27 2 14 6 3 F 2 88 6 12 :: 4

./ >9;1-87./ ,+851.,/ .5 7./ 5,416/ 3.8>.65 .6@.60,., 0./ 4-51+6/ 34, -+771/1+6 +8 34,
7.8, 3,9/.6-. 4--10.65.77. 7 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. -./ 4-51+6/ 046/ 7. -47-87
0D/ 7+,/ B8!48-86. 3,+5.-51+6 433,+3,19. 6!4 959 21/. .6 \8>,.

6. 3,+5.-51+6 433,+3,19. 3.85 H5,. 09=161. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

./ 4-51+6/ 3+8, /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./ 09-,15./ 046/ -.55. 4,51. 0. 7!


-+6-.,6.65 7./ /158451+6/ -+8,465./ 77./ /+65 ,.3,9/.659./ 34, 01>.,/ 2+0D7./ 0.
-;4,@. 09=161//465 0./ >47.8,/ 0. -47-87 /+8/ =+,2. 0. -;4,@./ /5451B8./ 9B81>47.65./

% +8, 7./ 4-51+6/ 08./ C 0./ >9;1-87./ ,+851.,/ /+8/ 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/A 7./ 34//.,.77./
+8 7./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./ 48 -+8,/ 0. /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./A >+1, " .5
$

" 7 < 4 71.8 0. 09=161, /1 69-.//41,. 7./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 0./ :45.48?A 64>1,./ +8 4>1+6/
/8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/A 7./ 34//.,.77./ .5 7./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./ 34, .?.237. 48 0.//8/ 0.
-4648? +8 0. >+1./ 64>1@4:7./

66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 7./ =+,-./ 0 1234-5 ./ >47.8,/ ,.-+224609./ 3+8, 7./ -;+-/
0. :45.48? .5 0. 64>1,./ /+65 0+669./ 046/ 7! ./ .?1@.6-./ -+23792.6541,./ 3.8>.65 H5,.
/39-1=19./ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

$ ./ 4-51+6/ 3+8, /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./ 08./ C 0./ >9;1-87./ ,+851.,/ /8,
3+65/ ,+851.,/A 34//.,.77./ +8 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./ /+65 09=161./ ,./3.-51>.2.65 .6 " % .5
$ %

./ 4-51+6/ 3+8, /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./ 08./ 48? 5,416/ +8 48?


16=,4/5,8-58,./ =.,,+>141,./ /+65 09=161./ .6 77./ /+65 43371-4:7./ 7. -4/ 9-;9465 48?
3+65/ ,+851.,/A 34//.,.77./ .5 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./

28
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

82 1 27 2 14 6 3 F 2

./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 ,.5.68./ 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ .6 -+235. .5 7./ -4/ 0. -;4,@.
-,151B8./ 10.651=19/ +8, -;4B8. -4/ 0. -;4,@. -,151B8.A +6 0+15 095.,216., 7./ >47.8,/ 0.
-47-87 0./ .==.5/ 0./ -+2:1641/+6/ 0!4-51+6/

+8, 7./ 3+65/ /8, 7./B8.7/ 74 /1@6471/451+6 ./5 85171/9. 4=16 0. 71215., 7. 3+10/ 0./ >9;1-87./A 86.
/158451+6 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77.A -+,,./3+60465 C 74 5,4>.,/9. 0. 7!+8>,4@. 34, 86 >9;1-87. .6=,.1@6465 7./
21/./ .6 @4,0.A 3.85 0.>+1, H5,. 3,1/. .6 -+235.

./ 01>.,/./ -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- C 3,.60,. .6 -+235. /128754692.65 7+,/B8!+6 85171/.


0./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@./ -+2:1641/+6/ 0!4-51+6/ -+23+/465./ /+65 0+669./ 046/ 7./
/.-51+6/ -1 43,D/ K 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. -;4-86 0./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@. .6 -+235. 046/
7. -47-87 7+,/B8!17 < 4 71.8

% ./ ,D@7./ 0. -+2:1641/+6A B81 093.60.65 0./ -47-87/ C .==.-58.,A 0+1>.65 H5,.


-+6=+,2./ C 7!

+8, 7./ -+2:1641/+6/ /1/21B8./ 43371-4:7./ 48? 3+65/ .5 3+8, 7./ ,D@7./ -+,,./3+60465./A >+1,
7!

" ./ ,D@7./ /39-1=1B8./ 0. /12875469159 4>.- 0!485,./ 4-51+6/ 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/A
7./ 34//.,.77./ .5 7./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./ /+65 0+669./ 046/ 7! A

$ +8, 7./ 3+65/ 0./5169/ C 74 =+1/ 48? 5,4=1-/ ,+851., .5 =.,,+>141,.A 17 -+6>1.65 0.
/39-1=1., 74 /12875469159 0./ 4-51+6/ .5 7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ 34,51-871D,./ C .==.-58.,

./ ,D@7./ /39-1=1B8./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

29
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

82 1 82 14 67 2 < 8 72 2 72 4 82 14 43;8 < >7 4 47 : 4


3 124 72 4

1 6. 33: 8 2 1

7 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 09=161/ 046/ 74 3,9/.65. /.-51+6 3+8, 7.
-47-87 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ 0+65 74 7+6@8.8, -;4,@9. ./5 16=9,1.8,. C 2

7 .55. 7+6@8.8, 0. 2 -+,,./3+60 C 74 7+6@8.8, 24?1247. 3,1/. .6 -+235. 3+8, 7. -471:,4@.


08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. >+1, " % 6 @969,47A 7!85171/451+6 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. ./5 08 -Q59 0. 74
/9-8,159 3+8, 0./ 7+6@8.8,/ -;4,@9./ /839,1.8,./ C 2

./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 3+8, 0./ 7+6@8.8,/ -;4,@9./ /839,1.8,./ C 2 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161/
046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

./ 2+0D7./ .5 7./ ,D@7./ -+,,./3+60465./ /+65 0./5169/ C -+8>,1, 5+85./ 7./


/158451+6/ 0. 5,4=1- 6+,247.2.65 3,9>1/1:7./ -!./5 C 01,. 7./ -+60151+6/ 0. 5,4=1- ,+851.,
4==.-5465 -;4B8. >+1.A 046/ 7!86 +8 7!485,. /.6/ B81 /+65 C 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 046/ 7.
-47-87 >+1, 69462+16/ 7. 34,4@,43;. % .5 7./ 6+5./ .6 "

./ 2+0D7./ /39-1=1B8./A 0./5169/ 48? 3+65/ 9B8139/ 0. 2461D,. 409B845. 6+5422.65 0!86.
/1@6471/451+6 ,+851D,. 4=16 0. 71215., ,1@+8,.8/.2.65 7. 3+10/ 0./ >9;1-87./ 046/ 7. -4/ 0. >+1,1./
7+-47./A 4@,1-+7./ +8 3,1>9./A 34, .?.237. 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161/ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5
1601>108.7

./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 3+8, 7./ -879./ .5 7./ 28,/ 40J4-.65/ 48? +8>,4@./ /+65 09=161/
/934,92.65 >+1, " 7/ 09,1>.65 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. 5,4=1- ,+851.,A /46/ -+,,.-51+6 48-86. 3+8, 7./ .==.5/
0<6421B8./ 46/ 7. -4/ 0./ 3+65/ .6 3+,51B8.A 7./ -;4,@./ /8, 7./ ,.2:741/ 3.8>.65 9@47.2.65 .6@.60,.,
0./ .==.5/ 046/ 74 /5,8-58,. 08 3+65

% ./ .==.5/ 0./ -;4,@./ /8, 7./ -;4651.,/ 0. -+6/5,8-51+6 ,+851D,. 08./ 34, .?.237.
48? /-,43.8,/A 48? -421+6/ 5,46/3+,5465 0./ 5.,,./A .5- +8 0./ -;4,@./ /39-1=1B8./
69-.//159./ 34, 7./ -+65,Q7./ .5 7./ 93,.8>./ 6. /+65 34/ -+8>.,5/ 34, 7./ 2+0D7./ 0.
-;4,@. K 17 -+6>1.65 0. 7./ /39-1=1., 0. 2461D,. 01/516-5.A 7. -4/ 9-;9465

3 ;4 12 2 1 6 4 82 14

) 6A: 4 6 8= 5 4 6 2 < 8 72

./ -;4,@./ 08./ 48 5,4=1- ,+851., 0. >+158,./A 0. -421+6/ .5 0. >9;1-87./ /39-148?


3+8, 7. 5,46/3+,5 1608/5,1.7A 34, .?.237. .6@.60,.65 0./ =+,-./ >.,51-47./ .5
;+,1L+6547./A /5451B8./ .5 0<6421B8./

./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 09=161/ 046/ -.55. /.-51+6 6. 09-,1>.65 34/ 0./ -;4,@./ ,9.77./ 7/ +65 959
/97.-51+669/ .5 -471:,9/ 0. 5.77. 2461D,. B8. 7.8,/ .==.5/ < -+23,1/ 74 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 7+,/B8!.77.
./5 1601B89. ,.3,9/.65.65 -.8? 08 5,4=1- ,9.7 +:/.,>9 .6 7!46 046/ 7./ 34</ .8,+39.6/

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. -+23792.6541,./ .5 7./ ,D@7./ 0.
-+2:1641/+6 4//+-19./ 7+,/B8!17 ./5 69-.//41,. 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+6/109,451+6 86 5,4=1- 01==9,.65 0. -.781 0./
2+0D7./ /39-1=19/ 046/ 74 3,9/.65. /.-51+6

30
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% '1.6 B8!17 415 959 9>4789 3+8, 86. B847159 2+<.66. 08 ,.>H5.2.65 ,+851., >+1, 466.?. ' .5 86.
/8/3.6/1+6 36.82451B8. 0./ >9;1-87./A 7. -+.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. -+23,1/ 046/ 7./ 2+0D7./
/48= 3+8, 74 =451@8. 093.60 0. 01>.,/ 34,42D5,./ 416/1 B8. 0. 7!.==.5 -+6/109,9 7 6. 3.85 0+6- H5,.
,.3,9/.659 34, 86. >47.8, 861B8. 46/ -.,5416/ -4/ 09=4>+,4:7./A 17 3.85 455.160,. A .==.5/ 7+-48? A
241/ 0./ >47.8,/ .6-+,. 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 455.165./ 3+8, 0./ 9545/ 0. /8,=4-. 08 ,.>H5.2.65
0. 2+16/ :+66. B847159A +8 7+,/B8!17 .?1/5. 86 ,1/B8. 0. ,9/+646-. ./ -4/ 3.8>.65 H5,. 9>159/ 2+<.66465
0./ 01/3+/151+6/ 433,+3,19./ .6 2451D,. 0. -+6-.351+6 .5 0. B847159 4, -+6/9B8.65A 86. 24J+,451+6
0<6421B8. /833792.6541,. 3.85 0.>+1, H5,. 3,1/. .6 -+235. 3+8, -.,5416/ -47-87/ 34,51-871.,/ >+1,
" +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

+,/B8.A 3+8, 7. -47-87 0!86 3+65A 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235. 0./ >9;1-87./ 6.
,./3.-5465 34/ 74 ,9@7.2.65451+6 6451+647. ,.7451>. 48? 3+10/ .5 9>.658.77.2.65 48?
012.6/1+6/ 24?1247./ 4021/ .6 7!4:/.6-. 0!485+,1/451+6/ 34,51-871D,./A +8 7+,/B8.
0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ .6 -+235. 0./ -;4,@./ 2171541,./A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 7./ 09=161,

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 7./ 2+0D7./ -+,,./3+60465/ ./ 1601-451+6/ -+6-.,6465 7./
2+0D7./ /54604,0 3+8, >9;1-87./ /39-148? 416/1 B8. 7.8, 43371-451+6 /+65 0+669./ 046/ 7!466.?. #+1,
"%"

: 44 4 6 8= 5 12

./ -;4,@./ ,9.77./ /8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ ,9/875.65 0. 74 3,9/.6-. 0. 01>.,/./


-459@+,1./ 0. >9;1-87./ .5 0. 3195+6/

. 5,4=1- 0./ >9;1-87./ 3.85 01==9,., /.7+6 7./ 3+65/A .6 5.,2./ 0. -+23+/151+6
3+8,-.654@. 0. -421+6/A 34, .?.237. A 0. 0.6/159 6+2:,. 2+<.6 0. >9;1-87./ 34, 46A
34, .?.237. A 0. -+60151+6/ 0. -1,-87451+6 =,9B8.6-. 0./ .6-+2:,.2.65/A 34,
.?.237. A 0. 3+10/ .?5,H2. 3,+:4:7. 0./ >9;1-87./A 0. -;4,@. 0!.//1.8 .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A
/.7+6 7!16=78.6-. 0. 74 /1@6471/451+6 71215465 7. 5+664@. 485+,1/9

7 -+6>1.65 0. 5.61, -+235. 0. -./ 01==9,.6-./ .6 85171/465 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@.


433,+3,19/ 48 71.8 +O 7. 3+65 ./5 /1589 34, .?.237.A -;+1? 0./ -+.==1-1.65/ 0!4J8/5.2.65
α .5 β 09=161/ ,./3.-51>.2.65 .6 " % 3+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5 .6 " % % 3+8, 7.
2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.

;8 73 5 6 : 8= 744; 10 4 8 10 12 11 :: 4

7 -+6>1.65 0. 2./8,., 74 74,@.8, D 0. 74 -;48//9. .65,. :+,08,./ +8 .65,. 71215./


1659,1.8,./ 0./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. 0./ >9;1-87./A .6 .?-78465 74 01/546-. .65,. 7./
01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. =1?./ +8 7./ :+,08,./ 08 5.,,. 37.16 -.65,47 416/1 B8. 74 74,@.8, 0.
-./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68.

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 74 >47.8, 2161247. 0. 74 ;485.8, 0./ :+,08,./ C 3,.60,. .6
-+235. 4 ;485.8, 2161247. ,.-+224609. ./5 0. 22

. 54:7.48 " 09=1615 74 74,@.8, D7 0./ >+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ 416/1 B8. 7. 6+2:,.
7 .651., 24?1282 0. -./ >+1./ /8, 74 -;48//9.

31
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 E B 2: 5 7 6 40 4 8 10 12 11 :: 4

5 7 6 : B 6 0 4 5 7 6.71 5 7 6 :.
8= 744; D 8 10 12 11 :: 4 0 ;4 67 ::
8 10 12 11 ::
D!
D ] $A" 2 7 W %2 D %2
$A" 2 ≤ D ] 2 7W D

2≤ D D
7 =< %2 D %×
% 7

4, .?.237.A 3+8, 86. -;48//9. 4<465 86. 74,@.8, 0. 2A D


7 =< = % A .5 74 74,@.8,
%
0. 7!41,. ,9/108.77. ./5 )% ? % W 2

% 46/ 7. -4/ 0. 74,@.8,/ 0. -;48//9. >4,14:7./A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 09=161, 7. 6+2:,. 0.


>+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ /.7+6 7./ 3,16-13./ 08 4:7.48 "

4, .?.237.A 7. 6+2:,. 0. >+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ /.,4 9@47 C E


) 7+,/B8. D ] $A" 2
) 7+,/B8. $A" ≤ D ] 2
) % 7+,/B8. 2 ≤ D ] 2 .5-

" +,/B8. 74 -;48//9. 0!86 54:71., 0. 3+65 ./5 /934,9. 3;</1B8.2.65 .6 0.8? 34,51./
34, 86 5.,,. 37.16 -.65,47 E

4 17 -+6>1.65 0!.==.-58., 7. 09-+834@. 3+8, -;4-86. 0./ 34,51./A :460./ 0!4,,H5 .5


:460./ 09,4/9./ -+23,1/./A /1 7./ 34,51./ /+65 /934,9./ 34, 86 01/3+/151= 0. ,.5.68.
3.,246.65 K

: 17 -+6>1.65 0!.==.-58., 7. 09-+834@. 3+8, 7!.6/.2:7. 0. 74 -;48//9.A 5.,,. 37.16


-.65,47 -+23,1/A /1 7./ 34,51./ /+65 /934,9./ 34, 86 01/3+/151= 0. ,.5.68. 5.23+,41,.

./ ,D@7./ =1?9./ .6 " % " 3.8>.65 H5,. 4J8/59./ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7A 3.,2.55465 0./
2+01=1-451+6/ 8759,1.8,./ .6>1/4@9./ -+6-.,6465 7./ >+1./ 0. -1,-87451+6 /8, 7. 54:71., 3+8, 7./
,934,451+6/A 34, .?.237.

3: 8 12 2 17 ; 2 2 1 6 4 0 4 3 7 : 4 B 4 14 67 8 :87:

7 -+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., 7!.2374-.2.65 .5 74 6829,+5451+6 0./ >+1./ -+6=+,292.65 48?


,D@7./ /81>465./ E

./ .2374-.2.65/ 0./ >+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ 6. -+,,./3+60.65 34/ 69-.//41,.2.65


C 7.8, 6829,+5451+6

+8, -;4B8. >9,1=1-451+6 1601>108.77. >9,1=1-451+6 48? 9545/ 71215./ 87512./ 0.


,9/1/546-. C 74 =7.?1+6 0!86. /.-51+6 5,46/>.,/47.A 34, .?.237. A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -;+1/1, 7.
6+2:,. 0. >+1./ 0.>465 H5,. -+6/109,9./ -+22. -;4,@9./A 7.8, .2374-.2.65 /8, 74
-;48//9. 416/1 B8. 7.8, 6829,+5451+6 0. 2461D,. C -. B8. 7./ .==.5/ 0./ 2+0D7./ 0.
-;4,@. /+1.65 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./

32
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% +8, 7./ >47.8,/ ,.3,9/.65451>./ 0. =451@8. .5 7./ 2+0D7./ 4//+-19/A 17 -+6>1.65 0.


-;+1/1, 7!.2374-.2.65 .5 74 6829,+5451+6 0./ >+1./ .6 =+6-51+6 08 5,4=1- 6+,247.2.65
3,9>1/1:7.

" 4 >+1. 0+66465 7!.==.5 7. 378/ 09=4>+,4:7. ./5 6829,+59. >+1. 6829,+ A 74 >+1.
-48/465 7. 0.8?1D2. .==.5 7. 378/ 09=4>+,4:7. ./5 6829,+59. >+1. 6829,+ .5 416/1 0.
/815. >+1, 1@8,. "

;5 16
D 74,@.8, 0. 74 -;48//9.
D7 74,@.8, 0. 74 >+1. -+6>.651+66.77.
#+1. -+6>.651+66.77. 6P
#+1. -+6>.651+66.77. 6P
% #+1. -+6>.651+66.77. 6P %
" 1,. ,9/108.77.

57 E @ 3: 6 17 ; 2 2 1 6 4 0 4 6 14 : 8 4 : 3:74 5;1; :

$ +,/B8. 74 -;48//9. -+6/1/5. .6 0.8? 34,51./ /934,9./ /8, 86 2H2. 54:71.,A 17


-+6>1.65 0!40+35., 86. 6829,+5451+6 861B8. 3+8, 5+85. 74 -;48//9.

16/1A 2H2. /1 74 -;48//9. ./5 01>1/9. .6 0.8? 34,51./ /934,9./A 17 6!.?1/5. B8!86. >+1. 6P A B81
3.85 H5,. /1589. /8, 7!86. +8 7!485,. 0./ 0.8? 34,51./

+,/B8. 74 -;48//9. -+6/1/5. .6 0.8? 34,51./ /934,9./ /8, 0.8? 54:71.,/


16093.60465/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., -;4B8. 34,51. -+22. 86. -;48//9. .5 0!85171/.,
86. 6829,+5451+6 01/516-5. 3+8, 7. -47-87 0. -;4B8. 54:71., 1 7./ 0.8? 54:71.,/ /+65
/833+,59/ 34, 7./ 2H2./ 317./ .5F+8 -879./A 17 -+6>1.65A 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 317./ .5F+8 0./
-879./A 0!40+35., 86. 6829,+5451+6 861B8. 3+8, 7!.6/.2:7. 0./ 0.8? 34,51./

# 33: 8 2 1 6 4 6A: 4 6 8= 5 47 8= 871 6 4 0 4

46/ 74 2./8,. +O -.-1 ./5 -+23451:7. 4>.- 7./ -+60151+6/ 0!43371-451+6 09=161./ 378/
7+16 3+8, -;4B8. 2+0D7. 34,51-871.,A 17 -+6>1.65A 3+8, -;4-86. 0./ >9,1=1-451+6/A
0!43371B8., /8, -;4-86. 0./ >+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. /8, 86.
7+6@8.8, .5 046/ 86. 3+/151+6 7+6@15801647. 5.77./ B8!.77./ 3.,2.55.65 0!+:5.61, 7!.==.5 7.
378/ 09=4>+,4:7.

33
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

46/ 74 2./8,. +O -.-1 ./5 -+23451:7. 4>.- 7./ -+60151+6/ 34,51-871D,./ 09=161./ .6
" %A 17 -+6>1.65A /8, 7!41,. ,9/108.77.A 0!43371B8., 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 4//+-19 /8, 86.
7+6@8.8, .5 86. 74,@.8, 5.77./ B8!.77./ 3.,2.55.65 0!+:5.61, 7!.==.5 7. 378/ 09=4>+,4:7.

% 8460 17 < 4 71.8A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -+2:16., 7./ 01==9,.65/ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. .65,. .8?
>+1, " $ 416/1 B8!4>.- 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ 3+8, 7./ 3195+6/ .5 7./ 0.8? ,+8./

= 5 40 28 : 4E : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4

A5: 4 5;1; : 4 2 4 27 2 14 6 3 F 2 44 8 ; 4

./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ /+65 0./5169./ C 74 095.,216451+6 0./ .==.5/


08 5,4=1- ,+851., 046/ 7. -40,. 0./ >9,1=1-451+6/ >1/ C >1/ 0./ 9545/ 71215./ 87512./ .5 0.
-.,5416./ >9,1=1-451+6/ 34,51-871D,./ >1/ C >1/ 0./ 9545/ 0. /.,>1-. >+1, C

./ 2+0D7./ 3+8, 7./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ ,.3,9/.65.65 7./ .==.5/ 08 5,4=1- /81>465/ E

4 +0D7. 0. -;4,@. E -;4,@./ -+6-.65,9./ .5 -;4,@./ 861=+,292.65 ,934,51./A


-+8>,465 74 37834,5 0./ .==.5/ 08 5,4=1- 0./ -421+6/ .5 0./ >+158,./ 7 -+6>1.65
0!85171/., -. 2+0D7. 3+8, 7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ @969,47./ .5 7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ 7+-47./

: +0D7. 0. -;4,@. E 86. -;4,@. 0!.//1.8 861B8. 43371B89. C 0./ /8,=4-./


/39-1=1B8./ 0. -+654-5 0./ 36.82451B8./A -+8>,465 7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 08 5,4=1-
6+,247 /8, 0./ 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? -+8,5/

8 3+165 0. >8. 0. 7!+,0,. 0. @,460.8,A 3.85 H5,. 3,90+216465 3+8, 7./ 7+6@8.8,/ -;4,@9./
J8/B8!C % C 2

!85171/451+6 0. 3.85 H5,. 09=161. 378/ 3,9-1/92.65 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.

- +0D7. 0. -;4,@. % % E 86. /9,1. 0!.6/.2:7./ 0. -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8 ,.3,9/.65465


0./ >9;1-87./ /39-148? 3+8, 7. 5,46/3+,5 1608/5,1.7A 34, .?.237. 3+8>465 -1,-87.,
/8, 7./ 15169,41,./ 485+,1/9/ 48? -+6>+1/ .?-.351+66.7/ . 2+0D7. ./5 0./5169 48?
>9,1=1-451+6/ @969,47./ .5 48? >9,1=1-451+6/ 7+-47./

0 +0D7. 0. -;4,@. " " E 86 -;4,@.2.65 0. =+87.A 0./5169 861B8.2.65 C 0./


>9,1=1-451+6/ @969,47./

. -;4,@.2.65 0. =+87. ./5 34,51-871D,.2.65 433,+3,19 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ /1589/ .6 >177. +8 C
3,+?12159A 7+,/B8. /./ .==.5/ 6. /+65 34/ -+8>.,5/ 34, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.

% 7 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 7A .5 %A /.7+6 7. -4/A B8.7


B8. /+15 7. 5<3. 0. /158451+6 0. 3,+J.5 /158451+6/ 5,46/15+1,./ 7+,/ 0. 5,4>48? 0.
,934,451+6A 34, .?.237.

" 7 -+6>1.65 0. 6!85171/., 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. " B8. 3+8, -.,5416./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5
5,46/15+1,./

34
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) 6A: 6 8= 5

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. -+6/1/5. .6 0.8? /</5D2./ 34,51.7/ E

4 ./ -;4,@./ -+6-.65,9./ C 0+8:7. .//1.8 5460.2 E A -;4B8. .//1.8 4<465 3+8,


3+10/ E
α BI "
+O E
α /+65 0./ -+.==1-1.65/ 0!4J8/5.2.65
− 7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 48 378/ 86 5460.2 34, >+1. -+6>.651+66.77.
− 7 -+6>1.65 0. 6. -+6/109,., B8. 0./ 5460.2/ -+237.5/
− +8, 7!9>478451+6 0./ .==.5/ @969,48?A 17 -+6>1.65 0. /833+/., B8. -;4B8. 5460.2
-1,-87. 046/ 7!4?. 0./ >+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ 3+8, 7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ 7+-47./A >+1,
$ -1 0.//+8/ 416/1 B8. 1@8,. " :
− 7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., -;4B8. .//1.8 08 5460.2 -+22. 3+//90465 0.8? ,+8./
10.651B8./ K 74 -;4,@. 34, ,+8. ./5 34, -+6/9B8.65 9@47. C A$α BI
− 7 -+6>1.65 0!40+35., -+22. /8,=4-. 0. -+654-5 0. -;4-86. 0./ ,+8./ 86 -4,,9 0.
A" 2 0. -Q59 >+1, 1@8,. " :

: ./ -;4,@./ 861=+,292.65 ,934,51./ /</5D2. A 4>.- 86 3+10/ 48 2D5,. -4,,9


0. >+1. -+6>.651+66.77. 9@47 C E
α B #I "
+O E
α B /+65 0./ -+.==1-1.65/ 0!4J8/5.2.65
7 -+6>1.65 0. 6!43371B8., 7./ -;4,@./ 861=+,292.65 ,934,51./ B8. /8, 7./ 34,51./
09=4>+,4:7./ 0. 74 /8,=4-. 0!16=78.6-.A 7+6@15801647.2.65 .5 5,46/>.,/47.2.65

./5 0./5169 C -+8>,1, 0./ /158451+6/ 0. 5,4=1- =7810.A 0!.6-+2:,.2.65 .5 0. -+6@./51+6 .6


3,9/.6-. 0!86 3+8,-.654@. 123+,5465 0. 3+10/ 7+8,0/ 6 @969,47A 7+,/B8!17 ./5 85171/9 4>.- 7./ >47.8,/ 0.
:4/.A -. 2+0D7. -+8>,. 7./ .==.5/ 0!86 >9;1-87. /39-147 0. I 5.7 B8. 09=161 046/ 7!466.?.

7 -+6>1.65 0!43371B8., 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. /8, -;4-86. 0./ >+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./


416/1 B8. /8, 7./ 41,./ ,9/108.77./ 8, 74 >+1. -+6>.651+66.77. 6829,+ A 7./ 165.6/159/
0./ -;4,@./ /+65 09/1@69./ 34, α 1B1I .5 α B1 #1I >+1, 4:7.48 " 8, 7./ 41,./
,9/108.77./A 7!165.6/159 0. 74 -;4,@. ./5 09/1@69. 34, α B, #,I

% 7 -+6>1.65 0. -;+1/1, 7./ >47.8,/ 0./ -+.==1-1.65/ 0!4J8/5.2.65 α 1 A α B1 .5 α B, .6


=+6-51+6 08 5,4=1- 3,9>8 .5 9>.658.77.2.65 0./ 01==9,.65./ -74//./ 0!15169,41,./ 6
7!4:/.6-. 0. 3,9-1/1+6A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 7./ 3,.60,. 9@48? C 7!86159

./ >47.8,/ 0./ -+.==1-1.65/ α 1 A α B1 .5 α B, /+65 0+669./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. 46/ 5+8/
7./ -4/A 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ 6. -+23+,5465 34/ 0. /1@6471/451+6 71215465 7. 3+10/ 0./ >9;1-87./A +6 ,.-+22460.
7./ >47.8,/ 2161247./ /81>465./ E
α ≥ A .5 "%
3+8, E ≥ A α B1 ≥ K -.55. ,./5,1-51+6 6!./5 34/ 43371-4:7. C α B, ""

35
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

./ >47.8,/ 0./ -+.==1-1.65/ α 3.8>.65 -+,,./3+60,.A 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.A C 0./ -74//./ 0.
5,4=1- ,1/ 9@48? C A 17/ -+,,./3+60.65 C 86 5,4=1- 3+8, 7.B8.7 +6 3,9>+15 B8!86. 34,5 123+,5465. 08 5,4=1-
5+547 0. >9;1-87./ 7+8,0/ /.,4 ,.3,9/.659. 34, 7. 5,4=1- 1608/5,1.7 165.,6451+647 +8, 0./ -+23+/151+6/ 0.
5,4=1- 378/ -+8,465./ ,9/.48 ,+851., 3,16-1347 +8 485+,+85./ A 86. ,908-51+6 2+09,9. C [ 0./
-+.==1-1.65/ α 43371B89/ /8, 74 >+1. 48? 5460.2/ .5 48? -;4,@./ 861=+,292.65 ,934,51./ 3.85 H5,.
43371B89.

" +8, 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0. B1I .5 0. #1I A 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 16-78/.A 17
-+6>1.65 0. ,.5.61, 7./ >47.8,/ 0+669./ 046/ 7. 4:7.48 "

B: 7 ) 6A: 6 8= 5 G0 : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4

3: 8 12 16 D42A

= 5 4 6. 44 7 B1I I #1I ( 7 # ,I * I F2

#+1. 6P %
#+1. 6P A$
#+1. 6P% A$
85,./ >+1./ A$
1,. ,9/108.77. #,I A$

./ 095417/ 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. /+65 1778/5,9/ 34, 74 1@8,. " 4

Légende
#+1. 6P E B I W % I K # I W I F2
#+1. 6P E B I W I K # I W A$ I F2
% #+1. 6P% E B%I W I K #%I W A$ I F2
X +8, D! W %A 2

57 33: 8 2 1 67 6A: 6 8= 5

+8, -. 2+0D7.A 7!43371-451+6 0./ 34,4@,43;./ " " .5 " % C " -+60815A 046/ 74 3,451B8.A
C -;+1/1, 7./ 3+/151+6/ 0./ >+1./ 6829,+59./ .5 -.77./ 0./ 5460.2/ 046/ 74 37834,5 0./ -4/A 046/ 74 2H2.
/.-51+6 5,46/>.,/47. 4 7+6@8.8, .5 74 74,@.8, 0!43371-451+6 0. 74 -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. /+65
-.77./ 0./ 34,51./ 09=4>+,4:7./ 0./ /8,=4-./ 0!16=78.6-.

36
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

$ +8, 7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ 7+-47./A 17 -+6>1.65 0!43371B8., 86 5460.2 C 7!.2374-.2.65 7.


378/ 09=4>+,4:7. +,/B8. 0.8? 5460.2/ /+65 3,1/ .6 -+235. /8, 0.8? >+1./
-+6>.651+66.77./ 40J4-.65./A 17/ 3.8>.65 H5,. ,433,+-;9/A 74 01/546-. .65,. .//1.8? 6.
0.>465 -.3.60465 34/ H5,. 16=9,1.8,. C A$ 2 >+1, 1@8,. " :

57 B 33: 8 2 1 6 4 2 16 4 3 7 : 4 0; < 8 2 14 : 8 : 4

+,/B8. 7./ .==.5/ @969,48? .5 7./ .==.5/ 7+-48? 3.8>.65 H5,. -47-879/ /934,92.65A 7./
.==.5/ @969,48? 3.8>.65 H5,. -47-879/ .6 43371B8465 7!86. 0./ ,D@7./ /12371=19./
/81>465./ E

66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 7./ -+60151+6/ 0 85171/451+6 0. -./ ,D@7./ /12371=19./

4 7. 0.8?1D2. .5 7. 5,+1/1D2. 5460.2/ /+65 ,.2374-9/ 34, 86 /.-+60 5460.2 0+65 7.


3+10/ 0!.//1.8 ./5 9@47 C E

α ^ α % I A +8 :1.6 "$

: 3+8, 7./ 3+,59./ /839,1.8,./ C 2A -;4B8. 5460.2 0. -;4B8. >+1. ./5 ,.2374-9 34,
86. -;4,@. -+6-.65,9. 0!86 .//1.8 861B8. 0!86 3+10/ 9@47 C 74 /+22. 0./ 3+10/ 0./
0.8? .//1.8?

46/ -. -4/A 7. 3+10/ 0. 7!.//1.8 861B8. >485 E


) α I /8, 74 >+1. 6P
) " α I /8, 74 >+1. 6P
) α % I /8, 74 >+1. 6P %

37
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) 6A: 6 8= 5

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. -+6/1/5. .6 86. -;4,@. 0!.//1.8 861B8. β B4I A B8!17 -+6>1.65
0!43371B8., .6 86 3+165 B8.7-+6B8. 0. 74 -;48//9.A B4I 95465 9@47 C " I A 24J+,451+6
0<6421B8. -+23,1/. .3.60465A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 17 ./5 3+//1:7. 0. 6. 3,.60,. .6 -+235.
B8!86. ,+8. 0. β I

7 -+6>1.65 0. 09=161, 74 >47.8, 0. β

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 0+66., 74 >47.8, 0. β 7 ./5 ,.-+224609 0 40+35., β Wα

% 8 >+1/164@. 0./ J+165/ 0. 01745451+6A 17 -+6>1.65 0!43371B8., 86 -+.==1-1.65 0.


24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. /833792.6541,. 9@47 C 74 >47.8, 09=161. .6 "

" +22. /8,=4-. 0. -+654-5 0. -;4B8. ,+8.A 17 -+6>1.65 0!40+35., 86 ,.-546@7. 0.


A%$2 × A 2 >+1, 1@8,. " %

;5 16
1,.-51+6 0. 7!4?. 7+6@15801647 08 3+65
'+,08,.

57 E ) 6A: 6 8= 5
./ /8,=4-./ 0. -+654-5 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. .5 01==D,.65A -+8>,465 0./ 5<3./ 0. 2+0D7./
0. 36.8/A 0. 01/3+/151+6 .5 0. 01/5,1:851+6 0. 3,.//1+6 01==9,.65/ ./ /8,=4-./ 0. -+654-5 08 2+0D7. 0.
-;4,@. A -+,,./3+60465 C 0./ ,+8./ J82.79./A -+6>1.66.65 6+,247.2.65 3+8, 7./ 0477./ +,5;+5,+3./

4, /12371=1-451+6A 7! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 40+35., 74 2H2. /8,=4-. 0. -+654-5 -4,,9. 3+8, 7./
,+8./ 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. .5

38
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) 6A: 6 8= 5 (0;= 87: 4 43;8 7@*

. -4/ 9-;9465A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 09=161, .5 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 0./ 2+0D7./ 0.


>9;1-87./ /39-148?

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. % .5 /./ -+60151+6/ 0!85171/451+6 !466.?.
0+66. 0./ 1601-451+6/ B8465 C 0./ 2+0D7./ /54604,0 .5 C 7.8,/ -+60151+6/ 0!43371-451+6

# ) 6A: 6 8= 5 (8= 5 12 6 < 7: *

+,/B8!17 < 4 71.8 0. -+6/109,., 7. -;4,@.2.65 0. =+87.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 7. ,.3,9/.65.,


34, 86 2+0D7. -+6/1/5465 .6 86. -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. -+23,.6465 86.
24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 9@47. C $ I F2

!43371-451+6 0. " 3.85 =41,. 7!+:J.5 0. /39-1=1-451+6/ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

7 -+6>1.65 0!43371B8., 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. " /8, 7./ 7+6@8.8,/ .5 74,@.8,/


433,+3,19./ 08 54:71., 08 3+65 ,+851.,A 5.,,. 37.16 -.65,47 -+23,1/ 7. -4/ 9-;9465A -.
/</5D2. 0. -;4,@.2.65A 0./5169 C 0./ >9,1=1-451+6/ @969,47./A 6!95465 /.87.2.65 4//+-19
B8!C 86. /158451+6 0. 3,+J.5 5,46/15+1,.

<<74 1 6 4 8= 5 4 8 18 12 ; 4

7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 7./ 01>.,/./ -;4,@./ -+6-.65,9./ C 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 3+8,


7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ 7+-47./ .5 4//+-19./ 48? 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ .5 A -+22.
861=+,292.65 ,934,51./ /8, 5+85. 7.8, /8,=4-. 0. -+654-5

7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., B8. 7.8, 01==8/1+6 C 5,4>.,/ 7. ,.>H5.2.65 .5 74 0477. .6


:95+6 /!.==.-58. C "$P J8/B8!48 61>.48 08 3746 2+<.6 0. 74 0477. 1@8,. " "

46/ 7. -4/ 0!86. 01==8/1+6 C 5,4>.,/ 86 ,.2:741 +8 046/ 7. /+7A >+1, 7./ -+,,./3+60465./
.6 "

;5 16
,.//1+6 0. -+654-5 0. 74 ,+8.
.>H5.2.65
% 477. .6 :95+6
4 746 2+<.6 0. 74 0477.
57 E <<74 1 6 4 8= 5 4 8 18 12 ; 4
? 2 0 4 0C2 12 2 6 :: 1 B;2 1

39
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% 7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., B8. 74 01==8/1+6 C 5,4>.,/ 7. ,.>H5.2.65 .5 7./ 0477./


+,5;+5,+3./ /!.==.-58. C "$P J8/B8!48 61>.48 08 3746 2+<.6 08 3745.74@. 1@8,. " $

6 6. 51.65 34/ -+235. 0. 74 ,934,5151+6 5,46/>.,/47. 0. 74 -;4,@. .65,. 7./ 6.,>8,./ 0. 74 0477.
+,5;+5,+3.

57 #E <<74 1 6 4 8= 5 4 8 18 12 ; 4 ? 2 0 4 0C2 12
2 6 :: 2= 2 3

8 4= H 12 : 4 E : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4

8 46 < 1 5 2 6. 88;:; 2 1

6. =+,-. 0. =,.164@.A B7I A /!.?.,N465 7+6@15801647.2.65 48 61>.48 0. 74 -;48//9.


=161.A 0+15 H5,. 3,1/. .6 -+235.

7 -+6>1.65 0. -47-87., 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. B7I A 712159. C I 3+8, 74


74,@.8, 5+547. 08 3+65A -+22. 74 =,4-51+6 09=161. -1 43,D/ 0. 74 5+547159 0./ -;4,@./
>.,51-47./ 24?1247./ -+,,./3+60465 48 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. /8/-.351:7. 0!H5,. 43371B89
/8, 74 >+1. 6P E

B7I = A α B I + A α B # I D7 4
"
α I> ≤ B7I ≤ I>

4>.- E

4 7+6@8.8, 08 54:71., +8 0. 74 34,51. -+6/109,9. 0. -.781 -1

4, .?.237.A /1 7./ -+.==1-1.65/ α /+65 9@48? C 7!86159A B7I W % ^ A 4 ≤ I 3+8, 86.


>+1. 0. % 2 0. 74,@.8, .5 86. 7+6@8.8, 0!43371-451+6 0. 74 -;4,@. 4_ A 2

4 71215. /839,1.8,. I 3.85 H5,. 4J8/59. 34, 7! 66.?. 451+647. 4 >47.8, 0. I


>1/. 6+,247.2.65 C -+8>,1, 74 =+,-. 24?1247. 0. =,.164@. 0./ >9;1-87./ 2171541,./ -+6=+,292.65 48?
4--+,0/ 0. 6+,2471/451+6 $

% 7 < 4 71.8 0. 09=161, 7./ =+,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ 4//+-19./ 48 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. % 0.


2461D,. 433,+3,19.

E7 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 7./ =+,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ 4//+-19./ 48 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. %

$ E 17154,< 04,01L451+6 ,..2.65/

40
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

" 7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., -.55. =+,-. -+22. /8/-.351:7. 0!H5,. 43371B89. /81>465
7!4?. 0. 6!123+,5. B8.77. >+1. .3.60465A /1 7./ .==.5/ 0. 7!.?-.65,1-159 /+65
69@71@.4:7./A -.55. =+,-. 3.85 H5,. -+6/109,9. -+22. 43371B89. /.87.2.65 /81>465 7!4?.
0. 74 -;48//9. .5 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. /8, 74 7+6@8.8, -;4,@9.

$ 7 -+6>1.65 0!455,1:8., 48? =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 74 2H2. 165.6/159 B8!48? =+,-./ 0.


=,.164@.A 241/ 046/ 7. /.6/ +33+/9

,451B8.2.65A -.74 /1@61=1. B8. B I 3.85 H5,. 48//1 :1.6 69@451>. B8. 3+/151>.

7 < 4 71.8 0. 09=161, 74 =+,-. ;+,1L+6547. 5,46/21/. 34, 7./ J+165/ 0. 01745451+6 +8
43371B89. C 0./ 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? 6. 3+8>465 H5,. -;4,@9/ B8. 34, 86 /.87 .//1.8

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 74 >47.8, 0. B7I 4 >47.8, ,.-+224609. ./5


B7I = A α B I " 4

8 4 8 12 <75 4 2 72 4 < 8 4 2 140 4 : 4

7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@. B5I -+22. 86. =+,-. 5,46/>.,/47.


/!.?.,N465 48 61>.48 0. 74 -;48//9. =161.A 046/ 86. 01,.-51+6 ,40147. 34, ,433+,5 C 7!4?.
0. -.77. -1

+8, 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. B5I A .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 16-78/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. ,.5.61,


7./ >47.8,/ 08 4:7.48 " %

B: 7 E : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4 6 4 < 8 4 8 12 <75 4

B5I = A B> I /1 ] 2

B5I = " B> F I /1 ≤ ≤ $ 2

B5I W /1 _ $ 2

4>.- E

,4<+6 0. -+8,:8,. .6 3746 0. 7!4?. 0. 74 -;48//9. `2a

B> 3+10/ 5+547 24?1247 0./ -;4,@./ -+6-.65,9./ >.,51-47./ 0./ 5460.2/ 08 2+0D7.
0. -;4,@. A α 1 B1I >+1, 4:7.48 "

% 7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., B5I -+22. 86. -;4,@. 3+6-58.77. /8/-.351:7. 0. /!.?.,-.,


48 0,+15 0. 6!123+,5. B8.77. /.-51+6 5,46/>.,/47. 08 54:71.,

" . -4/ 9-;9465A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 0./ =+,-./ 7459,47./ 08./ 48
=,.164@. .6 :141/ +8 48 09,434@. 7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 7!.?1/5.6-. 0!86. =+,-. 0.
=,.164@. 5,46/>.,/47. B5,I A 9@47. C $[ 0. 74 =+,-. 0. =,.164@. +8 0!4--979,451+6
7+6@15801647. B7I .5 4@1//465 /128754692.65 48 61>.48 0. 74 -;48//9. =161.

41
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 86. =+,-. 5,46/>.,/47. 2161247. 46/ 74 37834,5 0./ -4/A 7./
=+,-./ ,9/875465 0. 7!4-51+6 08 >.65 .5 7./ -;+-/ -+65,. 7./ :+,08,./ .6@.60,.65 86. =+,-. 5,46/>.,/47.
/8==1/465.

# 73 4 6 8= 5 4 6 2 < 8 47 : 4 3 124 72 4

# : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4 6 :. 82 1 ? 8 3 4 12 4 7:2 3: 4

7 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 74 /12875469159 0./ /</5D2./ 0. -;4,@.2.65 09=161/


.6 " % 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. A " % % 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. A " % " 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. % A
" % $ 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. " A " " =+,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ .5 0./ -;4,@./ /8, 5,+55+1,/ 09=161./
046/ 74 /.-51+6 $A 34, 7./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@./ 09=161/ 046/ 7. 4:7.48 " "4A -;4-86 0!.65,.
.8? 95465 -+6/109,9 /934,92.65 -+22. 86. 4-51+6 -4,4-59,1/51B8. 3+8, 74 -+2:1641/+6
4>.- 0./ -;4,@./ 485,./ B8. -.77./ 08 5,4=1-

42
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 E ;2 1 2 1 6 4 5 73 4 6 8= 5 4 6 2 < 8 (0 : 7 4 8 82; 42 >7 4 6 :. 82 1 ? 8 3 4 12 4 7:2 3: 4*


+

% &
D3 6 8= 5 8 40 28 : 4 8 4= H 12 : 4 8 40 28 : 4
4 7: 12
9=9,.6-. "% "%% "%" "%$ "" "" $%
</5D2. 0. -;4,@.2.65 % " +,-./ 0. +,-./ ;4,@.
.5 //1.8 861B8. #9;1-87./ ;4,@.2.65 0. =,.164@. .5 -.65,1=8@./ .5 861=+,292.65
/39-148? =+87. 0!4--979,451+6 =+,-./ ,934,51.
5,46/>.,/47./
4 4
@, 4 #47.8,/ #47.8, 0.
-4,4-59,1/51B8./ -+2:1641/+6:
@, : #47.8,
-4,4-59,1/51B8.
@, #47.8,/ #47.8, #47.8,
=,9B8.65./ -4,4-59,1/51B8. -4,4-59,1/51B8.
,+83./ 0. @,% 0 #47.8,
-;4,@./ -4,4-59,1/51B8.-
@," #47.8, #47.8,
-4,4-59,1/51B8. -4,4-59,1/51B8.
@,$ #+1, 66.?. #47.8,
-4,4-59,1/51B8.
-51+6 -+23+/465. 0+216465. 433.79. -+23+/465. 4//+-19. 48 @,+83.
4
.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647.
:
.85 H5,. 09=161. 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. 4 >47.8, ,.-+224609. ./5 % I F2
-
#+1, $ % 7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., B8!86 /.87 5,+55+1, ./5 -;4,@9 /1 7!.==.5 ./5 378/ 09=4>+,4:7. B8. -.781 0. 0.8? 5,+55+1,/ -;4,@9/
0
. @,+83. ./5 /46/ +:J.5 /1 @," ./5 3,1/ .6 -+235.

