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PN g es A Re”) 5 5 SANE Lots Ahe take | ia) Obs hs) IN 1966, the United Nations Development Pro- gramme completed a large-scale programme of assistance to the City of Skopje, the purpose of which was to assist the local authorities in drawing up a new city plan for its future development. Because the execution of this project involved a number of unique features, of interest both to the population at large and to town planners and other profess als, the United Nations decided to publish the story in book form with maps, diagrams and photographs. ‘This book tells how the United Nations became in- volved in the reconstruction of Skopje, and how it helped the stricken city regain life after suffering a major disaster. The severe earthquake which struck Skopje in July 1963 killed over one thousand people and destroyed or severely damaged some seventy-five per cent of the city’s buildings in approximately seventeen seconds. Before this catastrophe, Skopje, the capital city of the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, was fast developing as an important industrial and administrative centre. It had some 200,000 people and, with recent construction of a large steel mill, had begun its emergence as a major industrial city. In the months which followed the earthquake, help reached Skopje from all parts of the world. A. number of European countries sent temporary and prefabricated structures for immediate use as homes, ii MN ON ng schools and hospitals. Seismologists and earth- quake engineers came from as far away as Japan to investigate the causes and effects of the earthquake and to advise on precautions for the future, Equip- ment and supplies were sent by many countries for immediate relief as well as to help in the longer-term job of reconstruction. The role of the United Nations and its family of agencies at all stages was to advise the local authorities in the co-ordination of all these different forms of assistance and to help them mobilize their own efforts in the complex task of rebuilding their city, and in so doing, help them de- vise a blueprint for its future. For the central task of replanning the city, the United Nations appointed Mr. Adolf Ciborowski, Chief Architect of Warsaw, as the Project Manager. ‘This book describes the full scope of United Nations activities, which were essentially conceived as a joint operation with full Yugoslav participation. This scope encompasses the extremes of broad studies concerning Skopje’s present and future position in its region, and the preparation of detailed road de- signs, The project covers all activities essential to the design and execution of a plan for a city, but be- cause of the shortness of time at the disposal of the planners, a new methodology was devised to orches- trate the whole operation. Other interesting features include the organization of an international town planning competition by the Government and the Tiatbeck iting Gor Mie tential rex of the cli SKOPJE RESURGENT Path wee se eis se UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME SKOPJE RESURGENT The Story of a United Nations Special Fund Town Planning Project ik ) NEY Se UNITED NATIONS New York, 1970 DP/SE/UN/17- YUGOSLAVIA, General report prepared for the Government of Yugoslavia acting as Executing Agency for the United Nations Development Programme CONTENTS Piiaccg io sgn nr cataapets ove 38 ea, 7 1 The earthquake See eT IL Technical assistance... 2.2.2... ee eee 65 IIL The Skopje Urban Plan Project. °...-. +. 99 IV Regional planning. ......----- Ses V The definitive urban plan. ...-- 0+. . ii A. Master Plan... - peo! B. Related studies... 2... Se eee eal VI The Gig Centres eee ee aoe 295 VIL Implementation... ........-...... 341 EOGOt eee a eter anes ANNES Dice ateCes ert onc ahaa alot ANNEX ID... SPE 367 ANNEOUID. cart te gexec ep 368 ANNEX IV... 0. ‘ erected 370 AyNExV 6.20. vs: 378 ANNEX VI 381 LIST OF MAPS 1 Geographical position of Skopje, p.I 2 Region of Skopje, p.13 3 Skopje: General scheme of development, p.13 4 Physical conditions of Skopje Sub- region, p.145 5 Soil-bearing characteristics of Skopje Valley, p.147 6 Natural barriers to town expansion, p.l49 7 Skopje Subregion: Development trends, pS] 8 Areas covered by optimization analysis, p.153 9 Optimization analy- sis; Comprehensive land-value map, p.153 10 Social survey: Location of households with different characteristics, 1965, p.157 11 Social survey: Use of services, 1965, p.159 12 Skopje, 26 July 1963, p.221 13 Land-use map, 1965, p23 14 Proposed land-use and zoning for 1971, p.225 15 Proposed land use and zoning for 1981, p.227 16 Long range development incieations, p.229 17 Functional structure: Civic centres and residential areas, p.231 18 Road. classification: Long-range development programme, p.233 19 ‘Transportation system by 1981, p.235 20 Residential areas, 1981; Zoning, p.237 21 Open green areas, 1981, p.239 22 Suburban zone: Land-use map, 1965, p.249 23 Suburban zone: Proposed land use by 1981, p.251 24 General scheme of de- velopment; p.253 25 Land-value map, p.255 26 Urban functions in the zone: Proposed development, p.287 27 Agriculture: Proposed development, p.259 28 Recreation : Proposed development, p.261 29 Road network: Proposed de- velopment, p