43
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

# 72 4 0 : 7 4 3 ;4 12 2 0 4 6 :. 82 1 ? 8 3 4 12 4 7:2 3: 4

7 -+6>1.65 0. 6!1659@,., 046/ 74 >47.8, =,9B8.65. 0. 7!4-51+6 B8. 7./ >47.8,/


=,9B8.65./ 0. A +8 7./ >47.8,/ =,9B8.65./ 0. +8 .6-+,. 7./ >47.8,/ =,9B8.65./
0./ -;4,@./ /8, 5,+55+1,/ +8 31/5./ -<-74:7./ .6 3,.6465 74 378/ 09=4>+,4:7. A /46/
48-86. 485,. -+23+/465.A -+22. 09=161 046/ 7. 4:7.48 " ":

+8, 7./ -+23+/465./ 1601>108.77./ 0. 7!4-51+6 08 5,4=1-A -./ >47.8,/ ,.3,9/.65451>./ /+65 09=161./
046/ 7! A

+8, 7./ >47.8,/ B84/1 3.,246.65./ @969,47.2.65 9@47./ C L9,+ A >+1, 7! A

% +,/B8. 7! 66.?. 451+647. =415 ,9=9,.6-. C 0./ >47.8,/ 6+6 =,9B8.65./ 0./ 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./A +6
3.85 43371B8., 74 2H2. ,D@7. B8!.6 " $ A .6 ,.2374N465 5+85./ 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 08 4:7.48 " "
34, 0./ >47.8,/ 6+6 =,9B8.65./ 09=161./ 046/ 7! A A /46/ 2+01=1., 7./ 485,./ >47.8,/ 08 4:7.48
. @,+83. @, 3+8, 7./ >47.8,/ 6+6 =,9B8.65./ ./5 69462+16/ 3,451B8.2.65 /46/ +:J.5 046/ 7. -4/ 0./
3+65/ ,+851.,/

B: 7 B E ;2 1 2 1 6 4 5 73 4 6 8= 5 4 6 2 < 8 (0 : 7 4 < ;>7 12 4


6 :. 82 1 ? 8 3 4 12 4 7:2 3: 4*

& '
<3. 0. -;4,@. +,-./ >.,51-47./
9=9,.6-. "% "%% $%
</5D2. 0. -;4,@.2.65 .5 .//1.8 861B8. ;4,@. 861=+,292.65
,934,51.
@, 4 #47.8,/ =,9B8.65./
,+83./ @, : #47.8, =,9B8.65.
0. -;4,@./
@,% #47.8, =,9B8.65. 4
4
7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., B8!86 /.87 5,+55+1, ./5 -;4,@9 /1 7!.==.5 ./5 378/ 09=4>+,4:7. B8. -.781 0. 0.8? 5,+55+1,/
-;4,@9/

# 73 4 6 8= 5 4 6 14 : 4 4 27 2 14 6 3 F 2 2 14 2 4

./ ,D@7./ 0+669./ .6 " $ .5 " $ /+65 43371-4:7./ /+8/ ,9/.,>. 0./ 2+01=1-451+6/
1601B89./ .6 " $ %

+8, 7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ ,.7451>./ C 0./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 5,46/15+1,./A 17 -+6>1.65 0.


3,.60,. 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 4//+-19./ 48 5460.2 9@47./ C A α 1B1I A 5+85./ 7./
485,./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./A =,9B8.65./ .5 B84/1 3.,246.65./A 0. 2H2. B8. 7./ =+,-./
;+,1L+6547./A 95465 5.77./ B8. /39-1=19./ 3+8, 7./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 08,4:7./A /46/
48-86. 2+01=1-451+6 -!./5 C 01,. B8!.77./ 6. /+65 34/ ,90815./ 3,+3+,51+66.77.2.65 48
3+10/ 0./ 5460.2/

46/ 7./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 5,46/15+1,./ 719./ C 7!.65,.51.6 0./ ,+85./ +8 0./ 3+65/A 7. 5,4=1- ./5
@969,47.2.65 -+6-.65,9 /8, 0./ /8,=4-./ 378/ 3.515./A /46/ H5,. ,90815 0. 2461D,. /1@61=1-451>.A .5 7./
.6-+2:,.2.65/ 0. 7+6@8. 08,9. /+65 =,9B8.65/ .3.60465A 0./ ,908-51+6/ 378/ 123+,5465./ 3.8>.65 H5,.
09-109./A 2+<.66465 74 21/. .6 \8>,. 0. 2./8,./ 404359./ 3+8, 09>1., 7./ -421+6/ 7./ 378/ 7+8,0/

44
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) 6A: 4 6 8= 5 4 6 < 2 57

;1; : 2;4

4 -1,-87451+6 08 5,4=1- /8, 7./ 3+65/ .6@.60,. 86 /3.-5,. 0. -+65,4165./ B81 3.85
-+6081,. C 74 =451@8. . /3.-5,. 093.60 0./ -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8A 0. 74 @9+295,1. 0./
>9;1-87./A 0. 7.8, ./34-.2.65A 0. 74 -+23+/151+6 08 5,4=1- 416/1 B8. 0. /./ .==.5/
0<6421B8./

16B 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. =451@8. /+65 09=161/ 046/ -. B81 /815A 0. "
C"

+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7A 0./ =+,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ 3.8>.65 0.>+1, H5,. 3,1/./ .6 -+235. .6 2H2.
5.23/ B8. 7./ =+,-./ >.,51-47./ E 17 < 4 34,=+1/ 71.8A 34, .?.237.A 0. -+6/109,., /128754692.65 7./ =+,-./
-.65,1=8@./ .5 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./

!85171/451+6 0./ 01==9,.65/ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. ./5 09=161. 046/ 7./ C
.5 0./ 16=+,2451+6/ -+23792.6541,./ /+65 =+8,61./ -1 43,D/ E

4 ./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. A .5 % /+65 0./5169/ C H5,. 85171/9/ 3+8, 095.,216., 7./ -+65,4165./
24?1247./ .5 2161247./ ,9/875465 0./ 01==9,.65./ 01/3+/151+6/ 3+//1:7./ 0./ -;4,@./ 08 2+0D7. /8, 7.
3+65 K 046/ 0. 6+2:,.8? -4/A /.87. 74 01==9,.6-. 47@9:,1B8. .65,. -./ -+65,4165./ ./5 85171/9. 046/ 7./
C

: ./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ 0. =451@8. " .5 $ /+65 0./5169/ C H5,. 85171/9/ 3+8, 095.,216., 0./ /3.-5,./ 0.
>4,1451+6 0. -+65,4165. ,9/875465 08 34//4@. 0. -421+6/ /8, 7. 3+65

- ./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ 0. =451@8. .5 /+65 0./5169/ C H5,. 85171/9/ 3+8, >9,1=1., /1 74 08,9. 0. >1.
>1/ C >1/ 0. 74 =451@8. 3.85 H5,. -+6/109,9. -+22. 17712159. 7+,/B8!86. 71215. 0. =451@8. C 42371580.
0. -+65,4165. -+6/5465. ./5 =1?9. !./5 3+8,B8+1 17/ -+6>1.66.65 3+8, 7./ -+6/5,8-51+6/ .6 4-1., .5
3.8>.65 H5,. 16404359/ 3+8, 0!485,./ 2459,148? . 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. ./5 @969,47.2.65
-+6/.,>45.8, .5 ,.-+8>,. 485+2451B8.2.65 7./ .==.5/ 08 -;4,@.2.65 0. 378/1.8,/ >+1./ . 2+0D7. 0.
-;4,@. 0. =451@8. ./5 378/ 3,9-1/ B8. 7. 2+0D7. 7+,/B8. 74 3,9/.6-. /12875469. 0. 378/1.8,/
-421+6/ /8, 7. 3+65 3.85 H5,. 69@71@9. 046/ 7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ >1/ C >1/ 0. 74 =451@8. 1 -. 6!./5 34/ 7.
-4/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 6. 7!85171/., B8. -+237959 34, 0./ 0+669./ /833792.6541,./ 7! 66.?. 451+647.
3.85 =1?., 7./ -+60151+6/ 0 .237+1 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ 0. =451@8. .5

0 ./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ 0. =451@8. %A " .5 $ /+65 0./5169/ C H5,. 85171/9/ 3+8, ./512., 74 08,9. 0. >1.
>1/ C >1/ 0. 74 =451@8. 34, ,9=9,.6-. 48? -+8,:./ 0. ,9/1/546-. C 74 =451@8. 09=161./ 046/ 7./ C
7 6. -+6>1.65 34/ 0. 7./ 85171/., 046/ 7. :85 0. >9,1=1., /1 74 08,9. 0. >1. >1/ C >1/ 0. 74
=451@8. 3.85 H5,. -+6/109,9. -+22. 17712159. !./5 74 ,41/+6 3+8, 74B8.77. 17/ 6. /+65 34/
6829,1B8.2.65 -+234,4:7./ 48? 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. .5 . 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0.
=451@8. % 3.85 9@47.2.65 H5,. 85171/9 3+8, 74 >9,1=1-451+6 01,.-5. 08 012.6/1+66.2.65 C 7!410. 0.
295;+0./ /12371=19./ 046/ 7./B8.77./ 7!16=78.6-. 08 >+782. 4668.7 0. 5,4=1- .5 -.77. 0. -.,5416./
012.6/1+6/ 08 3+65 /+65 3,1/./ .6 -+235. 34, 86 -+.==1-1.65 0!4J8/5.2.65 λ. 093.60465 0./
2459,148?

. . 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. " ./5 378/ 3,9-1/ B8. 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. % 3+8, 0.
6+2:,.8/./ /+,5./ 0. 3+65/ .5 0. 5,4=1-A 7+,/B8. 74 3,9/.6-. /12875469. 0. 378/1.8,/ -421+6/ /8, 7.
3+65 3.85 H5,. 69@71@9. 1 -. 6!./5 34/ 7. -4/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 6. 7!85171/., B8. -+237959 34, 0./ 0+669./
/833792.6541,./A /39-1=19./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.

= . 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. $A B81 85171/. 0./ 0+669./ 08 5,4=1- ,9.7A ./5 7. 2+0D7. 7. 378/ @969,47

% ./ >47.8,/ 0./ -;4,@./ 0+669./ 3+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. =451@8. C % -+6>1.66.65 3+8, 86 5,4=1-
7+8,0 ,.3,9/.65451= 08 5,4=1- ,.6-+65,9 /8, 7./ ,+85./ 3,16-1347./ +8 7./ 485+,+85./ 0! 8,+3. -459@+,1. 0.
5,4=1- 6829,+ 5.77. B8. 09=161. 046/ 7. 4:7.48 " $

45
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

" 46/ 7. -4/ 0./ 485,./ -459@+,1./ 0. 5,4=1-A 7./ >47.8,/ 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. .5
3.8>.65 H5,. 2+01=19./ 34, 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 46/ -. -4/A 17 -+6>1.65 B8.
7./ 2+01=1-451+6/ 433+,59./ 48? 0.8? 2+0D7./ /+1.65 3,+3+,51+66.77./ +8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0.
=451@8. %A 74 2+01=1-451+6 093.60 0. 74 3,+-908,. 0. >9,1=1-451+6

% +8, 7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ >1/ C >1/ 0. 74 =451@8.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 09=161, 7./ -459@+,1./ 0.
5,4=1- /8, 7./ 3+65/ 48 2+16/ 34, E
) 7. 6+2:,. 0. >+1./ 7.65./A
) 7. 6+2:,. > +:/ 0. >9;1-87./ 7+8,0/ /839,1.8, C I +:/.,>9/ +8 ./5129/A
34, 46 .5 34, >+1. 7.65. - ./5 C 01,. 86. >+1. 3,16-1347.2.65 .23,8659. 34, 7./
>9;1-87./ 7+8,0/

./ -459@+,1./ 0. 5,4=1- .5 7./ >47.8,/ -+,,./3+60465./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 378/ 3,9-1/92.65
046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. ./ >47.8,/ 1601-451>./ 0. > +:/ /+65 0+669./ 34, 7. 4:7.48 " $ 3+8, 86. >+1.
7.65. 7+,/B8!+6 85171/. 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. % .5 " 6 3.85 .6 +85,. 4J+85.,
[ 0. > +:/ 3+8,
-;4B8. >+1. ,4310. - ./5 C 01,. 86. >+1. 3,16-1347.2.65 .23,8659. 34, 7./ >9;1-87./ 79@.,/

B: 7 # (1* E B 16 8 2 < 6 0;= 87: 4 : 7 64 3 ;074 3 1 23 0 : 12

2;5 46 2 <8 B4 3 1 23 0 : 12
+85./ .5 485+,+85./ C >+1./ +8 378/ A ×
046/ -;4B8. /.6/A 4>.- 86 5,4=1- 0.
-421+6/ 97.>9
+85./ .5 485+,+85./ 4>.- 86 5,4=1- 0. A$ ×
-421+6/ 2+<.6
% +85./ 3,16-1347./ 4>.- 86 =41:7. 5,4=1- A $×
0. -421+6/
" +85./ 7+-47./ 4>.- 86 =41:7. 5,4=1- 0. A $×
-421+6/

. 4:7.48 " $ 6!./5 34/ /8==1/465 3+8, -4,4-59,1/., 7. 5,4=1- .6 >8. 0./ >9,1=1-451+6/ >1/ C >1/ 0.
74 =451@8. !485,./ 34,42D5,./ 3.8>.65 0.>+1, H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235.A 34, .?.237. E
3+8,-.654@./ 0. >9;1-87./ 34, G5<3. 0. 5,4=1-G >+1, 34, .?.237. 7. 4:7.48 " A
34,42D5,./ 09=161//465 74 ,934,5151+6 08 3+10/ 0./ >9;1-87./ +8 0./ .//1.8? 0. -;4B8. 5<3.

% 7 6!.?1/5. 34/ 0. ,.7451+6 @969,47. .65,. 7./ -459@+,1./ 0. 5,4=1- >1/ C >1/ 0./ >9,1=1-451+6/ C 74
=451@8. .5 7./ -74//./ 0. -;4,@.2.65 .5 -+.==1-1.65/ α 4//+-19/ 2.651+669/ .6 " .5 " %

" ./ >47.8,/ 165.,290141,./ 0. >+:/ 6. /+65 34/ .?-78./A 241/ 17 ./5 3.8 3,+:4:7. B8!.77./ 41.65
86 .==.5 5,D/ /1@61=1-451= /8, 74 08,9. 0. >1. >1/ C >1/ 0. 74 =451@8.

" +8, 7!9>478451+6 0./ .==.5/ @969,48? 0./ 4-51+6/ 046/ 7./ 3+85,./ 3,16-1347./A 34,
.?.237. A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -.65,., 5+8/ 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ 0. =451@8. /8, 7./ >+1./
-+6>.651+66.77./ 09=161./ /.7+6 7./ 3,16-13./ .5 ,D@7./ 0+669/ .6 " " .5 % .5
0!10.651=1., 7./ >+1./ 7.65./ 046/ 7. -40,. 08 3,+J.5

$ +8, 7!9>478451+6 0./ .==.5/ 7+-48? 046/ 7./ 0477./ 34, .?.237. A 17 -+6>1.65 0.
-.65,., 7./ 2+0D7./ /8, 7./ >+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ 3+/151+669./ 0. 2461D,. B8.7-+6B8.
/8, 74 -;48//9. .3.60465A 7C +O 74 3+/151+6 5,46/>.,/47. 0./ >9;1-87./ 0./ 2+0D7./ 0.
-;4,@./ 0. =451@8. %A " .5 $ 4 0. 7!123+,546-. 3+8, 7./ .==.5/ 958019/ 3+8, 7./ 54:71.,/
+,5;+5,+3./ 34, .?.237. A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 86. 01/5,1:851+6 /5451/51B8. 0. -.55.
3+/151+6 5,46/>.,/47.A -+6=+,292.65 C 74 1@8,. "

46
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

57 42 B72 1 6 4 < ;>7 18 4 6 : 3 4 2 1


2 140 4 : 6 :. @ 6.71 0;= 87:

./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. C " 51.66.65 -+235. 0!86. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8.


-+,,./3+60465 C 86. :+66. B847159 0. ,.>H5.2.65 >+1, 466.?. ' 7 -+6>1.65 0.
-+6/109,., 86 -+.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. /833792.6541,. ∆ϕ =45 C 3,+?12159
0./ J+165/ 0. 01745451+6A 43371-4:7. C 5+85./ 7./ -;4,@./ E
(
∆ϕ=45 = A% − K ∆ϕ=45 ≥ "

+O E
./5 74 01/546-. 2 .65,. 74 /.-51+6 5,46/>.,/47. -+6/109,9. .5 7. J+165 0. 01745451+6
>+1, 1@8,. "

;5 16
∆ϕ=45 -+.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. /833792.6541,.
( 01/546-. .65,. 74 /.-51+6 5,46/>.,/47. -+6/109,9. .5 7. J+165 0. 01745451+6

57 , 3 ;4 12 2 1 67 8 << 8 12 6 F 2 1 6D1 >7


4733:; 12

6. /12371=1-451+6 -+6/.,>45,1-.A /+8>.65 4--.354:7.A 3.85 -+6/1/5., C 40+35., ∆ϕ =45 = A% 3+8,


5+85. /.-51+6 5,46/>.,/47. /1589. C 2+16/ 0. 2 08 J+165 0. 01745451+6 4 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8.
/833792.6541,. 3.85 H5,. 2+01=19. 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. .?3,.//1+6 " ./5 ,.-+224609.

47
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) 6A: 6 8= 5 6 < 2 57 ( 1 : 57 ? ) *

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. 7 4 74 -+6=1@8,451+6 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.


-4,4-59,1/51B8. 09=161 .6 " % A 4>.- 3+8, >47.8, 0./ -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8 A B1I .5 3+8,
>47.8,/ 0./ -;4,@./ 861=+,292.65 ,934,51./ A%#1I .5 /48= /39-1=1-451+6 01==9,.65.
A%#,I

./ >47.8,/ 0./ -;4,@./ 08 2+0D7. 0. =451@8. /+65 /.2:74:7./ C -.77./ 09=161./ 3+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0.
-;4,@./ =,9B8.65./ .3.60465A 7!40+351+6A /46/ 4J8/5.2.65A 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@./ =,9B8.65./ 48,415 959
.?-.//1>.2.65 -+6/.,>45,1-. 34, ,433+,5 48? 485,./ 2+0D7./A .6 34,51-871., 3+8, 7./ @,460./ /8,=4-./
-;4,@9./ +8, -.,5416/ 3,+J.5/ 1601>108.7/A # I 3.85 H5,. 69@71@9

7 -+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., 7./ -+65,4165./ 24?1247. .5 2161247. σ A 24? .5


σ A 216 C 34,51, 0./ 01/3+/151+6/ 3+//1:7./ 0./ -;4,@./ 08 2+0D7. /8, 7. 3+65

) 6A: 6 8= 5 6 < 2 57 ( 14 B: 6 8 14 I< ;>7 124I*

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. -+6/1/5. .6 86 .6/.2:7. 0. -421+6/ 109471/9/A


433.79/ -421+6/ G=,9B8.65/GA C 85171/., -+22. 09=161 .6 % -1 0.//+8/

;4B8. G-421+6 =,9B8.65G ./5 09=161 34, E


) 7. 6+2:,. 0!.//1.8? .5 7.8, ./34-.2.65 4:7.48 " A -+7+66./ ^ A
) 74 >47.8, =,9B8.65. 0. -;4B8. -;4,@. 0!.//1.8 4:7.48 " A -+7+66. % A
) 7./ /8,=4-./ 0. -+654-5 0./ ,+8./ .5 74 01/546-. 5,46/>.,/47. .65,. 7./ ,+8./ -+7+66. "
08 4:7.48 " .5 4:7.48 "

% 7 -+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., 7./ -+65,4165./ 24?1247. .5 2161247. C 34,51, 0./ .==.5/ 7./
378/ /9>D,./ 3,+0815/ 34, 0./ -421+6/ 01==9,.65/A -+6/109,9/ /934,92.65A -1,-87465 /.87/
7. 7+6@ 0. 74 >+1. 433,+3,19.

8460 -.,5416/ 0. -./ -421+6/ /+65 0. 5+85. 9>10.6-. 7./ 378/ -,151B8./A 7./ 485,./ 3.8>.65 H5,.
69@71@9/

48
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 E 14 B: 6 8 14 J< ;>7 124K

+ 43 8 12 = 5 D3 6
) 6 4 44 7@ 6. 44 7 7 >+1,
2 < ;>7 12 4:7.48
I "
"A$
'

"A
A% " '
" '

%A
$A '
A%
A%

%A"
A '
A " '
" '
"A
%A '
"A"
A%

) 6A: 6 8= 5 6 < 2 57 ( 6A: ? 0;= 87: 71 >7 *

. 2+0D7. -+6/1/5. .6 B845,. .//1.8?A -;4-86 4<465 0.8? ,+8./ 10.651B8./ 4


@9+295,1. ./5 ,.3,9/.659. 34, 74 1@8,. " . 3+10/ 0. -;4B8. .//1.8 ./5 9@47 C I
.5 74 /8,=4-. 0. -+654-5 0. -;4B8. ,+8. ./5 86 -4,,9 0. A" 2 0. -Q59

;5 16
D7 74,@.8, 0. 74 >+1.
4?. 7+6@15801647 08 3+65
57 / E ) 6A: 6 8= 5 6 < 2 57

49
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

7 -+6>1.65 0. -47-87., 7./ -+65,4165./ 24?1247. .5 2161247. 416/1 B8. 7./ >4,1451+6/
0. -+65,4165./ 3+8, -;4B8. -<-7. ) -!./5 C 01,. 7.8, 01==9,.6-. 47@9:,1B8. A /+8/ 7!.==.5
08 09374-.2.65 08 2+0D7. 7. 7+6@ 08 3+65

% . -4/ 9-;9465A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 0.8? >9;1-87./ /8, 74 2H2. >+1.

./ -+60151+6/ 0!43371-451+6 0. -.55. ,D@7. 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8,
7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 ./ -+60151+6/ 3+//1:7./ ,.-+224609./ /+65 1601B89./ -1 43,D/ E
) 86 >9;1-87. ./5 5.7 B8. 09=161 .6 -1 0.//8/K
) 74 @9+295,1. 08 /.-+60 >9;1-87. ./5 5.77. B8. 09=161. .6 -1 0.//8/A 4>.- 86 3+10/ 0!.//1.8 0. % I
C -;4B8. =+1/ 48 71.8 0. I K
) 7!.65,!4?. 0./ >9;1-87./ 6!./5 34/ 16=9,1.8, C " 2

# ) 6A: 6 8= 5 6 < 2 57 ( 14 B: 6 8 14 I42 16 6I*

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@./ 0. =451@8. " -+6/1/5. .6 86 .6/.2:7. 0. -421+6/ /54604,0


3,+081/465 .6/.2:7. 0./ .==.5/ 9B81>47.65/ C -.8? 08 5,4=1- 5<31B8. 0./ ,+85./
.8,+39.66./ 7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 86 .6/.2:7. 0. -421+6/ 404359 48?
-+2:1641/+6/ 0. 5,4=1- 3,9>8./ /8, 7!15169,41,. -+6-.,69A -+22. 09=161 046/ 7./
4:7.48? " .5 "

B: 7 , E 14 B: 6 8 14 ;>7 0 : 124

% + %
$
157 4 42 18 4 <8
6 42 18 4 D 11 4 : 8 :
43 8 12 = 5 4 7 8 12 5 7 8 12 5 7 8 12 5 D3 6 7
6 4 44 7@ 6. 44 7 6 8 14 6 8 14 6 8 14
) ( * ;>7 0 : 12 4
(L *

"A$ A " A A
% '

"A $A A $A
A% '
'

%A $ A % A $A
$A $ '
A%
A%

%A" $A $A $A
A " '
A '
'
"A A $A $A
%A % '
"A"
A%

50
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

. 2+0D7.A 974:+,9 C 34,51, 0. -16B -421+6/ /54604,0A /1287. 86 5,4=1- /833+/9 3,+081,. 86
.60+224@.2.65 0. =451@8. 9B81>47.65 C -.781 08 5,4=1- ,9.7 0. 74 -459@+,1. -+,,./3+60465.A 5.77. B8.
09=161. 046/ 7. 4:7.48 " $

!485,./ -421+6/ /54604,0 .5 0!485,./ 3+8,-.654@./ 0. -421+6/ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161/ 046/
7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

% +,/ 08 -;+1? 08 5<3. 0. 5,4=1-A +6 3.85 @7+:47.2.65 ./512., B8. E


G +6@8./ 01/546-./G /1@61=1. 378/1.8,/ -.65416./ 0. I17+2D5,./A
G 1/546-./ 2+<.66./G /1@61=1. $ C I2A
G ,4=1- 7+-47G /1@61=1. 0./ 01/546-./ 16=9,1.8,./ C $ I2
6 ,947159A 0./ 29746@./ 0. 5<3./ 0. 5,4=1- 3.8>.65 /. 3,+081,.

B: 7 / ;< 1 2 1 6 4 7 4 2 6 4 44 7@

% M ) !
. '

&

;4B8. -421+6 /54604,0 ./5 09=161 34, E

) 7. 6+2:,. .5 7!./34-.2.65 0./ .//1.8? 4:7.48 " A -+7+66./ ^ A

) 74 -;4,@. 9B81>47.65. 0. -;4B8. .//1.8 4:7.48 " A -+7+66. % A

) 7./ /8,=4-./ 0. -+654-5 0./ ,+8./ .5 7./ 01/546-./ 5,46/>.,/47./ .65,. -.77./ -1A
-+6=+,292.65 C 74 -+7+66. 08 4:7.48 " .5 48 4:7.48 "

51
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% 7 -+6>1.65 0!.==.-58., 7./ -47-87/ /.7+6 74 3,+-908,. -1 43,D/ E

) C 34,51, 08 4:7.48 " A -+7+66./ "A $ +8 /.7+6 7. -4/A -;+1/1, 7. 3+8,-.654@. 0.


-;4B8. -421+6 /54604,0 046/ 7. =78? 0. 5,4=1- K

) 09=161, 7. 6+2:,. 5+547 4668.7 0. >9;1-87./ C -+6/109,., 3+8, 7!.6/.2:7. 0. 74


-;48//9.A > +:/ K

./ >47.8,/ ,.-+224609./ /+65 0+669./ 046/ 7. 4:7.48 " $

) -;4B8. -421+6 /54604,0 ./5 /833+/9 34,-+8,1, 7. 3+65 .6 7!4:/.6-. 0. 5+85 485,.
>9;1-87.

" 7 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 74 295;+0. 0. -+2354@. 015. 0. 74 G@+855. 0!.48G +8 -.77. 015.
08 G,9/.,>+1,G 4=16 0. 095.,216., 7. 6+2:,. 0. -<-7./ 0. >4,1451+6 0./ -+65,4165./ .5 7.
/3.-5,. 48 34//4@. 0./ -421+6/ /8, 7. 3+65

+8, 7./ ,D@7./ 0. >9,1=1-451+6A >+1, C

) 6A: 6 8= 5 6 < 2 57 # (;: B ; ? 3 2 6 6 11; 4 6 2 < 8 72


1 5 42 ;*

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0. =451@8. $ -+6/1/5. .6 7!43371-451+6 01,.-5. 0./ 0+669./ 0.


5,4=1- .6,.@1/5,9./A -+237959./A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 34, 0./ .?5,43+7451+6/ /5451/51B8./ .5
3,+/3.-51>./ 433,+3,19./

+8, 7!85171/451+6 0. -. 2+0D7.A >+1, 7! 66.?. 451+647. !466.?. ' =+8,615 0./ -+6/.17/ .6 >8. 0.
/39-1=1-451+6/ -+237D5./ 3+8, 7!43371-451+6 0. -. 5<3. 0. 2+0D7.

, 82 14 3 7 4 27 2 14 6 3 F 2 88 6 12 :: 4

, ;1; : 2;4

./ 4-51+6/ 0./ >9;1-87./ ,+851.,/ C 3,.60,. .6 -+235.A 7+,/B8!17 < 4 71.8A 046/ 7./
/158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./A ,9/875.65 0. E
) 7!1234-5 0!86 >9;1-87. -+65,. 7./ 317./A 7 165,40+/ +8 7./ 54:71.,/ 0. 3+65/A
) 74 3,9/.6-. 0. ,+8./ 0. =+,5. -;4,@. +8 0. >9;1-87./ /8, 7./ 5,+55+1,/ 7./ .==.5/ 0./
,+8./ 0. =+,5. -;4,@. +8 0. >9;1-87./ /8, 7./ 5,+55+1,/ 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235.
3+8, 5+8/ 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ 0+65 7./ 5,+55+1,/ 6. /+65 34/ 3,+59@9/ 34, 86 01/3+/151= 0.
,.5.68. ,1@10. .==1-4-. A
) 7!1234-5 0!86 >9;1-87. -+65,. 7./ :+,08,./A 7./ :4,,1D,./ 3+8, +8>,4@./ 0!4,5 .5 7./
-+23+/465/ /5,8-58,48? 7./ .==.5/ 0. 7!1234-5 0./ >9;1-87./ -+65,. 7./ :4,,1D,./ 0.
/9-8,159 .5 7./ :4,,1D,./ 3+8, +8>,4@./ 0!4,5 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235. 3+8, 5+8/ 7./
3+65/ ,+851.,/ 0+65 7./ 54:71.,/ -+23+,5.65 0. 5.7/ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. K 7./ .==.5/
0!1234-5 0./ >9;1-87./ -+65,. 7./ :+,08,./ 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235. 046/ 5+8/ 7./
-4/

52
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

, 8 4 6. 3 82 6 4 0;= 87: 4 4 74 : 3 12

#+1, $ .5 A 416/1 B8. A

7 -+6>1.65 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ =+,-./ 08./ C 7!1234-5A -+65,. 7./ 317./ +8 7./
9792.65/ 3+,5.8,/ 0!86 3+65A 0. >9;1-87./ 0. ;485.8, .?-.351+66.77. +8 .6 /158451+6
46+,247.

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, E


) 0./ ,D@7./ 3+8, 3,+59@., 7. 3+65 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 08./ 48? >9;1-87./A
) 046/ B8.77./ -+60151+6/ 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ .6 -+235. 34, ,433+,5 C 86. 01/546-.
0. /9-8,159 .65,. 7./ 317./ .5 7. :+,0 0. 74 -;48//9.A 34, .?.237. A
) 7!165.6/159 .5 7!.2374-.2.65 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 08./ 48? >9;1-87./A
) 416/1 B8. 7./ 9545/ 71215./ C -+6/109,.,
46/ 7. -4/ 0. 317./ ,1@10./A +6 ,.-+22460. 7./ >47.8,/ 2161247./ -1 43,D/ E
4 =+,-. 0!1234-5 E I 046/ 74 01,.-51+6 0. 09374-.2.65 08 >9;1-87. +8 $ I
3.,3.601-8741,.2.65 C -.55. 01,.-51+6 K
: ;485.8, 48 0.//8/ 08 61>.48 08 /+7 E A $ 2
#+1, 9@47.2.65 7

+,/B8!17 < 4 71.8A 17 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 7./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 0./ >9;1-87./

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 74 =+,-. 0!1234-5 /8, 7./ 54:71.,/A 9>.658.77.2.65 .6 =+6-51+6 08
51,465 0!41, .5 0!485,./ =+,2./ 0. 3,+5.-51+6 #+1,

./ -;4,@./ 0!1234-5 /8, 7./ 54:71.,/ 0. 3+65 .5 485,./ 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? 48 0.//8/ 0./ ,+85./
3.8>.65 >4,1., -+6/109,4:7.2.65 .6 =+6-51+6 0. 34,42D5,./ /5,8-58,48? .5 6+6 /5,8-58,48? 0!86. 34,5A 416/1
B8. 0. 7.8,/ -+60151+6/ 0!43371-451+6 0!485,. 34,5 4 3+//1:17159 0. -+771/1+6 0. >9;1-87./ 3,9/.65465 86.
;485.8, .?-.351+66.77. +8 3,+;1:9.A 416/1 B8. -.77. 0!86. @,8. 31>+5465 >.,/ 7. ;485 7+,/ 08 34//4@. 0!86
>9;1-87.A 3.85 0.>+1, H5,. .6>1/4@9. ./ 2./8,./ 0. 3,9>.651+6 +8 0. 3,+5.-51+6 3.8>.65 H5,. 165,+0815./
.6 475.,6451>. C 86 012.6/1+66.2.65 >1/ C >1/ 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5

, 82 14 6 0;= 87: 4 47 : 3 12

! "

1 86. :4,,1D,. 0. /9-8,159 0!86 61>.48 0. ,.5.68. 433,+3,19 ./5 3,9>8.A 17 6!./5 34/
69-.//41,. 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+6/109,451+6 0./ -;4,@./ 0. ,+8. +8 0. >9;1-87. 48 0.7C 0.
-.55. 3,+5.-51+6

./ 61>.48? 0. ,.5.68. 0./ :4,,1D,./ 0. /9-8,159 /+65 09=161/ 046/ 7! %

+,/B8. 74 3,+5.-51+6 2.651+669. .6 ./5 3,9>8.A 17 -+6>1.65A /8, 7./ 34,51./ 6+6
3,+59@9./ 08 54:71.,A 0. 374-., .5 0!+,1.65., 86. -;4,@. 0!.//1.8 4--10.65.77.
-+,,./3+60465 C α B I >+1, " % 0. 5.77. /+,5. B8. 7!+6 +:51.66. 7!.==.5 7. 378/
09=4>+,4:7. C 3,+?12159 0. 74 :4,,1D,.A -+22. 7!1601B8. 34, .?.237. 74 1@8,. " 7 6!<
4 34/ 71.8 0. -+6/109,., 74 3,9/.6-. /12875469. 0!48-86. 485,. -;4,@. >4,14:7. /8, 7.

53
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

54:71., 1 0./ -+65,4165./ @9+295,1B8./ ,.60.65 86. -+6=1@8,451+6 C 0.8? ,+8./


123+//1:7.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 6. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. B8!86. /.87. ,+8.

8 0.7C 08 01/3+/151= 0. ,.5.68. 0./ >9;1-87./A 17 -+6>1.65 0!43371B8.,A /!17 < 4 71.8A 74
-;4,@. >4,14:7. -+6-.65,9. 3,1/. C /4 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8.A -+22. 09=161. .6 $ % A
16093.60422.65 0. 74 -;4,@. 4--10.65.77.

;5 16
@4,0. -+,3/ +8 :4,,1D,. 3+8, +8>,4@. 0!4,5 .6 7!4:/.6-. 0. :4,,1D,. 0. /9-8,159
:4,,1D,. 0. /9-8,159
% -;48//9.
57 @ 3: 4 12 12 : 4 3 4 2 14 6 4 8= 5 4 6 4 0;= 87: 4 47 : 4
2 22 4 2 : 4 3 42 4 8D8: B: 4 6 4 3 124 72 4

% 6 7!4:/.6-. 0. 74 3,+5.-51+6 09=161. .6 A 7./ ,D@7./ 08 34,4@,43;. /+65


43371-4:7./ J8/B8!48 :+,0 08 54:71., 7+,/B8!17 .?1/5. 86. :4,,1D,. 3+8, +8>,4@./ 0!4,5

7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 7!4-51+6 08. C 7!1234-5 0!86 >9;1-87. /8, 7./ :+,08,./ +8 7.
:+,0 ,.7.>9 0. 74 -;48//9. -+22. 86. =+,-. 7459,47. 9@47. C I 4@1//465 C 86.
;485.8, 0. A $ 2 /+8/ 7. 61>.48 /839,1.8, 0. 74 :+,08,.

7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., B8. -.55. =+,-. 4@15 /8, 86. 7+6@8.8, 0. A$ 2A B8!.77. ./5
5,46/21/. 34, 7./ :+,08,./ 48? 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? B81 7./ /833+,5.65 .5 B8!.77. /.
01==8/. C "$P 046/ 7./ 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? ,1@10./ 4, 4177.8,/A 7+,/B8!.77. ./5
09=4>+,4:7.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 5.61, -+235. 0!86. -;4,@. >.,51-47. 0. 5,4=1- 4@1//465
/128754692.65 4>.- 74 =+,-. 0!1234-5 .5 9@47. C A $α B I >+1, 1@8,. "

54
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
,+55+1,
'+,08,.

57 " E ;< 1 2 1 6 4 < 8 4 6. 3 82 6 4 0;= 87: 4 47 : 4 B 67 4

# $ !

+8, 7. -47-87 0. 74 /5,8-58,.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ =+,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ .5


>.,51-47./ 5,46/21/./ 48 54:71., 34, 7./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68.

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, .5 -;+1/1, 0./ -74//./ 0. =+,-./ 0!1234-5 .5 0./ -+60151+6/
0!43371-451+6 4//+-19./ 6 0+66. -1 0.//+8/ " -74//./ 0. >47.8,/ ,.-+224609./ 3+8, 74 =+,-. ;+,1L+6547.
5,46/21/. E
B: 7 (1* E : 44 4 8 16; 4 3 7 : < 8 = H 12 : 2 14 4 3 : 4 6 43 4 2 <4 6
2 17 6 4 0;= 87: 4
74//. ,.-+224609. +,-. ;+,1L+6547. I

'
"

4 =+,-. ;+,1L+6547.A 4@1//465 5,46/>.,/47.2.65A 3.85 H5,. 43371B89. C 22 48 0.//+8/ 08 61>.48


/839,1.8, 08 01/3+/151= 0. ,.5.68. -;+1/1 +8 C A 2 48 0.//8/ 08 61>.48 0. 74 -;48//9. +8 08 5,+55+1,A 7.
61>.48 C 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 95465 7. 378/ =41:7. 0./ 0.8? K +6 -+6/10D,. B8. 74 =+,-. 4@15 /8, 86. 7+6@8.8,
0. A$ 2

./ >47.8,/ 0./ =+,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ 0+669./ 3+8, 7./ -74//./ C /+65 1//8./ 0. 2./8,./
.==.-589./ 7+,/ 0!.//41/ 0!1234-5 /8, 0./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. ,9.7/ 85171/9/ 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ 7 6!.?1/5. 34/
0. -+,,97451+6 01,.-5. .65,. -./ >47.8,/ .5 7./ -74//./ 0. 3.,=+,246-. 0./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. -+6/109,9/
./ >47.8,/ 3,+3+/9./ 093.60.65 3785Q5 0. 74 ,1@10159 0. 74 7141/+6 .65,. 7. 01/3+/151= 0. ,.5.68. .5 74
:+,08,. +8 74 34,51. 08 3+65 48B8.7 17 ./5 =1?9 6. 7141/+6 5,D/ ,1@10. -+60815 C 74 =+,-. ;+,1L+6547. 0+669.
3+8, 74 -74//. 4 =+,-. ;+,1L+6547. 74 378/ =41:7. ./5 1//8. 0. 2./8,./ .==.-589./ 3+8, 86 01/3+/151= 0.
,.5.68. 4>.- 86. 7141/+6 /+837. . 5.7/ /</5D2./ /+65 =,9B8.22.65 85171/9/ 3+8, 7./ 01/3+/151=/
2954771B8./ -+,,./3+60465 C 74 -74//. 0. 3.,=+,246-. 0. 7! % 6. 7141/+6 0!86. 5,D/ @,460.
/+837.//. 3.85 -+6081,. C 74 =+,-. ;+,1L+6547. 0+669. 3+8, 74 -74//.

55
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% 4 =+,-. >.,51-47. 4@1//465 /128754692.65 4>.- 74 =+,-. 0!1234-5 ;+,1L+6547. 3.85 H5,. 09=161.
046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. ./ >47.8,/ ,.-+224609./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ 9@47./ C A $α B I +,/B8.
-.74 ./5 3+//1:7.A 0./ 01/3+/151+6/ -+6/5,8-51>./ =.,,41774@. 34, .?.237. A 01/3.6/.65 08 -47-87 48?
-;4,@./ >.,51-47./ .5 ;+,1L+6547./

7 -+6>1.65 0. -47-87., 7./ /5,8-58,./ /833+,5465 7./ :4,,1D,./ 3+8, +8>,4@. 0!4,5 0.
2461D,. C -. B8!.77./ 381//.65 ,9/1/5., 7+-47.2.65 C 7!.==.5 0!86. -;4,@. 4--10.65.77.
-+,,./3+60465 C 48 2+16/ A $ =+1/ 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 ,9/1/546-. 7+-47. 0. 74
:4,,1D,. ,9/1/546-. 0. 74 =1?451+6 0. 74 :4,,1D,. C 74 /5,8-58,.A 34, .?.237. A /46/ 0.>+1,
74 -+2:16., 4>.- 5+85. 485,. -;4,@. >4,14:7.

!.==.5 0. 74 -;4,@. 0. -47-87 3.85 H5,. 09=161 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. 4 >47.8, 0+669. 046/
-.55. -748/. A $ ./5 86. >47.8, 2161247. ,.-+224609.

7 -+6>1.65 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 0. >9;1-87./ /8, 7./ 9792.65/
/5,8-58,48? 6+6 3,+59@9/A /1589/ 48 0.//8/ +8 C -Q59 0. 74 -;48//9.

./ =+,-./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. 7 ./5 ,.-+224609 0. 7./ -;+1/1,
10.651B8./ C -.77./ 09=161./ .6 " A 43371B89./ C A $ 2 48 0.//8/ 08 61>.48 0. 74 -;48//9.
.3.60465A 7+,/B8. 0./ 2./8,./ 0. 3,+5.-51+6 -+23792.6541,./ /+65 3,9>8./ .65,. 74 -;48//9. .5 -./
9792.65/A -.55. =+,-. 3.85 H5,. ,90815. 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

7 6!< 4 34/ 71.8 0. -+6/109,., 74 3,9/.6-. /12875469. 0!48-86. 485,. -;4,@. >4,14:7.

+8, -.,5416/ 9792.65/ 165.,290141,./ 0+65 7!.60+224@.2.65 6. 3,+>+B8.,415 34/ 7!.==+60,.2.65


/8/3.65./ +8 ;48:46/A 34, .?.237. A 0./ =+,-./ 378/ =41:7./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5
1601>108.7

/ 82 14 47 : 4 5 6 8 34

+8, 7. -47-87 /5,8-58,47A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 7./ =+,-./ 5,46/21/./ 48 54:71., 34,
7./ @4,0. -+,3/ -+22. 0./ -;4,@./ >4,14:7./ 09=161./ .6 =+6-51+6 0. 74 -74//. 0.
-;4,@.2.65 0. -./ 0.,61.,/

+8, 7./ -74//./ 0. -;4,@.2.65 0./ @4,0. -+,3/A >+1, 7! % 4 -74//. ./5 74 -74//.
2161247. ,.-+224609. 3+8, 7./ 3+65/

./ =+,-./ 5,46/21/./ 34, 7./ @4,0. -+,3/ 48 54:71., 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 34, 7.8, -74//1=1-451+6
/+15 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 /+15 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.A -+6=+,292.65 C 7! % 6. =+,-.
716941,. >4,14:7. 0. A I F2 4@1//465 ;+,1L+6547.2.65 +8 >.,51-47.2.65 .6 5H5. 08 @4,0. -+,3/ -+6/5158.
86. >47.8, 2161247. ,.-+224609. 3+8, 7./ 5,+55+1,/ +8 7./ 34//.,.77./ +8, 7./ 34//4@./ 0. /.,>1-.A 74
>47.8, 2161247. ,.-+224609. ./5 0. A I F2 ./ >47.8,/ 2161247./ ,.-+224609./ 6. -+8>,.65 34/
7./ -4/ .?-.351+66.7/ +8 4--10.65.7/

+8, 7. -47-87 08 /</5D2. 3+,5.8,A /1 7./ @4,0. -+,3/ /+65 3,+59@9/ 0. 2461D,.
409B845. -+65,. 7./ -;+-/ 0. >9;1-87./A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., /128754692.65 -./
4-51+6/ ;+,1L+6547./ .5 7./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 861=+,292.65 ,934,51./ 09=161./ .6 $ %

./ @4,0. -+,3/ 6. 3.8>.65 H5,. -+6/109,9/ -+22. -+6>.64:7.2.65 3,+59@9/ B8. /1 74 3,+5.-51+6
/451/=415 7./ .?1@.6-./ 08 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

56
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% +,/B8. 7./ @4,0. -+,3/ 6. 3.8>.65 H5,. -+6/109,9/ -+22. -+,,.-5.2.65 3,+59@9/
-+65,. 7./ -;+-/ 0./ >9;1-87./A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 012.6/1+66., 7. /</5D2. 3+,5.8, 3+8, B8!17
,9/1/5. C 7!.==.5 0!86. -;4,@. 4--10.65.77. -+,,./3+60465 C A $ =+1/ 74 >47.8,
-4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 ,9/1/546-. 08 @4,0. -+,3/A C 7!.?-78/1+6 0. 5+85. -;4,@. >4,14:7.

!.==.5 0. 74 -;4,@. 0. -47-87 3.85 H5,. 09=161 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. 4 >47.8, 1601B89. 046/
-.55. -748/. A $ ./5 ,.-+224609.

) 6A: 4 6 8= 5 3 7 : 4 87:; 4 2 : 4 7 4 6F 8 124 7@ 3 124

= 5 40 28 : 4

7 -+6>1.65 0. -;4,@., 74 -;48//9. /1589. 0.,,1D,. 7./ -879./A 7./ 28,/ .6 417.A 7./
28,/ .6 ,.5+8, .5 7./ 485,./ 34,51./ 08 3+65 .6 -+654-5 4>.- 74 5.,,.A 48 2+<.6 0.
2+0D7./ 433,+3,19/

./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 433,+3,19/ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161/ 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. 6


,.-+22460. 7!85171/451+6 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. A 09=161 .6 " % A 241/A 046/ 86 :85 0. /12371=1-451+6A 7./
-;4,@./ 0. 5460.2 3.8>.65 H5,. ,.2374-9./ 34, 86. -;4,@. 9B81>47.65.A 6+59. #.BA 861=+,292.65 ,934,51.
/8, 86. /8,=4-. ,.-546@8741,. 093.60465 0. 74 01==8/1+6 0./ -;4,@./ 48 5,4>.,/ 08 ,.2:741 +8 0. 74 5.,,.

+8, 74 01==8/1+6 0./ -;4,@./ 48 5,4>.,/ 08 ,.2:741 +8 0. 74 5.,,.A >+1, 7! 6


7!4:/.6-. 0. 5+85. 485,. ,D@7.A /1 7. ,.2:741 ./5 -+6>.64:7.2.65 -+6/+7109A 74 >47.8, ,.-+224609. 0.
7!46@7. 0. 01==8/1+6 34, ,433+,5 C 74 >.,51-47. ./5 0. % P >.- 86. 5.77. >47.8,A 74 /8,=4-. /8, 74B8.77. #.B
./5 43371B89. 3.85 H5,. 3,1/. 9@47. C 86 ,.-546@7. 0. % 2 0. 74,@.8, .5 0. A 2 0. 7+6@8.8,

7 6!< 4 34/ 71.8 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+6/109,451+6 0./ >47.8,/ ,.3,9/.65451>./ 08 2+0D7. 0.


-;4,@. 485,./ B8. 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./

8 = H 12 :

7 6!< 4 34/ 71.8 0. 3,.60,. 48-86. =+,-. ;+,1L+6547. .6 -+235. 48 61>.48 08


,.>H5.2.65 0. -;48//9. 48 0.//8/ 08 ,.2:741

+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 28,/ @4,0. @,D>. 0./ -879./ >+1, 1@8,. " A 17 -+6>1.65 0.
3,.60,. .6 -+235. 86. =+,-. 7+6@15801647. 0. =,.164@. 4>.- 86. >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8.
A α B I A 4@1//465 /128754692.65 4>.- 74 -;4,@. 0!.//1.8 α B I 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.
6829,+ .5 4>.- 74 3+8//9. 0./ 5.,,./ 08. 48 ,.2:741A .6 -+6/109,465 34, 4177.8,/ B8. 7.
,.2:741 6!./5 34/ -;4,@9 /128754692.65

57
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
8, @4,0. @,D>.
4:71.,
% 879.
57 E ;< 1 2 1 6 4 8= 5 4 47 : 4 7 4 5 6 5 A0

58
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

82 1 # 82 14 47 : 4 2 22 4$ : 4 3 42 4 8D8: B: 4 2 : 4 3 44 :: 4

# 1 6. 33: 8 2 1

./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 09=161/ 046/ 74 3,9/.65. /.-51+6 /!43371B8.65 48? 5,+55+1,/A 48?
31/5./ -<-74:7./ .5 48? 34//.,.77./

7 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 74 -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. #=I 09=161. .6 $ % .5 74


-;4,@. -+6-.65,9. B=SI 09=161. .6 $ % 046/ 7. -4/ 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/A 0./ 3+65/
=.,,+>141,./ .5 0./ 34//.,.77./A 7. -4/ 9-;9465 >+1, " $A " % .5 % +85./ 7./
485,./ 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./ .5 4-51+6/ 3+8, /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./ 09=161./ 046/
-.55. /.-51+6 6. /+65 0./5169./ B8!48? 34//.,.77./

+8, 7./ -;4,@./ /8, 7./ ./-471.,/ 0!4--D/A >+1, % 0. 7!

+8, 7./ 34//.,.77./ 0. @,460. 74,@.8, /839,1.8,. C 2 34, .?.237. A 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@.
09=161/ 046/ 74 3,9/.65. /.-51+6 3.8>.65 6. 34/ H5,. 404359/ .5 0./ 2+0D7./ -+23792.6541,./A 4>.- 7./
,D@7./ 0. -+2:1641/+6 4//+-19./A 3.8>.65 0.>+1, H5,. 09=161/ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 6 =415A 7./
34//.,.77./ 0. @,460. 74,@.8, 3.8>.65 H5,. 7. 71.8 0!4-51>159/ ;82416./ >4,19./

% 7 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 7./ 2+0D7./ .5 7./ >47.8,/ ,.3,9/.65451>./ 0+669/ 046/ 74


3,9/.65. /.-51+6 3+8, 7./ -47-87/ 48? 9545/ 71215./ 87512./ .5 0. /.,>1-.A C 7!.?-78/1+6 0./
9545/ 71215./ 0. =451@8.

" +8, 7./ -47-87/ ,.7451=/ C 74 >1:,451+6 0./ 34//.,.77./A .==.-589/ C 34,51, 0!86. 4647</.
0<6421B8.A >+1, $ +8, 5+8/ 7./ 485,./ -47-87/ 0./ .==.5/ 0./ 4-51+6/A C .==.-58., B8.7
B8. /+15 7. 5<3. 0. 3+65A 7./ 2+0D7./ .5 >47.8,/ 0+669/ 046/ -.55. /.-51+6 16-78.65 7./
.==.5/ 0. 74 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. K 34, 4177.8,/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 7./ 4-51+6/
>4,14:7./ -+22. 0./ 4-51+6/ /5451B8./

$ ./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 0+669/ 046/ 74 3,9/.65. /.-51+6 6. >1/.65 34/ C -+8>,1, 7./
.==.5/ 0./ -;4,@./ .6 -+8,/ 0. -;4651., .5 17 -+6>1.65 0. 7./ /39-1=1., /934,92.65A 7. -4/
9-;9465

# 3 ;4 12 2 1 6 4 82 14

# ) 6A: 4 6 4 8= 5 4

./ -;4,@./ 0!.?37+15451+6 09=161./ 046/ -.55. /.-51+6 ,9/875.65 08 5,4=1- 0./ 3195+6/
.5 0./ 0.8? ,+8./A 0. -;4,@./ 0!.?9-851+6 .5 0!.65,.51.6 -+8,465./ 0!123+,546-. 216.8,.
>9;1-87./ 0. /.,>1-.A 34, .?.237. .5 0. /158451+6/ 4--10.65.77./ ./ -;4,@./
.6@.60,.65 0./ =+,-./ >.,51-47./ .5 ;+,1L+6547./A /5451B8./ .5 0<6421B8./

6 ,D@7. @969,47.A 7./ -;4,@./ 08./ 48 5,4=1- 0. 0.8? ,+8./ /+65 5,D/ 16=9,1.8,./ C -.77./ 08./ 48
5,4=1- 0. 3195+6/ .5 7./ >47.8,/ 0+669./ 046/ 74 3,9/.65. /.-51+6 /+65 :4/9./ /8, 74 3,9/.6-. =,9B8.65. +8
+--4/1+66.77. 0. 3195+6/ /8, 7./ 31/5./ -<-74:7./ +8, -.,5416/ 3,+J.5/ 1601>108.7/A 86. 455.651+6
/39-1=1B8. 3.85 0.>+1, H5,. 3+,59. 48? -;4,@./ 08./ 48? -;.>48? .5 48 :95417

59
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 09=161/ 046/ 74 3,9/.65. /.-51+6 6. 09-,1>.65 34/ 0./ -;4,@./ ,9.77./ 7/
+65 959 -;+1/1/ 4=16 B8. 7.8,/ .==.5/ 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 16-78/. 7+,/B8. -.74 ./5 1601B89 ,.3,9/.65.65
7./ .==.5/ 08 5,4=1- ,9.7

7 -+6>1.65 0. ,.3,9/.65., 34, 0./ -;4,@./ /5451B8./ 9B81>47.65./ 7./ 4-51+6/ 3+8,
/158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./ 08./ 48? 1234-5/

# : 44 4 6 8= 5 12

./ -;4,@./ /8, 7./ 34//.,.77./ 3.8>.65 01==9,., /.7+6 7.8, .2374-.2.65 .5 7. 5,4=1-
9>.658.7 0. -.,5416/ >9;1-87./ ./ 34,42D5,./ /+65 16093.60465/ 7./ 86/ 0./ 485,./ .5
/+65 -+6/109,9/ 046/ 7./ 01>.,/ 4,51-7./ -1 0.//+8/ 6 -+6/9B8.6-.A 17 6!< 4 34/ 71.8
0!954:71, 86. -74//1=1-451+6 @969,47. 0. -./ +8>,4@./

# 33: 8 2 1 6 4 6A: 4 6 8= 5 4

7 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 7./ 2H2./ 2+0D7./A C 7!.?-.351+6 08 >9;1-87. 0. /.,>1-. >+1,


$ % % A 3+8, 7. 5,4=1- 0. 3195+6/ .5 0. 0.8? ,+8./ /8, 7./ 34//.,.77./A 7./ L+6./ 0.
54:71., 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ 712159./ 34, 0./ @4,0. -+,3/ .5 6+6 16-78/./ 046/ 74 -;48//9.
5.77. B8. 09=161. .6 " 5,+55+1,/ 5.7/ B8. 09=161/ 046/ 74 3,9/.65. 4,51. 0. 7!
416/1 B8. 7./ 34//4@./ 0. /.,>1-. 0./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./

7 -+6>1.65 0. 09=161, 0!485,./ 2+0D7./ 433,+3,19/ 3+8, 7./ 34//4@./ 0. /.,>1-. C


7!1659,1.8, 0./ 3+65/ .5 3+8, 7./ B841/ /8, 7./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./

./ 2+0D7./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161/ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 ./
2+0D7./ ,.-+224609/A C 85171/., /934,92.65 0. 2461D,. C +:5.61, 7./ .==.5/ 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./A /+65
86. -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. 0. I F2 .5 86. -;4,@. -+6-.65,9. 0. % I 43371-4:7. C 86. /8,=4-.
-4,,9. 0. A × A 2

% +8, -;4B8. 43371-451+6 1601>108.77.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 01/3+/., 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./


>.,51-47./ 6!123+,5. +O /8, 7./ /8,=4-./ -+6-.,69./ 0. 2461D,. C +:5.61, 7!.==.5 7. 378/
09=4>+,4:7.

6 0!485,./ 5.,2./A -./ 4-51+6/ /+65 0./ 4-51+6/ 71:,./

# ) 6A: 4 42 2 >7 4 3 7 : 4 8= 5 4 0 2 8 : 4 E : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4

# ;1; : 2;4

./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ /+65 0./5169./ C 74 095.,216451+6A 046/ 7.


-40,. 0./ >9,1=1-451+6/ 48? 9545/ 71215./ 87512./ .5 C -.,5416/ 9545/ 71215./ 0. /.,>1-.A 0./
.==.5/ /5451B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ 08./ 48? 3195+6/ .5 48? 0.8? ,+8./

7 -+6>1.65A 7+,/B8!17 < 4 71.8A 0. -+6/109,., /934,92.65 5,+1/ 2+0D7./A -+6/1/5465 .6 E


) 86. -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51.A #=I
) 86. -;4,@. -+6-.65,9. B=SI .5
) 0./ -;4,@./ ,.3,9/.65465 0./ >9;1-87./ 0. /.,>1-.A B/.,>

% 7 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0. -./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. C 74 =+1/


3+8, 7./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 08,4:7./ .5 3+8, 7./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 5,46/15+1,./

60
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

# ) 6A: 4 6 8= 5

& '! ( #

+8, 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ 3+,5465 0./ 5,+55+1,/ +8 0./ 31/5./ -<-74:7./A 17 < 4 71.8 0.
09=161, 86. -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. #=I 1@8,. $

57 # E : 7 8 82; 42 >7 6 : 8= 5 47 71 2 22 ( 7 71 3 42
8D8: B: *

4 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. #=I 3.85 H5,. 09=161. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5
1601>108.7 4 >47.8, ,.-+224609. ./5 #=I = $ I F2

+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 34//.,.77./A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 09=161, 86. -;4,@. 861=+,292.65


,934,51. #=I 43371B89. 861B8.2.65 48? 34,51./ 09=4>+,4:7./ 0. 74 /8,=4-. 0!16=78.6-.A
7+6@15801647.2.65 .5 5,46/>.,/47.2.65

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. " -;4,@.2.65 0. =+87. 09=161 .6 " % $ .5 -+,,./3+60465 C #=I = $ I F2 A


3.85 H5,. /39-1=19 4=16 0. -+8>,1, 7./ .==.5/ /5451B8./ 0!86. =+87. 0.6/. -+65168. 7+,/B8!86 5.7 ,1/B8. .?1/5.
C +O 7!43371-451+6 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. " 09=161 .6 " % $ 6!./5 34/ ,.B81/.A 74 >47.8, ,.-+224609. 3+8,
#=I ./5 E

#=I = A + I F2
4+%
#=I ≥ A$ I F2 K #=I ≤ $A I F2 $
+O E
4 ./5 74 7+6@8.8, -;4,@9. .6 `2a

& '! (

7 -+6>1.65 0!40+35., -+22. >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. -+6-.65,9. B=SI 86.


>47.8, 0. I A 4@1//465 /8, 86. /8,=4-. -4,,9. 0. A 2 0. -Q59

4 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. .5 7./ 012.6/1+6/ 3.8>.65 H5,. 4J8/59./ 046/ 7! 66.?.
451+647. ./ >47.8,/ 1601B89./ 046/ -.55. -748/. /+65 ,.-+224609./

+,/B8.A 046/ 86. >9,1=1-451+6A 7./ .==.5/ @969,48? 3.8>.65 H5,. 01/516@89/ 0./ .==.5/
7+-48?A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 6. -+6/109,., 74 -;4,@. -+6-.65,9. B8. 3+8, 7./ .==.5/ 7+-48?

% 1 86 >9;1-87. 0. /.,>1-. 5.7 B8. 2.651+669 .6 $ % % ./5 /39-1=19 3+8, 86.


34//.,.77.A 17 6!< 4 34/ 71.8 0. 3,.60,. B=SI .6 -+235.

61
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

& ! $

+,/B8. 0./ >9;1-87./ 0. /.,>1-. 0+1>.65 3+8>+1, -1,-87., /8, 86. 34//.,.77. +8 86
5,+55+1,A 86 >9;1-87. 0. /.,>1-. B/.,> 0+15 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235.

. >9;1-87. 3.85 H5,. 86 >9;1-87. 4==.-59 C 7!.65,.51.6A 48? 8,@.6-./ 42:8746-.A >9;1-87. 0.
3+231.,/A 34, .?.237. +8 C 0!485,./ 8/4@./ ./ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 08 >9;1-87. 3+10/ .5 ./34-.2.65 0./
.//1.8?A /8,=4-. 0. -+654-5 0./ ,+8./ A 74 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8.A 0. 2H2. B8. 5+85./ 7./ 485,./ -+60151+6/
0. -;4,@.2.65 433,+3,19./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 046/ 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 6
7!4:/.6-. 0!16=+,2451+6 .5 /1 48-86 +:/54-7. 3.,246.65 6!.23H-;. 86 >9;1-87. 0. 34,>.61, /8, 7. 54:71., 0.
7!+8>,4@.A +6 ,.-+22460. 0!85171/., 7. >9;1-87. 09=161 .6 $ % -+22. >9;1-87. 0. /.,>1-. >47.8,
-4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 -;4,@. K 046/ -. -4/A 17 6!./5 34/ 69-.//41,. 0!43371B8., 74 -748/. $ %A -!./5 C 01,. 0.
-+6/109,., 7. 2H2. >9;1-87. -+22. 4--10.65.7

7 6 < 4 34/ 71.8 0. -+6/109,., 86 >9;1-87. 0. /.,>1-. /1 0./ 01/3+/151+6/ C -4,4-5D,. 3.,246.65
.23H-;.65 7!4--D/ 0. 5+85 >9;1-87. /8, 74 34//.,.77.

% 78/1.8,/ >9;1-87./ 0. /.,>1-. 3.8>.65 0.>+1, H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235. /934,92.65 .5 H5,. 09=161/
3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

# ) 6A: 4 42 2 >7 4 3 7 : 4 < 8 4 = H 12 : 4 E : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4

46/ 7. /.87 -4/ 0./ 34//.,.77./A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 86. =+,-.
;+,1L+6547. B=7I 4@1//465 7. 7+6@ 0. 7!4?. 08 54:71., 0. 7!+8>,4@.A 48 61>.48 0. /+6
,.>H5.2.65

7 -+6>1.65 0!40+35., -+22. >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. -.55. =+,-. ;+,1L+6547. 74 378/


@,460. 0./ 0.8? >47.8,/ /81>465./ E
) 3+8, -.65 0. 74 -;4,@. 5+547. -+,,./3+60465 C 74 -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51.
$% A
) 3+8, -.65 08 3+10/ 5+547 08 >9;1-87. 0. /.,>1-.A /!17 < 4 71.8 $ % %
4 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. ;+,1L+6547. 3.85 H5,. 09=161. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8,
7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 ./ >47.8,/ 1601B89./ 046/ -.55. -748/. /+65 ,.-+224609./

% 4 =+,-. ;+,1L+6547. ./5 -+6/109,9. -+22. 4@1//465 /128754692.65 4>.- 74 -;4,@.


>.,51-47. -+,,./3+60465. .5 .6 48-86 -4/ 4>.- 74 -;4,@. -+6-.65,9. B=SI

.55. =+,-. ./5 6+,247.2.65 /8==1/465. 3+8, 4//8,., 74 /54:17159 ;+,1L+6547. 7+6@15801647. 0./
34//.,.77./ 77. 6!4//8,. 34/ 74 /54:17159 ;+,1L+6547. 5,46/>.,/47.A B8!17 -+6>1.65 0. @4,4651, 34, 74 3,1/. .6
-+6/109,451+6 0!485,./ 4-51+6/ +8 34, 0./ 01/3+/151+6/ 433,+3,19./ 48 61>.48 0. 74 -+6-.351+6

## 73 4 6 8= 5 4 6 2 < 8 47 : 4 3 44 :: 4

+,/B8!17 < 4 71.8A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 7./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ .5 7./
=+,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ 08./ 48 5,4=1- .6 -+6/109,465 7./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@./ 09=161/ 046/ 7.
4:7.48 $ A -;4-86 0!.65,. .8? 95465 -+6/109,9 /934,92.65 -+22. 09=161//465 86.
4-51+6 -4,4-59,1/51B8. C -+2:16., 4>.- 0./ -;4,@./ 485,./ B8. -.77./ 08 5,4=1-

62
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 # E ;< 1 2 1 6 4 5 73 4 6 8= 5 4 (0 : 7 4 8 82; 42 >7 4*

D3 6 8= 5 8 40 28 : 4 8 4
= H 12 : 4
</5D2. 0. -;4,@.2.65 ;4,@. 861=+,292.65 #9;1-87. 0. /.,>1-.
,934,51.
,+83./ 0. @, #=I B=7I
-;4,@./
@, B/.,> B=7I

+8, 5+85. -+2:1641/+6 0. -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- 4>.- 0./ 4-51+6/ /39-1=19./ 046/ 0!485,./
4,51./ 0. 7! A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 7. @,+83. 416/1 =+,29 -+22. 86. 4-51+6
861B8.

./ 485,./ >47.8,/ ,.3,9/.65451>./ 0./ -+23+/465./ 1601>108.77./ 0./ -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- /8, 7./
34//.,.77./ /+65 09=161./ 046/ 7! A

# 82 14 3 7 4 27 2 14 6 3 F 2 88 6 12 :: 4 8 18 1 12 : 4 3 44 :: 4

# ;1; : 2;4

. 5.77./ 4-51+6/ +65 3+8, -48/. E


) /+15 7. 5,4=1- ,+851., /+8/ 7!+8>,4@. -+771/1+6
) /+15 74 3,9/.6-. 4--10.65.77. 0!86 >9;1-87. 7+8,0 /8, 7!+8>,4@.

!485,./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 >+1, % 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5
1601>108.7

# 8 4 6. 3 82 6 4 0;= 87: 4 72 4 4 74 :. 70 5

7 -+6>1.65 0. 09=161, 7./ 2./8,./ C 40+35., 3+8, 3,+59@., 74 34//.,.77.

./ 34//.,.77./ 317./ .5 54:71.,/ /+65 @969,47.2.65 :.48-+83 378/ /.6/1:7./ 48? =+,-./ 0!1234-5
B8. 7./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ 7 3.85 H5,. 1,,9471/5. 0. 7./ -47-87., 3+8, 74 2H2. =+,-. 0!1234-5 4 2461D,. 74
378/ /Y,. 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ 1234-5/ -+6/1/5. @969,47.2.65 C 3,+59@., 7./ 34//.,.77./ E
) 34, 0./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. ,.5.68. C 0./ 01/546-./ 433,+3,19./ C 7!4>465 0./ 317./A
) 34, 86 51,465 0!41, 378/ 123+,5465 B8. -.781 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/ +8 0./ 3+65/ =.,,+>141,./ >+1/16/
=,46-;1//465 74 2H2. ,+85.A .6 7!4:/.6-. 0!4--D/ 165.,290141,. C -.77. -1

&)

7 -+6>1.65 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ =+,-./ 08./ C 7!1234-5A -+65,. 7./ 317./ +8 7./
9792.65/ 3+,5.8,/ 0!86. 34//.,.77.A 0!86. ,423. +8 0!86 ./-471.,A 0. >9;1-87./ ,+851.,/
0. ;485.8, .?-.351+66.77. +8 .6 /158451+6 46+,247.

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, E


) 0./ ,D@7./ 3+8, 3,+59@., 7!+8>,4@. 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 08./ 48? >9;1-87./A
) 046/ B8.77./ -+60151+6/ 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ .6 -+235. 34, ,433+,5 C 86. 01/546-.
0. /9-8,159 .65,. 7./ 317./ .5 7. :+,0 0. 74 -;48//9.A 34, .?.237. A
) 7!165.6/159 .5 7!.2374-.2.65 0./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 08./ 48? >9;1-87./A

63
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) 416/1 B8. 7./ 9545/ 71215./ C -+6/109,.,


46/ 7. -4/ 0. 317./ ,1@10./A +6 ,.-+22460. 7./ >47.8,/ 2161247./ -1 43,D/ E
4 =+,-. 0!1234-5 E I 046/ 74 01,.-51+6 0. 09374-.2.65 08 >9;1-87. +8 $ I
3.,3.601-8741,.2.65 C -.55. 01,.-51+6 K
: ;485.8, 48 0.//8/ 08 61>.48 08 /+7 E A $ 2
#+1, 9@47.2.65

&)

7 -+6>1.65A 7+,/B8!17 < 4 71.8A 0. 3,9>+1, 046/ 7. 3,+J.5 86 51,465 0!41, 409B845 .65,. 74
/8,=4-. 08 /+7 .5 7!165,40+/ 08 54:71., C 7!437+2:

! 66.?. 451+647. +8 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.8>.65 09=161, 7./ =+,-./ 0!1234-5 .6 =+6-51+6 08
51,465 0!41, #+1, 9@47.2.65

4 3+//1:17159 0. -+771/1+6 0. >9;1-87./ 3,9/.65465 86. ;485.8, .?-.351+66.77. +8 3,+;1:9. 3.85


0.>+1, H5,. 3,1/. .6 -+235.

# ;4 18 88 6 12 :: 6 0;= 87: 4 47 :. 70 5

1 48-86 +:/54-7. 3.,246.65 6!.23H-;. 7!4--D/ 0./ >9;1-87./ /8, 7!+8>,4@.A 74


3,9/.6-. 4--10.65.77. 0!86 >9;1-87. /8, 7. 54:71., 0+15 H5,. 3,1/. .6 -+235.

46/ 86. 5.77. /158451+6A 17 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. -1 43,D/A


-+6/1/5465 .6 86 @,+83. 0. 0.8? .//1.8? 0. .5 " I A 01/5465/ 0. % 2 1@8,. $ A
4>.- 86. 01/546-. .65,. -.65,./ 0./ ,+8./ 0. A% 2 .5 0./ /8,=4-./ 0. -+654-5 -4,,9./ 0.
A 2 0. -Q59 48 61>.48 08 ,.>H5.2.65 +8, 74 =+,-. 0. =,.164@. 4//+-19. 48 2+0D7.A 17
-+6>1.65 0!40+35., 86. =+,-. 9@47. C [ 0. 74 -;4,@. >.,51-47.

;5 16
? E 01,.-51+6 0. 7!4?. 0. 7!+8>,4@.
B/> W I
B/> W " I

57 # E = 5 12 88 6 12 :

#+1, 74 6+5. 08 34,4@,43;. $ % %

. -4/ 9-;9465A 0!485,./ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 046/
7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 . 2+0D7. 09=161 046/ -.55. -748/. ./5 ,.-+224609

64
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% 7 6!< 4 34/ 71.8 0. -+2:16., 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 09=161 .6 $ % 4>.- 86. 485,.
4-51+6 >4,14:7.

# , ) 6A: 4 6D1 >7 4 6 8= 5 4 67 4 7@ 3 ;2 14

.7+6 7./ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0<6421B8./ 0. 7!+8>,4@.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., 7./


=,9B8.6-./ 3,+3,./ 095.,216465./ -+,,./3+60465 48? >1:,451+6/ >.,51-47./A ;+,1L+6547./
.5 0. 5+,/1+6 0. 74 /5,8-58,. 3,16-1347. 08 54:71., /8, 74 :4/. 0!86 2+0D7. /5,8-58,47
433,+3,19

./ >1:,451+6/ 0./ 34//.,.77./ 3.8>.65 4>+1, 0./ +,1@16./ 01>.,/./A 34, .?.237. 3195+6/ 24,-;465A
-+8,465A /485465 +8 046/465A >.65A >460471/2.A .5-

./ =+,-./ .?.,-9./ 34, 7./ 3195+6/ 4>.- 86. =,9B8.6-. 10.651B8. C 7!86. 0./
=,9B8.6-./ 3,+3,./ 0. 7!+8>,4@. 3.8>.65 3,+>+B8., 74 ,9/+646-. .5 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/./
.6 -+235. 3+8, 7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ C 7!9545 71215. >1/ C >1/ 0./ >1:,451+6/

./ .==.5/ 08 5,4=1- 0. 3195+6/ /8, 86. 34//.,.77. 093.60.65 0. 01>.,/ =4-5.8,/ 5.7/ B8.A 34,
.?.237.A 7. 6+2:,. .5 7!.2374-.2.65 0./ 3.,/+66./ /8/-.351:7./ 0. /. 5,+8>., /128754692.65 /8, 74
34//.,.77.A 241/ 48//1 0. -1,-+6/546-./ .?5.,6./A 378/ +8 2+16/ 719./ C 74 7+-471/451+6 0. 74 34//.,.77. 6
7!4:/.6-. 0!86. ,93+6/. /1@61=1-451>. 0. 7!+8>,4@.A 86 3195+6 24,-;465 6+,247.2.65 .?.,-. /8, -.781 -1 7./
=+,-./ 39,1+01B8./ /12875469./ /81>465./ E
) /.7+6 74 01,.-51+6 >.,51-47.A 4>.- 86. @422. 0. =,9B8.6-./ 477465 0. C % L .5
) /.7+6 86. 01,.-51+6 ;+,1L+6547.A 4>.- 86. @422. 0. =,9B8.6-./ 477465 0. A$ C A$ L
./ @,+83./ 0. J+@@.,/ 3.8>.65 =,46-;1, 86. 34//.,.77. 4>.- 86. =,9B8.6-. 0. % L

% 7 -+6>1.65 0. 09=161, 0./ -,15D,./ 0. -+6=+,5 416/1 B8. 0./ 2+0D7./ 0<6421B8./
433,+3,19/ 3+8, 7./ -;4,@./ 08./ 48? 3195+6/

./ 2+0D7./ 0<6421B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ 08./ 48? 3195+6/ .5 7./ -,15D,./ 0. -+6=+,5 4//+-19/ 3.8>.65
H5,. 09=161/ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 #+1, 9@47.2.65 7 A

# / 82 14 47 : 4 5 6 8 34

7 -+6>1.65 0. -47-87., 7./ @4,0. -+,3/ 0./ 34//.,.77./ -+6=+,292.65 48? ,D@7./
0+669./ .6 "

# ) 6A: 6 8= 5 3 7 : 4 87:; 4 2 : 4 7 4 6F 8 124 7@ 70 5 4

8, 74 /8,=4-. /1589. .6 0.;+,/ 0. 74 -;48//9.A 0.,,1D,. 7./ -879./A 7./ 28,/ .6 417.A
7./ 28,/ .6 ,.5+8, .5 7./ 485,./ 34,51./ 0. 7!+8>,4@. .6 -+654-5 4>.- 74 5.,,.A 17 -+6>1.65
0!43371B8., 86. -;4,@. >.,51-47. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. 0. $ I F2

.55. -;4,@. 6. -+8>,. 34/ 7./ .==.5/ 0./ >9;1-87./ 7+8,0/ 0. -;4651., 61 0!485,./ -421+6/
;4:158.77.2.65 85171/9/ 3+8, 74 21/. .6 374-. 0./ ,.2:741/

4 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 3.85 H5,. 4J8/59. 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

65
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

82 1 82 14 67 2 < 8 < 0 2 72 4 82 14 43;8 < >7 4 47


: 4 3 124 < 0 4

1 6. 33: 8 2 1

.55. /.-51+6 /!43371B8. 48 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. 0./ @,460./ 71@6./ 08 ,9/.48 .8,+39.6A
/8, >+1./ C 9-4,5.2.65 /54604,0 +8 C @,460 9-4,5.2.65

./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 09=161/ 34, 74 3,9/.65. /.-51+6 6. 09-,1>.65 34/ 0./ -;4,@./
,9.77./ 7/ +65 959 /97.-51+669/ 4=16 B8. 7.8,/ .==.5/A 7./ 24J+,451+6/ 0<6421B8./ 95465
3,1/./ .6 -+235. /934,92.65A ,.3,9/.65.65 -.8? 08 5,4=1- ,9.7 +,/B8!17 ./5 69-.//41,. 0.
-+6/109,., 86 5,4=1- 9-;433465 48 0+2416. 0!43371-451+6 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 3,./-,15/
046/ 74 3,9/.65. 4,51.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 475.,6451=/ 416/1
B8. 7./ ,D@7./ 0. -+2:1641/+6 -+,,./3+60465./

./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 475.,6451=/ 416/1 B8. 7./ ,D@7./ 0. -+2:1641/+6 -+,,./3+60465./ 3.8>.65
H5,. 09=161/ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

% 4 3,9/.65. /.-51+6 6. /!43371B8. 34/ 48? 4-51+6/ 08./ E


) 48? -;.216/ 0. =., C >+1. 95,+15.A
) 48? 5,42S4</ .5 485,./ >+1./ =.,,9./ 3+8, 5,4=1-/ 79@.,/A
) 48? -;.216/ 0. =., ;1/5+,1B8./A
) 48? -;.216/ 0. =., C -,924177D,.A
) 48? =861-8741,./
7 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 7. -;4,@.2.65 0. -./ 5<3./ 0. -;.216/ 0. =., .5 7./ >47.8,/
-4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ 4-51+6/

. -;4,@.2.65 .5 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ 4-51+6/ 0. -./ 5<3./ 0. -;.216/ 0. =., 3.8>.65
H5,. 09=161/ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

" ./ .?1@.6-./ -+6-.,6465 7./ 71215./ 0. 09=+,2451+6 0./ /5,8-58,./ /833+,5465 86 5,4=1-
=.,,+>141,. /+65 /39-1=19./ 046/ 7! A A -./ 71215./ >1/465 C 3,9/.,>., 74 /9-8,159 08
5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. .5 C 4//8,., 7. -+6=+,5 0./ >+<4@.8,/ .5-

$ ,+1/ -+2:1641/+6/ 6+,2471/9./ 0. 5,4=1- /+65 0+669./ -+22. :4/. 0. -47-87 0. 74


08,9. 0. >1. 0./ /5,8-58,./ >1/ C >1/ 0. 74 =451@8. >+1, 466.?.

. 3+10/ 3,+3,. 0./ 9792.65/ 6+6 /5,8-58,48? -+23,.60 7. 3+10/ 0!9792.65/ 5.7/ B8.A
34, .?.237.A 7./ 9-,46/ 4651 :,815A 7./ :4,,1D,./ 0. /9-8,159A 7./ /1@648?A 7./ -46471/451+6/A
7./ -M:7./ .5 7./ 9B813.2.65/ -459641,./ C 7!.?-.351+6 0./ =+,-./ 08./ C 74 5.6/1+6 0./
71@6./ 0. -+654-5 .5-

7 -+6>1.65 B8. 7./ -+6-.35.8,/ 3+,5.65 86. 455.651+6 34,51-871D,. 48? 54:71.,/ 48?17141,./
08 =415 0. 74 =7.?1:17159 0. -.,5416/ 5<3./ 0!.65,. .8? 7 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 7. -;4,@.2.65
.5 7./ .?1@.6-./ -+6-.,6465 7. -47-87 0./ 54:71.,/ 48?17141,./

! 66.?. 451+647. +8 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85A 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 54:71.,/ 48?17141,./A /39-1=1., 0./
.?1@.6-./ 0. -;4,@.2.65 B81 3.8>.65A 0. 2461D,. @969,47.A H5,. :4/9./ /8, 7. 3,9/.65 0+-82.65 7/ 3.8>.65

66
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

09=161, 0./ .?1@.6-./ 34,51-871D,./ 3+8, 7./ 54:71.,/ 48?17141,./ .6 =+6-51+6 0. 7.8,/ -+60151+6/ 0!85171/451+6
.?1@.6-./ 34,51-871D,./ 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ :141/A 34, .?.237.

3 ;4 12 2 1 6 4 82 14 E 27 6 4 8= 5 4 6 2 < 8 < 0

./ ,D@7./ @969,47./ /+65 0+669./ 1-1 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./A 0./
=+,-./ -.65,1=8@./A 0. 7!.==+,5 0. 74-.5A 0./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. .5 0./
.==.5/ 49,+0<6421B8./ 08/ 48 34//4@. 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.

./ 4-51+6/ 08./ 48? -1,-87451+6/ =.,,+>141,./ /+65 0+669./ 3+8, E


) 7./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ E 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. A T TF .5 TF A G5,416 C >10.G .5
% .5 " A
) 7. -;4,@.2.65 >.,51-47 3+8, 7./ ,.2:741/ % " A
) 7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ " A
) 7./ =+,-./ -.65,1=8@./ $ A
) 7!.==+,5 0. 74-.5 $ A
) 7./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. $ % A
) 7./ 4-51+6/ 49,+0<6421B8./ 08./ 48 34//4@. 0./ 5,416/ A
) 7./ 4-51+6/ 08./ 48? 9B813.2.65/ -459641,./ .5 485,./ 16=,4/5,8-58,./ .5 9B813.2.65/
=.,,+>141,./ %

./ 1601-451+6/ -+6-.,6465 7 9>478451+6 0. 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 0. 74 /5,8-58,. .5 0. 74 >+1. 48?


4-51+6/ >4,14:7./ /+65 0+669./ $ "

% ./ 4-51+6/ 08./ 48 09,4177.2.65 3+8, /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./ /+65 0+669./


3+8, E
) 7. 09,4177.2.65 0!86 5,416 /8, 86 +8>,4@. /833+,5465 86 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.

= 5 40 28 : 4E : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4 ( << 24 42 2 >7 4*$ @8 12 8 2; 2


;3 2 2 1 6 4 8= 5 4

;1; : 2;4

./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. /+65 09=161./ 48 2+<.6 0. 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 16B


2+0D7./ /+65 0+669/ 1-1 E
) 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5 7. 2+0D7. TF 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ C 5,4>9./ -+65168./ A 3+8,
,.3,9/.65., 7. 5,4=1- 6+,247 /8, 7./ @,460./ 71@6./A
) 7. 2+0D7. TF A 3+8, ,.3,9/.65., 7./ -;4,@./ 7+8,0./A
) 7. 2+0D7. A 3+8, ,.3,9/.65., 74 -;4,@. 0. 5,416/ 0. >+<4@.8,/ -1,-87465 C 0./
>15.//./ /839,1.8,./ C I2F;A
) 7. 2+0D7. G5,416 C >10.GA 3+8, ,.3,9/.65., 7!.==.5 0!86 5,416 C >10.

./ .?1@.6-./ ,.7451>./ 48? -+60151+6/ 0!43371-451+6 0./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@./ /+65 0+669./ .6

./ 01/3+/151+6/ /+65 3,1/./ 3+8, 2+087., 7. -;4,@.2.65 /39-1=19 4=16 0. 5.61, -+235.
0./ 01==9,.6-./ 0. 6458,.A 0. >+782. .5 0. 3+10/ 24?1247 08 5,4=1- /8, 7./ 01==9,.65./ 71@6./
=.,,+>141,./ 416/1 B8. 0./ 01==9,.6-./ 046/ 74 B847159 0./ >+1./

67
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) 6A: 6 8= 5 ,

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. ,.3,9/.65. 7!.==.5 /5451B8. 08 -;4,@.2.65 >.,51-47 0Y C 86 5,4=1-


=.,,+>141,. /54604,0

4 01/3+/151+6 .5 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0+1>.65 H5,. -.77./
0. 74 1@8,.

;5 16
17712159
57 E ) 6A: 6 8= 5 , 20 : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4 6 4 8= 5 4 0 2 8 : 4

% ./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0. 74 1@8,. 0+1>.65 H5,. 287513719./ 34, 86 -+.==1-1.65


α /8, 7./ 71@6./ +O -1,-87. 86 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. 378/ 7+8,0 +8 378/ 79@., B8. 7. 5,4=1-
=.,,+>141,. 6+,247 +,/B8!.77./ /+65 287513719./ 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 αA 7./ -;4,@./ /+65
433.79./ G-;4,@./ >.,51-47./ -74//1=19./G . -+.==1-1.65 α 0+15 H5,. -;+1/1 34,21 7./ >47.8,/
/81>465./ E
A $ A % A A A A A%% ) A"

./ 4-51+6/ 96829,9./ -1 0.//+8/ 0+1>.65 H5,. 287513719./ 34, -. 2H2. -+.==1-1.65 α E


) -;4,@.2.65 >.,51-47 9B81>47.65 3+8, 7./ .==.5/ 0./ -;4,@./ 0. ,.2:741/ .5 0. 74
3+8//9. 0./ 5.,,./ /.7+6 % "A
) =+,-./ -.65,1=8@./A /.7+6 $ A
) .==+,5 0. 74-.5A /.7+6 $ 287513719 34, α 3+8, α ≥ 861B8.2.65 A
) =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@.A /.7+6 $ %A
) ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. ) +8>,4@. 48? 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./A /.7+6 $ "A
) 4-51+6/ 0. 09,4177.2.65 3+8, /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77./A /.7+6 A
) 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ C 5,4>9./ -+65168./A /.7+6 % % .5

+8, 7./ 71@6./ 165.,6451+647./A +6 ,.-+22460. 0. 3,.60,. α ≥ A . -+.==1-1.65 α 3.85 H5,.


/39-1=19 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

" +8, 74 >9,1=1-451+6 0./ 71215./ 0. 09=+,2451+6A +6 0+15 85171/., 0./ -;4,@./
>.,51-47./ -74//1=19./ 416/1 B8. 0!485,./ 4-51+6/A 24J+,9./ 34, α -+6=+,292.65 C % %
/48= 3+8, 7. -+6=+,5 0./ 34//4@.,/A 3+8, 7.B8.7 α 0+15 H5,. 3,1/ 9@47 C 7!86159

) 6A: 4 6 8= 5 NM" 2 NM

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF ,.3,9/.65. 7!.==.5 /5451B8. 08 -;4,@.2.65 >.,51-47 0Y C 86


5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. /54604,0 /8, 0./ 3+85,./ -+65168./

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF ,.3,9/.65. 7!.==.5 /5451B8. 08 -;4,@.2.65 >.,51-47 0Y C 86


5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. 7+8,0

68
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% 4 01/3+/151+6 0./ -;4,@./ 0+15 H5,. -.77. 0. 74 1@8,. A 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./
0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 95465 -.77./ 08 4:7.48

57 ) 6A: 4 6 8= 5 NM" 2 NM

B: 7 E : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4 6 4 8= 5 4 0 2 8 : 4 3 7 : 4 6A: 4 6


8= 5 NM" 2 NM

+0D7. 0. -;4,@. #>I


`I F2a `2a `2a
TF %% $A $A%
TF $ $A A

" ./ 71@6./ +8 5,+6N+6/ 0. 71@6./ /8, 7./B8.7/ 86 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. 7+8,0 3.85
/!.==.-58.,A .5 3+8, 7./B8.7/ 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 0+15 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235.A 0+1>.65
H5,. 10.651=19/

.55. 10.651=1-451+6 3.85 H5,. .==.-589. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

$ . 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 0+15 H5,. 287513719 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 α -+22. 1601B89 .6


% %

) 6A: 6 8= 5 I2 1?06 I

.,5416./ >9,1=1-451+6/ /39-1=1B8./ >+1, 7 A Ab " =+65 433.7 C 86


2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 34,51-871.,A 433.79 G5,416 C >10.G 7 -+6/1/5. .6 86. -;4,@. >.,51-47.
716941,. 861=+,2.A 4>.- 86. >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. A I F2

# @8 12 8 2; 6 4 8= 5 4 0 2 8 : 4 ( 6A: 4 6 8= 5 , 2 NM"*

!.==.5 08 09374-.2.65 7459,47 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0+15 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+6/109,451+6 .6
71215465A 3+8, 5+8/ 7./ .//1.8?A 7. ,433+,5 0./ -;4,@./ 0. ,+8./ 0!86 2H2. .//1.8 C
A $E A /8, 6!123+,5. B8.77. >+1. !.?-.65,1-159 B81 .6 ,9/875. 4334,4R5 /8, 74 1@8,.
%

!.?-.65,1-159 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 3.85 H5,. 69@71@9. 7+,/B8!+6 -+6/10D,. 74 =451@8.

./ .?1@.6-./ ,.7451>./ C 74 3,1/. .6 -+235. 0. 74 3+/151+6 0./ >+1./ .5 0. 74 5+79,46-. /8, -.55.
3+/151+6 /+65 0+669./ .6

69
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
;4,@. 716941,. 861=+,2. .5 -;4,@./ 3+6-58.77./ /8, -;4-86 0./ ,417/A /.7+6 7. -4/
.5 TF /1 69-.//41,.
% 1/546-. 5,46/>.,/47. .65,. -;4,@./ 0. ,+8./
57 E @8 12 8 2; 6 4 8= 5 4 0 2 8 : 4

;3 2 2 1 6 4 8= 5 4 6. 44 7 3 : 4 :4$ : 4 2 0 4 4 2 : B :: 42

48= 1601-451+6 -+65,41,.A 7./ 34,4@,43;./ % C % % /!43371B8.65 48? 5,416/ ,9.7/A


48? 5,416/ 5<3./ 3+8, 74 =451@8. 416/1 B8!48? 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. A TF A TF A G5,416 C
>10.G .5

) ) * ( # ! (

6. -;4,@. 0. ,+8. +8 86. =+,-. 3+6-58.77. 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. +8 86. -;4,@.


>.,51-47. -74//1=19. /.7+6 % % +8 08 2+0D7. /48= ' 3.85 H5,.
,934,51. /8, 5,+1/ /833+,5/ 0. ,417 -+22. 7!1601B8. 74 1@8,. " -1 0.//+8/ E

;5 16
B>1 =+,-. 3+6-58.77. /8, -;4B8. ,417A 08. 48 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. +8 -;4,@. 0. ,+8. 08 5,416 ,9.7
/.7+6 % $A 08 5,416 5<3. 3+8, 74 G=451@8.G +8 08 2+0D7. /48= '
01/546-. .65,. /833+,5/ 0. ,417
57 ;3 2 2 1 : 15 276 1 : 6.71 < 8 3 1827 :: 7 6.71 8= 5 6
7 3 : :

70
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) ) * ( ! ( $

6 ,D@7. @969,47.A 86. -;4,@. 0!.//1.8 +8 7./ -;4,@./ 3+6-58.77./ 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.
861B8.2.65 +8 7./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ -74//1=19./ -+6=+,292.65 C % % 7. -4/
9-;9465 3.8>.65 H5,. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51./ 046/ 7. /.6/ 7+6@15801647 /48= 7+,/B8. 7./
.==.5/ 7+-48? 0./ -;4,@./ /+65 /1@61=1-451=/A 34, .?.237. 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 9792.65/ 7+-48?
0. 54:71., .5-

+8, 7. -47-87 0./ 9792.65/ 7+-48? 0. 54:71., .5- 34, .?.237. E 6.,>8,./ 7+6@15801647./
.5 5,46/>.,/47./A 7+6@.,+6/A 31D-./ 0. 3+65A 5Q7./ 0. 3745.74@.A 0477./ 216-./ .6 :95+6 A 17
-+6>1.65 0. 5.61, -+235. 0. 74 ,934,5151+6 7+6@15801647. 0. 74 -;4,@. /+8/ 7./ 5,4>.,/./
-+22. 7!1601B8. 74 1@8,. $A 046/ 74B8.77. 7. 3746 0. ,9=9,.6-. ./5 09=161 -+22. 7.
61>.48 /839,1.8, 08 54:71.,

;5 16
;4,@. /8, 5,4>.,/.
746 0. ,9=9,.6-.

57 # ;3 2 2 1 : 15 276 1 : 6.71 8= 5 3 71 2 0 4 2 : B :: 42

) ) * $ ! ( $

8, 7./ 3+65/ 4>.- >+1. :4774/59. /46/ 09>.,/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. ,934,51, 7./ -;4,@./
5,46/>.,/47.2.65 -+22. 1601B89 /8, 74 1@8,.

71
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
746 0. ,9=9,.6-.

57 E ;3 2 2 1 2 140 4 : 6 4 8= 5 4 3 : 4 2 0 4 4 2 : B :: 42
0 4 14 6;0 4 (:. << 2 6 :. @8 12 8 2; 6 4 8= 5 4 0 2 8 : 4 1. 42 3 4 < 57 ;*

8, 7./ 3+65/ 4>.- >+1. :4774/59. /46/ 09>.,/ .5 5,4>.,/./ 2+6+:7+-A 4>.- 86 :4774/5
-+234-59 861B8.2.65 /+8/ 7./ ,417/A 0. 2H2. B8. 046/ 7. -4/ 0./ 5,4>.,/./ :1 :7+-A 17
-+6>1.65 0. ,934,51, 7./ -;4,@./ 5,46/>.,/47.2.65 -+22. 1601B89 046/ 74 1@8,.

;5 16
746 0. ,+87.2.65
746 0. ,9=9,.6-.
57 , E ;3 2 2 1 2 140 4 : 6 4 8= 5 4 3 : 4 2 0 4 4 2 : B :: 42
0 4 14 6;0 4 (:. << 2 6 :. @8 12 8 2; 6 4 8= 5 4 0 2 8 : 4 1. 42 3 4 < 57 ;*

% 8, 7./ 3+65/ C >+1. :4774/59. .6 09>.,/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. ,934,51, 7./ -;4,@./


5,46/>.,/47.2.65 -+22. 1601B89 /8, 74 1@8,.

72
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
746 0. ,9=9,.6-.

57 / E ;3 2 2 1 2 140 4 : 6 4 8= 5 4 3 : 4 2 0 4 4 2 : B :: 42
0 1 6;0 4 (:. << 2 6 :. @8 12 8 2; 6 4 8= 5 4 0 2 8 : 4 1. 42 3 4 < 57 ;*

" 8, 7./ 3+65/ 4>.- >+1. :4774/59. .6 09>.,/ .5 5,4>.,/./ 2+6+:7+-A 4>.- 86 :4774/5
-+234-59 861B8.2.65 /+8/ 7./ ,417/A +8 >+1. :4774/59. .6 09>.,/ .5 5,4>.,/./ :1 :7+-A 17
-+6>1.65 0. 2+01=1., 74 1@8,. 3+8, 5.61, -+235. 0. 74 ,934,5151+6 5,46/>.,/47. 0./
-;4,@./ /+8/ -;4B8. ,417 -+22. 1601B89 046/ 74 1@8,.

$ 7 -+6>1.65 0. 3,9-1/., 74 ,934,5151+6 5,46/>.,/47. 43371-4:7.

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 74 ,934,151+6 5,46/>.,/47. 43371-4:7.

) ) '! ( $ + $

+8, 7./ .==.5/ @7+:48?A 7. -;4,@.2.65 >.,51-47 -4,4-59,1/51B8. 9B81>47.65 3+8, 7./
,.2:741/ /+8/ >+1. +8 C 3,+?12159 0. 74 >+1.A 0Y 48 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.A 3.85 H5,. 3,1/ -+22.
7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 433,+3,19 ) +8 -;4,@. >.,51-47. -74//1=19. /.7+6 % % 7. -4/
9-;9465 ) .5 TF 7. -4/ 9-;9465 861=+,292.65 ,934,51 /8, 86. 74,@.8, 0. %A 2 C 86
61>.48 0. A 2 /+8/ 74 /8,=4-. 0. ,+87.2.65 0. 74 >+1.

8-86 -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. 61 48-86. 24J+,451+6 6. /+65 C 43371B8., C 74 -;4,@.


861=+,292.65 ,934,51. -1 0.//8/

% +8, 7. -47-87 0./ 9792.65/ 7+-48? 3,+-;./ 0. 74 >+1. 28,/ @4,0. :4774/5A 34,
.?.237. A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,+-90., C 86 -47-87 /39-1=1B8. .6 5.6465 -+235. 08 -;4,@.2.65
7+-47 24?1247 0. 7!9792.65 >.,51-47.2.65A 7+6@15801647.2.65 .5 5,46/>.,/47.2.65
.6@.60,9 34, 7./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.

73
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

, 82 14 3 7 : 4 3 44 5 4 6 4 0 8 1 1 88 44 B: 4 7 37B: 8

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ .?1@.6-./ 0. -;4,@.2.65 475.,6451>./ 3+8, 7./ 31/5./
3195+6/A 34//4@./ 0. /.,>1-. +8 B841/ .5- 6+6 4--.//1:7./ 48 38:71-

./ 31/5./ 3195+6/ 6+6 4--.//1:7./ 48 38:71- /+65 -.77./ 3,9>8./ 3+8, 86. 85171/451+6
.?-78/1>. 34, 0./ 3.,/+66./ 485+,1/9./

7 -+6>1.65 0. ,.3,9/.65., 7./ -;4,@./ 0./ 3195+6/ .5 0./ 0.8? ,+8./ 416/1 B8. 7./
-;4,@./ 0!.65,.51.6 -+8,465./ 34, 86. -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51. 0. >47.8,
-4,4-59,1/51B8. #=I W $ I F2

% +8, 7. -47-87 0./ 9792.65/ 7+-48?A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 86. -;4,@.
-+6-.65,9. BI W A I 4@1//465 /.87. .5 43371B89. /8, 86. /8,=4-. -4,,9. 0. 22 0.
-Q59

" 7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 7./ =+,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ .?.,-9./ 34, 7./ 3.,/+66./ /8, 7./
34,43.5/A 7./ 28,/ 0. /934,451+6 .5 7./ :4,,1D,./ -+22. 4334,5.6465 48? -459@+,1./ ' +8
0. 7!

<< 24 6D1 >7 4 ( 18:7 12 : ;4 1 18 *

12 6782 1

./ -+65,4165./ .5 09=+,2451+6/ /5451B8./ 0!86 3+65 08./ 48? -1,-87451+6/ .5


7!4--979,451+6 08 54:71., 4//+-19. /+65 48@2.659./ .5 0121689./ 34, 7./ 3;96+2D6./
/81>465/ E
) ,4310159 0. 21/. .6 -;4,@. 08. C 74 >15.//. 0. 74 -1,-87451+6 =,46-;1//465 7!+8>,4@. .5
16.,51. 1234-5 0. 7!+8>,4@.A
) 34//4@. 0. -;4,@./ /8--.//1>./ ./34-9./ 0. =4N+6 378/ +8 2+16/ ,9@871D,.A B81 3.85
.?-15., 74 /5,8-58,. .5A 046/ -.,5416/ -4/A -,9., 86. ,9/+646-. 7+,/B8. 74 =,9B8.6-.
0!.?-15451+6A +8 86 2875137. 0. -.77. -1A -+,,./3+60 C 74 =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0.
7!+8>,4@. +8 C 86 2875137. 0. 74 =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,.A 17 < 4 86 ,1/B8. B8. 7./ >1:,451+6/
160815./ 34, 74 /8--.//1+6 0!.//1.8? 34,-+8,465 7!+8>,4@. 6. /+1.65 .?-.//1>./ A
) >4,1451+6/ 0./ -;4,@./ 0. ,+8. ,9/875465 0./ 123.,=.-51+6/ 0. 74 >+1. +8 08 >9;1-87.
< -+23,1/ 1,,9@874,159/ 0./ ,+8./

./ 3;96+2D6./ -1 0.//8/ 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235. 3+8, 095.,216., 7./ .==.5/
-+65,4165./A 09=+,2451+6/A 4--979,451+6 08 54:71., .5- 0./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.

82 7 4 1<:7 1O 12 : 8 3 2 12 6D1 >7

./ 3,16-1348? =4-5.8,/ 16=78.6N465 7. -+23+,5.2.65 0<6421B8. /+65 7./ /81>465/ E


1 >15.//. 0. =,46-;1//.2.65 08 3+65A
11 3+,59. 4 0. 7!9792.65 .5 7+6@8.8, 0. 74 71@6. 0!16=78.6-. 0. 74 =7D-;. 0. 7!9792.65
-+6/109,9A
111 24//. 0. 7!+8>,4@.A
1> =,9B8.6-./ 3,+3,./ 0. 7!.6/.2:7. 0. 7!+8>,4@. .5 0./ 9792.65/ /1@61=1-451=/ 0.
-.781 -1 .5 2+0./ 3,+3,./ 4//+-19/ 7. 7+6@ 08 5,4-9 0. 74 >+1.A
> 6+2:,.A ./34-.2.65/ .5 -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8?A

74
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

>1 42+,51//.2.65 0. 7!+8>,4@.A


>11 1,,9@874,159/ >.,51-47./ 0. 74 >+1.A
>111 24//. /8/3.608. F 24//. 6+6 /8/3.608. .5 -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0. /8/3.6/1+6 08
>9;1-87.A
1? 3,9/.6-.A C ./34-.2.65/ ,9@871.,/A 0!43381/ 0. 74 0477. .5F+8 0. 74 >+1. 31D-./ 0.
3+65/A 5,4>.,/./ .5- A
? 123.,=.-51+6/ 0./ >9;1-87./ 293745/ .5 ,+8./ 09=+,29./A 09=485/ 0. /8/3.6/1+6
.5- A
?1 -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0<6421B8./ 0. 74 >+1. :4774/5A 5,4>.,/./A -+23+/465/ 0. 74 >+1.
.5-

./ =4-5.8,/ /+65 3,1/ .6 -+235. .6 " " C "

8-86. 71215. 0. 09=+,2451+6 34,51-871D,. 6!./5 09=161. 3+8, 9>15., 74 ,9/+646-. .5 7./ .==.5/
.?-.//1=/ 0./ >1:,451+6/ #+1, 7 A 3+8, 7./ -,15D,./ -+6-.,6465 7./ 09=+,2451+6/ >1/ C >1/ 0. 74
/9-8,159 0./ -1,-87451+6/A 08 -+6=+,5 0./ 34//4@.,/ .5-

A5: 4 5;1; : 4 6 6 14 11 12

6. 4647</. /5451B8. 0+15 H5,. ,9471/9. 4>.- 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. 09=161/ .6 %
.5A 7+,/B8. -.74 ./5 69-.//41,.A TF .5 TF ./ ,9/87545/ 0+1>.65 H5,.
287513719/ 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. Φ 09=161 .6 " $ .5 /1 69-.//41,.A 7. -+.==1-1.65
α 5.7 B8. 09=161 .6 %

./ -,15D,./ 3.,2.55465 0. 095.,216., /1 86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. ./5 69-.//41,. +8


6+6 /+65 0+669/ .6 " "

% +,/B8!86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. ./5 ,.B81/. E


) 7./ -4/ 0. -;4,@. 400151+66.7/ 3+8, 7!4647</. 0<6421B8. 0+1>.65 H5,. -+6=+,2./ C
" K
) 7!4--979,451+6 0. 3+165. 24?1247. 08 54:71., 0+15 H5,. >9,1=19. -+6=+,292.65 C
" $K
) 7./ ,9/87545/ 0. 7!4647</. 0<6421B8. 0+1>.65 H5,. -+234,9/ 48? ,9/87545/ 0. 7!4647</.
/5451B8.A 287513719/ 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. Φ 09=161 .6 " $ .5 /1 69-.//41,.A
287513719/ 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 αA -+6=+,292.65 C % ./ >47.8,/ 7./ 378/
09=4>+,4:7./ 0./ .==.5/ 0./ 4-51+6/ 0+1>.65 H5,. 85171/9./ 3+8, 7. -47-87 08 3+65 /.7+6
" $K
) 86. >9,1=1-451+6 0+15 H5,. .==.-589. -+22. 1601B89 .6 " 0. 2461D,. C 4//8,.,
B8. 74 -;4,@. 0. =451@8. 400151+66.77. 48? @,460./ >15.//./ .5 C 74 ,9/+646-. ./5
-+8>.,5. 34, 74 -+6/109,451+6 0./ -+65,4165./ 09,1>9./ 0./ ,9/87545/ 0. 7!4647</.
/5451B8. 287513719/ 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. Φ

" 7 -+6>1.65 0. -47-87., 5+8/ 7./ 3+65/ 3+8, 7./B8.7/ 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48
3+165 -+6/109,9 ./5 /839,1.8,. C I2F; +8 B81 69-.//15.65 86. 4647</. 0<6421B8.A
3+8, 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A /1 69-.//41,.A 7. 2+0D7. 0.
-;4,@. TF +8 3+8, 7./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ -74//1=19./A 4>.- α ≥ A -+22. 1601B89 .6
%

75
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

$ 46/ 7. -4/ 0./ 5,416/ 0. >+<4@.8,/A 74 3,1/. .6 -+235. 0./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./A
-+22. 1601B89 .6 " " C " A ./5 >474:7. 3+8, 0./ >15.//./ 24?1247./ 485+,1/9./ 08
>9;1-87. 477465 J8/B8!C %$ I2F;

;8 44 2; 6.71 1 :D4 42 2 >7 7 6.71 1 :D4 6D1 >7

4 1@8,. =415 4334,4R5,. 7./ -,15D,./ 3.,2.55465 0. 095.,216., 7C +O 86. 4647</.


/5451B8. +8 0<6421B8. ./5 ,.B81/.

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ -,15D,./ 475.,6451=/ 85171/451+6 08 7+@1@,422. 0. 74 =1@8,.
./5 ,.-+224609.

76
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

DEBUT

oui

V ≤ 200 km/h

non oui
Pont à travées
continues (5)

non Structure
simple non
(1)

oui

oui
L ≥ 40 m

non non n0 dans les oui


limites de la
Figure 6.10
(6)

non oui
nT > 1,2 n0

Pour l'analyse Utiliser les Tableaux F1 et


dynamique, utiliser F2 (2)
les modes propres
de torsion et de
flexion

Modes propres non oui


v lim/n0 ≤ (v/n0)lim
de flexion (2) (3) (7)
suffisants

Analyse dynamique non requise.


Vérification vis-à-vis de
Analyse dynamique requise l'accélération et de la fatigue non
Calculer l'accélération du tablier,
requise à la résonance. Utiliser Φ
ϕ´dyn etc. conformément à 6.4.6 avec l'analyse statique
(note 4) conformément à 6.4.3 (1)P

57 E 5 15 3 22 12 6 6;2 1 4 71 1 :D4 6D1 >7


42 >7 4 7 1 1

77
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

4>.- E
1 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9 `I2F;a
4 3+,59. `2a
3,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. =7.?1+6 08 3+65 /+8/ 4-51+6/ 3.,246.65./ ` La
3,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 5+,/1+6 08 3+65 /+8/ 4-51+6/ 3.,246.65./ ` La
>15.//. 24?1247. 6+21647. 2F/
F 712 0+669 C 7!466.?.

#474:7. 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ /8, 43381/ /1237./ 0+65 7. -+23+,5.2.65 ./5 4//12174:7. C -.781 0!86.
3+85,. 0,+15. /.6/ 7+6@15801647 +8 0!86. /1237. 374B8.A /8, 43381/ =1?./A 4>.- .==.5/ 0. :141/
69@71@.4:7./

+8, 7./ 4:7.48? .5 .5 7./ 71215./ 0. >4710159 4//+-19./A >+1, 7! 66.?.

% 6. 4647</. 0<6421B8. ./5 ,.B81/. 7+,/B8. 74 >15.//. 0!.?37+15451+6 =,9B8.65. 0!86 5,416 ,9.7 ./5
9@47. C 74 >15.//. 0. ,9/+646-. 0. 7!+8>,4@. #+1, " .5 66.?.

" ϕ′0<6A 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 046/ 7. -4/ 0./ 5,416/ ,9.7/A ./5 0+669. .6 " $%

$ #474:7. /+8/ ,9/.,>. B8. 7. 3+65 /451/=4//. 48? .?1@.6-./ 0. ,9/1/546-. .5 0. 09=+,2451+6 71215.
0+669./ 046/ 7! A " " 416/1 B8!48? .?1@.6-./ 0!4--979,451+6 24?1247. 0./ >+158,./ +8 0.
09=+,2451+6/ 71215./ 4//+-19./ -+,,./3+60465 C 86 5,D/ :+6 61>.48 0. -+6=+,5 3+8, 7./ 34//4@.,/A 5.77./
B8!.77./ 4334,41//.65 046/ 7! A

6. 4647</. 0<6421B8. 6!./5 34/ 69-.//41,. 046/ 7. -4/ 0./ 3+65/ 0+65 74 3,.21D,. =,9B8.6-.
3,+3,. ./5 046/ 7./ 71215./ 0. 74 1@8,. .5 3+8, 7./B8.7/ 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165
-+6/109,9 6. 0934//. 34/ I2F;

6. 4647</. 0<6421B8. ./5 69-.//41,. 046/ 7. -4/ 0./ 3+65/ 0+65 74 3,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,.
0934//. 74 71215. /839,1.8,. 0. 74 1@8,. #+1, 9@47.2.65 "

4 71215. /839,1.8,. 0. ./5 719. 48?


24J+,451+6/ 0<6421B8./ 08./ 48? 1,,9@874,159/
0. 74 >+1. K .77. ./5 0+669. 34, E
W "A 4 A "

4 71215. 16=9,1.8,. 0. ./5 719. C 0./ -,15D,./


0!1234-5 0<6421B8. K .77. ./5 0+669. 34, E

W F4
3+8, "2 ≤ 4 ≤ 2
W %A$ 4 A$
3+8, 2 ] 4 ≤ 2

4>.- E

3,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 08 3+65A 5.6465


-+235. 0. 74 24//.A /+8/ 4-51+6/ 3.,246.65./A
4 3+,59. 046/ 7. -4/ 0./ 3+65/ /8, 43381/
/1237./ +8 4Φ 046/ 7./ 485,./ -4/

;5 16
1215. /839,1.8,. 0. 74 =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,.
1215. 16=9,1.8,. 0. 74 =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,.

57 " 2 4 6 : < ;>7 18 3 3 , P+HQ 67 3 12 1 < 182 1 6 P Q

78
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

46/ 7. -4/ 0!86 3+65 /8, 43381/ /1237./ /+821/ C 74 =7.?1+6 861B8.2.65A 74 =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,.
3.85 H5,. ./5129. C 7!410. 0. 74 =+,287. /81>465. E
A $ %
` La =
L
4>.- E

δ =7D-;. C 21 3+,59. ,9/875465 0./ 4-51+6/ 3.,246.65./ `22aA -47-879. 4>.- 7. 2+087. 16/5465469
3+8, 7./ 3+65/ .6 :95+6A 3+8, 86. 39,1+0. 0. -;4,@.2.65 404359. C 74 =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 08 3+65

# << 8 12 6D1 >7 Φ (Φ $ Φ *

) &

. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. Φ 51.65 -+235. 0. 7!42371=1-451+6 0<6421B8. 0./


-+65,4165./ .5 0./ .==.5/ 0./ >1:,451+6/ 0. 7!+8>,4@. 241/ 34/ 0./ .==.5/ 0. ,9/+646-.

+,/B8. 7./ -,15D,./ /39-1=19/ .6 " " 6. /+65 34/ /451/=415/A 17 < 4 ,1/B8. 0.
,9/+646-. +8 0. >1:,451+6/ .?-.//1>./ 08 3+65 4>.- 7. ,1/B8. 0!4--979,451+6/ .?-.//1>./
08 54:71., -+6081/465 C 7!16/54:17159 08 :4774/5A 0. 09=+,2451+6/ .5 0. -+65,4165./
.?-.//1>./ .5- 46/ -./ -4/A 86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. 0+15 H5,. .==.-589. 4=16 0.
-47-87., 7./ .==.5/ 0. 7!1234-5 .5 0. 74 ,9/+646-.

./ 295;+0./ B84/1 /5451B8./ B81 85171/.65 7./ .==.5/ /5451B8./ 0./ 4-51+6/ 287513719/ 34, 7.
-+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. Φ 09=161 .6 " $ /+65 16-434:7./ 0. 3,901,. 7./ .==.5/ 0. 74 ,9/+646-. .6@.60,9/
34, 7./ 5,416/ C @,460. >15.//. ./ 5.-;61B8./ 0!4647</. 0<6421B8. 5.6465 -+235. 0. 74 >4,14:17159
5.23+,.77. 08 -;4,@.2.65 08 2+0D7. C @,460. >15.//. .5 0./ 5,416/ ,9.7/ ,9/+7851+6 0./
9B8451+6/ 08 2+8>.2.65A 34, .?.237. /+65 69-.//41,./ 3+8, 3,901,. 7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ C 74
,9/+646-.

% 7 -+6>1.65 0. 6. 3,+-90., C 48-86. ,908-51+6 08 -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. Φ 046/ 7.


-4/ 0!+8>,4@./ /833+,5465 378/1.8,/ >+1./

) & # ## " + Φ

. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. ΦA B81 24J+,. 7./ .==.5/ /5451B8./ 08/ 48? 2+0D7./ 0.
-;4,@. A TF .5 TF A 0+15 H5,. 3,1/ 9@47 C Φ +8 C Φ%

969,47.2.65A 7. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. Φ ./5 3,1/ 9@47 C Φ +8 C Φ% .6 =+6-51+6 0. 74


B847159 0. 7!.65,.51.6 0. 74 >+1.A -+22. 1601B89 -1 43,D/ E

4 3+8, 86. >+1. /+1@6.8/.2.65 .65,.5.68. E

;""
M = + ; "
4c − ;

4>.- E A ≤Φ ≤ A

79
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

: 3+8, 86. >+1. 6+,247.2.65 .65,.5.68. E

;
M% = + ; % $
4c − ;

4>.- E A ≤ Φ% ≤ A

.5 4>.- E

4Φ 7+6@8.8, G095.,216465.G 7+6@8.8, 4//+-19. C Φ 09=161. 48 4:7.48 `2a

./ -+.==1-1.65/ 0<6421B8./ +65 959 954:71/ 3+8, 0./ 3+85,./ /8, 43381/ /1237./ 4 7+6@8.8, 4Φ
3.,2.5 0!85171/., -./ -+.==1-1.65/ 3+8, 0!485,./ 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? 4>.- 0!485,./ -+60151+6/ 0!43381

% 1 48-86 -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. 6!./5 /39-1=19A 7. -+.==1-1.65 C ,.5.61, ./5 Φ%

. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. C ,.5.61, 3.85 H5,. /39-1=19 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5
1601>108.7

" . -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. Φ 6. 0+15 34/ H5,. 85171/9 4>.- E


) 7. -;4,@.2.65 0Y 48? 5,416/ ,9.7/A
) 7. -;4,@.2.65 0Y 48? 5,416/ 5<3./ G=451@8.G 466.?. A
) 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. " A
) 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. G5,416 C >10.G % "

) & ( Φ

./ 7+6@8.8,/ 095.,216465./ 4Φ C 85171/., /+65 0+669./ 046/ 7. 4:7.48 -1


0.//+8/

./ >47.8,/ 475.,6451>./ 0. 4Φ 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. ./ >47.8,/ 08


54:7.48 /+65 ,.-+224609./

+,/B8. 48-86. >47.8, 0. 4Φ 6!./5 /39-1=19. 046/ 7. 4:7.48 A 17 -+6>1.65 0.


3,.60,. 3+8, 74 7+6@8.8, 095.,216465. 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 74 71@6. 0!16=78.6-. 0. 74 =7D-;. 0.
7!9792.65 -+6/109,9A +8 17 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 0./ >47.8,/ 475.,6451>./

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ >47.8,/ 475.,6451>./

% +,/B8.A 046/ 86 9792.65 /5,8-58,47A 74 -+65,4165. ,9/875465. 093.60 0. 378/1.8,/ .==.5/A


-;4-86 0!.65,. .8? /. ,433+,5465 C 86 -+23+,5.2.65 /5,8-58,47 01/516-5A 17 -+6>1.65 0.
-47-87., -;4B8. .==.5 .6 85171/465 74 7+6@8.8, 095.,216465. 433,+3,19.

80
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 157 7 4 6;2 1 12 4 Φ

4 :; 12 42 7827 : 157 7 6;2 1 12 Φ


B: ;2 :: >7 G 54:71., 4>.- 3745.74@. .5 715 0. :4774/5 0477. +,5;+5,+3. 3+8,
-+65,4165./ 7+-47./ .5 -+65,4165./ 5,46/>.,/47./
4:71., 4>.- 31D-./ 0. 3+65 .5
6.,>8,./ 7+6@15801647./
-+65168./ E

Q7. 0. 3745.74@. 3+8, 7./ 0.8? % =+1/ 7!./34-.2.65 0./ 31D-./ 0. 3+65
01,.-51+6/
.,>8,./ 7+6@15801647./ % =+1/ 7!./34-.2.65 0./ 31D-./ 0. 3+65
-+65168./ < -+23,1/ 7./ 3.515/
3+,5. C =48? J8/B8!C A$ 2 4
% 1D-./ 0. 3+65 -+8,465./ =+1/ 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 74 31D-. 0. 3+65
" 1D-./ 0. 3+65 0!.?5,92159 %A 2 :
4:71., 4>.- 31D-./ 0. 3+65
/.87.2.65 E

Q7. 0. 3745.74@. 3+8, 7./ 0.8? =+1/ 7!./34-.2.65 0./ 31D-./ 0. 3+65
01,.-51+6/ ^%2
1D-./ 0. 3+65 -+8,465./ =+1/ 7!./34-.2.65 0./ 31D-./ 0. 3+65
^%2
% 1D-./ 0. 3+65 0!.?5,92159 %A 2 :
;4 7 6 3 72 4 ;2 :: >7 4 E 54:71., /46/ 3745.74@.A C 3+/. 0. >+1. 01,.-5. : 3+8,
-+65,4165./ 7+-47./ .5 -+65,4165./ 5,46/>.,/47./
% +6@.,+6/ E
-+22. 9792.65/ 0!86 ,9/.48 % =+1/ 7!./34-.2.65 0./ 31D-./ 0. 3+65
-+65168 0. 3+85,./ -,+1/9./
-+22. 3+85,./ /8, 43381/ /34-.2.65 0./ 31D-./ 0. 3+65 ^ % 2
/1237./
% +,5. C =48? 0./ 7+6@.,+6/ 4 %A 2
%% 1D-./ 0. 3+65 .6 5465 =+1/ 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 74 31D-. 0. 3+65
B8!9792.65/ 0!86 ,9/.48 0.
3+85,./ -,+1/9./ -+6/51589 0.
31D-./ 0. 3+65 .5 0. 7+6@.,+6/
-+65168/
%" 1D-./ 0. 3+65 0!.?5,92159 %A 2 :
4
6 @969,47A 5+8/ 7./ .6-+,:.77.2.65/ 0934//465 A$ 2 .5 /833+,5465 0./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.
69-.//15.65 86. 9580. 34,51-871D,. -+22. 1601B89 .6 " A =41/465 165.,>.61, 7./ -;4,@./ -+6>.68./ 4>.-
7!485+,159 -+2395.65. /39-1=19. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.
:
7 ./5 ,.-+224609 0!43371B8., Φ%

81
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 (47 2 *

4 :; 12 42 7827 : 157 7 6;2 1 12 Φ


B: 1 B;2 1 0 8 : 2 6 B :: 42 3+8, -+65,4165./ 7+-47./ .5 -+65,4165./ 5,46/>.,/47./
" +8,01/ 0./ 3+85,./ -41//+6/ +8
;+8,01/ /8, 3+85,./ 3,16-1347./
3+,59. 3.,3.601-8741,. 48? % =+1/ 74 3+,59. 08 ;+8,01/
3+85,./ 3,16-1347./
3+,59. 046/ 7. /.6/ 7+6@15801647 % =+1/ 74 3+,59. 08 ;+8,01/

31D-./ 0. 3+65 -+8,465./ =+1/ 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 74 31D-. 0. 3+65

.6-+,:.77.2.65/ 5,46/>.,/48?
/833+,5465 0./ -;4,@./
=.,,+>141,./

≤ A$ 2 E % =+1/ 74 01/546-. .65,. M2./


_ A$ 2 E 4
57 18 B :: 12 2 140 4 :
4733 2 12 6 4 8= 5 4 < 0 4

" +8,01/ -+65168 /8, .65,.5+1/./ =+1/ 7!./34-.2.65 0./ .65,.5+1/./


046/ 7. /.6/ 0./ 3+85,./
3,16-1347./

"% 477. 3+8, 3+65/ C 3+85,./ 7459,47./


.5 3+65/ C 48@.5/ E
3+,59. 3.,3.601-8741,. 48? =+1/ 74 3+,59. 0. 74 0477. ^ % 2
3+85,./ 3,16-1347./
3+,59. 046/ 7. /.6/ 7+6@15801647 =+1/ 74 3+,59. 0. 74 0477.

"" 4:71., C 3+85,.77./ 2954771B8./ =+1/ 74 7+6@8.8, 095.,216465. 046/ 7.


.6,+:9./A ,.3+/465 /8, 7./ 417./ 0./ /.6/ 7+6@15801647
3+85,./ 7459,47./

"$ 6-+,:.77.2.65/ 7+6@15801648? 0. ≤ A$ 2E %A 2 :


74 0477. _ A$ 2E 4

" 1D-./ 0. 3+65 0!.?5,92159 %A 2 :


4
6 @969,47A 5+8/ 7./ .6-+,:.77.2.65/ 0934//465 A$ 2 .5 /833+,5465 0./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.
69-.//15.65 86. 9580. 34,51-871D,. -+22. 1601B89 .6 " A =41/465 165.,>.61, 7./ -;4,@./ -+6>.68./ 4>.-
7!485+,159 -+2395.65. /39-1=19. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.
:
7 ./5 ,.-+224609 0!43371B8., Φ%

+8, 7./ -4/ C" 16-78/A 4Φ ./5 712159 C 74 7+6@8.8, 095.,216465. 0./ 3+85,./ 3,16-1347./

82
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 (47 2 *

4 :; 12 42 7827 : 157 7 6;2 1 12 Φ


72 4 3 18 3 : 4
$ +85,./ .5 0477./ /8, 43381/ /1237./ < +,59. 046/ 74 01,.-51+6 0./ 3+85,./
-+23,1/ 3+85,.77./ 2954771B8./ .6,+:9./ 3,16-1347./

$ +85,./ .5 0477./ -+65168./ /8, 5,4>9./ 4Φ W I × 42A


4>.- 48 2161282 3,1/ 9@47 C 24? 41 W A A

42 W F 4 ^4 ^ ^ 46
W % " ≥$
dddddddddddd
IW A A% A" A$

$% +65/ 3+,51B8./ .5 -40,./ =.,29/ +8


-41//+6/ E
./ -+6/109,., -+22. 86. 3+85,.
C 86. /.87. 5,4>9. -+65168. C 5,+1/ 5,4>9./ 85171/., $ 4>.-
7./ 7+6@8.8,/ >.,51-47./ .5 ;+,1L+6547./
0./ 9792.65/ 08 -40,. +8 08 58:.

C 378/1.8,/ 5,4>9./ ./ -+6/109,., -+22. 86. 3+85,.


-+65168. C 378/1.8,/ 5,4>9./ 85171/., $
4>.- 7+6@8.8,/ 0./ 9792.65/ >.,51-48?
0!.?5,92159 .5 0./ 9792.65/ ;+,1L+6548?

$" #+Y5./A 4,-/A 51,465/ 0./ 3+65/ :+S /5,16@ 0.21 3+,59.

$$ 9,1./ 0. >+Y5./ 37.16./ 4>.- 5<2346 0.8? =+1/ 7!+8>.,58,. 71:,.


,.5.6465 7. ,.2:741

$ 8/3.65./ ,.719./ 48? 3+85,./ 0. ,1@10159 " =+1/ 7!./34-.2.65 7+6@15801647 0./
/8/3.65./

337 4 42 7827 7@
+5.48?A -;.>H5,./A 4334,.17/ 0!43381A +6@8.8, 095.,216465. 0./ 9792.65/
4334,.17/ 0!43381 4651 /+87D>.2.65A /833+,59/
46-,4@./ 416/1 B8. 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./
3,.//1+6/ 0. -+654-5 /+8/ 7./ 4334,.17/
0!43381

) & -## " +

46/ 7. -4/ 0./ 3+65/ >+Y59/ .5 0./ 3+65/ .6 :95+6 0. 5+8/ 5<3./ 4>.- 86. 9341//.8,
0. -+8>.,58,. /839,1.8,. C A 2A Φ .5 Φ% 3.8>.65 H5,. ,90815/ -+22. /815 E

A
M ;% N M ;% @ ≥ A

83
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

4>.- E

9341//.8, 0. 74 -+8>.,58,. 16-78465 7. :4774/5 0.381/ 7. 61>.48 /839,1.8, 08 54:71.,


J8/B8!48 61>.48 /839,1.8, 0. 74 5,4>.,/. 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ >+Y59/A 0.381/ 7. /+22.5 0.
7!.?5,40+/ `2a

./ .==.5/ 0./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. /8, 7./ 3+5.48? 3,9/.65465 86 9746-.2.65
7+6@8.8, 0. =742:.2.65F,4<+6 0. @1,451+6 ] % A 7./ -879./A 7./ =+60451+6/A 7./ 28,/ 0.
/+85D6.2.65A 0. 2H2. B8. 7./ 3,.//1+6/ 48 /+7A 3.8>.65 H5,. -47-879/ /46/ 5.61, -+235. 0./
.==.5/ 0<6421B8./

@ 5 18 4 : 2 0 4 ? :. 1 :D4 6D1 >7

) ) '! ( ! (

" ;4,@./

!4647</. 0<6421B8. 0+15 H5,. .==.-589. .6 85171/465 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./
-;4,@./ 0./ 5,416/ ,9.7/ /39-1=19./ . -;+1? 0./ 5,416/ ,9.7/ 0+15 3,.60,. .6 -+235.
-;4-86. 0./ -+23+/151+6/ 0. 5,416 485+,1/9./ +8 .6>1/4@9./ 3+8, -;4B8. 5<3. 0. 5,416 C
@,460. >15.//. 4021/ CA +8 3,9>8 3+8,A -1,-87., /8, 7!+8>,4@. C 0./ >15.//./ /839,1.8,./ C
I2F;

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8 416/1 B8. 7.8,
./34-.2.65 3+8, -;4B8. -+6=1@8,451+6 0. -;4B8. 5,416 ,9.7

#+1, 9@47.2.65 " 3+8, -. B81 -+6-.,6. 7. -;4,@.2.65 046/ 7. -4/ 0!86. 4647</.
0<6421B8. 3+8, 86. >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 16=9,1.8,. C I2F; 48 3+165 -+6/109,9

!4647</. 0<6421B8. 0+15 9@47.2.65 H5,. .==.-589. C 7!410. 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.


/8, 7./ 3+65/ -+6N8/ 3+8, 0./ 71@6./ 165.,6451+647./ 7+,/B8. 0./ -,15D,./
.8,+39.6/ 0!165.,+39,4:17159 C @,460. >15.//. /+65 43371-4:7./

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 7./ -4/ +O 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@./ 0+15 H5,. 85171/9

% . 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. ./5 -+6/51589 0. 0.8? 5,416/ ,.3,9/.65451=/ 4>.- 0./


7+6@8.8,/ 0. >+158,. >4,14:7./A .5 '

.5 ' .6/.2:7. ,.3,9/.65.65 7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ 08./ 48? 5,416/ 0.
>+<4@.8,/ C @,460. >15.//. 5,416/ -74//1B8./A C 4,51-87451+6 165.,-41//. +8 C .//1.8? ,9@871D,.2.65
./34-9/ A -+6=+,2./ 48? .?1@.6-./ 0./ 39-1=1-451+6/ .-;61B8./ 8,+39.66./ 0! 65.,+39,4:17159 0+669./
.6

" . 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. ./5 09=161 /8, 74 1@8,. .5 046/ 7. 4:7.48 % E

84
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
+5,1-. 2+5,1-. 0. 5H5. .5 2+5,1-. 0. B8.8. 10.651B8./
#+158,. 0!.?5,92159 >+158,. 0. 5H5. .5 >+158,. 0. B8.8. 10.651B8./
% #+158,. 165.,290141,.
57 + )

B: 7 + )

,416 +2:,. 0. >+158,./ +6@8.8, 0./ 1/546-. .65,. 4?./ +,-.


,.3,9/.65451= 165.,290141,./ >+158,./ 0./ .//1.8? 0!86 :+@1. 3+6-58.77.
> ( `2a `2a 8 `I a
A
%A$
% A
" $ %A
$ " A
% % A
% " A
$ A$
A
A

$ . 2+0D7. ' -+23+,5. > =+,-./ 3+6-58.77./ 0. I ./34-9./


,9@871D,.2.65 0!86. 01/546-. `2aA > .5 95465 09=161/ /8, 7./ 1@8,./ % .5 "

57 + )&

85
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

6 20

5.5

5 15

N
4.5

4 10

3.5
d [m]

3 5

2.5

2 0
1

1.6

2.5

2.8

3.2

3.5

3.8

4.2

4.5

4.8

5.5

5.8

6.5
L [m]

57 + )&

4>.- 4 3+,59. `2a

7 -+6>1.65 0!43371B8., /+15 7. 2+0D7. A /+15 7. 2+0D7. 'A .6


=+6-51+6 0./ -,15D,./ 08 4:7.48 " E

86
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 33: 8 2 1 6 4 6A: 4 6 8= 5 + ) 2+ )&

+6=1@8,451+6 0. 74 +,59.
/5,8-58,.
4] 2 4≥ 2
4 : -
,4>9. /8, 43381/ /1237./ '
8>,4@. -+651684
+8 ,416/ C -+23,1/0 ,416/ C -+23,1/0
8>,4@. -+237.?..
4
#474:7. 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ 0+65 7. -+23+,5.2.65 ./5 4//12174:7. C -.781 0!86. 3+85,. 0,+15. /.6/
7+6@15801647 +8 0!86. /1237. 374B8.A /8, 43381/ =1?./A 4>.- .==.5/ 0. :141/ 69@71@.4:7./
:
+8, 7./ 5,4>9./ /8, 43381 /1237./ 0!86. 3+,59. 16=9,1.8,. C 2A 7!4647</. 3.85 /. =41,. .6 85171/465 86
5,416 ,.3,9/.65451= -,151B8. 861B8. 08 2+0D7. 'A 5.7 B8!1601B89 .6 " $
-
+8, 7./ 5,4>9./ /8, 43381/ /1237./ 0!86. 3+,59. /839,1.8,. +8 9@47. C 2A 7!4647</. 0<6421B8. 3.85 /.
=41,. .6 85171/465 86 5,416 ,.3,9/.65451= -,151B8. 861B8. 08 2+0D7. A -+22. 1601B89 C 7!466.?.
+8 :1.6 +6 3.85 85171/., 7./ 5,416/ ,.3,9/.65451=/ C 16-78/
0
7 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 5+8/ 7./ 5,416/ C 3+8, 7. -47-87
.
+85 +8>,4@. 6. /451/=41/465 34/ 7./ -,15D,./ 0. 74 +5. 4 -1 0.//8/ 4, .?.237. E +8>,4@. :141/A +8>,4@.
4>.- -+23+,5.2.65 .6 5+,/1+6 /1@61=1-451=A +8>,4@. C 3+85,./ 7459,47./ 4>.- 2+0./ 0. >1:,451+6 08 54:71.,
.5 0./ 3+85,./ 3,16-1347./ /1@61=1-451=/ .5- . 378/A 17 -+6>1.65 0 85171/., 9@47.2.65 ' 3+8, 7./
/5,8-58,./ -+237.?./ 4>.- 2+0./ 0. >1:,451+6/ 08 54:71., /1@61=1-451=/ +8>,4@./ C 3+85,./ 7459,47./ C
54:71.,/ 216-./A 34, .?.237.

! 66.?. 451+647. +8 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ .?1@.6-./ -+23792.6541,./


-+6-.,6465 7!43371-451+6 0./ 2+0D7./ .5 ' 48? +8>,4@./ -+65168/ .5 48? +8>,4@./
-+237.?./

+,/B8. 7./ 71215./ 0. =,9B8.6-. 0. 74 1@8,. 6. /+65 34/ ,./3.-59./ .5 B8. 74


>15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9 ./5 ≤ I2F;A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,+-90., C
86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. 5.6465 -+235. 0./ -+23+,5.2.65/ 10.651=19/ .6 " .5 0.
-+6/109,., E

) 7./ 5,416/ 5<3./ C 0+669/ C 7!466.?. A


) 7./ 5,416/ ,9.7/ /39-1=19/

. -;4,@.2.65 .5 74 295;+0+7+@1. 0!4647</. 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19/ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 .5 17


-+6>1.65 0 +:5.61, 7 4--+,0 0. 7!485+,159 -+2395.65. /39-1=19. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.

" +2:1641/+6/ 0. -;4,@./ .5 -+.==1-1.65/ 34,51.7/ 3+8, 7./ -;4,@./

+8, 7!4647</. 0<6421B8.A 17 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 7./ >47.8,/ 6+21647./ 08 3+10/


>+7821B8. 3+8, 7. -47-87 0. 74 24//. 4//+-19. 48 3+10/ 3,+3,. .5 48? -;4,@./ 42+>1:7./
:4774/5 .5-

!4647</. 0<6421B8. 0+15 H5,. .==.-589. .6 85171/465 7./ -;4,@./ 1601B89./ .6


" .5 .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A "

87
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% +8, 7!4647</. 0<6421B8. 0. 74 /5,8-58,. 861B8.2.65A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -;4,@., 7!86.


B8.7-+6B8. 0./ >+1./ 0. 7!+8>,4@. 74 378/ 09=4>+,4:7. .5 86. /.87. -+6=+,292.65 48
4:7.48 $

B: 7 # E ;47 ; 6 4 8 4 6 8= 5 66 2 11 :4 ? 3 16 18 32 1
< 182 1 67 1 B 6 0 4 47 : 3 12

+2:,. 0. >+1./ /8, 7. #+1. ;4,@.2.65 3+8, 7!4647</. 0<6421B8.


3+65 -;4,@9.

86. ;4B8. 5,416 ,9.7 .5 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.


7. -4/ 9-;9465 -1,-87465 046/
74 7./ 01,.-51+6 / 485+,1/9. /
,416/ -1,-87465 7!86. 0./ ;4B8. 5,416 ,9.7 .5 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.
6+,247.2.65 046/ 0./ >+1./ 7. -4/ 9-;9465 -1,-87465 046/
01,.-51+6/ +33+/9./ 4 74 7./ 01,.-51+6 / 485+,1/9. /
7!485,. 8-86
>+1.
4
+8, 7./ 3+65/ /833+,5465 >+1./ 4>.- 0./ 5,416/ -1,-87465 6+,247.2.65 046/ 74 2H2.
01,.-51+6 +8 /833+,5465 % >+1./ +8 378/A 4>.- 86. >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9
/839,1.8,. C I2F;A 17 -+6>1.65 0. /!.65.60,.A 3+8, 7. -;4,@.2.65A 4>.- 7!485+,159 -+2395.65.
/39-1=19. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.

" +,/B8. 7./ .==.5/ 0./ -;4,@./ ,9/875465 0. 7!4647</. 0<6421B8. 0934//.65 7./ .==.5/
08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 3+8, 7./ +8>,4@./ -+65168/
43371B89 -+6=+,292.65 C " $ % /8, 7!86. B8.7-+6B8. 0./ >+1./A 17 -+6>1.65 0.
-+2:16., 7./ .==.5/ 0./ -;4,@./ ,9/875465 0. 7!4647</. 0<6421B8. 4>.- E
) 7./ .==.5/ 0./ =+,-./ ;+,1L+6547./ /8, 74 >+1. /+821/. 48 -;4,@.2.65 046/ 7!4647</.
0<6421B8.A
) 7./ .==.5/ 0./ -;4,@./ ;+,1L+6547./ .5 >.,51-47./ /8, 7!485,. 7./ 485,./ >+1. / A
-+6=+,292.65 48? .?1@.6-./ 08 34,4@,43;. .5 08 4:7.48

$ +,/B8. 7./ .==.5/ 0./ -;4,@./ ,9/875465 0. 7!4647</. 0<6421B8. 0934//.65 7./ .==.5/
08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 3+8, 7./ +8>,4@./ -+65168/
43371B89 -+6=+,292.65 C " $ % A 7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ =.,,+>141,./ 416/1
095.,2169/ 2+2.65/ =79-;1//465/A .==+,5/ 5,46-;465/A 09=+,2451+6/ .5- A C 7!.?-.351+6 0.
7!4--979,451+6 0+1>.65 H5,. 24J+,9/ 34, 7./ -+.==1-1.65/ 34,51.7/ 0+669/ .6 0. 7!

./ -+.==1-1.65/ 34,51.7/ 6. 0+1>.65 34/ H5,. 43371B89/ 48? -;4,@./ 08 "


3+8, 74 095.,216451+6 0./ 4--979,451+6/ 08 54:71., ./ >47.8,/ 0. 7!4--979,451+6 +:5.68./
34, 7. -47-87 0+1>.65 H5,. -+234,9./ 01,.-5.2.65 48? >47.8,/ 0. -47-87 08 " $

6 -. B81 -+6-.,6. 74 =451@8.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -+6-.>+1, 7./ 3+65/ .6 5.6465 -+235.


0./ .==.5/ 0. =451@8. 400151+66.7/ /. 3,+081/465 C 74 ,9/+646-. .5 ,9/875465 08
-;4,@.2.65 1601B89 .6 " A 43371B89 /8, 7!86. B8.7-+6B8. 0./ >+1./ #+1, "

88
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) ) .

+8, -;4B8. 5,416 ,9.7 .5 -;4B8. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. A +6 0+15 -+6/109,., 86.
/9,1. 0. >15.//./ J8/B8!C 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. -47-87A B81 /.,4 @969,47.2.65 9@47. C A
× >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9

7 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9

+,/B8. -.74 ./5 /39-1=19 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7A 86. >15.//. ,90815. 3.85 H5,. 85171/9. 3+8, 7./
5,416/ ,9.7/ 1601>108.7/A >9,1=19/ C A × 7.8, >15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9. 08 >9;1-87.

% 7 ./5 ,.-+224609 0. 24J+,., 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5
1601>108.7 4=16 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ 2+01=1-451+6/ 3+5.651.77./ 0. 7!16=,4/5,8-58,. .5 08 =858, 2459,1.7
,+87465

" 4 ,93+6/. 0./ +8>,4@./ 3.85 3,9/.65., 0./ 31-/ 123+,5465/ 08/ 48? .==.5/ 0. ,9/+646-.
+,/B8. 74 3,+:4:17159 0!.?-D/ 0. >15.//. .?1/5. 4>.- 0934//.2.65 /+15 0. 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9.
08 >9;1-87. /+15 0. 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9A 4-58.77. +8 =858,. A +6 ,.-+22460.
0. 09=161, 86 =4-5.8, /833792.6541,. 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7A 3.,2.55465 0. 24J+,., 74 >15.//. 24?1247.
0. -47-87 85171/9. 046/ 7!4647</. 0<6421B8.

$ 7 ./5 ,.-+224609 0. /39-1=1., 0./ .?1@.6-./ -+23792.6541,./ 3+8, >9,1=1., .5 ,.60,.


-+23451:7./ 7./ +8>,4@./ /1589/ /8, 86 5,+6N+6 0. 71@6. +O /+65 3,9>8/ 0./ .//41/ 0. -+221//1+66.2.65
0. 5,416/ ,9.7/ .?1@.6-./ C 3,9-1/., 046/ 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 7 -+6>1.65 47+,/ 0!40+35.,A 3+8, 7. 5,416
,9.7A 86. >15.//. 24?1247. 0. -47-87 48 2+16/ 9@47. C A × 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. -+221//1+66.2.65
./ -47-87/ /+65 69-.//41,./ 4=16 0. 092+65,., B8. 7./ -+6/109,451+6/ 0. /9-8,159 4--979,451+6 24?1247.
08 54:71.,A /+771-15451+6/ 24?1247./ .5- /+65 /451/=41/465./ 3+8, 7./ +8>,4@./A 3+8, 0./ >15.//./
/839,1.8,./ C I2F; 7 6!./5 34, -+65,. 34/ 69-.//41,. 0. >9,1=1., 7./ -,15D,./ 0. =451@8. 0. 7!+8>,4@. .5
0. -+6=+,5 0./ >+<4@.8,/ C A × 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. -+221//1+66.2.65

7 -+6>1.65 0!.==.-58., 0./ -47-87/ 3+8, 86. /9,1. 0. >15.//./ 477465 0. " 2F/ J8/B8!C
74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. -47-87 09=161. .6 " A .6 ,.//.,,465 7./ 16-,92.65/ C
3,+?12159 0./ >15.//./ 0. ,9/+646-.

+8, 7./ 3+65/ /8, 43381/ /1237./ 3+8>465 H5,. 2+0971/9/ 34, 86. 3+85,. 0,+15.A 7./
>15.//./ 0. ,9/+646-. 3.8>.65 H5,. ./5129./ C 7!410. 0. 7!9B8451+6

1 = λ1
.5
" 2F/ ≤ 1 ≤ >15.//. 24?1247. 0. -47-87A

4>.- E

1 >15.//. 0. ,9/+646-. `2F/.-a


3,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 7!+8>,4@. 6+6 -;4,@9
λ1 7+6@8.8, 0!+60. =+6042.6547. 0. 7!.?-15451+6A B81 3.85 H5,. ./5129. 34, E
λ1 =
./34-.2.65 ,9@871., .65,. @,+83./ 0!.//1.8?
W A A % +8 "

89
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) ) / 0

" % 2+,51//.2.65 /5,8-58,47

. 31- 0. ,93+6/. 0!86 +8>,4@. C 0./ >15.//./ 0. -1,-87451+6 -+,,./3+60465 48


-;4,@.2.65 0. ,9/+646-. 093.60 =+,5.2.65 0. 7!42+,51//.2.65

.87./ 0./ ./512451+6/ :4//./ 0. 7!42+,51//.2.65 0+1>.65 H5,. 85171/9./

% +8, 7!4647</. 0<6421B8.A 17 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 7./ >47.8,/ /81>465./ E

B: 7 E : 7 4 6. 2 44 12 ? 3 16 18 32 3 7 : 8 :87:

ζ 1215. 16=9,1.8,. 08 -+.==1-1.65 0!42+,51//.2.65


<3. 0. 3+65 -,151B8. `[a
+,59. 4 < 2 +,59. 4 ≥ 2
954771B8. .5 21?5. ζ W A$ ^ A $ 4 ζ W A$
'95+6 3,9-+65,4165 ζW A ^ A 4 ζW A
+85,.77./ .6,+:9./ .5 ζ W A$ ^ A 4 ζ W A$
:95+6 4,29

!485,./ 71215./ 16=9,1.8,./A /1589./ 08 -Q59 0. 74 /9-8,159A 3.8>.65 H5,. 85171/9./A /+8/ ,9/.,>. 0.
7!4--+,0 0. 7!485+,159 -+2395.65. /39-1=19. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.

" % 4//. 08 3+65

./ >47.8,/ 24?1247./ 0./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ /+65 /8/-.351:7./ 0!4334,4R5,. 48? 31-/
0. ,9/+646-. 7+,/B8!17 < 4 -+V6-10.6-. .65,. 86 2875137. 0. 74 =,9B8.6-. 08 -;4,@.2.65
.5 86. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 7!+8>,4@.A .5 5+85. /+8/ ./512451+6 0. 74 24//. /8,./512.,4
-.55. 0.,61D,. 416/1 B8. 7./ >15.//./ 0. -1,-87451+6 48?B8.77./ 74 ,9/+646-. /. 3,+0815

74 ,9/+646-.A 7!4--979,451+6 24?1247. 0. 7!+8>,4@. ./5 16>.,/.2.65 3,+3+,51+66.77. C


/4 24//.

.8? -4/ /39-1=1B8./ /+65 C -+6/109,., .6 -. B81 -+6-.,6. 74 24//. 0. 7!+8>,4@.A


:4774/5 .5 >+1./ -+23,1/ E
) ./512451+6 :4//. 0. 74 24//.A 3+8, 3,901,. 7./ 4--979,451+6/ 24?1247./ 08 54:71.,
+:5.68. .6 85171/465 74 >47.8, 2161247. 3,+:4:7. 08 3+10/ >+7821B8. /.- 08 :4774/5
3,+3,. 416/1 B8. 7!9341//.8, 2161247. 0. -. 0.,61.,A
) ./512451+6 ;485. 0. 74 24//.A 3+8, 3,901,. 7./ >15.//./ 7./ 378/ :4//./ 3+8, 7./B8.77./
17 < 4 3,+:4:17159 0. ,9/+646-. +:5.68. .6 85171/465 7. 3+10/ >+7821B8. /458,9
24?1247 08 :4774/5 3+7789A .6 5.6465 -+235. 0./ =858,/ ,.7D>.2.65/ 0. >+1./

4 24//. >+7821B8. 2161247. 08 :4774/5 3.85 H5,. 3,1/. 9@47. C I@F2% !485,./ >47.8,/
3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

% 6 7!4:/.6-. 0. 0+669./ 0!.//41 /39-1=1B8./A 17 -+6>1.65 0. ,.5.61, 3+8, 7. 3+10/


>+7821B8. 0./ 2459,148? 7./ >47.8,/ 0. 7!

90
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

+235. 5.68 08 @,460 6+2:,. 0. 34,42D5,./ 3+8>465 4==.-5., 74 24//. >+7821B8. 08 :95+6A 17
6!./5 34/ 3+//1:7. 0. 3,901,. 0./ >47.8,/ 24J+,9./ 0. -.77. -1 4>.- 86. 3,9-1/1+6 /8==1/465. 3+8, 3,901,. 74
,93+6/. 0<6421B8. 0!86 3+65 ./ >47.8,/ 475.,6451>./ 0. 74 24//. >+7821B8. 3.8>.65 H5,. 85171/9./
7+,/B8. 7./ ,9/87545/ /+65 -+6=1,29/ 34, 0./ =+,287451+6/ 0!.//41 .5 0./ .//41/ 0!9-;465177+6/ 3,97.>9/ /8,
374-. -+6=+,292.65 48? .5 .5 C 7! "A /+8/ ,9/.,>. 0. 7!4--+,0 0. 7!485+,159
-+2395.65. /39-1=19. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.

" % % 410.8, 0./ 3+65/

7 ./5 3,+:4:7. B8. 0./ >47.8,/ 24?1247./ 0./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 4334,41//.65 48?
31-/ 0. ,9/+646-.A 7+,/B8!17 < 4 -+V6-10.6-. .65,. 86 2875137. 0. 74 =,9B8.6-. 08
-;4,@.2.65 .5 86. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 7!+8>,4@. +85. /8,./512451+6 0. 74 ,410.8, 08
3+65 /8,./512.,4 74 =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 7!+8>,4@. .5 74 >15.//. C 74B8.77. /. 3,+0815 74
,9/+646-.

6 0+15 85171/., 86. ./512451+6 :4//. 3+8, 74 ,410.8, 0. 7!+8>,4@.

% 4 095.,216451+6 0. 74 ,410.8, 0. 7!+8>,4@. 046/ /+6 .6/.2:7. .5 0!9792.65/ 0.


-.781 -1 3.85 H5,. .==.-589. -+6=+,292.65 48? C "

./ >47.8,/ 08 2+087. 0!&+86@ 3.8>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ 0./ C "

+8, 86. ,9/1/546-. C 74 -+23,.//1+6 08 :95+6 2./8,9. /8, 93,+8>.55. -<7160,1B8. -I ≥


$ F22 ,9/1/546-. C 74 -+23,.//1+6 2./8,9. /8, 93,+8>.55. -8:1B8. -IA -8:. ≥
F22 A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 71215., 74 >47.8, 08 2+087. 0!&+86@ /5451B8. )-2 C 74 >47.8,
-+,,./3+60465 C 86 :95+6 0. ,9/1/546-. -I W $ F22 -IA -8:. W F22

+235. 5.68 08 @,460 6+2:,. 0. 34,42D5,./ 3+8>465 4==.-5., )-2A 17 6!./5 34/ 3+//1:7. 0.
/39-1=1., 0./ >47.8,/ 24J+,9./ 08 2+087. 0!&+86@ 4>.- 86. 3,9-1/1+6 /8==1/465. 3+8, 3,901,. 74 ,93+6/.
0<6421B8. 0!86 3+65 ./ >47.8,/ 24J+,9./ 0. )-2 3.8>.65 H5,. 85171/9./ 7+,/B8. 7./ ,9/87545/ /+65
-+6=1,29/ 34, 0./ =+,287451+6/ 0!.//41 .5 0./ .//41/ 0!9-;465177+6/ 3,97.>9/ /8, 374-. -+6=+,292.65 48?
.5 .5 C 7! "A /+8/ ,9/.,>. 0. 7!4--+,0 0. 7!485+,159 -+2395.65. /39-1=19. 046/
7! 66.?. 451+647.

!485,./ 3,+3,1959/ 0./ 2459,148? 3.8>.65 H5,. 85171/9./ /+8/ ,9/.,>. 0. 7!4--+,0 0. 7!485+,159
-+2395.65. /39-1=19. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.

) ) 1 % " + $ (

./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 0!86 5,416 ,9.7 3.8>.65 H5,. ,.3,9/.659/ 34, 86. /9,1. 0. =+,-./
3+6-58.77./ .6 2+8>.2.65 ./ .==.5/ 0. 7!165.,4-51+6 24//1B8. .65,. 7. >9;1-87. .5
7!+8>,4@. 3.8>.65 H5,. 69@71@9/

7 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 7./ >4,1451+6/ 0./ -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8 .5 0./ ./34-.2.65/
.65,. .//1.8? +8 @,+83./ 0!.//1.8? /8, 74 7+6@8.8, 08 5,416

. -4/ 9-;9465A 17 -+6>1.65 0!85171/., 86. 295;+0. 0!4647</. 3.,2.55465 0. 3,.60,. .6


-+235. 7./ 9792.65/ 0<6421B8./ /81>465/ 0. 7!+8>,4@. E
) 3+8, 7./ +8>,4@./ -+237.?./A 3,+?12159 0./ =,9B8.6-./ -+6-.,69./A .5 2+0./ 0.
>1:,451+6 4//+-19/A
) 165.,4-51+6 .65,. 2+0./ 0. =7.?1+6 .5 0. 5+,/1+6A
) -+23+,5.2.65 0!86 9792.65 7+-47 0. 54:71., 54:71., 216-. .5 31D-./ 0. 3+65 046/ 7.
-4/ 0. 3+65/ 08 5<3. C 3+85,./ 7459,47./ +8 C 5,.1771/ .5- A

91
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) -+23+,5.2.65 0./ 0477./ 0Y C 7!.==.5 0. :141/ .5-

% 4 ,.3,9/.65451+6 0. -;4B8. .//1.8 34, 86. =+,-. 3+6-58.77. 861B8. 5.60 C /8,./512.,
7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 3+8, 7./ 7+6@8.8,/ -;4,@9./ 16=9,1.8,./ C 2 46/ 0. 5.7/ -4/A
7./ .==.5/ 0. 74 ,934,5151+6 0./ -;4,@./ 34, 7./ ,417/A 7./ 5,4>.,/./ .5 7. :4774/5 3.8>.65 H5,.
3,1/ .6 -+235.

47@,9 7./ 1601-451+6/ .6 % A 7./ -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8 1601>108.77./ 3.8>.65 6. 34/


H5,. ,934,51./ 861=+,292.65 046/ 74 01,.-51+6 7+6@15801647.

" +8, 0./ 3+,59./ 16=9,1.8,./ C % 2A 7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 0. 7!165.,4-51+6 .65,.
24//./ 0. >9;1-87. .5 0. 3+65 5.60.65 C ,9081,. 7. 31- 0. ,9/+646-. ./ .==.5/ 3.8>.65
H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235. E
) .6 .==.-58465 86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. 0. 7!165.,4-51+6 >9;1-87.F+8>,4@.A

7 -+6>1.65 B8. 74 295;+0. .237+<9. =4//. 7!+:J.5 0!86 4--+,0 4>.- 7!485+,159 -+2395.65. /39-1=19.
046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.

) .6 48@2.65465 74 >47.8, 0. 7!42+,51//.2.65 3,1/ .6 -+235. 3+8, 7!+8>,4@.


-+6=+,292.65 C 74 1@8,. $ 46/ 7. -4/ 0./ 3+85,./ -+65168./A 17 -+6>1.65
0!85171/., 3+8, ∆ζ 74 378/ 3.515. 0./ >47.8,/ +:5.68./ 3+8, 7!.6/.2:7. 0./ 3+,59./
!42+,51//.2.65 5+547 C 85171/., ./5 0+669 34, E

ζ W ζ ^ ∆ζ

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4
∆ζ [%]

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

L [m]

57 #E 2 44 12 4733:; 12 ∆ζ PRQ 1 < 182 1 6 : 3 2; P Q

4>.- E
4− ;
; "4
∆ζ = `[a %
− ; "" 4 − ; "" 4 + ; $$4%

ζ 71215. 16=9,1.8,. 08 -+.==1-1.65 0!42+,51//.2.65 -,151B8. `[a 09=161 .6 " %

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ >47.8,/ 01==9,.65./

92
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

$ !48@2.65451+6 0./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ -47-879/ -+65,4165./A 09=+,2451+6/A


4--979,451+6/ 08 54:71.,A .5- 160815. 34, 7./ 09=485/ 0. 74 >+1. .5 7./ 123.,=.-51+6/ 0./
>9;1-87./ 3.85 H5,. ./5129. .6 28751371465 -./ .==.5/ 34, 86 -+.==1-1.65 E
^ ϕ′′F 3+8, 86. >+1. /+1@6.8/.2.65 .65,.5.68.A
^ ϕ′′ 3+8, 86. >+1. 6+,247.2.65 .65,.5.68.A

4>.- E

ϕ′′ 5.7 B8. 09=161 C 7!466.?. K 17 -+6>1.65 B8. ϕ′′ 6. /+15 34/ 69@451=

. -+.==1-1.65 C 85171/., 3.85 H5,. /39-1=19 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647.

+,/B8. 74 =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 08 3+65 6. 0934//. 34/ 74 71215. /839,1.8,. 0. 74 1@8,.


A +6 3.85 -+6/109,., B8. 7./ =4-5.8,/ >11 C ?1 10.651=19/ .6 " -+22.
16=78.6N465 7./ -+23+,5.2.65/ 0<6421B8./ /+65 3,1/ .6 -+235. 046/ ΦA ϕ′′F .5 ϕ′′
0+669/ .6 " .5 C 7!466.?.

) )& # % 2

=16 0!4//8,., 74 /9-8,159 0./ -1,-87451+6/ E


) 4 >9,1=1-451+6 0. 7!4--979,451+6 0. 3+165. 24?1247. 08 54:71., C 74 ,9/+646-. 0+15
H5,. -+6/109,9. -+22. 86. .?1@.6-. 0. /9-8,159 0./ -1,-87451+6/ >1/465 C 3,9>.61,A C
7!9545 71215. 0. /.,>1-.A 5+85. 16/54:17159 0./ >+1./
) 4 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 0./ .==.5/ 0./ -;4,@./ 0+15 H5,. 3,1/. .6 -+235. .6
28751371465 7./ -;4,@./ /5451B8./ 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. Φ 09=161 .6 " $ 1
86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. ./5 69-.//41,.A 7./ ,9/87545/ 0. 7!4647</. 0<6421B8. 0+1>.65
H5,. -+234,9/ 48? ,9/87545/ 0. 7!4647</. /5451B8.A 24J+,9/ 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 Φ /1
69-.//41,. 287513719/ 34, αA -+22. 1601B89 .6 % .5 7./ .==.5/ 7./ 378/
09=4>+,4:7./ 0+1>.65 H5,. ,.5.68/ 3+8, 7. 012.6/1+66.2.65 08 3+65
) 1 86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. ./5 69-.//41,.A +6 0+15 3,+-90., C 86. >9,1=1-451+6 -+22.
1601B89 .6 " 4=16 0!954:71, /1 7./ -;4,@./ 0. =451@8. 400151+66.77./ /. 3,+081/465
48? >15.//./ 97.>9./ .5 C 74 ,9/+646-. /+65 -+8>.,5./ 34, 74 -+6/109,451+6 0./
-+65,4165./ .6@.60,9./ 34, Φ × .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 34, Φ × TF 3+8, 7./
+8>,4@./ -+65168/A .5 34, 7./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ -74//1=19./ -+22. 1601B89 .6
% % A /1 69-.//41,. . 012.6/1+66.2.65 0+15 H5,. .==.-589 3+8, 7./ -;4,@./ 0.
=451@8. 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./

./ >47.8,/ 0. -47-87 0. 7!4--979,451+6 0. 3+165. 24?1247. 485+,1/9. 3+8, 7. 54:71.,A


-47-879./ 7. 7+6@ 0!86. >+1.A 6. 0+1>.65 34/ 0934//., 7./ >47.8,/ ,.-+224609./ 0+669./
.6 0. 7! >+1, ""

% 1 69-.//41,.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,+-90., C 86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. 4=16 0. 095.,216., 74


24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. E

ϕ0 = 24? : − "

4>.- E

93
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

0<6 ,93+6/. 0<6421B8. 24?1247. .5 /545 ,93+6/. /5451B8. 24?1247. -+,,./3+60465.


.6 86 3+165 B8.7-+6B8. 0. 7!9792.65 0. 74 /5,8-58,.A .6@.60,9./ 34, 86 5,416 ,9.7
+8 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.

+8, 7. -47-87 08 3+65A 5+8/ 7./ .==.5/ 0./ -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- >.,51-47./ 95465 3,1/ .6
-+235.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. ,.5.61, 74 >47.8, 74 378/ 09=4>+,4:7. 34,21 7./ >47.8,/ /81>465./ E

( + ϕ! + ϕG F )× $
+
+8

Φ× G^G TF

4>.- E

2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 3+8, 7./ 71@6./ C @,460. >15.//.A 09=161 .6


" A
G^G TF 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 3+8,
7./ 3+65/ C 5,4>9./ -+65168./ +8 -;4,@. >.,51-47. -74//1=19. -+22.
1601B89 .6 % % A /1 69-.//41,.
-;4,@.2.65 0Y C 5+8/ 7./ 5,416/ ,9.7/A -+22. 1601B89 .6 "
ϕ !! F 48@2.65451+6 0./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 0. -;4,@.2.65 -47-879/
-+65,4165./A 09=+,2451+6/A 4--979,451+6/ 08 54:71.,A .5- A ,9/875465 0./
09=485/ 0./ >+1./ .5 0./ 123.,=.-51+6/ 0./ >9;1-87./A 5.77. B8!1601B89.
C 7!466.?. 3+8, 86. >+1. /+1@6.8/.2.65 .65,.5.68. 85171/., ϕ ! ! 3+8,
86. >+1. 6+,247.2.65 .65,.5.68.
Φ =4-5.8, 0<6421B8. 5.7 B8!1601B89 .6 " $

) )) # $ 2.2$ # ( + "
" +

4 >9,1=1-451+6 0. 7!+8>,4@. >1/ C >1/ 0. 74 =451@8. 0+15 5.61, -+235. 0. 74 >4,1451+6


0. -+65,4165. ,9/875465 0./ +/-177451+6/ 0!9792.65/ 0. 7!+8>,4@. 48 0.7C .5 .6 0.NC 0. 74
09=+,2451+6 /+8/ -;4,@. 3.,246.65.A 08./ E
) 48? >1:,451+6/ 71:,./ 400151+66.77./ .65,4R69./ 34, 7./ -;+-/ 0./ -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8
-1,-87465 C @,460. >15.//.A
) C 7!165.6/159 0./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ 0!.?37+15451+6 C 74 ,9/+646-.A
) 48? -<-7./ 0. -+65,4165./ /833792.6541,./ .6@.60,9/ 34, 7./ -;4,@./ 0<6421B8./ C
74 ,9/+646-.

+,/B8. 74 >15.//. 0!.?37+15451+6 =,9B8.65. 0!86 5,416 ,9.7 /8, 7!+8>,4@. ./5 3,+-;.
0!86. >15.//. 0. ,9/+646-.A 7. 012.6/1+66.2.65 0+15 5.61, -+235. 0./ -;4,@./ 0. =451@8.
400151+66.77./ 08./ C 74 ,9/+646-.

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 7./ -;4,@./ 0. =451@8.A 34, .?.237. 7./ 095417/ 8517./A 7. 5+664@.
4668.7 4//+-19A 74 -+2:1641/+6 0. 5,416/ ,9.7/ C -+6/109,., 416/1 B8. 7./ >15.//./ 0!.?37+15451+6 =,9B8.65./
4//+-19./ 48 3+165 -+6/109,9 C 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 3+8, 7. -47-87

94
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% +,/B8. 7. 3+65 ./5 012.6/1+669 3+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. A -+6=+,292.65 C


" A 17 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 7./ -;4,@./ 0. =451@8. .6 5.6465 -+235. 0. 74
2.177.8,. ./512451+6 08 5,4=1- 4-58.7 .5 =858,

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 7./ -;4,@./ 0. =451@8.A 34, .?.237. 7./ 095417/ 8517./A 7. 5+664@.
4668.7 4//+-19A 74 -+2:1641/+6 0. 5,416/ ,9.7/ C -+6/109,., 416/1 B8. 7./ >15.//./ 0!.?37+15451+6 =,9B8.65./
4//+-19./ 48 3+165 -+6/109,9 C 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 3+8, 7. -47-87

" +8, 7./ +8>,4@./ -+6=+,2./ C 7!466.?. A 74 >15.//. 0. ,9/+646-. 3.85 H5,. ./5129. C
7!410. 0./ 9B8451+6/ .5

$ +8, 74 >9,1=1-451+6 C 74 =451@8.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 86. /9,1. 0. >15.//./ 477465


J8/B8!C 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 6+21647.

6 ,.-+22460. B8. 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 /39-1=1. 0. 24J+,., 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 6+21647. 48


3+165 -+6/109,9 4=16 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ 2+01=1-451+6/ 3+5.651.77./ =858,./ 0. 7!16=,4/5,8-58,. .5 08
2459,1.7 ,+87465

# 8 4= H 12 : 4 E : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4

# 8 4 8 12 <75 4

+,/B8. 74 >+1. ./5 .6 -+8,:. /8, 5+85 +8 34,51. 0. 74 7+6@8.8, 0!86 3+65A 74 =+,-.
-.65,1=8@. .5 7. 09>.,/ 0. 74 >+1. 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235.

7 -+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 7./ =+,-./ -.65,1=8@./ -+22. 4@1//465 ;+,1L+6547.2.65 >.,/


7!.?59,1.8,A C 86. ;485.8, 0. A 2 48 0.//8/ 08 3746 0. ,+87.2.65 >+1, 1@8,. +8,
-.,5416/ 5<3./ 0. 5,4=1-A 3+8, 7./ -+65.6.8,/ /8, 0.8? 61>.48?A 34, .?.237.A 17 -+6>1.65 0.
/39-1=1., 86. >47.8, /839,1.8,. 3+8, 5

! 66.?. 451+647. +8 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 86. >47.8, /839,1.8,. 0. 5

% 4 =+,-. -.65,1=8@. 0+15 5+8J+8,/ H5,. -+2:169. 4>.- 74 -;4,@. >.,51-47. 0. 5,4=1- 77.
6. 0+15 34/ H5,. 287513719. 34, 7./ -+.==1-1.65/ 0<6421B8./ Φ +8 Φ%

!.==.5 >.,51-47 0. 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@.A 0121689A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 3+8, 5.61, -+235. 0. 7!.==.5 08
09>.,/A ./5 24J+,9 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. 433,+3,19

" 4 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@. 0+15 H5,. 095.,2169. C 7!410. 0./
=+,287./ /81>465./ E
1
BI = - ×B I . = - ×B I .

1
#I = - ×# I . = - ×# I .

4>.- E

B5IA #5I >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ =+,-./ -.65,1=8@./ `I A I F2a


B>IA #>I >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ /39-1=19./ .6 % ;+,/
24J+,451+6 3+8, .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 3+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. A TF A
TF .5 G5,416 C >10.G +8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. A 17 -+6>1.65 0.

95
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

095.,216., 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@. C 7!410. 08


2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.
-+.==1-1.65 0. ,908-51+6 >+1, -1 0.//+8/
>15.//. 24?1247.A 5.77. B8!1601B89. .6 $ $ `2F/a
1 >15.//. 24?1247.A 5.77. B8!1601B89. .6 $ $ `I2F;a
& 4--979,451+6 0. 74 3./465.8, ` A 2F/ea
,4<+6 0. -+8,:8,. `2a

46/ 7. -4/ 0!86. -+8,:. C ,4<+6 0. -+8,:8,. >4,14:7.A 0./ >47.8,/ 2+<.66./ 433,+3,19./
3.8>.65 H5,. ,.5.68./ 3+8,

$ ./ -47-87/ 0+1>.65 H5,. 954:71/ .6 -+6/109,465 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165


-+6/109,9 46/ 7. -4/ 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF A 86. >15.//. 24?1247. 475.,6451>. 3.85
H5,. 4021/.
. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 7./ .?1@.6-./

+8, TF 86. >15.//. 24?1247. 0. I2F; 3.85 H5,. 85171/9.

% 7 ./5 ,.-+224609 B8. 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 /39-1=1. 0. 24J+,., 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48
3+165 -+6/109,9 4=16 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ 2+01=1-451+6/ 3+5.651.77./ =858,./ 0. 7!16=,4/5,8-58,. .5 08
2459,1.7 ,+87465

. 378/A 3+8, 7./ +65/ /1589/ 046/ 86. -+8,:.A 7./ -;4,@.2.65/ /39-1=19/ .6 % .5 .6
% % 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 0+1>.65 9@47.2.65 H5,. -+6/109,9/ /46/ =+,-. -.65,1=8@.

+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF .5 86.


>15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9 /839,1.8,. C I2F;A 17 -+6>1.65 0.
-+6/109,., 7./ -4/ /81>465/ E

4 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 4>.- 7. -+.==1-1.65


0<6421B8. 4//+-19 .5 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@. 3+8, 1W I2F;A -+6=+,292.65 48?
9B8451+6/ .5 A 4>.- W K
: 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 2+0D7. TF 4>.- 7. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8.
4//+-19 .5 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@. 3+8, 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 1 /39-1=19.A -+6=+,292.65 48?
9B8451+6/ .5 A 74 >47.8, 08 -+.==1-1.65 0. ,908-51+6 95465 0+669. .6 $

+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 7. 2+0D7. TF A 7. -+.==1-1.65 0.


,908-51+6 ./5 0+669 34, E

1− " ;
= − + ; $ −
1 4=

.5 = ≥ A%$

+O E

4= 7+6@8.8, 0!16=78.6-. 0. 74 34,51. -;4,@9. 0. 74 >+1. .6 -+8,:. /8, 7. 3+65A 74 378/


09=4>+,4:7. 3+8, 7. 012.6/1+66.2.65 0. 7!9792.65 /5,8-58,47 -+6/109,9 `2a
1 >15.//. 24?1247.A -+22. 1601B89 .6 $ $

96
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

W 3+8, 1≤ I2F; +8 4= ≤ A 2

] 3+8, I2F; ]1 ≤ % I2F;


>+1, 4:7.48 +8 1@8,. +8 9B8451+6 .5 4= _ A 2
1 W % 3+8, 1 _% I2F;

+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. TF .5 G5,416 C >10.GA 17 -+6>1.65 0. ,.5.61, 86. >47.8, 08
-+.==1-1.65 0. ,908-51+6 9@47. C A

B: 7 , E << 8 12 # 3 7 : 4 6A: 4 6 8= 5 , 2 NM"

# P Q 2 44 @ : -+6=+,292.65 C $ $ `I2F;a
≤ " " "" #" ≥ ""
≤ A A A A A A
% A A A A A
" A A A % A A
$ A A % A A " A
A A A A A $
A A A % A A
A A A A " A
A A A A A $
A A A A A %
A A A A A$
$ A A $ A " A % A$$
A A % A A A$
% A A A A$$ A"$
" A A A A$ A"
$ A A A $ A$ A%
A A A " A" A%
A A A % A" A%
A A A A" A%$
A A A A" A%$
A A A A" A%$
≥ $ A A A A"" A%$

97
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

57 E << 8 12 # 3 7 : 4 6A: 4 6 8= 5 , 2 NM"

+8, .5 TF A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., 7./ =+,-./ -.65,1=8@./ C 7!410. 0./


9B8451+6/ .5 .5 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ -74//1=19./ >+1, % % -+6=+,292.65
48? -4/ 0. -;4,@./ 0+669/ 48 4:7.48 E

98
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 / E 4 6 8= 5 3 7 : < 8 8 12 <75 $ 1 < 182 1 6 4 0 : 7 4 6 α


2 6 : 0 2 44 @ : 6 : 51 7 3 12 8 14 6; ;

: 7 2 44 8 8 12 <75 B 4; 47 G 0 = 5 4
6 α @ : 6 0 28 : 46
: 51 7 3 12
1 α 2 < 8 44 8 ; 4$
`I2F;a B 4; 4 47 G 4
8 14 6; ;
`I2F;a
α] _ 1 - -
? ? Φ ×α × ×
G^G TF G^G TF
3+8, -4/ $ :
α α? ? Φ ×α × ×
G^G TF G^G TF
3+8, -4/ $ 4

≤ 1 α α? ?
G^G TF

αW _ 1 ? ? Φ× × ×
G^G TF G^G TF
3+8, -4/ $ :
? ? Φ× × ×
G^G TF G^G TF
3+8, -4/ $ 4

≤ 1 ? ?
G^G TF

α_ Φ× × ×
:
_ 1 ? ?
G^G TF G^G TF
3+8, -4/ $ :
α α? ? Φ ×α × ×
G^G TF G^G TF
3+8, -4/ $ 4

≤ 1 α α? ?
G^G TF
4
A$ ? G^G TF 48 71.8 0. G^G TF 7+,/B8. 7./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1- /+65 =4>+,4:7./
:
#474:7. 3+8, 08 5,4=1- 24,-;4601/./ 7+8,0 712159 C 86. >15.//. 24?1247. 0. I2F;
-
α W 3+8, 9>15., 0. -+235., 0.8? =+1/ 74 ,908-51+6 0. 74 24//. 08 5,416 09JC 3,1/. .6 -+235. 4>.-
0
>+1, $ % -+6-.,6465 7./ .==.5/ >.,51-48? 0. 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@. 7 -+6>1.65 0. 24J+,., 7!.==.5 >.,51-47 0.
74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@.A 0121689A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 3+8, 5.61, -+235. 0. 7!.==.5 08 09>.,/A 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65
0<6421B8. 433,+3,19 +8, 74 095.,216451+6 0. 7 .==.5 >.,51-47 0. 74 =+,-. -.65,1=8@.A 17 < 4 71.8 0 16-78,. 7.
-+.==1-1.65 -+22. ,.3,9/.659 -1 0.//8/

4>.- E

99
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

1 >15.//. 24?1247.A /.7+6 $ $ `I2F;a


/ -+.==1-1.65 0. ,908-51+6 /.7+6 $
α -+.==1-1.65 3+8, 7./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ -74//1=19./A /.7+6 % %
G^G TF 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF
3+8, 7./ 3+65/ C 5,4>9./ -+65168./

./ -,15D,./ 96+6-9/ .6 $ $ 416/1 B8!.6 $ C $ 6. /+65 34/ >474:7./


3+8, 86 5,4=1- 0. 24,-;4601/./ 7+8,0 7+,/B8. 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9. 0./
>9;1-87./ ./5 /839,1.8,. C I2F; +8, 7. 5,4=1- 24,-;4601/./ 7+8,0 4>.- 86. >15.//.
/839,1.8,. C I2F;A 17 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 0./ .?1@.6-./ /833792.6541,./

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 3,./-,1,. 7./ .?1@.6-./ /833792.6541,./

# << 2 6 : 8 2

!.==+,5 0. 74-.5 0+15 H5,. -+6/109,9 -+22. 86. =+,-. -+6-.65,9. 4@1//465
;+,1L+6547.2.65 48 61>.48 /839,1.8, 0./ ,417/ .5 3.,3.601-8741,.2.65 C 7!4?. 0. 74 >+1. 7
0+15 H5,. 43371B89 48//1 :1.6 046/ 7. -4/ 0./ >+1./ .6 471@6.2.65 B8. 046/ -.781 0./ >+1./
.6 -+8,:.

4 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 7!.==+,5 0. 74-.5 0+15 H5,. 3,1/. 9@47. C B/I W I 77.
6. 0+15 34/ H5,. 287513719. 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 Φ >+1, " $ 61 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 08
34,4@,43;. $ "

% 7 -+6>1.65 0. 28751371., 74 >47.8, -4,4-59,1/51B8. 0. 7!.==+,5 0. 74-.5 0+669. .6 $


34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 α , -+22. 1601B89 .6 % % A 3+8, 7./ >47.8,/ 0. α ≥ .

" !.==+,5 0. 74-.5 0+15 5+8J+8,/ H5,. -+2:169 4>.- 86. -;4,@. >.,51-47. 0. 5,4=1-

# 82 14 67 4 ? :. 88;:; 2 1 2 7 < 1 5

./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. 4@1//.65 48 61>.48 /839,1.8, 0./ ,417/A 046/ 7.


/.6/ 7+6@15801647 0. 74 >+1. 77./ 0+1>.65 H5,. -+6/109,9./ -+22. 0./ -;4,@./ 716941,./
861=+,2./ /8, 74 7+6@8.8, 0!16=78.6-. 44A: 0. 7.8,/ .==.5/ 3+8, 7!9792.65 /5,8-58,47
-+6/109,9 4 01,.-51+6 0./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. 0+15 5.61, -+235. 08 0./
/.6/ 0. 09374-.2.65 485+,1/9 / /8, -;4B8. >+1.

./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ =+,-./ 0 4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. 0+1>.65 H5,.


3,1/./ 9@47./ C E

+,-. 0!4--979,451+6 E B74I W %% `I F2a 44A: `2a ≤ `I a


3+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. A
TF A TF .5

+,-. 0. =,.164@. E B7:I W `I F2a 44A: `2a ≤ `I a


3+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. A
TF .5

B7:I W %$ `I F2a 44A: `2a


3+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF

100
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. 6. 0+1>.65 34/ H5,.


287513719./ 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 Φ >+1, " $ 61 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 08 34,4@,43;. $

+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. TF .5 TF A 7./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. 6!+65 C H5,.
43371B89./ B8. /8, 7./ 34,51./ -;4,@9./ 0. 74 /5,8-58,.A -+22. 1601B89 34, 74 1@8,. .5 7. 4:7.48

!4--979,451+6 .5 7. =,.164@. 3.8>.65 H5,. 69@71@9/ 3+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. G5,416 C >10.G

% ./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ /+65 43371-4:7./ C 5+8/ 7./ 5<3./ 0. >+1./A 7+6@/ ,417/
/+809/ +8 ,417/ 9-71//9/A 34, .?.237.A 4>.- +8 /46/ 01/3+/151=/ 0. 01745451+6

" 7 -+6>1.65A 3+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. .5 TF A 0. 28751371., 7./ =+,-./


0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. -1 0.//8/ 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 α A -+6=+,292.65 48? .?1@.6-./
0. % %

$ +8, 7./ 7+6@8.8,/ -;4,@9./ /839,1.8,./ C % 2A 17 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 0./


.?1@.6-./ /833792.6541,./ 4=16 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ .==.5/ 08 =,.164@.

66.?. 451+647. +8 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ .?1@.6-./ /833792.6541,./

+8, 7./ 71@6./ C 5,4=1- /39-1471/9 71@6./ ,9/.,>9./ 48 5,4=1- >+<4@.8,/ C @,460. >15.//.A
34, .?.237. A +6 3.85 -+6/109,., 0./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. 9@47./ C $[ 0. 74
/+22. 0./ -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8? 5,416 ,9.7 4@1//465 /8, 74 7+6@8.8, 0!16=78.6-. 0./ .==.5/ 0.
7!9792.65 /5,8-58,47 -+6/109,9A 4>.- 86. >47.8, 24?1247. 0. I 3+8, B74I .5 0.
I 3+8, B7:I ./ 71@6./ C 5,4=1- /39-1471/9 .5 7./ 095417/ 08 -;4,@.2.65 4//+-19/ 3.8>.65
H5,. /39-1=19/

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 7./ .?1@.6-./

+,/B8. 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 /39-1=1. 0./ .==+,5/ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. ,90815/


-+6=+,292.65 C -. B81 3,9-D0.A 17 -+6>1.65 B8. -.8? -1 51.66.65 -+235. 0./ 485,./ 5,4=1-/ 485+,1/9/ C
.23,865., 74 71@6.A 5.7/ B8. 7./ 5,416/ 0. /.,>1-. ,9471/465 7!.65,.51.6 0./ >+1./A .5-

./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. 0+1>.65 H5,. -+2:169./ 4>.- 7./ -;4,@./


>.,51-47./ -+,,./3+60465./

+,/B8. 74 >+1. ./5 -+65168. C 7!86. +8 48? 0.8? .?5,92159/ 08 3+65A /.87. 86. 34,51. 0.
74 =+,-. 0!4--979,451+6 +8 0. =,.164@. ./5 5,46/21/. 34, 7. 54:71., 48? 4334,.17/ 0!43381A 7.
,./5. 95465 5,46/21/ 34, 74 >+1. C 74 3745. =+,2. C 7!4,,1D,. 0./ -879./ +O 17 ./5 9B8171:,9 7
-+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., 74 34,5 0./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 +8 0. =,.164@. 5,46/21/. 34, 7.
54:71., 48? 4334,.17/ 0!43381 .6 5.6465 -+235. 0. 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1.
+8>,4@. -+6=+,292.65 C $ "

46/ 7. -4/ +O 86 3+65 /833+,5. 0.8? >+1./ +8 378/A 7./ =+,-./ 0. =,.164@. 43371B89./
C 7 86. B8.7-+6B8. 0./ >+1./ 0+1>.65 H5,. -+6/109,9./ 4>.- 7./ =+,-./ 0 4--979,451+6
43371B89./ C 7 86. 0./ 485,./ >+1./
+,/B8. 0.8? >+1./ +8 378/ +65 74 2H2. 01,.-51+6 485+,1/9. 0. -1,-87451+6A 17 < 4 71.8 0.
3,.60,. .6 -+235. /+15 7 4--979,451+6 /8, 0.8? >+1./A /+15 7. =,.164@. /8, 0.8? >+1./

+8, 7./ 3+65/ 3+,5465 0.8? >+1./ +8 378/ 4>.- 74 2H2. 01,.-51+6 485+,1/9. 0. -1,-87451+6A 7 66.?.
451+647. 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ .?1@.6-./ 475.,6451>./ 3+8, 7 43371-451+6 0./ =+,-./ 0 4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@.

101
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

# ;3 14 8 B 1; 67 4D42A 0 E 70 5 7@ 82 14 0 B: 4

)& / ( %

+,/B8. 7./ ,417/ /+65 -+65168/ 48 0,+15 0. 01/-+65168159/ 0. 7!43381 0. 74 >+1. C 74


5,46/151+6 3+65 ,.2:741A 34, .?.237. A 74 /5,8-58,. 08 3+65 54:71.,A 4334,.17/ 0!43381 .5
43381/ .5 74 >+1. ,417/A :4774/5 .5- ,9/1/5.65 -+6J+165.2.65 48? 4-51+6/ 7+6@15801647./
08./ C 7!4--979,451+6 +8 48 =,.164@. ./ 4-51+6/ 7+6@15801647./ /+65 5,46/21/./ .6 34,51.
34, 7./ ,417/ 48 ,.2:741 0.,,1D,. 74 -879. .5 .6 34,51. 34, 7./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 .5 7./
43381/ J8/B8!48? =+60451+6/

./ ,9=9,.6-./ 48 ,.2:741 046/ 7!.6/.2:7. 0. $ " 3.8>.65 9@47.2.65 H5,. 3,1/./ -+22. 0./
,9=9,.6-./ C 74 3745. =+,2. 0. 74 >+1. +8 48 /+7 /+8/ 74 >+1. 48? 4:+,0/ 0. 7!+8>,4@.A B8. 74 >+1. /+15 .6
,.2:741A .6 09:741 +8 48 61>.48 08

+,/B8. 0./ 7+6@/ ,417/ /+809/ 71215.65 7. 71:,. 2+8>.2.65 08 54:71.,A 7./
09=+,2451+6/ 0. -.781 -1 08./ 48? >4,1451+6/ 5;.,21B8./A 48? -;4,@./ >.,51-47./A 48
=784@. .5 48 ,.5,415A 34, .?.237. 3,+081/.65 0./ .==+,5/ 7+6@15801648? 046/ 7./ ,417/ .5
046/ 7./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./

% ./ .==.5/ ,9/875465 0. 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. +8>,4@. 48? 4-51+6/


>4,14:7./ 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235. 3+8, 7. -47-87 08 54:71.,A 0./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381
=1?./A 0./ 43381/ 416/1 B8. 3+8, >9,1=1., 7./ /+771-15451+6/ 046/ 7./ ,417/

" ./ .?1@.6-./ 0. $ " /+65 >474:7./ 3+8, 7./ >+1./ :4774/59./ -+6>.651+66.77./

$ 46/ 7. -4/ 0!86. 3+/. 0. >+1. 01,.-5.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 7./ .?1@.6-./
-+,,./3+60465./

./ .?1@.6-./ ,.7451>./ C 74 3+/. 0. >+1. 01,.-5. 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ /+15 046/ 7 66.?.
451+647.A /+15 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

)& / 0 ## " 0 $ 2 $ (

!165.,4-51+6 >+1. +8>,4@. 093.60 0./ 34,42D5,./ -1 43,D/A B81 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/ .6
-+235. 046/ 7!4647</. E

4 +6=1@8,451+6 0. 74 /5,8-58,. E
) 3+85,. /8, 43381/ /1237./A 3+85,./ -+65168./ +8 /9,1. 0. 3+85,./A
) 6+2:,. 0./ 54:71.,/ 1601>108.7/ .5 7+6@8.8, 0. -;4-86 0!.8?A
) 6+2:,. 0. 5,4>9./ .5 7+6@8.8, 0. -;4-86. 0!.77./A
) 3+/151+6 0./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./A
) 3+/151+6 08 3+165 =1?. 5;.,21B8.A
) 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 4 .65,. 7. 3+165 =1?. 5;.,21B8. .5 7!.?5,92159 08 54:71.,

102
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

57 , @ 3: 4 6 : 157 7 6 6 : 2 2 1 4

: +6=1@8,451+6 0. 74 >+1. E
) /</5D2./ C >+1. :4774/59. +8 C 3+/. 0. >+1. 01,.-5.A
) 01/546-. >.,51-47. .65,. 74 /8,=4-. /839,1.8,. 08 54:71., .5 7!4?. 6.85,. 0./ ,417/A
) .2374-.2.65 0./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. 01745451+6 0./ ,417/

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ .?1@.6-./ -+6-.,6465 7!.2374-.2.65 0./ 4334,.17/ 0.
01745451+6 K 17 -+6>1.65 47+,/ 0. / 4//8,., 0. 7!.==1-4-159 0. -./ 4334,.17/ .5 0!9>15., B8!17/ 6. /+1.65 4==.-59/
69@451>.2.65 34, 74 =7.?1+6 0./ ,417/ 08 =415 0. 74 3,+?12159 0. 7!.?5,92159 08 54:71., .5-

- ,+3,1959/ 0. 74 /5,8-58,. E
) ,410.8, >.,51-47. 08 54:71.,A
) 01/546-. >.,51-47. .65,. 74 =1:,. 2+<.66. 08 54:71., .5 74 /8,=4-. /839,1.8,. 0.
-.781 -1A
) 01/546-. >.,51-47. .65,. 74 =1:,. 2+<.66. 08 54:71., .5 7!4?. 0. ,+5451+6 0.
7!4334,.17 0!43381A
) -+6=1@8,451+6 /5,8-58,47. 48 61>.48 0./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381A @969,465 86
09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 0. 7!.?5,92159 08 54:71., C 34,51, 0!86. ,+5451+6
46@8741,. 0. -.781 -1A
) ,410.8, 7+6@15801647. 0. 74 /5,8-58,.A 09=161. -+22. 74 ,410.8, 5+547. 16-78465 74
,410.8, 0./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381A 0./ 43381/ .5 0./ =+60451+6/ 3+8>465 H5,.
2+:171/9. 3+8, /!+33+/., 48? 4-51+6/ /!.?.,N465 046/ 74 01,.-51+6 7+6@15801647.
0./ >+1./

4 ,410.8, 7+6@15801647. 5+547. 0!86. 317. 861B8. ./5 0+669. 34, .?.237. 34, E
/7
FW %
-δ +δ +δ .
3 ϕ ;

3+8, 7. -4/ ,.3,9/.659 -1 0.//+8/ C 515,. 0!.?.237.

103
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
7.?1+6 0. 74 317.
+5451+6 0. 74 =+60451+6
% 9374-.2.65 0. 74 =+60451+6
" 9374-.2.65 5+547 0. 74 317. .6 5H5.

57 / @ 3: 6 6;2 1 2 16 : 6 7
: 15 276 1 : ;>7 0 : 12 7 1 0 7 6 4 33 :4
6. 337

0 ,+3,1959/ 0. 74 >+1. E
) ,410.8, 4?147. 08 ,417A
) ,9/1/546-. 0. 74 >+1. +8 0./ ,417/ 48 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 E
) /+15 74 ,9/1/546-. 48 09374-.2.65 0. 74 >+1. ,417/ .5 5,4>.,/./ 046/ 7. :4774/5
34, ,433+,5 C 74 /+8/ =4-. 08 :4774/5
) /+15 74 ,9/1/546-. 48 09374-.2.65 0./ ,417/ .?.,-9. 34, 7./ 4554-;./ .5 7./
43381/ 0./ ,417/A 046/ 7. -4/ 0. :4774/5 @.79 +8 0. ,417/ =1?9/ 01,.-5.2.65 /8,
7. 54:71.,A 34, .?.237.A
74 ,9/1/546-. 48 09374-.2.65 95465 74 =+,-. 34, 86159 0. 7+6@8.8, 0. >+1.
/!+33+/465 48 09374-.2.65A =+6-51+6 08 09374-.2.65 ,.7451= .65,. 7. ,417 .5 7.
54:71., +8 7. ,.2:741 /833+,5

)& 3 .

./ 4-51+6/ C 3,.60,. .6 -+6/109,451+6 /+65 7./ /81>465./ E


) ./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@. 5.77./ B8. 09=161./ .6 $ %
) ./ .==.5/ 5;.,21B8./ 046/ 7. /</5D2. -+2:169 >+1. +8>,4@.
) ./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1-A -74//1=19./ 16-78465 TF .5 TF 7. -4/ 9-;9465
./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 4//+-19/ 3.8>.65 H5,. 69@71@9/

4 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. +8>,4@. 48 G5,416 C >10.G .5 48 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.


3.85 H5,. 69@71@9.

) ./ 485,./ 4-51+6/ 5.77./ B8. 7. =784@.A 7. ,.5,415A 7. @,401.65 0. 5.239,458,. .5-


0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ .6 -+235. 3+8, 74 095.,216451+6 0. 74 ,+5451+6 0./ .?5,92159/ 08
54:71., .5 08 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 4//+-19A 7. -4/ 9-;9465
7 < 4 71.8 0. 3,.60,. 7./ >4,1451+6/ 0. 5.239,458,. 046/ 7. 3+65 9@47./ C ∆ , -+22.
1601B89 046/ 7! $A 4>.- γ .5 ψ 9@48? C A

104
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ >47.8,/ 01==9,.65./ 3+8, ∆ ./ >47.8,/ 0. 7


$ /+65 ,.-+224609./

+8, 0./ -47-87/ /12371=19/A +6 3.85 402.55,. 86. >4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,. 08 54:71., 9@47. C
∆ = ± %$ f.7>16 !485,./ >47.8,/ 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5
1601>108.7

% +,/ 0. 74 095.,216451+6 0. 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. ) +8>,4@. 48?


=+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 6. 34/ 43371B8., -./ =+,-./ 48 ,.2:741
-+651@8 C 2+16/ 0!.==.-58., 86. 4647</. -+237D5. .6 -+6/109,465 7!433,+-;. 08 5,416A /+6
34//4@. /8, 7. 3+65 381/ /4 /+,51. .5 /+6 34//4@. /8, 7./ ,.2:741/ -+651@8/A 4=16 0!9>478.,
7./ .==.5/ 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./

)& 1 " 0 $ 2 $ (

+8, 74 095.,216451+6 0./ .==.5/ 0./ 4-51+6/ 046/ 7. /</5D2. -+2:169 >+1. )
+8>,4@.A +6 3.85 85171/., 86 2+0D7. :4/9 /8, 74 1@8,.

;5 16
#+1.
4:71., 86 54:71., 861B8. C 0.8? 5,4>9./ .5 86 54:71., 861B8. C 86. 5,4>9. /+65 ,.3,9/.659/
% .2:741
" 1/3+/151= 0. 01745451+6 0./ ,417/ 7. -4/ 9-;9465
$ .//+,5/ 7+6@15801648? 6+6 716941,./ ,.3,+081/465 7. -+23+,5.2.65 -;4,@. 7+6@15801647. F
09374-.2.65 0. 74 >+1.
.//+,5/ 7+6@15801648? ,.3,9/.65465 74 ,410.8, 7+6@15801647. F 0!86 43381 =1?9 48 54:71.,A 5.6465
-+235. 0. 74 ,410.8, 0. 74 =+60451+6A 0./ 317./A 0./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 .5-

57 @ 3: 6 6A: 6.71 4D42A 0 E 70 5

. -+23+,5.2.65 -;4,@. 7+6@15801647. F 09374-.2.65 0. 74 >+1. +8 0./ /833+,5/ 0.


,417/ 3.85 H5,. ,.3,9/.659 34, 74 ,.7451+6 0. 74 1@8,. 4>.-A 48 0934,5A 86. ,9/1/546-.
48 -1/4177.2.65 0. 5<3. 974/51B8. `I F22 0. 09374-.2.65 34, 2 0. >+1.a 381/ 0. 5<3.
374/51B8. I `I F2 0. >+1.a

105
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
==+,5 0. -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 046/ 74 >+1.A 34, 86159 0. 7+6@8.8,
9374-.2.65 08 ,417 34, ,433+,5 C 74 /8,=4-. /839,1.8,. 08 54:71.,
% 9/1/546-. 08 ,417 046/ 74 5,4>.,/. >+1. -;4,@9.
:4774/5 @.79 +8 >+1. /46/ :4774/5A 4>.- 4554-;./ -+6>.651+66.77./
" 9/1/546-. 0. 74 5,4>.,/. 046/ 7. :4774/5 >+1. -;4,@9.
$ 9/1/546-. 08 ,417 046/ 74 5,4>.,/. >+1. 6+6 -;4,@9.
:4774/5 @.79 +8 >+1. /46/ :4774/5A 4>.- 4554-;./ -+6>.651+66.77./
9/1/546-. 0. 74 5,4>.,/. 046/ 7. :4774/5 >+1. 6+6 -;4,@9.

57 " 2 1 6 :. << 2 6 8 4 :: 12 : 15 276 1 : 1 < 182 1 67


6;3: 8 12 : 15 276 1 : 6 : 0 $ 3 7 71 0

./ >47.8,/ 0. 74 ,9/1/546-. 7+6@15801647. 85171/9./ 3+8, 7!4647</. 0. 74 ,410.8, ,417F:4774/5F3+65


3.8>.65 H5,. 0+669./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 -+6>.68./ 4>.- 7!485+,159 -+2395.65. /39-1=19. 046/
7! 66.?. 451+647.

. -+23+,5.2.65 09-,15 34, 74 1@8,. ./5 >474:7. 046/ 74 37834,5 0./ -4/ 17 6!./5 34/
>474:7. 3+8, 7./ ,417/ .6,+:9/A .6 7!4:/.6-. 0!4554-;./ -+6>.651+66.77./ .5-

% C +O 7!+6 3.85 ,41/+664:7.2.65 3,9>+1, B8. 7./ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ >+1./ /+65
/8/-.351:7./ 0. -;46@., 046/ 7. =858,A 17 0+15 .6 H5,. 5.68 -+235. 046/ 7./ -47-87/A .6
4--+,0 4>.- 7./ .?1@.6-./ /39-1=19./

. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 7./ .?1@.6-./

" +8, 7. -47-87 0. 74 ,94-51+6 0!43381 ;+,1L+6547. 5+547. / .5 3+8, 3.,2.55,. 74


-+234,41/+6A 34, ,433+,5 48? >47.8,/ 4021//1:7./A 0. 74 -+65,4165. @7+:47. 9B81>47.65.
046/ 7./ ,417/A 7!.==.5 @7+:47 ./5 -47-879 0. 74 2461D,. /81>465. E

/ = ψ 1 /71 "

4>.- E

/!1 ,94-51+6 0!43381 ;+,1L+6547. 1601>108.77. -+,,./3+60465 C 7 4-51+6 A


ψ 1 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ .==.5/ 0./ 4-51+6/ 046/ 7. 54:71.,A 7./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 .5 7./
43381/A 85171/., 7./ -+.==1-1.65/ 0. -+2:1641/+6 09=161/ 046/ 7! A A

106
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

ψ 1 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./ -+65,4165./ 046/ 7./ ,417/A 3,.60,. ψ 1 9@47 C A

$ +,/ 0. 74 095.,216451+6 0. 7!.==.5 0. -;4-86. 0./ 4-51+6/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6


-+235. 7. -+23+,5.2.65 6+6 716941,. 0. 74 ,410.8, 0. 74 >+1.A 5.7 B8!17 4334,4R5 /8, 74
1@8,.

./ =+,-./ 7+6@15801647./ 046/ 7./ ,417/ .5 7./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 ,9/875465 0. -;4-86.
0./ 4-51+6/ 3.8>.65 H5,. -+2:169./ 716941,.2.65

)& &' 0
./ .?1@.6-./ 01==9,.65./ 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647.

$"$ #+1.

+8, 7./ ,417/ /1589/ /8, 7. 3+65 .5 /8, 74 -879. 40J4-.65.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 71215., 7./
-+65,4165./ 400151+66.77./ 4021//1:7./A 08./ C 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. )
+8>,4@. 48? 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./A 48? >47.8,/ 0. -47-87 /81>465./ E
) +23,.//1+6 E F22eA
) ,4-51+6 E F22e

./ >47.8,/ 71215./ 0./ -+65,4165./ 0+669./ .6 $ " $ /+65 >474:7./ 3+8, 7./
>+1./ /451/=41/465 48? -+60151+6/ /81>465./ E
) ,417 3,9/.65465 86. ,9/1/546-. C 74 5,4-51+6 /839,1.8,. +8 9@47. C F22 A
) >+1. .6 471@6.2.65 +8 .6 -+8,:. 0. ,4<+6 ≥ $ 2A

+8, 7./ >+1./ :4774/59./ 4>.- :46B8.55./ ,.6=+,-9./ /833792.6541,./ 0. 74 >+1.A 0. 2H2. B8.
3+8, 7./ >+1./ =1?9./ 01,.-5.2.65 /8, 7. 54:71.,A -.55. >47.8, 2161247. 08 ,4<+6 3.85 H5,. ,90815.A /+8/
,9/.,>. 0. 7!4--+,0 0. 7!485+,159 -+2395.65. /39-1=19. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.

) >+1./ :4774/59./ 4>.- 5,4>.,/./ 7+8,0./ .6 :95+6A ./34-9./ 48 24?1282 0. $ -2 +8


-+6=1@8,451+6 0. >+1. 9B81>47.65.A
) >+1./ :4774/59./ 4>.- 48 2+16/ % -2 0. :4774/5 -+234-59 /+8/ 7./ 5,4>.,/./

+,/B8. 7./ -,15D,./ -1 0.//8/ 6. /+65 34/ /451/=415/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,+-90., C 86. 9580.
34,51-871D,. +8 0. 3,.60,. 0./ 2./8,./ /833792.6541,./

+8, 7./ 485,./ 5<3./ 0. >+1./ .6 34,51-871., 3+8, -. B81 ./5 0. 7!.==.5 /8, 74 ,9/1/546-. 7459,47. .5
7./ 485,./ 5<3./ 0. ,417/A +6 ,.-+22460. 0. /39-1=1., 7./ >47.8,/ 24?1247./ 0./ -+65,4165./ 400151+66.77./
046/ 7./ ,417/ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

$"$ #47.8,/ 71215./ 0. 09=+,2451+6 0. 74 /5,8-58,.

+8/ 7!.==.5 0. 7!4--979,451+6 .5 08 =,.164@.A δ' `22a 6. 0+15 34/ 0934//., 7./
>47.8,/ /81>465./ E
) $ 22 3+8, 7./ 7+6@/ ,417/ /+809/ /46/ 01/3+/151= 0. 01745451+6 +8 4>.- 86 01/3+/151=
0. 017451+6 C 86. .?5,92159 08 54:71., /.87.2.65A
) % 22 046/ 7. -4/ 0. 01/3+/151=/ 0. 01745451+6 48? 0.8? .?5,92159/ 08 54:71., 7+,/B8.
7. :4774/5 ./5 -+65168 48? .?5,92159/ 0. -.781 -1A
) 7./ 2+8>.2.65/ 0934//465 % 22 6. 0+1>.65 H5,. 4021/ B8. 7+,/B8. 7. :4774/5
-+23+,5. 0./ 01/3+/151=/ -+83. :4774/5 3.,2.55465 74 01745451+6 .5 B8. 7./ ,417/ /+65
9B8139/ 0. 01/3+/151=/ 0. 01745451+6

107
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

+O δ' `22a E
) 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 ,.7451= .65,. 7!.?5,92159 0!86 54:71., .5 74 -879. 40J4-.65. +8
) 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 ,.7451= .65,. 0.8? 54:71.,/ -+6/9-851=/

+8/ 7!.==.5 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1- 86. +8 0.8? >+1./ -;4,@9./ 4>.- 7.
2+0D7. ) .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A TF A δ `22a 6. 0+15 34/ 0934//., 7./ >47.8,/
/81>465./ E
) 22 7+,/B8. 7!+6 51.65 -+235. 08 -+23+,5.2.65 -+2:169 >+1. +8>,4@. >474:7.
7+,/B8!17 6!< 4 B8!86 01/3+/151= 0. 01745451+6 34, 54:71., +8 48-86 01/3+/151= 0.
01745451+6 A
) 22 7+,/B8. 7. -+23+,5.2.65 -+2:169 >+1. +8>,4@. ./5 69@71@9

+O δ `22a E

) 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 0. 74 /8,=4-. /839,1.8,. 08 54:71., C 7!.?5,92159 0. -.781 -1


08 =415 0. /4 09=+,2451+6

+,/B8. 7./ -+65,4165./ 400151+66.77./ 4021//1:7./ 046/ 7. ,417A 0+669./ .6 $ " $ A /+65
0934//9./A +8 7+,/B8. 7. 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 24?1247 08 54:71.,A 0+669 .6 $ " $ +8
$"$ A ./5 0934//9A 74 /5,8-58,. ./5 C 2+01=1., +8 :1.6 0./ 01/3+/151=/ 0. 01745451+6 /+65 C 3,9>+1,

% . 09374-.2.65 >.,51-47 δ# `22a 0. 74 /8,=4-. /839,1.8,. 08 54:71., 34, ,433+,5 C 74


-+6/5,8-51+6 40J4-.65. -879. +8 485,. 54:71., A 0Y 48? 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./A 6. 0+15 34/
0934//., 7./ >47.8,/ /81>465./ E
) % 22 3+8, 86. >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 16=9,1.8,. +8 9@47. C I2F; 48 3+165
-+6/109,9
) 22 3+8, 86. >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. /839,1.8,. C I2F; 48 3+165 -+6/109,9

" 46/ 7. -4/ 0!86. 3+/. 0. >+1. 01,.-5.A 7./ =+,-./ 0. /+87D>.2.65 /+8/ -;4,@./
>.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1- 4@1//465 /8, 7./ /833+,5/ 0. ,417 .5 7./ /</5D2./ 0!4554-;./ 0+1>.65
H5,. -+234,9./ 48? -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0. 3.,=+,246-. 0. -./ 0.,61.,/ C 7!9545 71215.
3.,516.65 < -+23,1/ 7!9545 71215. 0. =451@8.

)& )1 !

./ 295;+0./ 0. -47-87 01==9,.65./ 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7.
3,+J.5 1601>108.7

./ 295;+0./ 0. -47-87 -1 43,D/ 3.,2.55.65 0. >9,1=1., 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08


/</5D2. >+1. ) +8>,4@. >1/ C >1/ 0./ -,15D,./ 0. 012.6/1+66.2.65 0+669/ .6 $ " $
./ -,15D,./ 3.8>.65 H5,. ,9/829/ 0. 74 2461D,. /81>465. 3+8, 7./ 54:71.,/ :4774/59/ E

4 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 ,.7451= C 7!.?5,92159 08 54:71.,A 09-+23+/9 .6 0.8? 3+8,


3.,2.55,. 74 -+234,41/+6 4>.- 7./ >47.8,/ 4021//1:7./ E δ' 0Y C 7!4--979,451+6 .5 48
=,.164@. .5 δ 0Y C 74 09=+,2451+6 >.,51-47. 08 54:71.,A
: -+65,4165./ 400151+66.77./ 24?1247./ 046/ 7./ ,417/A
- >47.8, 24?1247. 08 09374-.2.65 >.,51-47 ,.7451= C 7!.?5,92159 08 54:71.,A δ#

+8, 7./ 54:71.,/ C 3+/. 0. >+1. 01,.-5.A 86. >9,1=1-451+6 /833792.6541,. >1/ C >1/ 0./
=+,-./ 0. /+87D>.2.65 ./5 ,.B81/.A -+22. 1601B89 .6 $ " $ "

108
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

. 34,4@,43;. $ " 0+66. 86. 295;+0. /12371=19. 3.,2.55465A 3+8, 0./


+8>,4@./ /8, 43381/ /1237./ +8 0./ +8>,4@./ -+65168/A -+6/51589/ 0!86 54:71., 861B8.
0+65 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 4 ./5 16=9,1.8,. +8 9@47. C " 2A 0!./512., 74 ,93+6/.
-+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. ) +8>,4@. 48? 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./

% !466.?. 0+66. 86. 295;+0. 3.,2.55465 0. 095.,216., 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08


/</5D2. >+1. ) +8>,4@. C 0./ 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./ 7+,/B8. 7!+8>,4@. 6. /451/=415 34/ 48?
.?1@.6-./ 0. $ " E
) +8>,4@. /8, 43381/ /1237./ +8 +8>,4@. -+65168A -+6/51589 0!86 54:71., 861B8.A
) +8>,4@. -+6/51589 0!86. /8--.//1+6 0. 54:71.,/ 16093.60465/ ,.3+/465 /8, 43381/
/1237./A
) +8>,4@. -+6/51589 0!86. /8--.//1+6 0. 54:71.,/ -+65168/

" 75.,6451>.2.65A +8 3+8, 0!485,./ -+6=1@8,451+6/ 0. >+1./ +8 0. /5,8-58,.A 86.


4647</. 3.85 H5,. .==.-589. -+6=+,292.65 48? .?1@.6-./ 0. $ " C $ " $

$" 95;+0. 0. -47-87 /12371=19. 046/ 7. -4/ 0!86 54:71., 861B8.

46/ 7. -4/ 0!86 54:71., 861B8. /8, 43381/ /1237./A 5,4>9./ -+65168./ 4>.- 4334,.17
0!43381 =1?. C 86. .?5,92159 +8 5,4>9./ -+65168./ 4>.- 4334,.17 0!43381 =1?.
165.,290141,. A 74 >9,1=1-451+6 0./ -+65,4165./ 046/ 7./ ,417/ 6!./5 34/ 69-.//41,. /+8/
,9/.,>. B8. E
) 74 ,410.8, F 0./ 43381/ /+15 /8==1/465. 3+8, 71215., δ'A 09374-.2.65 08 54:71., 046/ 7.
/.6/ 7+6@15801647A C 86 24?1282 0. $ 22 /+8/ 7!4-51+6 0./ =+,-./ 7+6@15801647./
0!4--979,451+6 .5 0. =,.164@.A 09=161./ .6 $ " .5 -74//1=19./ -+22. 1601B89
.6 % % /1 69-.//41,. +8, 74 095.,216451+6 0./ 09374-.2.65/A 17 -+6>1.65 0.
5.61, -+235. 0. 74 -+6=1@8,451+6 .5 0./ 3,+3,1959/ 0. 74 /5,8-58,. 0+669./ .6
$" A
) /+8/ 7!4-51+6 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1-A δ A 7. 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 0. 74
/8,=4-. /839,1.8,. 08 54:71., C 7!.?5,92159 0. -.781 -1 08 =415 0. /4 09=+,2451+6 6.
0934//. 34/ $ 22A
) 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 4 /+15 16=9,1.8,. C " 2

./ -,15D,./ 01==9,.65/ 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19/ 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. ./ -,15D,./ 0+669/ 046/
-.55. -748/. /+65 ,.-+224609/

./ 71215./ 0. >4710159 0. 74 295;+0. 0. -47-87 1601B89. .6 $ " /+65 7./


/81>465./ E
) 74 >+1. /451/=415 7./ .?1@.6-./ 0. -+6/5,8-51+6 0+669./ .6 $ " $ A
) 74 ,9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 I 0. 74 >+1. >485 E
>+1. 6+6 -;4,@9. E IW C " I 34, 2 0. >+1.A
>+1. -;4,@9. E IW I 34, 2 0. >+1.
) -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1- E
2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 4>.- α W
-+6=+,292.65 C % % A
2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF A

4 295;+0. ./5 >474:7. 3+8, 0./ >47.8,/ 0. α 5.77./ B8. 7./ .==.5/ 0./ 4-51+6/ ,9/875465 0. α ×
/+65 16=9,1.8,/ +8 9@48? 48? .==.5/ ,9/875465 0. TF

109
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) 4-51+6/ 08./ 48 =,.164@. 3+8, E


2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF .5 2+0D7.
E
#7:I W I F2A
2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF E
#7:I W %$ I F2
) 4-51+6/ 08./ C 7!4--979,451+6 E
#74I W %% I F2A 712159. C E B74I W I
) 4-51+6/ 5;.,21B8./ E
>4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,. ∆ 08 54:71., E ∆ ≤ %$ f.7>16A
>4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,. ∆ 08 ,417 E ∆ ≤ $ f.7>16A
01==9,.6-. 24?1247. 0. 5.239,458,. .65,. ,417 .5 54:71., E
∆ ∆ ≤ f.7>16 $

% ./ =+,-./ 7+6@15801647./ 08./ C 7!4--979,451+6 .5 48 =,.164@. B81 4@1//.65 /8, 7./


4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ 3.8>.65 H5,. +:5.68./ .6 28751371465 7./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5
0. =,.164@. 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 0. ,908-51+6 ξ 0+669 046/ 7. 4:7.48

B: 7 << 8 12 6 ;6782 1 ξ 3 7 : 6;2 1 2 16 4< 8 4


: 15 276 1 : 4 5 44 12 47 : 4 33 :4 6. 337 < @ 4 6 4 2 B: 4 6.71 4 7: 3 A8
67 < 2 6 :. 88;:; 2 1 2 67 < 1 5

+6@8.8, 5+547. 0. +.==1-1.65 0. ,908-51+6 ξ


7!+8>,4@. `2a #+1. -+65168. 1/3+/151=/ 0. 1/3+/151=/ 0.
01745451+6 C 86. 01745451+6 48?
.?5,92159 08 0.8? .?5,92159/
54:71., 08 54:71.,
≤" A A A

+8, 7./ 3+65/ 3+,51B8./ .5 7./ -40,./ =.,29/A +6 ,.-+22460. 0. 3,.60,. ξ 9@47 C 86 6. 485,.
3+//1:17159 -+6/1/5. C 85171/., 74 295;+0. 0+669. C 7!466.?. +8 C 3,+-90., C 86. 4647</. -+6=+,292.65 C
$" C $"$

" ./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ =+,-./ 7+6@15801647./ / I 4@1//465A 34, >+1.A /8, 7./
4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ 08 =415 0./ >4,1451+6/ 0. 5.239,458,. -+6=+,292.65 C $ " %
3.8>.65 H5,. +:5.68./ 0. 74 2461D,. /81>465. E
) 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ 4>.- 7+6@/ ,417/ /+809/ 48? 0.8? .?5,92159/ 08 54:71., .5 4334,.17/
0!43381/ =1?./ C 86. .?5,92159 E
/ I `I a W ± A I 4
4>.- I `I F2aA ,9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 0. 74 >+1.A 34, 86159
0. 7+6@8.8,A 3+8, 7./ >+1./ 6+6 -;4,@9./A -+6=+,292.65 C $ " " A .5 4 `2aA
7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6A -+22. 1601B89 .6 $ "
) 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ 4>.- 7+6@/ ,417/ /+809/ 48? 0.8? .?5,92159/ 08 54:71., .5 4334,.17/
0!43381/ =1?./ C 86. 01/546-. 4 0!86. .?5,92159 .5 4 0. 7!485,. E
/ I `I a W ± A I 4 @ 4
4>.- I `I F2aA ,9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 0. 74 >+1.A 34, 86159
0. 7+6@8.8,A 3+8, 7./ >+1./ 6+6 -;4,@9./A -+6=+,292.65 C $ " " A .5 4 `2a .5 4
`2a -+22. 1601B89/ /8, 74 1@8,.

110
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

' 4 34,51. 0. 54:71.,


-+,,./3+60465 C 4 +8 C 4 3.85
-+23+,5., 86. +8 378/1.8,/
5,4>9./

57 E B: 0 8 33 :4 6. 337 < @ 4 1 1 4 27;4 ? 71 @2 ; 2; ( *

) 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ 4>.- 7+6@/ ,417/ /+809/ C 7!.?5,92159 08 54:71., 9B8139 0!4334,.17/
0!43381 =1?./ .5 0. 01/3+/151=/ 0. 01745451+6 C 7!485,. .?5,92159 .?5,92159 71:,. E
/ I `I a W ± 4 A 4>.- / I ≤ I
4>.- 4 `2a 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 -+22. 1601B89 .6 $ "

) 3+8, 7./ 54:71.,/ 0. 3+65 4>.- 01/3+/151=/ 0. 01745451+6 48? 0.8? .?5,92159/ E
/ IW

46/ 7. -4/ 0!86. >+1. -+6=+,2. C $ " $ A 7./ >47.8,/ 0. I 3.8>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ C 7!466.?.
% ./ >47.8,/ 01==9,.65./ 0. I 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647.

$ ./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ =+,-./ 7+6@15801647./ / I 4@1//465A 34, >+1.A /8, 7./
4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ 08 =415 0./ 09=+,2451+6/ 08 54:71., 3.8>.65 H5,. +:5.68./ 0. 74
2461D,. /81>465. E

) 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ 4>.- 7+6@/ ,417/ /+809/ 48? 0.8? .?5,92159/ 08 54:71., .5 4334,.17/
0!43381/ =1?./ C 86. .?5,92159 .5 01/3+/151=/ 0. 01745451+6 C 7!485,. .?5,92159 71:,. E
/ I `I a W ± 4 %
4>.- 4 `2a 7+6@8.8, 0. 74 3,.21D,. 5,4>9. -+651@8Z C 7!4334,.17 0!43381 =1?.

) 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ 4>.- 01/3+/151=/ 0. 01745451+6 48? 0.8? .?5,92159/ 08 54:71., E
/ I `I a W %

. 09374-.2.65 >.,51-47 0. 74 /8,=4-. /839,1.8,. 08 54:71., 34, ,433+,5 C 74


-+6/5,8-51+6 40J4-.65. -879. +8 485,. 54:71., /+8/ 7!.==.5 0./ 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./ 3.85 H5,.
-47-879 .6 1@6+,465 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. +8>,4@.A .5 >9,1=19 34, ,433+,5
48? -,15D,./ 08 34,4@,43;. $ " $ %

82 14 ; 6D1 >7 4 ;47:2 12 67 3 44 5 6 4 2 14

;1; : 2;4

./ .==.5/ 49,+0<6421B8./ 08/ 48 34//4@. 0./ 5,416/ 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235.
046/ 7. -47-87 0./ /5,8-58,./ -+651@8Z/ 48? >+1./

. 34//4@. 0!86. -1,-87451+6 =.,,+>141,. /+82.5 5+85. /5,8-58,. /1589. 3,D/ 0. 74 >+1. C
86. +60. 0. 3,.//1+6 093,.//1+6 >+1, 1@8,./ C $ !165.6/159 0. -.55. 4-51+6
093.60 3,16-1347.2.65 E
) 08 -4,,9 0. 74 >15.//. 08 5,416A
) 0. 74 =+,2. 49,+0<6421B8. 08 5,416A
) 0. 74 =+,2. 0. 74 /5,8-58,.A
) 0. /4 3+/151+6A 6+5422.65 0. 7!./34-. .65,. 7./ >9;1-87./ .5 74 /5,8-58,.

111
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% +,/ 0./ >9,1=1-451+6/ 48? 9545/ 71215./ 87512./A 48? 9545/ 71215./ 0. /.,>1-. .5 C 74
=451@8.A 7./ 4-51+6/ 3.8>.65 H5,. 433,+-;9./ 34, 0./ -;4,@./ 9B81>47.65./ .6 5H5. .5 .6
B8.8. 08 5,416 ./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0. -./ -;4,@./ 9B81>47.65./ /+65 0+669./ .6
C

! 66.?. 451+647. +8 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ >47.8,/ 01==9,.65./ ./ >47.8,/
0+669./ .6 C /+65 ,.-+224609./

" 6 C A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. 3+8, 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. -47-87 1 `I2F;a


74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6. 48 3+165 -+6/109,9A /48= 3+8, 7./ -4/ -+8>.,5/ 34, 7!
A "

$ 8 09:85 .5 C 7!.?5,92159 0./ /5,8-58,./ -+651@8Z/ 48? >+1./A /8, 86. 7+6@8.8, 0. $ 2
2./8,9. 34,477D7.2.65 C -.77./ -1A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 28751371., 7./ -;4,@./ 9B81>47.65./
0+669./ .6 C 34, 86 -+.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 9@47 C A

. -+.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. -1 0.//8/ 3.85 H5,. 16/8==1/465 046/ 7. -4/ 0. /5,8-58,./
/.6/1:7./ 48? 4-51+6/ 0<6421B8./A .5 17 3.85 H5,. 69-.//41,. 0. 7. 095.,216., 34, 86. 9580. /39-1=1B8. 7
-+6>1.65 47+,/ 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0<6421B8./ 0. 74 /5,8-58,. -+6/109,9.A 6+5422.65 0./
-+60151+6/ 0!43381 .5 0./ -+60151+6/ 48? .?5,92159/A 0. 74 >15.//. 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. -1,-87465 C
3,+?12159A 0./ 4-51+6/ 49,+0<6421B8./ 4//+-19/ .5 0. 74 ,93+6/. 0<6421B8. 0. 74 /5,8-58,.A 5.6465 -+235.
6+5422.65 0. 74 >15.//. 0. 7!+60. 0. 09=+,2451+6 160815. 046/ -.77. -1 . 378/A 046/ 7. -4/ 0. /5,8-58,./
/.6/1:7./ 48? 4-51+6/ 0<6421B8./A 86 -+.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 3.85 H5,. 69-.//41,. 3+8, 0./
34,51./ 0. 74 /5,8-58,. .65,. 7. 09:85 .5 74 =16 0. -.77. -1

7 < 8 40 28 : 44 3: 4 3 ::A: 4 ? : 0 (;8 14 12 B 7 2$ 3


@ 3: *

./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ 4-51+6/A g # IA /+65 0+669./ 34, 74 1@8,.

112
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
+83. 5,46/>.,/47.
4,.2.65 0. 74 /5,8-58,.
% #8. .6 3746
" 4,.2.65 0. 74 /5,8-58,.

57 E : 7 4 8 82; 42 >7 4 6 4 82 14 > L 6 14 : 8 4 6 47 < 8 4


0 2 8 : 4 4 3: 4 3 ::A: 4 ? : 0

./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ /!43371B8.65 48? 5,416/ 0+65 74 =+,2. 49,+0<6421B8. ./5


09=4>+,4:7. K .77./ 3.8>.65 H5,. ,90815./ 34, E
) 86 -+.==1-1.65 I W A $ 3+8, 7./ 5,416/ 0+65 7./ >9;1-87./ +65 0./ /8,=4-./
.?59,1.8,./ ,9@871D,./
) 86 -+.==1-1.65 I W A 3+8, 7./ 5,416/ 0+65 7./ >9;1-87./ +65 86. =+,2. 3,+=179.
A A #A 8,+/54, +8 9B81>47.65A 34, .?.237.

% 1 7!+6 -+6/10D,. 86. 3.515. 34,51. 0!86 9-,46 0!86. ;485.8, ≤ 1,00 2 .5 0!86.
7+6@8.8, ≤ A$ 2 9792.65 0!86 9-,46 4651:,815 34, .?.237. A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 24J+,., 7./
4-51+6/ # I 34, 86 -+.==1-1.65 I W A%

7 < 8 4 = H 12 : 4 4 3: 4 7 6 4474 6 : 0 ( 70 12 6 3 2 82 1
8 2;1 $3 @ 3: *

./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ 4-51+6/A g # IA /+65 0+669./ 34, 74 1@8,. %

113
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

4 74,@.8, -;4,@9.A 3+8, 7!9792.65 /5,8-58,47 -+6/109,9A /!95.60 J8/B8!C 2 0. 34,5 .5


0!485,. 0. 7!4?. 0. 74 >+1.

;5 16
+83. 5,46/>.,/47.
79>451+6
% +8/ =4-. 0. 74 /5,8-58,.

57 E : 7 4 8 82; 42 >7 4 6 4 82 14 > L 6 14 : 8 4 6 4 47 < 8 4


= H 12 : 4 4 3: 4 7 6 4474 6 : 0

% 46/ 7. -4/ 08 -,+1/.2.65 0. 5,416/A 17 -+6>1.65 0!400151+66., 7./ 4-51+6/ .6 3,.6465 .6


-+6/109,451+6 0.8? >+1./ 861B8.2.65

" ./ 4-51+6/ # I 3.8>.65 H5,. ,90815./ 34, 43371-451+6 08 -+.==1-1.65 I 09=161 .6

$ ./ 4-51+6/ /!.?.,N465 /8, 7./ :460./ 0. ,1>. 0!86. /5,8-58,. 0. @,460. 74,@.8,
=,46-;1//465 74 >+1. 3.8>.65 H5,. 287513719./ 34, 86 -+.==1-1.65 0. A $ /8, 86. 74,@.8,
24?1247. 0. A$ 2

7 < 8 4 = H 12 : 4 4 3: 4 8 12 57S4 ? : 0 ( B 4 6 >7 4 4 14 ;8 14


0 2 8 7@$ 3 @ 3: *

./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ 4-51+6/A g #%IA /+65 0+669./ 34, 74 1@8,. " K .77./
/!43371B8.65 16093.60422.65 0. 74 =+,2. 49,+0<6421B8. 08 5,416

114
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

6 5+85 3+165 0. 74 /5,8-58,. C -47-87.,A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., #%I .6 =+6-51+6 0. 74


01/546-. @ C 74 >+1. 74 378/ 3,+-;. !17 .?1/5. 0./ >+1./ 0. 34,5 .5 0!485,. 0. 7!9792.65
/5,8-58,47 -+6/109,9A 17 -+6>1.65 0!400151+66., 7./ 4-51+6/

% 1 74 01/546-. @ ./5 /839,1.8,. C %A 2A 7!4-51+6 # I 3.85 H5,. ,90815. 34, 86 -+.==1-1.65


I% 5.7 B8. E

- ;$ − .
I% =
@
3+8, %A 2 ] @ ] A$ 2 %
%;
I% W 3+8, @ ≥ A$ 2 %%

4>.- E

@ 01/546-. .65,. 7. 61>.48 /839,1.8, 08 ,417 .5 74 /+8/ =4-. 0. 74 /5,8-58,.

;5 16
+83. 5,46/>.,/47.
79>451+6
% +8/ =4-. 0. 74 /5,8-58,.

57 E : 7 4 8 82; 42 >7 4 6 4 82 14 > L 6 14 : 8 4 6 47 < 8 4


= H 12 : 4 4 3: 4 8 12 57S4 ? : 0

# 2 7827 4 ? 47 < 8 4 7:2 3: 4 : : 15 6 : 0 $ 8 3 1 12 6 4 47 < 8 4


0 2 8 : 4 2 = H 12 : 4 7 18: 1; 4 (2 :4 >7 ;8 14 12 B 7 2 18: 1;4$ B 4 6
>7 4 0 8 ;8 14 0 2 8 7@ 28 *

7 -+6>1.65 0!43371B8., 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ 4-51+6/A g #"IA 1601B89./ /8, 74
1@8,. $A 3.,3.601-8741,.2.65 48? /8,=4-./ -+6/109,9./ .5 0. 71,. 7./ >47.8,/
-4,4-59,1/51B8./ /8, 74 1@8,. A .6 40+35465 86. 01/546-. C 74 >+1. 9@47. C 74 378/ 3.515.
0./ >47.8,/ -1 0.//+8/ E

115
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

0@ W A 216 @ ^ A" 24? @ +8 2 %"

4>.- 216 @ .5 24? @ 5.7/ B8. 09=161/ /8, 74 1@8,. $

1 24? @ _ 2A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. 24? @ W 2

% 7 -+6>1.65 9@47.2.65 0!43371B8., 7./ -+.==1-1.65/ I .5 I 09=161/ .6

57 # E ;< 1 2 1 6 4 6 42 18 4 1 5 2 @ 5$ 47 ; 4 6 37 4 :. @ 6 :
0

7 < 8 4 10 : 33 12 : 5 B 2 6 4 0 4 47 71 : 157 7 : 2; (F74>7.? "


* (47 < 8 8 3 2 12 71 3 2 = H 12 : 7 6 4474 6 4 0 4 2 7 14 71
;8 1 0 2 8 : ;8= < 76 5 $ 8 142 782 14 3 0 4 4$ 3 @ 3: *

7 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 5+85./ 7./ 4-51+6/ 16093.60422.65 0. 74 =+,2.


49,+0<6421B8. 08 5,416 E
) /8, 74 ;485.8, 5+547. 0./ /8,=4-./ >.,51-47./ E

gI"# I %$
4>.- E
# I 5.7 B8!1601B89 .6 A
I" W

) /8, 7./ /8,=4-./ ;+,1L+6547./ E

gI$# I %
4>.- E
# I 5.7 B8!1601B89 .6 % 3+8, 86. >+1. /.87.2.65A
I$ W A$ /1 74 /8,=4-. 6!.6>.7+33. B8!86. /.87. >+1.A
I$ W %A$ /1 74 /8,=4-. .6>.7+33. 0.8? >+1./

116
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

, ; :: 12 2 72 4 82 14 47 : 4 3 124 < 0 4

./ /5,8-58,./ =.,,+>141,./ 0+1>.65 H5,. -+6N8./ 0. 5.77. 2461D,. B8!.6 -4/ 0.


09,4177.2.65A 7./ 0+224@./ .6 ,9/875465 3+8, 7. 3+65 ,.6>.,/.2.65 +8 .==+60,.2.65 0. 74
/5,8-58,. 046/ /+6 .6/.2:7.A 6+5422.65 /+1.65 712159/ 7. 378/ 3+//1:7.

, 82 14 67 4 7 6; :: 12 6.71 2 1 47 71 3 12 < 0

. 09,4177.2.65 0!86 5,416 /8, 86 3+65 =.,,+>141,. 0+15 H5,. -+6/109,9 -+22. 86.
/158451+6 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77.

.8? /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 /+65 C -+6/109,., E


) 158451+6 0. 3,+J.5 E 09,4177.2.65 0. >9;1-87./ =.,,+>141,./A 7./ >9;1-87./ 09,41779/
0.2.8,465 046/ 7!.23,1/. 0./ >+1./ /8, 7. 54:71., 08 3+65A 4>.- 0./ >9;1-87./ ,.5.68/
34, 7. ,417 -+651@8 +8 7. :+,0 ,.7.>9 0. 74 0477.
) 158451+6 0. 3,+J.5 E 09,4177.2.65 0. >9;1-87./ =.,,+>141,./A 7./ >9;1-87./ 09,41779/
,./5465 .6 9B8171:,. /8, 7. :+,0 08 3+65 .5 -;4,@.465 7. :+,0 08 54:71., C 7!.?-78/1+6 0./
9792.65/ 6+6 /5,8-58,48? 5.7/ B8. 7./ 34//.,.77./ 0. /.,>1-.

! 66.?. 451+647. +8 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 /39-1=1., 0./ .?1@.6-./ /833792.6541,./ .5 0./
-;4,@.2.65/ 01==9,.65/

% 46/ 74 /158451+6 0. 3,+J.5 A +6 0+15 9>15., 74 ,816. 0!9792.65/ 3,16-1348? 0. 74


/5,8-58,.A 241/ +6 3.85 5+79,., 0./ 0+224@./ 7+-471/9/ ./ 34,51./ 0. 74 /5,8-58,.
-+6-.,69./ 0+1>.65 H5,. 012.6/1+669./ 3+8, 7./ -;4,@./ 0. -47-87 -1 43,D/A 09=161./ 3+8, 74
/158451+6 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77. E

α × A" × C 74 =+1/ -;4,@./ 3+6-58.77./ .5 -;4,@. 861=+,292.65 ,934,51.A B 0 .5


# 0 34,477D7.2.65 C 74 >+1.A 046/ 74 3+/151+6 74 378/ 09=4>+,4:7. C 7!1659,1.8, 0!86. /8,=4-.
0+65 74 74,@.8, >485 A$ =+1/ 7!9-4,5.2.65 0./ ,417/A 0. 34,5 .5 0!485,. 0. 7!4?. 0. 74 >+1. E

;5 16
24? A$ +8 2+16/ /1 48 -+654-5 08 :+,0 ,.7.>9 0. 74 0477.
-4,5.2.65 0./ ,417/
% 46/ 7. -4/ 0./ 54:71.,/ :4774/59/A +6 3.85 402.55,. B8. 7./ =+,-./ 3+6-58.77./ /+65 ,934,51./ /8, 86
-4,,9 0. "$ 22 0. -Q59 C 74 /8,=4-. 08 54:71.,

57 27 2 1 6 3 F 2 E = 5 4 ;>7 0 : 12 4 4 6 2+ 6

117
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

" 46/ 74 /158451+6 0. 3,+J.5 A 17 -+6>1.65 0!9>15., C 74 =+1/ 7. ,.6>.,/.2.65 .5


7!.==+60,.2.65 08 3+65 +8, 74 095.,216451+6 0. 74 /54:17159 @7+:47.A +6 0+15 -+6/109,.,
86. -;4,@. 716941,. >.,51-47. 861=+,2. /!.?.,N465 /8, 7. :+,0 0. 74 /5,8-58,. -+6/109,9.
/8, 86. 7+6@8.8, 5+547. 24?1247. 0. 2A .5 9@47. C # 0 W α ? A" ?

;5 16
;4,@. /!.?.,N465 /8, 7. :+,0 0. 74 /5,8-58,.
-4,5.2.65 0./ ,417/

57 , 27 2 1 6 3 F 2 E = 5 ;>7 0 : 12 + 6

4 -;4,@. 9B81>47.65. 2.651+669. -1 0.//8/ 6. 0+15 H5,. 3,1/. .6 -+235. B8. 3+8, 74 095.,216451+6
0. 74 ,9/1/546-. 87512. +8 0. 74 /54:17159 @7+:47. 0. 74 /5,8-58,. 7 6!./5 34/ 69-.//41,. 0. 012.6/1+66., 7./
9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? 216.8,/ 3+8, -.55. -;4,@.

$ ./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 .5 0+1>.65 H5,. .?42169./ /934,92.65 6. -+2:1641/+6


0. -./ -;4,@./ 6. 0+15 34/ H5,. -+6/109,9.

+8, 7./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 .5 A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 69@71@., 7./ 485,./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1-
=.,,+>141,. /8, 74 >+1. /+821/. 48? 4-51+6/ 08./ 48 09,4177.2.65
#+1, A 3+8, 7./ .?1@.6-./ -+6-.,6465 7!43371-451+6 0./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1- 48? 485,./
>+1./

7 6 ./5 34/ 69-.//41,. 0 43371B8., 0. -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. 48? -;4,@./ 0. -47-87


.6 % .5 "

+8, 7./ 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? /1589/ 48 0.//8/ 08 61>.48 0./ ,417/A 7./ 2./8,./
0./5169./ C 71215., 7./ -+6/9B8.6-./ 0!86 09,4177.2.65 0+1>.65 H5,. -+6=+,2./ 48?
.?1@.6-./ /39-1=19./

./ .?1@.6-./ 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7
! 66.?. 451+647. +8 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7 3.85 9@47.2.65 /39-1=1., 0./ .?1@.6-./ >1/465 C
,.5.61, 86 5,416 09,41779 /8, 7!+8>,4@.

118
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

, ; :: 12 4 74 7 ? 3 @ 2; 6.71 70 5 2 72 4 82 14 3 7
4 27 2 14 6 3 F 2 88 6 12 :: 4

6 -4/ 0. 09,4177.2.65A 17 < 4 86 ,1/B8. B8. 7./ >9;1-87./ 09,41779/ >1.66.65 ;.8,5., 7./
/5,8-58,./ /1589./ 48 0.//8/ 0. 74 >+1. +8 -+651@8Z/ C -.77. -1 ./ .?1@.6-./ ,.7451>./ C 74
-;4,@. 0!1234-5 416/1 B8. 7./ 485,./ .?1@.6-./ 0. -47-87 /+65 /39-1=19./ 046/ 7!

!485,./ 4-51+6/ /+65 0+669./ 046/ 7! 3+8, 0./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5


4--10.65.77./ K 17 -+6>1.65 0!.6 5.61, -+235.

, 72 4 82 14

7 < 4 71.8 0. 5.61, -+235. 9@47.2.65 0./ 4-51+6/ /81>465./ 3+8, 7. -47-87 0./
/5,8-58,./ E
) .==.5/ 08/ 48? 54:71.,/ 16-7169/ +8 /8,=4-./ 0!43381 16-7169./A
) .==+,5/ 0!46-,4@. 7+6@15801648? -+6/9-851=/ C 86. ,9@874,1/451+6 0./ -+65,4165./ 046/
7./ .6 4--+,0 4>.- 7./ .?1@.6-./ /39-1=19./A
) .==+,5/ 7+6@15801648? 08/ C 74 ,8358,. 4--10.65.77. 0. ,417/A .6 4--+,0 4>.- 7./
.?1@.6-./ /39-1=19./A
) 4-51+6/ 0./ -459641,./ .5 485,./ 9B813.2.65/ 0. 2H2. 6458,. =1?9/ C 74 /5,8-58,. .6
4--+,0 4>.- 7./ .?1@.6-./ /39-1=19./A
) 4-51+6/ 0 485,./ 16=,4/5,8-58,./ .5 9B813.2.65/ =.,,+>141,./ .6 4--+,0 4>.- 7./
.?1@.6-./ /39-1=19./

./ .?1@.6-./ /39-1=19./ 16-78465 7./ 4-51+6/ 3+8, 5+85. /158451+6 0. 3,+J.5 4--10.65.77. C 3,.60,.
.6 -+235. 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

/ 33: 8 2 1 6 4 8= 5 4 6 2 < 8 47 : 4 3 124 < 0 4

/ ;1; : 2;4

#+1, % 3+8, 7!43371-451+6 08 -+.==1-1.65 α .5 " $ 3+8, 7!43371-451+6 08 -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8.


Φ

4 /5,8-58,. 0+15 H5,. 012.6/1+669. 3+8, 7. 6+2:,. .5 74 7./ 3+/151+6 / 0./ >+1./
.?1@9/ -+6=+,292.65 48? 3+/151+6/ .5 48? 5+79,46-./ /39-1=19./

./ 3+/151+6/ .5 5+79,46-./ 0. >+1. 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

7 -+6>1.65 9@47.2.65 0. 012.6/1+66., -;4B8. /5,8-58,. 3+8, 7. 378/ @,460 6+2:,. 0.


>+1./ @9+295,1B8.2.65 .5 /5,8-58,47.2.65 3+//1:7.A 046/ 74 3+/151+6 74 2+16/ =4>+,4:7.A .5
-.-1A 16093.60422.65 0. 74 3+/151+6 ,9.77. .6>1/4@9.A .6 5.6465 -+235. 0./ .?1@.6-./
0!./34-.2.65 2161247 0./ >+1./ .5 0. @4:4,15 7459,47 /39-1=19./

./ .?1@.6-./ 0 ./34-.2.65 2161247 0./ >+1./ .5 0. @4:4,15 7459,47 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 3+8, 7.
3,+J.5 1601>108.7

119
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% ./ .==.5/ 0. 5+85./ 7./ 4-51+6/ 0+1>.65 /</592451B8.2.65 H5,. 095.,2169/ .6 374N465


7./ -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- .5 485,./ =+,-./ 046/ 7./ 3+/151+6/ 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./ ./ 4-51+6/ 0.
5,4=1- 0+65 7!.==.5 ./5 =4>+,4:7. 0+1>.65 H5,. 69@71@9./

" +8, 74 095.,216451+6 0./ .==.5/ 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./ ,9/875465 0. 7!43371-451+6 08
2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. E
) 74 -;4,@. 716941,. 861=+,2. # I 0+15 H5,. 43371B89. C 86. >+1. /8, 485465 0. 7+6@8.8,/
B8. 69-.//41,. K J8/B8!C B845,. -;4,@./ -+6-.65,9./ 1601>108.77./ B I 0+1>.65 H5,.
43371B89./ .6 2H2. 5.23/ /8, 86. >+1.A
) 3+8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ /833+,5465 0.8? >+1./A 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0+15 H5,. 43371B89
C 7!86. +8 7!485,. 0./ >+1./A +8 48? 0.8?A
) 3+8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ /833+,5465 5,+1/ >+1./ +8 378/A 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0+15 H5,.
43371B89 5+8, C 5+8, C -;4-86. 0./ >+1./ +8 C -;4B8. @,+83. 3+//1:7. 0. 0.8? >+1./
+8 :1.6 A $ 0+15 H5,. 43371B89 C 5,+1/ >+1./ +8 378/

$ +8, 74 095.,216451+6 0./ .==.5/ 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./ ,9/875465 0. 7!43371-451+6 08


2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF E
) 7. -;4,@.2.65 09=161 /8, 74 1@8,. .5 046/ 7. 4:7.48 0+15 H5,. 43371B89 86.
=+1/ C 74 >+1.A
) 3+8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ /833+,5465 0.8? >+1./A 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 0+15 H5,.
43371B89 C 7!86. +8 7!485,. 0./ >+1./A +8 48? 0.8?A
) 3+8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ /833+,5465 5,+1/ >+1./ +8 378/A 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 0+15
H5,. 43371B89 C -;4-86. 0./ >+1./ 5+8, C 5+8, +8 C -;4B8. @,+83. 3+//1:7. 0. 0.8?
>+1./ +8 .6-+,. A $ TF 0+15 H5,. 43371B89 C 5,+1/ >+1./ +8 378/

+8, 74 095.,216451+6 0./ .==.5/ 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./ ,9/875465 0. 7!43371-451+6 08


2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF E
) 7./ -;4,@./ 09=161./ /8, 74 1@8,. .5 046/ 7. 4:7.48 0+1>.65 H5,. 43371B89./
86. =+1/ C 74 >+1.A
) 3+8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ /833+,5465 378/ 0!86. >+1.A 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 0+15 H5,.
43371B89 5+8, C 5+8, C -;4-86. 0./ >+1./A 7. 2+0D7. +8 7. 2+0D7. TF 95465
43371B89/ 48? 485,./ >+1./ -+6=+,292.65 C " .5 $

+8, 74 095.,216451+6 0./ .==.5/ 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./ ,9/875465 0. 7!43371-451+6 08


2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. G5,416 C >10.G E
) 74 -;4,@. 716941,. 861=+,2. B>I 0+15 H5,. 43371B89. C 86. >+1. /8, 485465 0. 7+6@8.8,/
B8. 69-.//41,.A
) @969,47.2.65A 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. G5,416 C >10.G 6. 0+15 H5,. -+6/109,9 B8. 3+8, 7.
-47-87 0. /5,8-58,./ /833+,5465 86. >+1. 861B8.

+85./ 7./ /5,8-58,./ C 3+85,./ -+65168./ -47-879./ 3+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@.


0+1>.65 H5,. 9@47.2.65 >9,1=19./ 3+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF

+,/B8!86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. ./5 ,.B81/. -+6=+,292.65 C " "A 5+85./ 7./
/5,8-58,./ 0+1>.65 9@47.2.65 H5,. -47-879./ 3+8, 74 -;4,@. 0. 5,416/ ,9.7/ 416/1 B8. 3+8,
7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 7+,/B8. 7. 34,4@,43;. " 7!123+/. 4 095.,216451+6
0./ .==.5/ 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./ .6@.60,9/ 34, 0./ 5,416/ ,9.7/ .5 34, 7!43371-451+6 08
2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 0+15 H5,. -+6=+,2. C " .5 " $ %

120
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

+8, 74 >9,1=1-451+6 0./ 09=+,2451+6/ .5 0./ >1:,451+6/A 7. -;4,@.2.65 >.,51-47 C


43371B8., ./5 7. /81>465 E
) 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 2+0D7./ 0. -;4,@. TF .5 TF A
) 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 7+,/B8. 7. 34,4@,43;. " 7!123+/.A
) 5,416/ ,9.7/ 7+,/B8!+6 095.,216. 7. -+23+,5.2.65 0<6421B8. 046/ 7. -4/ 0. 74
,9/+646-. +8 0. >1:,451+6/ .?-.//1>./ 08 54:71.,A 7+,/B8. 7. 34,4@,43;. "
7!123+/.

6 -. B81 -+6-.,6. 7./ 54:71.,/ 0. 3+65/ C 86. +8 378/1.8,/ >+1./A 7./ >9,1=1-451+6/ 0./
71215./ 0. 09=+,2451+6 .5 0. >1:,451+6 0+1>.65 H5,. .==.-589./ 3+8, 7. 6+2:,. 0. >+1./
-;4,@9./ .5 7./ -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- 4//+-19./A 5.7/ B8!1601B89/ 046/ 7. 4:7.48 +,/B8.
7. 34,4@,43;. % % 7!123+/.A 0./ -;4,@./ -74//1=19./ 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ .6 -+235.

121
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 "E B 6 0 4 ? 8= 5 3 7 : 0; < 8 2 1 6 4 : 2 4 6 6;< 2 1


26 0B 2 1

2 2: 2 2 8 2A 4 6. 88 32 2 1 B 6 0 4 47 : 3 12
44 8 ;4 ≥

; < 8 2 1 0 4 ? 0 4 6 : 4;87 2; 6 4
8 87: 2 14 G
4
) 48-;. 08 54:71., A +8 +8 +8 % +8
"" 378/ :
4
) 9=+,2451+6 >.,51-47. 08 54:71., +8 +8 +8 % +8
A "" % 378/ :
4
) 9=+,2451+6 ;+,1L+6547. 08 54:71., +8 +8 +8 % +8
A "" " 378/ :
4 4
) 93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. +8 +8
+8>,4@. 48? 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./A <
-+23,1/ 71215./ 48 09374-.2.65
>.,51-47 .5 7+6@15801647 0. 7!.?5,92159
08 54:71., $ "

) --979,451+6 >.,51-47. 08 54:71.,


" .5 A ""

; < 8 2 14 ? :. G

) +6=+,5 0./ >+<4@.8,/ A


""%

; < 8 2 14 ? :. G
4
) +87D>.2.65 48 0,+15 0./ 4334,.17/ +8 +8 +8 % +8
0!43381 A "" 378/ :
4
.7+6 -. B81 -+6/5158. 7. -4/ 7. 378/ -,151B8.
:
+,/B8!+6 85171/. 0./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@./A 17 -+6>1.65 B8. 7. 6+2:,. 0. >+1./ C -;4,@., -+6-+,0. 4>.- 7. 4:7.48
+,/B8!+6 6!85171/. 34/ 7./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@./A 17 -+6>1.65 B8. 7. 6+2:,. 0. >+1./ C -;4,@., -+6-+,0. 4>.-
7. 4:7.48

./ .?1@.6-./ -+6-.,6465 7. 6+2:,. 0. >+1./ C -+6/109,., -+22. -;4,@9./ 7+,/ 0. 74 >9,1=1-451+6 >1/ C
>1/ 0. 7!9>4-8451+6 0./ .48? .5 08 @4:4,15 3.8>.65 H5,. /39-1=19./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5
1601>108.7

/ 73 4 6 8= 5 4 E : 7 48 82; 42 >7 4 6 :. 82 1 ? 8 3 4 12 4
7:2 3: 4

4 /12875469159 0./ /</5D2./ 0. -;4,@.2.65 09=161/ .6 % C $ .5 3.85 H5,. 3,1/. .6


-+235. .6 -+6/109,465 7./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@./ 09=161/ 34, 7. 4:7.48 7 -+6>1.65 0.

122
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

-+6/109,., /934,92.65 -;4-86 0!.65,. .8? -+22. 09=161//465 86. 4-51+6 -4,4-59,1/51B8.
>4,14:7. 861B8. C -+2:16., 4>.- 0./ -;4,@./ 485,./ B8. -.77./ 08 5,4=1- 7 -+6>1.65
0!43371B8., -;4B8. @,+83. 0. -;4,@./ -+22. 86. 4-51+6 >4,14:7. 861B8.

46/ -.,5416/ -4/A 17 ./5 69-.//41,. 0. -+6/109,., 0!485,./ -+2:1641/+6/ 0!4-51+6/ 1601>108.77./
09=4>+,4:7./ 0. 5,4=1- #+1, " 0. 7

7 -+6>1.65 0!43371B8., 7./ -+.==1-1.65/ 08 4:7.48 48? >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./


0./ 01==9,.65./ 4-51+6/ -+6/109,9./ 046/ -;4B8. @,+83.
+85./ 7./ >47.8,/ 3,+3+/9./ 3+8, -./ -+.==1-1.65/ 3.8>.65 H5,. 2+01=19./ 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.
./ >47.8,/ 08 54:7.48 /+65 ,.-+224609./

% +,/B8. 7./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@. 6. /+65 34/ 3,1/ .6 -+235.A 7./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1-
=.,,+>141,. 0+1>.65 H5,. -+2:169./ -+6=+,292.65 48 4:7.48 % 0. 7!

123
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 E ;2 1 2 1 6 4 5 73 4 6 8= 5 4 6 2 < 8 < 0 (0 : 7 4
8 82; 42 >7 4 6 :. 82 1 ? 8 3 4 12 4 7:2 3: 4*
+2:,. 0. ,+83./ 0. -;4,@./ +,-./ >.,51-47./ +,-./ ;+,1L+6547./
>+1./ /8, 74 9=9,.6-. % F %% %% %" $% $ $ .24,B8./
7!+8>,4@.
≥ +2:,. ,+83. #+1. TF ,416 C --979,45 +,-. ==+,5 0.
A%
% 0. >+1./ 0. -;4,@9. TF A >10. 1+6A -.65,1=8@. 74-.5
-;4,@9./ -;4,@. =,.164@.
$ $ $
@, A$ A$ 4? >.,51-47 .5 24?
7+6@15801647
$ $ $
@, A$ 4? >.,51-47 .5 24?
5,46/>.,/47
" $ $
@, % A$ A$ 4? 7+6@15801647
" $
@, " A$ 4? 7459,47
$ $
@, $ 54:17159 7459,47. 4>.- 5,416
C >10.
$ $ $
@, A$ A$ TF .5 24? 7+6@15801647
$ $ $
@, A$ TF .5 24? 5,46/>.,/47
$ $ $
@, A$ A$ 4? >.,51-47 .5 24?
$ $ $
A$ A$ 7+6@15801647
$ $ $
@, A$ 4? >.,51-47 .5 24?
$ $ $
A$ 5,46/>.,/47
" $ $
@, % A$ A$ 4? 7+6@15801647
" $ $
A$ A$
" $
@, " A$ 4? 7459,47
" $
A$
$ $ $
@, A$ A$ TF .5 24? 7+6@15801647
$ $ $
A$ A$
@, A$ $ $ $
TF .5 24? 5,46/>.,/47
A$ $ $ $

≥% @, % 1 $ $ $ $ $
$ $
4/ 0. -;4,@.
/833792.6541,.

+8/ 7./ -+.==1-1.65/ 433,+3,19/ α; Φ; ; 0+1>.65 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235.


TF 6. 0+15 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235. B8. 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ C 5,4>9./ -+65168./
% TF 6. 0+15 H5,. 3,1/ .6 -+235. B8. /1 -.74 ./5 /513879 3+8, 74 71@6. -+6/109,9.
" . -+.==1-1.65 3.85 H5,. ,90815 C A$ /1 7!.==.5 ./5 =4>+,4:7. K 17 6. 3.85 H5,. 9@47 C L9,+
$ 46/ 7./ -4/ =4>+,4:7./A -./ >47.8,/ 6+6 0+216465./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 3,1/./ 9@47./ C L9,+
.5 5,416/ ,9.7/ 7+,/B8. 7./ 34,4@,43;./ " " .5 " 7!123+/.65
1 7. 34,4@,43;. " " 123+/. 86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. K >+1, 9@47.2.65 " $ % .5 "
#+1, 9@47.2.65 4:7.48 % 0. 7

-51+6 -+23+/465. 0+216465. /.7+6 7. -4/

-+6/109,., 7+,/ 08 -47-87 0!86. /5,8-58,. /833+,5465 86. >+1. @,+83./ 0. -;4,@./

-+6/109,., 7+,/ 08 -47-87 0!86. /5,8-58,. /833+,5465 0.8? >+1./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@./ A /48= $ ;4-86. 0./ 0.8?
>+1./ 0+15 H5,. -+6/109,9. -+22. >+1. +8 >+1.

-+6/109,., 7+,/ 08 -47-87 0!86. /5,8-58,. /833+,5465 5,+1/ >+1./ +8 378/ K ,+83./ 0. -;4,@. C % A /48= $ ;4B8. >+1.
0+15 H5,. -+6/109,9. 5+8, C 5+8, -+22. A 6!123+,5. B8.77. 485,. 5+8, C 5+8, -+22. A 5+85./ 7./ 485,./ 95465 -+6/109,9./
-+22. 6+6 -;4,@9./ 6 +85,.A 7. @,+83. 0. -;4,@./ % 0+15 H5,. -+6/109,9 -+22. 86 -4/ 0. -;4,@. /833792.6541,. 046/
7.B8.7 5+85./ 7./ 7+6@8.8,/ 09=4>+,4:7./ 0. 74 >+1. 1 /+65 -;4,@9./

/ 73 4 6 8= 5 4 E 72 4 0 : 7 4 3 ;4 12 2 0 4 6 4 82 14 ?
8 3 4 12 4 7:2 3: 4

)5 # + .

+,/B8. 0./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@./ /+65 3,1/ .6 -+235.A 74 2H2. ,D@7. B8!.6 -1
0.//8/ /!43371B8.A .6 4==.-5465A 3+8, -;4B8. @,+83.A 7./ -+.==1-1.65/ 08 4:7.48 48?
>47.8,/ =,9B8.65./ 0./ 4-51+6/ -+,,./3+60465./ -+6/109,9./ 046/ 7. @,+83.

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 7./ >47.8,/ =,9B8.65./ 0./ 4-51+6/ C -+23+/465./ 2875137./ ./
,D@7./ 0+669./ 046/ -.55. -748/. /+65 ,.-+224609./

124
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

+,/B8!+6 6. 3,.60 34/ .6 -+235. 7./ @,+83./ 0. -;4,@.A 7./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1-
=.,,+>141,. 0+1>.65 H5,. -+2:169./ -+6=+,292.65 48 4:7.48 % 0. 7!

)5 + 2 .

7 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. 7./ 4-51+6/ B84/1 3.,246.65./ 0. 5,4=1- 9@47./ C L9,+

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 09=161, 7./ >47.8,/ B84/1 3.,246.65./ 0./ 4-51+6/ C -+23+/465./
2875137./ 4 >47.8, 1601B89. 046/ -.55. -748/. ./5 ,.-+224609.

/ = 5 4 6 2 < 8 3 7 4 27 2 14 6 3 F 2 2 14 2 4

./ -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- .6 /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 5,46/15+1,./ 0+1>.65 H5,. 09=161./

./ 1601-451+6/ =1@8,.65 C 7! 66.?. ./ -;4,@./ 0. 5,4=1- .6 /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 5,46/15+1,./


3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

= 5 4 6 2 < 8 3 7 : < 2 57

+8/ 7./ 9792.65/ /5,8-58,48? /+821/ C 0./ >4,1451+6/ 0. -+65,4165./ 0+1>.65 =415
7!+:J.5 0!86. 9>478451+6 0. 7!.60+224@.2.65 0Y C 74 =451@8.

+8, 86 5,4=1- 6+,247 =+609 /8, 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. A
16-78465 7. =4-5.8, 0<6421B8. ΦA 17 -+6>1.65 0!.==.-58., 7!9>478451+6 0. 74 =451@8. /8, 74
:4/. 0./ -+2:1641/+6/ 0. 5,4=1-/ 08 5<3. G5,4=1- /54604,0GA G5,4=1- 4>.- .//1.8? 0. $ I G
+8 G5,4=1- 79@.,GA /.7+6 B8. 74 /5,8-58,. /833+,5. 86 5,4=1- 21?5.A +8 3,16-1347.2.65 86
5,4=1- 24,-;4601/./ 7+8,0 +8 .6-+,. 86 5,4=1- >+<4@.8,/ 79@.,A .6 =+6-51+6 0./ .?1@.6-./
/39-1=19./ !466.?. 0+66. 0./ 095417/ /8, 7./ 5,416/ 0. /.,>1-. .5 7./ -+2:1641/+6/ 0.
5,4=1-/ -+6/109,9./ 416/1 B8. /8, 74 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. C 43371B8.,

./ .?1@.6-./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

% +,/B8. 74 -+2:1641/+6 0. 5,4=1-/ 6. ,.3,9/.65. 34/ 7. 5,4=1- ,9.7 046/ -.,5416./


/158451+6/ 34,51-871D,./A 34, .?.237.A +O 86 6+2:,. 712159 0. 5<3. / 0. >9;1-87./
0+216. 7./ -;4,@./ 0. =451@8.A +8 3+8, 86 5,4=1- ,.B8.,,465 86. >47.8, 0. α /839,1.8,. C
7!86159A /.7+6 % % A 17 -+6>1.65 0. /39-1=1., 86. -+2:1641/+6 0. 5,4=1- 01==9,.65.

4 -+2:1641/+6 0. 5,4=1- 01==9,.65. 3.85 H5,. 09=161. 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

" ;4-86. 0./ -+2:1641/+6/ ./5 974:+,9. C 34,51, 0!86 5+664@. 0. 5,4=1- 4668.7 0. $×
5+66./ 34,-+8,465 7. 3+65 /8, -;4B8. >+1.

$ +8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ /833+,5465 378/ 0!86. >+1.A 7. -;4,@.2.65 0. =451@8. 0+15 H5,.
43371B89 C 86 24?1282 0. 0.8? >+1./ 046/ 7./ 3+/151+6/ 7./ 378/ 09=4>+,4:7./

7 -+6>1.65 0!9>478., 7!.60+224@.2.65 0Y C 74 =451@8. /8, 86. 08,9. 0. >1. 0. 7!+8>,4@.


0. 46/

4 08,9. 0. >1. 0. 3,+J.5 3.85 H5,. /39-1=19. 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. 6. 08,9. 0. 46/ ./5
,.-+224609. #+1, 48//1 7

125
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

7 ./5 9@47.2.65 3+//1:7. 0. 3,+-90., 48? >9,1=1-451+6/ C 74 =451@8. C 34,51, 0!86.


-+2:1641/+6 0. 5,4=1- 34,51-871D,.
6. -+2:1641/+6 0. 5,4=1- 34,51-871D,. 3.85 H5,. /39-1=19. 046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647. +8 3+8, 7.
3,+J.5 1601>108.7

./ .?1@.6-./ /833792.6541,./ -+6-.,6465 74 >9,1=1-451+6 0./ 3+65/ C 74 =451@8. /+65


0+669./ .6 " 7+,/B8. " " 123+/. 86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. .5 B8!17 ./5 3,+:4:7.
B8. 7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ /.,+65 .?-.//1=/

7 < 4 71.8 0. 5.61, -+235. 0./ 4-51+6/ >.,51-47./ 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,. 16-78465 7./
.==.5/ 0<6421B8./ .5 7./ =+,-./ -.65,1=8@./ 3+8, 7 9>478451+6 0. 74 =451@8.
969,47.2.65A 7./ 4-51+6/ 0. 74-.5 .5 7./ 4-51+6/ 7+6@15801647./ 08 5,4=1- =.,,+>141,.
3.8>.65 H5,. 69@71@9./ 3+8, 7 9>478451+6 0. 74 =451@8.

46/ B8.7B8./ /158451+6/ /39-147./A 34, .?.237. 3+65/ /833+,5465 0./ >+1./ C 0./ @4,./ 5.,21647./A
17 < 4 71.8 0. 5.61, -+235. 0. 7 .==.5 0./ 4-51+6/ 7+6@15801647./ 3+8, 7 9>478451+6 0. 74 =451@8.

126
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

11 @
16=+,2451>.
) 6A: 4 6 0;= 87: 4 43;8 7@ 3 7 3 124 72 4

1 6. 33: 8 2 1

4 3,9/.65. 466.?. 09=1615 0./ 2+0D7./ /54604,0 0. >9;1-87./ /39-148? 3+8>465 H5,.
85171/9/ 3+8, 7. 012.6/1+66.2.65 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/

./ >9;1-87./ /39-148? 416/1 09=161/ /+65 0./5169/ C 3,+081,. 0./ .==.5/ @7+:48? .5
0./ .==.5/ 7+-48? 5.7/ -.8? .6@.60,9/ 34, 0./ >9;1-87./ 6+6 -+6=+,2./ 48? ,D@7.2.65/
6451+648? ,.7451=/ 48? 71215451+6/ 0. 3+10/A .5 9>.658.77.2.65 0. 012.6/1+6/A 0./
>9;1-87./

4 3,1/. .6 -+235. 0./ >9;1-87./ /39-148? 3+8, 7. 012.6/1+66.2.65 0./ 3+65/ 0.>,415 H5,. 712159.
C -.,5416/ -4/ 34,51-871.,/

% 4 3,9/.65. 466.?. =+8,615 9@47.2.65 0./ 1601-451+6/ .6 -4/ 0!43371-451+6


/12875469.A /8, 74 -;48//9. 0!86 3+65A 0. >9;1-87./ /39-148? .5 0!86 5,4=1- ,+851., 6+,247
,.3,9/.659 34, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 09=161 .6 " %

) 6A: 4 6 B 4 6 0;= 87: 4 43;8 7@

./ 2+0D7./ 0. :4/. 0. >9;1-87./ /39-148? /+65 09=161/ -+6>.651+66.77.2.65 046/


7./ 4:7.48? .5 .5 /8, 74 1@8,.

./ 2+0D7./ 0. :4/. -+,,./3+60.65 C 01==9,.65/ 61>.48? 0. -;4,@./ .?-.351+66.77./ 3+8>465 H5,.


485+,1/9./ C -1,-87., /8, -.,5416/ 15169,41,./ 08 ,9/.48 ,+851., 3,16-1347 .8,+39.6

6 402.5 0./ 74,@.8,/ 0. >9;1-87./ 0. %A 2 3+8, 7./ 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. $ .5 I .5 0.


"A$ 2 3+8, 7./ 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. " I

B: 7 : 44 4 6 0;= 87: 4 43;8 7@

64 2 2 : 3 42 1 2 2 1
I " 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. $ I F $
I 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. $ I F $
I 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. $ I F $
+8 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I F
$ I 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. $ I $ F $
+8 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I ^ 71@6. $ F
0!.//1.8? 0. I
I 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. $ I F $
+8 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I F
" I 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I " F
+8 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. " I " F "
+8 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I ./34-.2.65 " F F
2 ^ 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I

127
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% I $ 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I % F
+8 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. " I ^ 71@6. % F "
0!.//1.8? 0. I
+8 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I ./34-.2.65 % F F
2 ^ 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I
% I 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I % F
+8 $ 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. " I % F "
+8 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I ./34-.2.65 % F F
2 ^ 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. I

B: 7 E 48 32 1 6 4 0;= 87: 4 43;8 7@

51 4 6. 44 7@ 6 51 4 6. 44 7@ 6 51 4 6. 44 7@ 6
#" L "" L "L
I W "× $
W A$ 2
I W × $
W A$ 2
I W × $ W ×
W A$ 2 W A$ 2
$ I W × $ W × ^ ×
W A$ 2 W A$ 2
I W × $ W ×
W A$ 2 W A$ 2
" I W × W × "
W A$ 2 W A$ 2

W × ^ ×
W $× A$^ ^$× A$
% I W $× W × ^ × "
W A$ 2 W A$ 2

W × ^ ×
W × A$^ ^ × A$
% I W × W $× "
W A$ 2 W A$ 2

W × " ^ × "
W × A$^ ^ × A$

6+2:,. 0!.//1.8? 287513719 34, 7. 3+10/ I 0. -;4B8. .//1.8 046/ -;4B8. @,+83.
./34-.2.65 0./ .//1.8? 2 C 7!1659,1.8, 0!86 @,+83. .5 .65,. @,+83./

128
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
? 1,.-51+6 0. 7!4?. 0. 7!+8>,4@.
4 1@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. C I
: 1@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. " I

57 E 43 4 2 1 6 4 : 51 4 6. 44 7@ 2 6;< 1 2 1 6 4 47 < 8 4 6 8 12 82
6 4 7 4

7 3.85 H5,. 69-.//41,. 0. 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 86 +8 378/1.8,/ 0./ 2+0D7./ 0.


>9;1-87./ /39-148? 09=161/ 3,9-90.22.65

./ 2+0D7./A 7./ >47.8,/ 0./ -;4,@./ .5 7./ 012.6/1+6/ 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161/ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5
1601>108.7

./ .==.5/ 08 2+0D7. 6+,2471/9 F $ /+65 -+8>.,5/ 34, 7./ .==.5/ 08 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 7
7+,/B8!17 ./5 43371B89 .6 3,.6465 7./ -+.==1-1.65/ α B .5 α # 9@48? C

% ./ 2+0D7./ 34,51-871.,/A 3,9>8/ /39-147.2.65 3+8, -+8>,1, 7./ .==.5/ 0./ -;4,@./
.?-.351+66.77./ 4>.- 86 3+10/ 5+547 485+,1/9 .6 -;4,@. /839,1.8, C % I 3.8>.65 0.>+1, H5,. 09=161/
3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

% 7 -+6>1.65 0. 3,.60,. 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ 4//+-19./ 48?


>9;1-87./ /39-148? -+22. 0./ >47.8,/ 6+21647./ .5 0. 7./ -+6/109,., -+22. 4//+-19./
861B8.2.65 C 0./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 5,46/15+1,./

33: 8 2 1 6 6A: 4 6 8= 5 6 0;= 87: 4 43;8 7@ 47 : 8= 744;

7 -+6>1.65 0!43371B8., -;4B8. 2+0D7. /54604,0 E

) /8, 86. >+1. 0. -1,-87451+6 -+6>.651+66.77. 5.77. B8. 09=161. .6 " .5 " %
-+6/109,9. -+22. 74 >+1. 6829,+ 3+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ -+23+/9/ 0. 71@6./ 0!.//1.8?
0. $ +8 0. I A +8

) /8, 0.8? >+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ 40J4-.65./ -+6/109,9./ -+22. 7./ >+1./ 6829,+
.5 ) >+1, 1@8,. 3+8, 7./ 2+0D7./ -+23+/9/ 0. 71@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. " I

129
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

7 -+6>1.65 0. 374-., 7./ >+1./ -+6>.651+66.77./ 0. 2461D,. 48//1 09=4>+,4:7. B8.


3+//1:7. /8, 74 -;48//9. 46/ -. -4/A 74 74,@.8, 0. 74 -;48//9. 3.85 H5,. 09=161. .6
.?-78465 7./ :460./ 0!4,,H5A :460./ 09,4/9./ .5 :460./ 0. 24,B84@.

;5 16 ;5 16
1@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. $ +8 I :W A 2 1@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. " I : W "A 2
E 1,.-51+6 0. 7!4?. 0. 7!+8>,4@. E 1,.-51+6 0. 7!4?. 0. 7!+8>,4@.
#+1. #+1.
#+1. #+1.

57 33: 8 2 1 6 4 0;= 87: 4 43;8 7@ 47 : 4 0 4 8 10 12 11 :: 4

% .7+6 7./ 2+0D7./A -.8? -1 3.8>.65 H5,. -+6/109,9/ -+22. /. 09374N465 C =41:7.
>15.//. 16=9,1.8,. +8 9@47. C $ I2F; +8 C >15.//. 6+,247. I2F;

" +,/B8. 7./ 2+0D7./ /+65 /833+/9/ /. 09374-., C =41:7. >15.//.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 6.
3,.60,. .6 -+235. B8. 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./A /46/ 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8.

$ +,/B8. 7./ 2+0D7./ /+65 /833+/9/ /. 09374-., C >15.//. 6+,247.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 5.61,
-+235. 0!86. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. 6 3.85 85171/., 74 =+,287. E

4
ϕ = A" − ϕ≥
$
4>.- E
4 7+6@8.8, 0!16=78.6-. 2

+,/B8. 7./ 2+0D7./ /+65 /833+/9/ /. 09374-., C =41:7. >15.//.A 17 -+6>1.65 0.


-;4,@., -;4B8. >+1. -+6>.651+66.77.A 416/1 B8. 7!41,. ,9/108.77. 08 54:71.,A 48 2+<.6 08
2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. A 4>.- 7./ >47.8,/ =,9B8.65./ 09=161./ .6 " $ .5 .6 0. 7!
8, 74 7./ >+1. / +--839. / 34, 7. >9;1-87. 6+,2471/9A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 6. 34/ 43371B8.,
-. /</5D2. C 2+16/ 0. $ 2 0./ .//1.8? .?5,H2./ 08 >9;1-87. -+6/109,9 >+1, 1@8,.
%

130
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16 ;5 16
1@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. $ +8 I 1@6./ 0!.//1.8? 0. " I
E 1,.-51+6 0. 7!4?. 0. 7!+8>,4@. E 1,.-51+6 0. 7!4?. 0. 7!+8>,4@.
#+1. #+1.
#+1. #+1.
#9;1-87. /54604,0

1,. -;4,@9. 4>.- 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@./ =,9B8.65./ 0.

6. 3+/151+6 5,46/>.,/47. 378/ =4>+,4:7. 0. -.,5416/ >9;1-87./ /39-148? .5 86. ,./5,1-51+6 0. 74


3,9/.6-. /12875469. 08 5,4=1- @969,47 3.8>.65 H5,. 09=161./ 3+8, 7. 3,+J.5 1601>108.7

57 E 7:2 1; 2; 67 6A: 6 8= 5 2 6 0;= 87: 4 43;8 7@

+,/B8. 0./ >9;1-87./ /39-148? /+65 /833+/9/ /. 09374-., C >15.//. 6+,247.A 17


-+6>1.65 0. 01/3+/., 0.8? 0. -./ >9;1-87./ /8, 74 7./ >+1. / 416/1 +--839. / 8, 7./
485,./ >+1./ .5 /8, 7!41,. ,9/108.77.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. -;4,@., 7. 54:71., 08 3+65 48 2+<.6 08
2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. A 4>.- 7./ >47.8,/ =,9B8.65./ 09=161./ .6 " $ .5 .6 0. 7!

131
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

11 @ &
16=+,2451>.
0 :7 2 1 6 : 67 ; 6 0 6 4 3 124 72 4 0 4 ? 0 4 6 : < 2 57
);2= 6 < 16; 47 6 4 1 5 42 124 67 2 < 8

7 -+6>1.65 0!954:71, 86 ;1/5+,1B8. 0./ -+65,4165./ C 34,51, 0. 7!4647</. 0.


7!.6,.@1/5,.2.65 0. 0+669./ ,.3,9/.65451>./ 0!86 5,4=1- ,9.7A 287513719./ 34, 86
-+.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. ϕ =45

7 -+6>1.65 B8. -. -+.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8.A B81 093.60 0. 74 ,8@+/159


3,9>8. 08 ,.>H5.2.65 416/1 B8. 0./ 24J+,451+6/ 0<6421B8./ 9>.658.77./ 16-78/./ 046/
7./ .6,.@1/5,.2.65/A 51.66. -+235. 08 -+23+,5.2.65 0<6421B8. 08 3+65

+6=+,292.65 C 7! A 7. ,.>H5.2.65 3.85 H5,. -74//9 .6 5.,2./ 0. 0.6/159 /3.-5,47. 0.


381//46-. 0./ 09374-.2.65/ >.,51-48? 08 3,+=17 0. 74 ,+85. 30A -!./5 C 01,. 0. 74 ,8@+/159 30 ./5 86.
=+6-51+6 0. 74 =,9B8.6-. /345147. A 30 A +8 0. 74 =,9B8.6-. 46@8741,. /345147. Ω 7. 7+6@ 0. 74 71@6. 0.
2./8,.A 30-Ω .A 4>.- Ω W π 7 -+6>1.65 0. 71//., 74 0.6/159 /3.-5,47. 0. 381//46-. ,9.77. 08 3,+=17 0.
-;48//9. 381/ 0. 74 71694,1/., /8, 86 014@,422. .6 -++,0+669./ :17+@4,15;21B8./A /8, 86. 374@. 0.
=,9B8.6-. /345147. 433,+3,19. 4 0.6/159 /3.-5,47. 71694,1/9. 3.85 H5,. .?3,129. /.7+6 74 =+,2. @969,47. E
−S −S
+8 Ω
30 = 30 30 Ω = 30 Ω

4>.- E
) " =,9B8.6-. /345147. 0. ,9=9,.6-. A -<-7.F2 A
) Ω =,9B8.6-. /345147. 46@8741,. 0. ,9=9,.6-. ,0F2 A
) D .?3+/465 0. 74 71694,1/9.

+8>.65A 48 71.8 0. -+6/109,., 74 0./ 09374-.2.65/A 30A 17 ./5 378/ -+22+0. 0. -+6/109,., 74
0./ >15.//./A 3>A .6 5.,2./ 0. >4,1451+6/ 0!+,0+669./ >.,51-47./ 0. 74 /8,=4-. 0. 74 ,+85. 34, 86159 0.
01/546-. 34,-+8,8. 3> .5 30 /+65 719/ 34, 7./ .?3,.//1+6/ /81>465./ E
3> = 30 ( π ) .5 3> Ω = 30 Ω (Ω )

+,/B8. DW A 7./ 0.8? .?3,.//1+6/ 0. 74 0./ >15.//./ /+65 -+6/5465./

+6/109,465 86. 0./ >15.//./ -+6/5465.A 7! -+6/10D,. -74//./ 0. ,+85./ A 'h


01==9,.65./ 0. ,8@+/159 -,+1//465. ./ 71215./ 0./ -74//./ /+65 ,.3,9/.659./ /8, 74 1@8,. ' .6 =+6-51+6
0. 74 0./ 09374-.2.65/ +8, 74 -74//1=1-451+6 0./ -;48//9./ 0./ 3+65/ ,+851.,/A /.87./ 7./ $ 3,.21D,./
-74//./ A 'A h A /+65 -+6-.,69./

4 B847159 0. /8,=4-. 3.85 H5,. -+6/109,9. -+22. 5,D/ :+66. 3+8, 7./ ,.>H5.2.65/ 0. -74//. A :+66.
3+8, 7./ ,.>H5.2.65/ 0. -74//. 'A 2+<.66. 3+8, 7./ ,.>H5.2.65/ 0. -74//. A 2901+-,. 3+8, 7./
,.>H5.2.65/ 0. -74//. .5 5,D/ 2901+-,. 3+8, 7./ ,.>H5.2.65/ 0. -74//.

E $) .-;461-47 >1:,451+6 ) +40 /8,=4-. 3,+=17./ ) .3+,516@ += 2.4/8,.0 0454

132
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
30 6 `2%a .6/159 /3.-5,47. 0. 381//46-. 0./ 09374-.2.65/A
λ `2a +6@8.8, 0!+60.A
30 Ω `2%a .6/159 /3.-5,47. 0. 381//46-. 0./ 09374-.2.65/A
`-<-7./F2a ,9B8.6-. /345147.A
Ω `,40F2a ,9B8.6-. 46@8741,. /345147.A

57 & E : 44 < 8 2 1 6 4 0C2 124 6 8= 744; ( / "/*

./ >47.8,/ 71215./ 0. 30 .5 0. 3> 3+8, 7./ $ 3,.21D,./ -74//./ 0. ,.>H5.2.65 /+65 0+669./ 046/ 7./
4:7.48? ' .5 ' 3+8, .5 Ω ,./3.-51>.2.65

B: 7 & E 5 ;6 75 4 2; @3 ; 12 4 6 < ;>7 18 43 2 :

.@,9 0. ,8@+/159
4
74//. 847159 08 30 ` 2a 3> ` 2a
0. ,+85. ,.>H5.2.65 1215. +<.66. 1215. +<.66.
16=9,1.8,. @9+295,1B8. /839,1.8,. @9+295,1B8.
,D/ :+66. % A%
' '+66. % " $A%
+<.66. $ $ A
901+-,. $ " " " "A%
,D/ 2901+-,. " " A
4
6 W A -<-7.F2

133
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 & E 5 ;6 75 4 2; @3 ; 12 4 6 < ;>7 18 157: 43 2 : Ω

.@,9 0. ,8@+/159
74//. 847159 08 0Ω 4` 2a >Ω ` 2a
0. ,+85. ,.>H5.2.65 1215. +<.66. 1215. +<.66.
16=9,1.8,. @9+295,1B8. /839,1.8,. @9+295,1B8.
,D/ :+66.
' '+66. " "
+<.66. %
901+-,. % " "
,D/ 2901+-,. $ $ $
4
Ω W ,40F2

% 48= /39-1=1-451+6 01==9,.65.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 28751371., 7./ -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8


.6,.@1/5,9./ 34, E
ϕ =45 W A 3+8, 7./ /8,=4-./ 0. :+66. ,8@+/159
ϕ =45 W A" 3+8, 7./ /8,=4-./ 0. ,8@+/159 2+<.66.

" . 378/A 7+,/B8!+6 -+6/10D,. 86. /.-51+6 5,46/>.,/47. /1589. C 2+16/ 0. A 2 0!86
J+165 0. -;48//9.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 28751371., 74 -;4,@. 34, 7. -+.==1-1.65 0. 24J+,451+6
0<6421B8. -+23792.6541,. ∆ϕ =45 0+669 34, 74 1@8,. "

$ 4 -74//1=1-451+6 0./ 9545/ 0. ,8@+/159 0. /8,=4-. 3.85 H5,. .==.-589. /81>465 7!

+8, 86. ./512451+6 @,+//1D,. .5 ,4310. 0. 7!9545 0. ,8@+/159A +6 6+5.,4 B8. E

) 7./ ,.>H5.2.65/ 0. -;48//9. 6.8=/ 5.7/A 34, .?.237.A 7./ :95+6/ :158216.8? +8 7./
:95+6/ 0. -12.65A 3.8>.65 H5,. -+6/109,9/ -+22. 3+//90465 86. :+66.A >+1,. 86.
5,D/ :+66.A ,8@+/159 K

) 7./ ,.>H5.2.65/ 0. -;48//9. 46-1.6/ 6+6 .65,.5.68/ 3.8>.65 H5,. -74//9/ 046/ 74
-459@+,1. 0./ ,.>H5.2.65/ 0. ,8@+/159 2+<.66. K

) 7./ ,.>H5.2.65/ 0. -;48//9. B81 -+6/1/5.65 .6 34>9/ +8 2459,148? /121741,./ 3.8>.65


H5,. -74//9/ 046/ 7./ -459@+,1./ G2+<.66.G +8 248>41/. G2901+-,.GA G5,D/
2901+-,.G

+8, 7./ /8,=4-./ 0. -+654-5 0./ ,+8./ .5 7./ 01/546-./ 5,46/>.,/47./ .65,. ,+8./A 17
-+6>1.65 0!40+35., 7./ >47.8,/ 08 4:7.48 " /.7+6 7. -4/

1 7./ 2./8,./ 0. 5,4=1- 6. /+65 .==.-589./ B8. /8, 86. /.87. >+1.A 17 -+6>1.65 0. =41,.
0./ ;<3+5;D/./ 3+8, -. B81 -+6-.,6. 7. 5,4=1- /8, 7./ 485,./ >+1./ ./ ;<3+5;D/./
3.8>.65 H5,. =+609./ /8, 0./ .6,.@1/5,.2.65/ 0!86 5<3. 0. 5,4=1- /.2:74:7.A .==.-589/ .6
0!485,./ 71.8?

7 -+6>1.65 B8. 7!;1/5+,1B8. 0./ -+65,4165./ 3,.66. .6 -+235. 74 3,9/.6-. /12875469.


0. >9;1-87./ .6,.@1/5,9/ /8, 86. >+1. B8.7-+6B8. 08 3+65 .5 17 -+6>1.65 0!954:71, 86.
3,+-908,. 3.,2.55465 0!.6 5.61, -+235. 7+,/B8. 7!9>478451+6 ./5 :4/9. /8, 0./
.6,.@1/5,.2.65/ 0./ -;4,@.2.65/ 1601>108.7/ 0. >9;1-87./

134
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

7 -+6>1.65 0. -+235., 7. 6+2:,. 0. -<-7./ 48 2+<.6 0. 74 295;+0. 0. 74 @+855.


0!.48 +8 0. -.77. 08 ,9/.,>+1,

1 74 08,9. 0./ 2./8,./ ./5 16=9,1.8,. C 86. /.2416. .651D,.A 7./ .6,.@1/5,.2.65/ .5
7!9>478451+6 0. 7!.60+224@.2.65 ,9/875465 0. 74 =451@8. 3.8>.65 H5,. 4J8/59/ .6 3,.6465
.6 -+235. 7./ >4,1451+6/ 0. =78? .5 0. -+23+/151+6/ 0. 5,4=1- +:/.,>9./ 48 -+8,/ 0!86.
/.2416. 6+,247. 7 -+6>1.65 48//1 0!43371B8., 86 -+.==1-1.65 0!4J8/5.2.65 3+8, 5.61,
-+235. 0. 5+85. 9>+7851+6 8759,1.8,. 08 5,4=1-

7 -+6>1.65 0. 28751371., 7!.60+224@.2.65 -82879 ,9/875465 0. 74 =451@8.A -47-879 C


34,51, 0./ .6,.@1/5,.2.65/A 34, 7. ,433+,5 .65,. 74 08,9. 0!85171/451+6 0. 3,+J.5 .5 74 08,9.
-+,,./3+60465 C 7!;1/5+@,422. 6 7!4:/.6-. 0!16=+,2451+6/ 09541779./A +6 ,.-+22460.
86 -+.==1-1.65 3+8, 7. 6+2:,. 0. -421+6/ .5 86 -+.==1-1.65 7A" 3+8, 7./ 61>.48? 0.
-;4,@.

135
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

11 @
6+,2451>.
<< 8 124 6D1 >7 4 -ϕ 3 7 : 42 14 ; :4

+8, 3,.60,. .6 -+235. 7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ ,9/875465 0. 74 >15.//. 0./ 5,416/
,9.7/ .6 -1,-87451+6A 7./ /+771-15451+6/ -47-879./ C 34,51, 0./ -;4,@./ /5451B8./ /39-1=19./
0+1>.65 H5,. 287513719./ 34, 86 -+.==1-1.65 -+,,./3+60465 C 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9.
0./ 5,416/

./ -+.==1-1.65/ 0<6421B8./ ^ ϕ /+65 9@47.2.65 85171/9/ 3+8, 7./ -47-87/ 0.


7!.60+224@.2.65 ,9/875465 0. 74 =451@8.

% 4 -;4,@. /5451B8. 08. C 86 5,416 ,9.7 -1,-87465 C 74 >15.//. `2F/a 0+15 H5,.
287513719. E

34, ^ϕW ^ ϕ! ^ ϕ!! 3+8, 86. >+1. 6+,247.2.65 .65,.5.68.

+8 34, ^ϕW ^ ϕ! ^ A$ ϕG 3+8, 86. >+1. /+1@6.8/.2.65 .65,.5.68.

! 66.?. 451+647. 3.85 /39-1=1., 74B8.77. 0./ 0.8? 9B8451+6/ +8 3.85 H5,. 85171/9.
+,/B8. 7 9B8451+6 C 85171/., 6 ./5 34/ 3,9-1/9.A 17 ./5 ,.-+224609 0 85171/., 7 9B8451+6

46/ -./ .?3,.//1+6/ E

F
ϕ!= 3+8, F ] A %
−F + F"
.5
ϕ0 = ;% $ 3+8, F ≥ A "
4>.- E F = $
4Φ ×
.5
α
4Φ 4Φ
− 4φ −
ϕ ′′ = $ . +$ −

ϕ!! ≥
4>.- E α = /1 ≤ 2F/
αW /1 _ 2F/

.?3,.//1+6/ 046/ 7./B8.77./ E


./5 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9. 08 >9;1-87. `2F/a
./5 74 3,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. =7.?1+6 08 3+65 /+8/ -;4,@./ 3.,246.65./
` La
4Φ ./5 74 7+6@8.8, 095.,216465. `2a -+6=+,292.65 C " $ %
α ./5 86 -+.==1-1.65 3+8, 74 >15.//.

136
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

4 71215. 0. >4710159 0. ϕ′A 09=161 34, 7./ 9B8451+6/ % .5 " A ./5 74 71215. 16=9,1.8,.
0. 74 =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 74 1@8,. ϕ′ ./5 9@47.2.65 712159 48? >15.//./ 16=9,1.8,./
C I2F; +8, 5+8/ 7./ 485,./ -4/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., ϕ′ 34, 86. 4647</.
0<6421B8.A -+22. 1601B89 .6 "

7 -+6>1.65 B8. 74 295;+0. .237+<9. =4//. 7!+:J.5 0!86 4--+,0 4>.- 7!485+,159 -+2395.65. /39-1=19.
046/ 7! 66.?. 451+647.

4 71215. 0. >4710159 0. ϕ′′A 09=161 34, 7!9B8451+6 A ./5 74 71215. /839,1.8,. 0. 74


=,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 74 1@8,. +8, 5+8/ 7./ 485,./ -4/A ϕ′′ 3.85 H5,. 095.,2169 34,
86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. .6 5.6465 -+235. 0. 7!165.,4-51+6 .65,. 7./ 24//./ 6+6
/8/3.608./ 08 5,416 .5 74 24//. 08 3+65 -+22. 1601B89 .6 "

" ./ >47.8,/ 0. ϕ! ^ ϕ!! 0+1>.65 H5,. 095.,2169./ .6 85171/465 7./ >47.8,/ 71215./
/839,1.8,./ .5 16=9,1.8,./ 0. +A C 2+16/ B8!17 6. /!4@1//. 0!86 3+65 34,51-871., 0+65 74
3,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. ./5 -+668.

4 71215. /839,1.8,. 0. + ./5 0+669. 34, E

= " ; 4−Φ ; "

.5 /4 71215. 16=9,1.8,. 34, E

= 3+8, " 2 ≤ 4Φ ≤ 2

= %;$ 4−Φ ;$ 3+8, 2 ] 4Φ ≤ 2

137
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

11 @
6+,2451>.
& 4 4 6.;0 :7 2 1 6 : < 2 57 3 7 : 4 42 7827 4 < 0 4

+D3 2=A4 4 47 : 4 82 14 : 2 0 4 ? : < 2 57

./ -+.==1-1.65/ 0<6421B8./ Φ .5 Φ%A 43371B89/ 48 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. /5451B8. .5


48? 2+0D7./ TF .5 TF 7+,/B8. 7. 34,4@,43;. " $ /!43371B8.A ,.3,9/.65.65 7.
-;4,@.2.65 .?5,H2. C -+6/109,., 7+,/ 0. 74 09=16151+6 0./ 01/3+/151+6/ -+6/5,8-51>./ 0./
9792.65/ 0. 3+65/ ./ -+.==1-1.65/ -+6081,41.65 C 0./ 01/3+/151+6/ 168517.2.65 +69,.8/./
/!17/ 9541.65 43371B89/ 48? 5,416/ ,9.7/ .237+<9/ 3+8, 9>478., 7!.60+224@.2.65 ,9/875465
0. 74 =451@8.

+8, 5.61, -+235. 0. 7!.==.5 2+<.6 /8, 86. 08,9. 0. >1. 0. 74 /5,8-58,. /833+/9. 9@47. C
46/A 74 24J+,451+6 0<6421B8. -+,,./3+60465 C -;4B8. 5,416 ,9.7 3.85 H5,. ,90815. C E

^ i ϕ! ^ iϕ!!

.?3,.//1+6 046/ 74B8.77. ϕ! .5 ϕ!! /+65 09=161/ -1 43,D/ 046/ 7./ 9B8451+6/ .5 $

% ./ 9B8451+6/ .5 $ /+65 0./ =+,2./ /12371=19./ 0./ 9B8451+6/ % .5 .5


/+65 /8==1/422.65 3,9-1/./ 3+8, /.,>1, 48 -47-87 0. 7!.60+224@.2.65 ,9/875465 0. 74
=451@8. K .77./ /+65 >474:7./ 3+8, 0./ >15.//./ 24?1247./ 485+,1/9./ 0./ >9;1-87./
16=9,1.8,./ +8 9@47./ C I2F; E

F
ϕ0 =
− F + F"

4>.- E
F= 3+8, ≤ 2 %

F= 3+8, _ 2 "
" ; 4 ;"

.5

4

ϕ5 = ;$ $

4>.- E

>15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9. 08 -+6>+1 `2F/a


4 7+6@8.8, 095.,216465. 4Φ `2a -+6=+,292.65 C "$%

138
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

+,/B8. 7./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./A ,9/+646-. -+23,1/.A /+65 /8/-.351:7./ 0!H5,. .?-.//1=/ .5 B8. " "
123+/. 86. 4647</. 0<6421B8.A 0./ .?1@.6-./ /833792.6541,./ 3+8, 74 >9,1=1-451+6 C 74 =451@8. 0./ 3+65/
/+65 0+669./ .6 "

);2= 6 5;1; : 6 8 :87:

!9>478451+6 0. 74 =451@8.A B81 -+6/1/5. @969,47.2.65 C >9,1=1., 86. >4,1451+6


0!42371580. 0. -+65,4165./A 0+15 H5,. .==.-589. -+6=+,292.65 48? A % .5
"

46/ 7. -4/ 0./ 3+65/ 2954771B8./A 34, .?.237.A 74 >9,1=1-451+6 0. 74 /9-8,159 0+15 H5,.
.==.-589. .6 /!4//8,465 B8. 74 -+60151+6 /81>465. ./5 /451/=415. E
∆σ -
γ = λΦ ∆ σ ≤
γ =

4>.- E

γ = -+.==1-1.65 34,51.7 0. /9-8,159 3+8, 74 -;4,@. 0. =451@8.

4 >47.8, 0. γ = 3.85 H5,. 0+669. 046/ 7 66.?. 451+647. 4 >47.8, ,.-+224609. ./5
γ = W A

λ -+.==1-1.65 0!.60+224@.2.65 9B81>47.65 3+8, 74 =451@8.A B81 3,.60 .6 -+235. 7.


5,4=1- /8, 7!+8>,4@. .5 74 3+,59. 0. 7!9792.65 ./ >47.8,/ 0. λ /+65 0+669./ 046/ 7./
-+0./ 0. -47-87
Φ -+.==1-1.65 0<6421B8. >+1, " $
∆σ >4,1451+6 0. -+65,4165./ 08. 48 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A TF 241/
.6 .?-78465 α 01/3+/9 046/ 74 3+/151+6 74 378/ 09=4>+,4:7. 3+8, 7!9792.65
-+6/109,9
∆σ >47.8, 0. ,9=9,.6-. 0. 74 ,9/1/546-. C 74 =451@8. >+1, %
γ = -+.==1-1.65 34,51.7 0. /9-8,159 3+8, 74 ,9/1/546-. C 74 =451@8. 046/ 7./ -+0./ 0.
-47-87

14 2D3 4 3 7 : < 2 57

7 -+6>1.65 0!.==.-58., 7!9>478451+6 0. 74 =451@8. C 34,51, 0./ -+2:1641/+6/ 0. 5,4=1-/ G5,4=1-


/54604,0GA G5,4=1- 4>.- .//1.8? 0. $ I G +8 G5,4=1- 21?5. 79@.,GA /.7+6 B8. 74 /5,8-58,.
/833+,5. 86 5,4=1- 21?5. /54604,0A +8 86 5,4=1- 24J+,1541,.2.65 0. 24,-;4601/./ 7+8,0 +8
.6-+,. 86 5,4=1- 79@.,

./ 095417/ ,.7451=/ 48? 5,416/ 0. /.,>1-. .5 48? -+2:1641/+6/ 0. 5,4=1-/ /+65 0+669/ -1
0.//+8/

139
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

,4=1- /54604,0 .5 5,4=1- 79@.,

D3 ,416 0. >+<4@.8,/ 5,4-59 34, 86. 7+-+2+51>.

D3 ,416 0. >+<4@.8,/ 5,4-59 34, 86. 7+-+2+51>.

D3 ,416 0. >+<4@.8,/ C @,460. >15.//.

140
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

D3 ,416 0. >+<4@.8,/ C @,460. >15.//.

D3 # ,416 0. 24,-;4601/./ 5,4-59 34, 86. 7+-+2+51>.

D3 ,416 0. 24,-;4601/./ 5,4-59 34, 86. 7+-+2+51>.

141
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

D3 , ,416 0. 24,-;4601/./ 5,4-59 34, 86. 7+-+2+51>.

D3 / ,416 0. 24,-;4601/./ 5,4-59 34, 86. 7+-+2+51>.

D3 ,416 /8:8,:416 C 86159/ 2875137./

142
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

D3 " ,416 295,+3+715416

,4=1- 7+8,0 4>.- .//1.8? 0. $ I

D3 ,416 0. 24,-;4601/./ 5,4-59 34, 86. 7+-+2+51>.

D3 ,416 0. 24,-;4601/./ 5,4-59 34, 86. 7+-+2+51>.

143
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% +2:1641/+6/ 0. 5,4=1- E

B: 7 E B 1 4 1 6 2 < 8 42 16 6 0 8 44 7@ ≤ $# 2 ( #L *

1 2D3 B 6 ) 44 67 2 1 11 5 117 :
2 14 M F 7 P2Q P " 2M 1Q
% A
$% A%
% $ " A
" $ $ A %
$ $A$
"% A
%$ %A
%$ A

"A $

B: 7 E B 1 4 1 6 2 < 8 : 7 6 0 8 44 7@ 6 #2 ( #" L *

1 2D3 B 6 ) 44 67 2 1 11 5 117 :
2 14 M F 7 P2Q P " 2M 1Q
$ "A %
% "% A
%$ A %
%$ A %
$ "A

B: 7 E B 1 4 1 6 2 < 8 :;5 0 8 44 7@ ≤ $# 2 ( #L *

1 2D3 B 6 ) 44 67 2 1 11 5 117 :
2 14 M F 7 P2Q P " 2M 1Q
% A"
$ $% A
$ A"
A$
$A%

144
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

11 @
16=+,2451>.
2 4 6 0 : 6 2; 67 6A: 6 8= 5 + ) 2 8= @ 67 2 1
3 ;4 12 2 < 8 2 >7 ? 3 2 67 + )

2 4 6 0 : 6 2; 67 6A: 6 8= 5 + )

. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. ./5 >474:7. 3+8, 7./ 5,416/ 0. >+<4@.8,/ /451/=41/465 7./
-,15D,./ /81>465/ E
) 74 -;4,@. 0!.//1.8 1601>108.77. 8 `I a ./5 712159. C I .5A 3+8, 7./ 5,416/
-74//1B8./A ./5 48//1 712159. C 74 >47.8, -+,,./3+60465 C 7 9B8451+6 A
) 74 01/546-. ( `2aA -+,,./3+60465 C 74 7+6@8.8, 08 >9;1-87. +8 C 74 01/546-. .65,.
.//1.8? /. ,9395465 ,9@871D,.2.65A ./5 -+6=+,2. 48 4:7.48
) 74 01/546-. .65,. 4?./ 0./ .//1.8? 0!86 :+@1. .23455.2.65 A ' `2aA ./5 5.77. B8. E

A$ 2 ≤ ' ≤ %A$ 2

) 3+8, 7./ 5,416/ -74//1B8./A 7!./34-.2.65 .65,. 7./ -.65,./ 0. :+@1./ 0. >9;1-87./
40J4-.65/A ' `2aA ./5 -+6=+,2. C 7!9B8451+6 A
) 3+8, 7./ 5,416/ C .//1.8? ,9@871D,.2.65 ./34-9/A 4>.- >+158,./ C 86 .//1.8 5,416 5<3.
0. 7! 66.?. 34, .?.237. A 74 7+6@8.8, 0./ >+158,./ 165.,290141,./ ( `2a .5
74 01/546-. .65,. .//1.8? 40J4-.65/ /1589/ 0. 34,5 .5 0!485,. 0. 7!4--+837.2.65 0. 0.8?
,42./A - `2aA /+65 -+6=+,2./ 48 4:7.48 A
) ( F J* .5 J − J* F J* 6. 0+1>.65 34/ 3,.60,. 0./ >47.8,/ 3,+-;./ 0 86 6+2:,.
.651.,A
) 7. 3+10/ 5+547 24?1247 08 5,416 ./5 9@47 C I A
) 74 7+6@8.8, 24?1247. 08 5,416 ./5 9@47. C " 2A
) 74 24//. 6+6 /8/3.608. ./5 9@47. 48 24?1282 C 5+66./ 34, .//1.8

B: 7 E A2 4 : 2 4 6 6;< 1 2 1 6 4 2 14 6 0 D 5 7 4 ? 5 16
0 2 44 8 1< 4 7 6A: 6 8= 5 + )

D3 6 2 1 / 8
`I a `2a `2a `2a
C 4,51-87451+6/ ≤(≤
165.,-41//.
6=9,1.8,. C +8 C 74 ≤(≤
-74//1B8. >47.8, 0+669. 34,
7!9B8451+6 -1 0.//+8/
/1 -.77. -1 ./5 16=9,1.8,.
C .//1.8?
,9@871D,.2.65 ≤(≤ " ≤( ≤ ≤ - ≤
./34-9/

4>.- E

145
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

j j j
" 8-+/ '
-+/ '
≤ 8 -+/
( ( (

.?3,.//1+6 046/ 74B8.77. E


(E 4$* ./5 9@47. C ( /1 74 >47.8, 0. ( =1@8,. 046/ 7. 54:7.48 % .5 ./5 9@47.
/8--.//1>.2.65 48? 0.8? >47.8,/ 08 54:7.48 % B81 .6-40,.65 (A /16+6
8E 4$* .5 E 4$* /+65 7./ 34,42D5,./ 4//+-19/ C (E 4$* 046/ 7. 54:7.48 % /+15 86 /.87
-+837. 0. >47.8,/A /+15 0.8?

.5 (A ( A 8A ' A ' .5 /+65 09=161/ /81>465 7./ -4/ /8, 7./ 1@8,./ C % 3+8, 7./
5,416/ C 4,51-87451+6/ 165.,-41//.A 7./ 5,416/ -74//1B8./ .5 7./ 5,416/ C .//1.8?
,9@871D,.2.65 ./34-9/ E

57 E 1? 2 87: 2 14 12 8 44

57 E 1 8: 44 >7

57 E 1 ? 44 7@ ;57: A 12 43 8;4

./ =+,-./ 3+6-58.77./ .5 7./ ./34-.2.65/ 046/ 7./ 2+0D7./ C 7!.?-.351+6


0./ 0+669./ 85171/9./ 046/ 7!9B8451+6 .5 ' 6. -+,,./3+60.65 34/ C 0./
/39-1=1-451+6/ ,9.77./ 0. >9;1-87./

= @ 67 2 1 3 ;4 12 2 < 8 2 >7 ? 3 2 67 + )

+8, 7./ 5,4>9./ /8, 43381/ /1237./ 0+65 7. -+23+,5.2.65 0<6421B8. ./5 4//12174:7.
C -.781 0!86. 3+85,. 0,+15. .5 0+65 74 3+,59. ./5 /839,1.8,. +8 9@47. C 2A 86 5,416
,.3,9/.65451= -,151B8. 861B8. 09,1>9 08 /</5D2. 0. -;4,@./ 3.85 H5,. 85171/9
3+8, 7!4647</. 0<6421B8.

146
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

. 5,416 ,.3,9/.65451= -,151B8. ./5 09=161 .6 $ .6 =+6-51+6 0. E

) 74 7+6@8.8, 0!+60. -,151B8. 0. 7!.?-15451+6 λ `2a 09=161. .6 "

74 7+6@8.8, 0!+60. -,151B8. 0!.?-15451+6 λ 95465 86. =+6-51+6 0. E

) 74 7+6@8.8, 0!+60. 0!.?-15451+6 C 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. -47-87A λ# `2aA 0+669. .6


%A
) 74 3+,59. 08 3+65 4 `2aA
) 74 >47.8, 24?1247. 0. 7!4@,.//1>159 * Fλ 3 λ `I F2aA 3+8, 86. 7+6@8.8, 0!+60.
0!.?-15451+6 477465 0. "A$ 2 C 4 `2aA 0+669. .6 "

% 74 7+6@8.8, 0!+60. 0!.?-15451+6 C 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. -47-87 λ# `2a ./5 0+669.


34, E

λ# W F %

4>.- E

3,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 74 5,4>9. /8, 43381/ /1237./ ` La


>15.//. 24?1247. 0. -47-87 -+6=+,292.65 C " `2F/a

" 7 -+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., 74 7+6@8.8, 0!+60. -,151B8. 0!.?-15451+6 λ C 34,51, 0./


1@8,./ " C K 17 /!4@15 0. 74 >47.8, 0. λ -+,,./3+60465 C 74 >47.8, 24?1247. 0.
7!4@,.//1>159 * Fλ 3 λ 3+8, 74 5,4>9. 0. 7+6@8.8, 4 `2aA 046/ 74 374@. 0./ 7+6@8.8,/
0!+60. 0!.?-15451+6 477465 0. "A$ 2 C λ#

+8, 7./ 3+,59./ -+23,1/./ .65,. 7./ >47.8,/ 0. 3+,59./ 0./ 1@8,./ " C A 17
-+6>1.65 0. -+6/109,., 7./ 0.8? =1@8,./ .6-40,465 74 >47.8, 0. 74 3+,59. -+6-.,69. .5 0.
095.,216., 74 7+6@8.8, 0!+60. -,151B8. 0!.?-15451+6 λ C 34,51, 0. -.77. -+,,./3+60465 C 74
3+,59. 4>.- 74 >47.8, 0. 7!4@,.//1>159 24?1247. !165.,3+7451+6 .65,. 7./ 014@,422./
6!./5 34/ 4021/.

6 3.85 >+1,A 0!43,D/ 7./ 1@8,./ " C A B8. 046/ 0. 6+2:,.8? -4/A λ W λ# K 241/ 046/
-.,5416/ -4/A 7. 31- 0. 7!4@,.//1>159 ./5 +:5.68 3+8, 86. >47.8, λ 16=9,1.8,. C λ# 46/ 74 1@8,. "A 34,
.?.237.A 3+8, λ# W 2A λ W %2

147
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

1200

1000

A (L/λ ) G (λ ) [kN/m]
800

600

400

200

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T ,$# 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

1200

1000
A (L/λ ) G (λ ) [kN/m]

800

600

400

200

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 # E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T "$" 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

800
700
600
A (L/λ ) G (λ ) [kN/m]

500
400
300
200
100
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

148
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

57 E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T $# 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

700

600
A (L/λ ) G (λ ) [kN/m]

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 , E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T #$" 2 71
2 7@ 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

700

600
A (L/λ ) G (λ ) [kN/m]

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 / E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T ,$# 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

149
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

600

500

A (L/λ) G (λ) [kN/m]


400

300

200

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T "$" 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

500
450
400
A (L/λ) G (λ ) [kN/m]

350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 " E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T $# 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

400
350
300
A (L/λ ) G (λ ) [kN/m]

250
200
150
100
50
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

150
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

57 E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T #$" 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

350

300
A (L/λ ) G (λ ) [kN/m]

250

200

150

100

50

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T ,$# 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

250

200
A (L/λ ) G (λ) [kN/m]

150

100

50

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T "$" 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

151
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

160
140
120

A (L/λ) G (λ ) [kN/m]
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 T $# 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

100
90
80
A (L/λ ) G (λ ) [kN/m]

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 # E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T #$" 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

90
80
70
A (L/λ ) G (λ ) [kN/m}

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

152
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

57 E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T ,$# 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T " "

90
80
70
A (L/λ ) G (λ ) [kN/m]

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
λ [m]

57 , E 5 44 0 2; 3( Mλλ*6(λλ* 1 < 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16


6. @8 2 2 1 λ 3 7 71 2 0; 47 337 4 4 3: 4 6 3 2; T "$" 2 71
8 << 8 12 6. 2 44 12 ζ T "$"

$ . 5,416 ,.3,9/.65451= -,151B8. 0. ./5 09=161 /8, 74 1@8,. E

57 /E A2 4 6;< 1 44 12 : 2 1 3 ;4 12 2 < 8 2 >7 6 + ) 1


< 182 1 6 : : 157 7 6. 16 8 2 >7 6 :. @8 2 2 1$ λ P Q

+8, 0./ >47.8,/ 0. λ ] 2A +6 ,.-+22460. 0!.==.-58., 7!4647</. 0<6421B8. 4>.- 7./ 5,416/
,.3,9/.65451=/ C -+23,1/A -+6=+,292.65 48 4:7.48 %

4>.- E

( 7+6@8.8, 0./ >+158,./ 165.,290141,./ .5 0. B8.8.A 5.77./ B8. 09=161./ 34, 74 1@8,.
A `2a
01/546-. .65,. 4?./ 0./ .//1.8? 0!86 :+@1. 3+8, 7./ >+158,./ 165.,290141,./ .5 0.
B8.8.A 5.7 B8. 09=161 /8, 74 1@8,. `2a
> 6+2:,. 0. >+158,./ 165.,290141,./A 5.77./ B8. 09=161./ 34, 74 1@8,.

153
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

8I =+,-. 3+6-58.77. C -;4B8. 3+/151+6 0!.//1.8 3+8, 7./ >+158,./ 165.,290141,./ .5 0.


B8.8. .5 3+8, -;4B8. 2+5,1-.A -+22. 09=161 34, 74 1@8,. `I a
λ 7+6@8.8, 0!+60. -,151B8. 0. 7!.?-15451+6 0+669. .6 " `2a

75.,6451>.2.65A 7!4@,.//1>159 * Fλ 3 λ `I F2a ./5 09=161. 34, 7./ 9B8451+6/ " .5


$E

π4
-+/
λ
*( ) = "
k 4

λ

π I π I G1
3( k ) ≅ 8I -+/ + 8I /16 − .?3 − πζ
= C $ − ζG 1 I= λ I= λ λ

+O -+23,1/ .65,. .5 $ 3+8, -+8>,1, 5+85./ 7./ ,42./ 416/1 B8. 7. 5,416 -+237.5
.5 E

4 3+,59. `2a
$ 6+2:,. 0. =+,-./ 3+6-58.77./ 08 5,416
8I -;4,@. /8, 7!.//1.8 I `I a
G1 7+6@8.8, 0!86. ,42. -+23+,5465 .//1.8?
I 01/546-. 0. 74 =+,-. 3+6-58.77. 8I C 74 3,.21D,. =+,-. 3+6-58.77. 8 08 5,416 `2a
λ 7+6@8.8, 0!+60. 0!.?-15451+6 `2a
ζ -+.==1-1.65 0!42+,51//.2.65

154
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

11 @
16=+,2451>.
2A 4 ? 4 2 4< 6 14 : 8 4 U 71 1 :D4 6D1 >7 1. 42 3 4
>7 4

!466.?. 6. /!43371B8. 34/ 48 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. 7 66.?. ./5 >4710. 3+8, 7./ 5,416/
0+669/ .6 "

+8, 7./ /5,8-58,./ /8, 43381/ /1237./ /451/=41/465 74 >47.8, 24?1247. 0. >F6 712
0+669. 046/ 7./ 4:7.48? .5 E
) 7./ >47.8,/ 24?1247./ 0./ .==.5/ 0<6421B8./ 0./ 4-51+6/ -+65,4165./A 09=+,2451+6/
.5- K .5
) 74 -;4,@. 0. =451@8. 48? >15.//./ 97.>9./ /48= 7+,/B8. 74 >15.//. 0!.?37+15451+6
=,9B8.65. -+,,./3+60 C 86. >15.//. 0. ,9/+646-.A 48B8.7 -4/ 17 -+6>1.65 0!.==.-58.,
86. 4647</. 0<6421B8. .5 86. >9,1=1-451+6 C 74 =451@8. /39-1=1B8./A -+6=+,292.65 C
"
6. 0934//.65 34/ 7./ >47.8,/ ,9/875465 0. Φ × 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5 48-86. 4647</.
0<6421B8. /833792.6541,. 6!./5 69-.//41,.
− 7 4--979,451+6 24?1247. 08 54:71., ./5 16=9,1.8,. C %A$ 2F/ +8 $A 2F/ /81>465 7./
-4/

B: 7 E : 7 @ : 6 (vM "*: 3 7 71 3 72 7 71 6 :: 47
337 4 4 3: 4 2 71 88;:; 2 1 @ : 6 44 B: @V $#" M4

4//. ≥$ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ % ≥ $ ≥ ≥ ≥ $ ≥% ≥" ≥$
% ] ] ] ] % ] $ ] ] ] $ ]% ]" ]$
I@F2
+,59. 4∈ ζ F F F F F F F F F F F F
24 [ 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
`$A A A$ A A A A A % A % A % A % %A %A %A$" %A$
" A A % A % A % A % A " %A % %A %A% %A$" "A% "A%
` A$ A A A " A A " A " A A %A $A $A " $A $A%$ $A"
" A $ A " A A "A % $A $A " $A $A%$ $A A% A$%
` A A A$ A" A$ A$ A$ A A $ A $ A% A% A"$ A"$ A$
A$ A A $A % A $ A $ A% A% A"$ A"$ A A
` A$A $A A$ A$ %A$ %A$ $A " $A " $A% $A% A A " A " A "
%A"$ $A $A " $A " $A% $A% A A A$% A A% A"
` $A A A$ %A $A%% $A%% $A%% A%% A%% A$ A$ A$ A A A
$A%% $A%% A%% A%% A$ A$ A A%% A%% A$ A A"
` A$A A %A$ A%% A%% A%% A$ A$ A A A A A A
` A A $A $A $A $A" A A$ A$ %A$" %A$" %A "A "A% "A%
` $A A% A A $ A" A" A A A A % A % A $ A $ A $ A $
`% A A" A A$ A%% A%% A A A A A A
≥" A "A % $A $A$ $A$ $A % A%% A%% A%% A%%
4
4 ∈ ` ; /1@61=1. ≤4<

. 4:7.48 16-785 86 -+.==1-1.65 0. /9-8,159 0. A /8, F 712 3+8, 7./ -,15D,./ 0!4--979,451+6A 0.
09=+,2451+6 .5 0. ,9/1/546-. .5 86 -+.==1-1.65 0. /9-8,159 0. A /8, F 712 3+8, 74 =451@8.

. 4:7.48 51.65 -+235. 0./ 1,,9@874,159/ 0. 74 >+1. 34, ^ϕ′′F

155
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 E : 7 @ : 6 (vM "*: 3 7 71 3 72 7 71 6 :: 47
337 4 4 3: 4 2 71 88;:; 2 1 @ : 6 44 B: @V #$" M4

4//. ≥$ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ % ≥ $ ≥ ≥ ≥ $ ≥% ≥" ≥$
%
I@F2 ] ] ] ] % ] $ ] ] ] $ ]% ]" ]$
+,59. 4∈ ζ F F F F F F F F F F F F
2 4 [ 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
`$A A A$ A A A % A % A % A % %A %A %A"" %A$" %A$ "A %
" A A % A % A % %A %A % %A"" %A$" %A$ "A% "A% "A%
` A$ A A A A " A A %A $A $A $A $A $A%$ A%% A%%
" A " A "A "A % $A " $A $A%$ $A" A% A" A A
` A A A$ A$ A$ A A $ A $ A% A% A" A" A" A A
A $A % A $ A $ A% A" A" A" A A A $ A $
` A$A $A A$ %A$ $A " $A " $A% $A% A A%% A " A " A " A "
$A $A " $A% $A% A A A$% A " A% A% A" A"
` $A A A$ $A%% $A%% A%% A%% A$ A$ A$ A A A A A
$A%% A%% A$ A$ A%% A%% A$ A$ A A A" A"
` A$A A A%% A%% A$ A$ A A A A A A A A
` A A $A $A A A$ A$ %A$" %A $ %A "A "A% "A% "A% "A%
` $A A% A A" A A" A" A % A % A $ A $ A $ A $ A $ A $
`% A A" A A%% A A A A A A A A
≥" A $A $A$ $A % A%% A%% A%% A%% A%% A%%
4
4 ∈ ` ; /1@61=1. ≤4<

. 4:7.48 16-785 86 -+.==1-1.65 0. /9-8,159 0. A /8, F 712 3+8, 7./ -,15D,./ 0!4--979,451+6A 0.
09=+,2451+6 .5 0. ,9/1/546-. .5 86 -+.==1-1.65 0. /9-8,159 0. A /8, F 712 3+8, 74 =451@8.

. 4:7.48 51.65 -+235. 0./ 1,,9@874,159/ 0. 74 >+1. 34, ^ϕ′′F

4>.- E

4 3+,59. 08 3+65 `2a


24//. 08 3+65 ` % I@F2aA
ζ -+.==1-1.65 0!42+,51//.2.65 -,151B8. `[aA
>15.//. 24?1247. 6+21647.A @969,47.2.65 9@47. C 74 >15.//. 24?1247. 0. 71@6.
48 3+165 -+6/109,9 +8, >9,1=1., 7./ 5,416/ ,9.7/ 1601>108.7/A 86. >15.//. ,90815.
3.85 H5,. 85171/9. >15.//. 24?1247. 485+,1/9. 0./ 5,416/ `2F/aA
3,.21D,. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 0. 74 5,4>9. ` La
Φ .5 ϕ′′ 09=161/ .6 " $ .5 C 7! 66.?.

./ 4:7.48? .5 /+65 >474:7./ 3+8, E


) 7./ 3+65/ /8, 43381/ /1237./ 3+8, 7./B8.7/ 7./ .==.5/ 0. :141/ /+65 69@71@.4:7./ .5 B81
3.8>.65 H5,. 2+0971/9/ -+22. 86. 3+85,. 0,+15. +8 86. 0477.A /8, 43381/ ,1@10./
./ 4:7.48? .5 6. /+65 34/ 43371-4:7./ 48? 3+65/ C 3+85,./ 7459,47./ .5 48?
3+65/ C 5,.1771/ 4>.- 54:71.,/ 216-./ 61 48? 485,./ /5,8-58,./ -+237.?./ /8/-.351:7./
0. 6. 34/ H5,. -+,,.-5.2.65 2+0971/9./ 34, 86. 3+85,. +8 86. 0477.A
) 7./ 3+65/ 3+8, 7./B8.7/ 74 >+1. .5 74 ;485.8, 3,1/. .65,. 74 34,51. /839,1.8,. 08 54:71.,
.5 7!4?. 6.85,. 3.,2.55.65 0. ,934,51, 7./ -;4,@./ 0!.//1.8? 3+6-58.77./ /8, 86.
01/546-. 0!48 2+16/ A$ 2A
) 7./ 5,416/ 5<3./ 96829,9/ .6 " A

156
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

) 7./ /5,8-58,./ -47-879./ 3+8, 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ +8
0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ -74//1=19./A 4>.- α ≥ A -+6=+,292.65 C % A
) 7./ >+1./ /+1@6.8/.2.65 .65,.5.68./A
) 7./ 5,4>9./ 4>.- 86. =,9B8.6-. 3,+3,. 16=9,1.8,. C 74 71215. /839,1.8,. 0. 74 1@8,.
A
) 7./ /5,8-58,./ 0+65 74 =,9B8.6-. 0. 5+,/1+6 /451/=415 E _ ?

% +,/B8. 7./ -,15D,./ -1 0.//8/ 6. /+65 34/ /451/=415/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,+-90., C 86.
4647</. 0<6421B8. -+6=+,292.65 C "

" ./ -,15D,./ 08 34,4@,43;. " .5 0. 7!466.?. +65 959 974:+,9/ /8, 74 :4/. 0./ 5,416/
,9.7/ -1 0.//+8/ .?-.359 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. B81 ./5 :4/9 /8, 7./ 5,416/ 5<3./
/451/=41/465 7./ -,15D,./ 0!165.,+39,4:17159 433,+3,19/

D3

D3 &

157
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

D3

D3

D3

158
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

D3

159
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

11 @
16=+,2451>.
);2= 6 3 22 12 6 6;2 1 : ;3 14 8 B 1; 67 4D42A
0 70 5 7@ 82 14 0 B: 4

12 6782 1

6. 295;+0. 3.,2.55465 0. 095.,216., 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1.


+8>,4@. 48? 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./ ./5 0+669. -1 43,D/ 3+8, E
) 7./ +8>,4@./ /8, 43381/ /1237./ +8 7./ +8>,4@./ -+65168/A -+6/51589/ 0!86 54:71.,
861B8. % A
) 7./ +8>,4@./ -+6/51589/ 0!86. /8--.//1+6 0. 54:71.,/ ,.3+/465 /8, 43381/ /1237./
"A
) 7./ +8>,4@./ -+6/51589/ 0!86. /8--.//1+6 0. 54:71.,/ -+65168/ "

46/ -;4B8. -4/A 0./ .?1@.6-./ /+65 0+669./ -+6-.,6465 E


) 74 095.,216451+6 0. 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 24?1247. 4021//1:7. 4 -+,,./3+60465
48? -+65,4165./ /833792.6541,./ 24?1247./ 4021//1:7./ 046/ 7./ ,417/A 0+669./ .6
$"$ A +8 C 74 09=+,2451+6 24?1247. 4021//1:7. 0. 74 /5,8-58,. 08. C
7 4--979,451+6 .5 48 =,.164@.A 0+669. .6 $ " $ A .5 08. 48? -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0.
5,4=1-A 0+669. .6 $ " $ +,/B8. 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 4 3,+3+/9. 0934//.
74 7+6@8.8, 0. 017451+6 4021//1:7. 4 A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,9>+1, 0./ 4334,.17/ 0.
01745451+6 0. 74 >+1. +8 0!4==16., 7. -47-87 /.7+6 7./ .?1@.6-./ 0. $ " C $ " $
) 74 095.,216451+6 0./ =+,-./ 7+6@15801647./ /8, 7./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ 08./ E
) C 7!4--979,451+6 .5 48 =,.164@.A
) C 74 >4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,.A
) C 74 ,+5451+6 0!.?5,92159 08 54:71., /+8/ 7!.==.5 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1-

% 46/ 5+8/ 7./ -4/A 17 -+6>1.65 0. >9,1=1., /934,92.65 B8. 7. 09374-.2.65 >.,51-47
24?1247 0. 74 /8,=4-. /839,1.8,. 08 54:71.,A 0+669 .6 $ " $ % A ./5 ,./3.-59

2 4 6 0 : 6 2; 6 : ;2= 6 6 8 :87:

+6=1@8,451+6 0. 74 >+1. E
) ,417 3,9/.65465 86. ,9/1/546-. C 74 5,4-51+6 /839,1.8,. +8 9@47. C F22 A
) 5,4>.,/./ 7+8,0./ .6 :95+6A ./34-9./ 48 24?1282 0. $-2 +8 -+6=1@8,451+6 0. >+1.
9B81>47.65.A
) 48 2+16/ % -2 0. :4774/5 :1.6 -+234-59 /+8/ 7./ 5,4>.,/./A
) >+1. .6 471@6.2.65 +8 .6 -+8,:. 0. ,4<+6 ≥ $ 2

+6=1@8,451+6 08 3+65 E
) 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 4 E
) 3+8, 7./ +8>,4@./ 2954771B8./ E 4 ≤ 2A
) 3+8, 7./ +8>,4@./ .6 :95+6 +8 21?5./ E 4 ≤ 2

160
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

% 9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 I 0. 74 >+1. E


) >+1. 6+6 -;4,@9. E I W C " I 34, 2 0. >+1.A
) >+1. -;4,@9. E IW I 34, 2 0. >+1.

" ;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1- E


) 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF 4>.- α W
-+6=+,292.65 C % % A
) 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF A

4 295;+0. ./5 >474:7. 3+8, 0./ >47.8,/ 0. α 5.77./ B8. 7./ .==.5/ 0./ 4-51+6/ ,9/875465 0. α ?
/+65 16=9,1.8,/ +8 9@48? 48? .==.5/ 0./ 4-51+6/ ,9/875465 0. TF

$ -51+6/ 08./ 48 =,.164@. E


) 3+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. .5A 7. -4/ 9-;9465A 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF .5 7.
2+0D7. E
#7:I W I F2A 712159. C E B7:I W I
) 3+8, 7. 2+0D7. 0. -;4,@. TF E
#7:I W %$ I F2

-51+6/ 08./ C 7!4--979,451+6 E


) #74I W %% I F2A 712159. C E B74I W I

-51+6/ 08./ C 74 5.239,458,. E


) >4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,. ∆ 08 54:71., E ∆ ≤ %$ f.7>16A
) >4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,. ∆ 08 ,417 E ∆ ≤ $ f.7>16A
) 01==9,.6-. 24?1247. 0. 5.239,458,. .65,. ,417 .5 54:71., E

∆ ∆ ≤ f.7>16

70 5 4 8 142 27;4 6.71 2 B: 71 >7

7 -+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., 5+85 0!4:+,0 7./ >47.8,/ 0./ 34,42D5,./ -1 0.//+8/A .6


69@71@.465 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. +8>,4@. 48? 4-51+6/ >4,14:7./ E
) 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 4 .5 >9,1=1., 4 ≤ 24? 4 -+6=+,292.65 C .5 1@8,.
A
) ,410.8, FA 34, >+1.A 0./ 43381/ -+6=+,292.65 C $ " A
) 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 08 :+,0 /839,1.8, 08 54:71., 08 =415 0. 74 09=+,2451+6 0.
-.781 -1 E

δ N ΘE `22a

4>.- E

Θ ,+5451+6 0. 7!.?5,92159 08 54:71., `,40aA


E ;485.8, /934,465 7!4?. 0. ,+5451+6 ;+,1L+6547 0. 7!4334,.17 0!43381 =1?. 0.
74 /8,=4-. 08 54:71., `22aA

+8, 7./ -+837./ 0. >47.8,/ 0. 74 ,9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 0.


74 >+1. >+1. 6+6 -;4,@9. F >+1. -;4,@9. I W F I 34, 2 0. >+1. .5 IW" F I 34,
2 0. >+1. .5 3+8, 7. -+.==1-1.65 0. 01745451+6 5;.,21B8. 716941,. α W Ff.7>16 +8

161
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

α W Ff.7>16A 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 24?1247. 4021//1:7. 4 `2a ./5 0+669.


34, 7./ 1@8,./ C " /.7+6 7. -4/

+,/B8. 7. 3+165 4 Aδ 09-,1>465 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 08 54:71., .5 7. 09374-.2.65


7+6@15801647 0. 7!.?5,92159 0. -.781 -1 /+8/ 7!.==.5 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1- /. /158.
48 0.//+8/ 0. 74 -+8,:. -+,,./3+60465 C 74 ,410.8, 7+6@15801647. F 0./ 43381/; +8 48
0.//+8/ 0. 74 -+8,:. 165.,3+79. -+,,./3+60465.A 7./ -,15D,./ 0. -+65,4165./
/833792.6541,./ 24?1247./ 4021//1:7./ 046/ 7. ,417A 0+669/ .6 $ " $ .5 0.
09=+,2451+6 24?1247. 4021//1:7. 0. 74 /5,8-58,. 08./ C 7!4--979,451+6 .5 48 =,.164@.A
0+669/ .6 $ " $ A .5 08./ 48? -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1-A 0+669./ .6 $ " $ A
/+65 ,./3.-59/

1 -.55. -+60151+6 6!./5 34/ /451/=415.A 86. 4647</. 3.85 H5,. .==.-589. -+6=+,292.65 48?
.?1@.6-./ 0. $ " C $ " $A +8 :1.6 17 -+6>1.65 0. 3,9>+1, 0./ 4334,.17/ 0. 01745451+6
0. 74 >+1.

;5 16
+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 24?1247. 4021//1:7. 4 `2a

I ,9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 0. 74 >+1. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 `I 34, 2 0. >+1.a E


3+8, 7./ >+1./ 6+6 -;4,@9./ E
) I W I 34, 2 0. >+1. .5 I" W " I 34, 2 0. >+1.A
3+8, 7./ >+1./ -;4,@9./ E
) I W I 34, 2 0. >+1.A

F ,410.8, 0./ 43381/ 34, >+1. .5 34, 2 0. 54:71., /+15 74 ,410.8, 0./ 43381/ 01>1/9. 34, 7. 6+2:,. 0.
>+1./ .5 74 7+6@8.8, 08 54:71., `I F2a E
%
F W I F2
%
F$ W $ I F2
%
F W I F2

α -+.==1-1.65 0. 01745451+6 5;.,21B8. 716941,. ` Ff.7>16aA

δ ΘE 09374-.2.65 ;+,1L+6547 08 :+,0 /839,1.8, 08 54:71., 08 =415 0. 74 ,+5451+6 0!.?5,92159 `22a

57 E B: 47 337 4 4 3: 4 E 1 6 44 B: 3 7 : 4 8 12 12 4
6 14 : 4 :4 (α T " P MW :0 1Q$ ∆ T # PW :0 1Q$ 7 "M7 " T "M " PL M Q*

162
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 24?1247. 4021//1:7. 4 `2a

I ,9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 0. 74 >+1. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 `I 34, 2 0. >+1.a E


3+8, 7./ >+1./ 6+6 -;4,@9./ E
) I W I 34, 2 0. >+1. .5 I" W " I 34, 2 0. >+1.A
3+8, 7./ >+1./ -;4,@9./ E
) I W I 34, 2 0. >+1.A

F ,410.8, 0./ 43381/ 34, >+1. .5 34, 2 0. 54:71., /+15 74 ,410.8, 0./ 43381/ 01>1/9. 34, 7. 6+2:,. 0.
>+1./ .5 74 7+6@8.8, 08 54:71., `I F2a E
%
F W I F2
%
F$ W $ I F2
%
F W I F2

α -+.==1-1.65 0. 01745451+6 5;.,21B8. 716941,. ` Ff.7>16aA

δ ΘE 09374-.2.65 ;+,1L+6547 08 :+,0 /839,1.8, 08 54:71., 08 =415 0. 74 ,+5451+6 0!.?5,92159 `22a

57 E B: 47 337 4 4 3: 4 E 1 6 44 B: 3 7 : 4 8 12 12 4
6 14 : 4 :4 (α T " P MW :0 1Q$ ∆ T # PW :0 1Q$ 7 "M7 " T "M " PL M Q*

163
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 24?1247. 4021//1:7. 4 `2a

I ,9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 0. 74 >+1. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 `I 34, 2 0. >+1.a E


3+8, 7./ >+1./ 6+6 -;4,@9./ E
) I W I 34, 2 0. >+1. .5 I" W " I 34, 2 0. >+1.A
3+8, 7./ >+1./ -;4,@9./ E
) I W I 34, 2 0. >+1.A

F ,410.8, 0./ 43381/ 34, >+1. .5 34, 2 0. 54:71., /+15 74 ,410.8, 0./ 43381/ 01>1/9. 34, 7. 6+2:,. 0.
>+1./ .5 74 7+6@8.8, 08 54:71., `I F2a E
%
F W I F2
%
F$ W $ I F2
%
F W I F2

α -+.==1-1.65 0. 01745451+6 5;.,21B8. 716941,. ` Ff.7>16aA

δ ΘE 09374-.2.65 ;+,1L+6547 08 :+,0 /839,1.8, 08 54:71., 08 =415 0. 74 ,+5451+6 0!.?5,92159 `22a

57 E B: 47 337 4 4 3: 4 E 1 6 44 B: 3 7 : 4 8 12 12 4
6 14 : 4 :4 (α T P MW :0 1Q$ ∆ T # PW :0 1Q$ 7 "M7 " T "M " PL M Q*

164
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

;5 16
+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 24?1247. 4021//1:7. 4 `2a

I ,9/1/546-. 374/51B8. 0. 74 >+1. 48 -1/4177.2.65 7+6@15801647 `I 34, 2 0. >+1.a E


3+8, 7./ >+1./ 6+6 -;4,@9./ E
) I W I 34, 2 0. >+1. .5 I" W " I 34, 2 0. >+1.A
3+8, 7./ >+1./ -;4,@9./ E
) I W I 34, 2 0. >+1.A

F ,410.8, 0./ 43381/ 34, >+1. .5 34, 2 0. 54:71., /+15 74 ,410.8, 0./ 43381/ 01>1/9. 34, 7. 6+2:,. 0.
>+1./ .5 74 7+6@8.8, 08 54:71., `I F2a E
%
F W I F2
%
F$ W $ I F2
%
F W I F2

α -+.==1-1.65 0. 01745451+6 5;.,21B8. 716941,. ` Ff.7>16aA

δ ΘE 09374-.2.65 ;+,1L+6547 08 :+,0 /839,1.8, 08 54:71., 08 =415 0. 74 ,+5451+6 0!.?5,92159 `22a

57 E B: 47 337 4 4 3: 4 E 1 6 44 B: 3 7 : 4 8 12 12 4
6 14 : 4 :4 (α T P MW :0 1Q$ ∆ T # PW :0 1Q$ 7 "M7 " T "M " PL M Q*

% ./ 4-51+6/ 7+6@15801647./ /!.?.,N465 /8, 7./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ A 08./ C


7!4--979,451+6 .5 48 =,.164@.A C 74 >4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,. .5 C 74 09=+,2451+6 08 54:71.,
/+8/ 7./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1-A 3.8>.65 H5,. 095.,2169./ C 7!410. 0./ =+,287./
0+669./ 046/ 7. 4:7.48 .77./ -1 /+65 >474:7./ 3+8, 86. >+1. +8, 0.8? >+1./ +8
378/ .5 86. ,410.8, 08 /</5D2. 3+,5.8, 9@47. C F A 7./ 4-51+6/ /8, 7./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381
=1?./ 3.8>.65 H5,. 095.,2169./ .6 3,.6465 86. ,410.8, 08 /</5D2. 3+,5.8, F W F F 381/
.6 28751371465 34, 7./ ,9/87545/ 0./ =+,287./ 3+8, 86. >+1.

165
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

B: 7 82 14 47 : 4 33 :4 6. 337 < @ 4 6 14 : 6 82 1
: 15 276 1 : 67 3 12
4/ 0. >.- 86 4334,.17 0.
1215./ 0. >4710159 +6@/ ,417/ /+809/
-;4,@. 01745451+6
−%
4≥$ 20 ×4 ; ×F ;" :
; ×4; ×F ; :
.
,.164@. −%
4 ≤ % 20 ×4; ×F ;"
%;$ × 4 ; × F ;

^ A$4 ^ A F:4 -
3+8, 4_ 2

.239,458,. ≤ I `I F2a ≤ " A%" + ; %I 4 ; $ × F ; $ -


4 3+8, 4] " 2

#47.8,/ 165.,3+79./ 3+8,


" ≤4≤ 2
+22. 3+8, 7+6@/ ,417/
+65 C 54:71., A 4 A
× F A$ × A β × θE A
/+809/
+5451+6
0!.?5,92159 +65 C 3+85,./
+22. 3+8, 7+6@/ ,417/
7459,47./ .5 3+65 A 4 A
× F A$ × A β × θE
/+809/
-4@.
4
+,/B8. 0./ 4334,.17/ 0. 01745451+6 0. 74 >+1. /+65 3,9>8/ 48? 0.8? .?5,92159/ 08 54:71.,A 5+85./ 7./ =+,-./ 0!4--979,451+6 .5
0. =,.164@. /+65 ,.3,1/./ 34, 7./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ ./ 4-51+6/ /8, -./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 08./ C 74 >4,1451+6 0. 74
5.239,458,. .5 C 74 ,+5451+6 0!.?5,92159 08 =415 0. 74 09=+,2451+6 >.,51-47. 093.60.65 0. 74 -+6=1@8,451+6 0. 74 /5,8-58,. .5 0./
7+6@8.8,/ 0. 01745451+6 4//+-19./
:
4 =+,-. 0. =,.164@. 43371B89. 48? 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ ./5 712159. C I 34, >+1.
-
4 =+,-. 43371B89. 48? 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ 08. 48? .==.5/ 0. 74 5.239,458,. ./5 712159. C %" I 7+,/B8. 0./ 4334,.17/ 0.
01745451+6 0. 74 >+1. /+65 3,9>8/ /8, 5+8/ 7./ ,417/ C 7!86. 0./ .?5,92159/ 08 54:71.,
0
+8, 7./ >47.8,/ 0. 4 5.77./ B8. % ] 4 ] $ 2A 7./ .==.5/ 08 =,.164@. 3.8>.65 H5,. ./5129/ 34, 165.,3+7451+6 716941,.
.
./ =+,287./ 3+8, 7. =,.164@. 165D@,.65 7./ .==.5/ 0. 7!4--979,451+6

4>.- E

F ,410.8, 08 /</5D2. 3+,5.8, 5.77. B8. 09=161. -1 0.//8/ `I F2aA


4 093.60 0. 74 -+6=1@8,451+6 0. 74 /5,8-58,. .5 08 5<3. 0!4-51+6 >4,14:7. `2a E
) 3+8, 86 54:71., /8, 43381/ /1237./ 4>.- 4334,.17 0!43381 =1?. C 86. .?5,92159 E
4W4 A
) 3+8, 86 54:71., -+65168 C 378/1.8,/ 5,4>9./A 4>.- 4334,.17 0!43381 =1?. C 86.
.?5,92159 E
3+8, 7. l =,.164@. m E
4 W 4 .-I 7+6@8.8, 5+547. 08 54:71., A
3+8, 74 l 5.239,458,. m E
4W4 A
3+8, 74 l ,+5451+6 0!.?5,92159 08 =415 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1- m E
4 W 3+,59. -+651@8Z C 7!4334,.17 0!43381 =1?.A
) 3+8, 86 54:71., -+65168 C 378/1.8,/ 5,4>9./A 4>.- 4334,.17 0!43381 =1?. .6
3+/151+6 165.,290141,. E
3+8, 7. l =,.164@. m E
4 W 4 .-I 7+6@8.8, 5+547. 08 54:71., A
3+8, 74 l 5.239,458,. m E

166
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

7./ 4-51+6/ 08./ C 74 >4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,. 3.8>.65 H5,. 095.,2169./


-+22. 74 /+22. 47@9:,1B8. 0./ ,94-51+6/ 0!43381 0./ 0.8? /-;924/
/5451B8./ +:5.68/ .6 01>1/465 7. 54:71., 48 0,+15 0. 74 /.-51+6 /8, 7!43381
=1?.A -;4B8. 54:71., ,9/875465 4<465 7!4334,.17 0!43381 =1?. /8, 7 43381
165.,290141,. 0 +,1@16.A
3+8, 74 l ,+5451+6 0!.?5,92159 08 =415 0./ -;4,@./ >.,51-47./ 0. 5,4=1- m E
4 W 7+6@8.8, 0. 74 5,4>9. 74 378/ 7+6@8.A -+651@8Z C 7!43381 =1?.A
β -+.==1-1.65 E 01/546-. .65,. 7!4?. 6.85,. .5 74 /8,=4-. 08 54:71.,A ,433+,59. C 74
;485.8, E

70 5 4 8 142 27;4 6.71 4788 44 1 6 2 B: 4

8? 71215./ 0. >4710159 1601B89./ .6 % /!4J+85.65 7./ 71215./ 0. >4710159 -1 43,D/ E


) 74 >+1. /8, 7. 3+65 .5 /8, 86. 7+6@8.8, 0!48 2+16/ 2 /8, 7./ ,.2:741/ 0. 34,5 .5
0!485,. ./5 -+6/51589. 0. 7+6@/ ,417/ /+809/A /46/ 4334,.17 0. 01745451+6 0. 74 >+1.A
) 5+8/ 7./ 54:71.,/ +65 7. 2H2. /-;924 /5451B8. 43381 =1?. C 74 2H2. .?5,92159 .5 6+6
/8, 74 2H2. 317. A
) 86 0./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ ./5 /1589 /8, 86. 0./ -879./A
) 74 7+6@8.8, 0. -;4B8. 54:71., 01==D,. 0. 2+16/ 0. [ 0. 74 >47.8, 2+<.66. 0./
7+6@8.8,/ 0. 54:71.,A
) 74 7+6@8.8, 0. 01745451+6 4 0. -;4B8. 54:71., ./5 16=9,1.8,. C % 2 /1 ∆ W %$
f.7>16 +8 C 2 /1 ∆ W f.7>16 .5 7. ,1/B8. 0. @.7 08 :4774/5 ./5 69@71@.4:7.
1 74 >4,1451+6 24?1247. 0. 5.239,458,. 0./ 54:71.,/ ./5 -+23,1/. .65,. f.7>16 .5
%$ f.7>16A 4>.- 86 ,1/B8. 69@71@.4:7. 0. @.7 08 :4774/5A 74 71215. /839,1.8,. 0. 4
3.85 H5,. 165.,3+79. .65,. % 2 .5 2A
%
) 74 ,410.8, 0./ 43381/ =1?./ ./5 /839,1.8,. C ? 4 `I F2 0. >+1. .5 34, >+1.a
3+8, 4 W % 2 .5 C % % ? 4 `I F2 0. >+1. .5 34, >+1.a 3+8, 4 W 2A 287513719
34, 7. 6+2:,. 0. >+1./A 4 95465 .?3,129 .6 `2aA
) 74 ,410.8, 0. -;4-86 0./ 43381/ =1?./ C 7!.?-.351+6 0. 7!43381 =1?. /8, -879. 01==D,.
0. 2+16/ 0. " [ 0. 74 >47.8, 2+<.66. 0./ ,410.8,/ 0./ 43381/A
) 7. 09374-.2.65 7+6@15801647 24?1247 0. 7 4:+85 08 54:71., C /4 /8,=4-. /839,1.8,.
34, ,433+,5 C 74 -879. 40J4-.65.A 0Y C 74 09=+,2451+6 08 54:71.,A 9>4789 /46/ 5.61,
-+235. 0. 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1. +8>,4@. 48? -;4,@./ >4,14:7./A 0+15
H5,. 16=9,1.8, C 22A
) 74 /+22. 0./ 09374-.2.65/ 4:/+78/A 48 61>.48 0. 74 /8,=4-. /839,1.8,. 0. 74 0477.
/833+,5465 74 >+1.A 0. 0.8? .?5,92159/ 0. 54:71., -+6/9-851>./A 08/ C 74 09=+,2451+6
08 54:71.,A .5 9>4789. /46/ 5.61, -+235. 0. 74 ,93+6/. -+2:169. 08 /</5D2. >+1.
+8>,4@. 48? -;4,@./ >4,14:7./A ./5 16=9,1.8,. C $ 22

./ ,94-51+6/ 0!43381 7+6@15801647./ / J 08./ 48? >4,1451+6/ 0. 5.239,458,.A C


7!4--979,451+6A 48 =,.164@. .5 C 74 09=+,2451+6 08 54:71., 3.8>.65 H5,. 095.,2169./
-+22. /815 E

-51+6/ / /8, 7!4334,.17 0!43381 =1?. , W 0. 74 -879. E

) 08./ C 74 >4,1451+6 0. 5.239,458,. E


/ ∆ 095.,2169 .6 /833+/465 86 54:71., 861B8. 4<465 3+8, 7+6@8.8, 74 7+6@8.8,
4 08 3,.21., 54:71.,

) 08./ 48 =,.164@. .5 C 7!4--979,451+6 E

167
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

/ W κ ⋅#7:I #74I ⋅ 4 %

4>.- E

κW /1 74 ,410.8, 0. 74 -879. ./5 74 2H2. B8. -.77. 0./ 317./A


κ W A$ /1 74 ,410.8, 0. 74 -879. ./5 48 2+16/ -16B =+1/ 378/ 123+,5465. B8. -.77.
0./ 317./A
κ 3.85 H5,. 165.,3+79 3+8, 7./ >47.8,/ 165.,290141,./ 0. 74 ,410.8,A
#74I; #7:I 4-51+6/ 08./ C 7!4--979,451+6 .5 48 =,.164@. -+6=+,292.65 C $ .5
A

4 `2a 7+6@8.8, 08 54:71., ,.719 C 7!43381 =1?.

) 08./ C 74 09=+,2451+6 08 54:71., E

/ ## W / ΘE "

095.,2169 -+6=+,292.65 C % 3+8, 7./ 3+65/ C 54:71., 861B8. 4>.- ΘE .6 `22a

6=16A 17 -+6>1.65 0. 095.,216., 7./ 4-51+6/ /8, 7./ 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ 0./ 317./
-+6=+,292.65 48 4:7.48

B: 7 E 7: 4 3 7 : 8 :87: 6 4 ; 82 14 6. 337 6 14 : 8 4 6.71


4788 44 1 6 2 B: 4
337 2 16 88;:; 2 1 M ;< 2 1 67 2 B:
,W 6 2 3; 27 < 1 5 / J ΘE
/J ∆ /J #
879. 4>.- 3,.21., / ∆ / # Wκ# 4 / ΘE
433 0!43381 =1?. , W
,.21D,. 317. , W / ∆ W A / ∆ / # W# 4 / ΘE W
17./ 165.,290141,./ , W / 2 ∆ W / 2 # W # 42 / 2 ΘE W
6 1D2. 317. , W 6 / 6 ∆ W A / ∆ / 6 # W# 46 / 6 ΘE W
6 1D2. 317. , W 6 / 6 ∆ W A$ / ∆ / 6 # W # 46 / 6 ΘE W A$ / ΘE

./ =+,287./ 3+8, 7. =,.164@. 165D@,.65 7./ .==.5/ 0. 7!4--979,451+6

4 =+,-. 0. =,.164@. 43371B89. 48? 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ ./5 712159. C I 34, >+1.

% 4 =+,-. 43371B89. 48? 4334,.17/ 0!43381 =1?./ 08. 48? .==.5/ 0. 74 5.239,458,. ./5 712159. C
%" I 7+,/B8!86 0./ ,417/ -+23+,5. 86 4334,.17 0. 01745451+6 0. 74 >+1.

168
EN 1991-2:2003 (F)

11 @ +
16=+,2451>.
) 6A: 4 6 8= 5 4 6 2 < 8 < 0 3 7 : 4 4 27 2 14 6 3 F 2
2 14 2 4

+,/B8!+6 3,+-D0. C 0./ >9,1=1-451+6/ 3+8, 7./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 5,46/15+1,./ 719./ C
7!.65,.51.6 0./ >+1./ +8 08 3+65A 17 -+6>1.65A 3+8, 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ 2+0D7./
0. -;4,@. A TF A TF A G5,416 C >10.G .5 .5 0./ 4-51+6/ 08 5,4=1- 4//+-19./A 0.
3,.60,. 7./ >47.8,/ -4,4-59,1/51B8./ 0./ -;4,@./ -+,,./3+60465./ 0+669./ 046/ 74 /.-51+6
3+8, 7./ /158451+6/ 0. 3,+J.5 08,4:7./

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

169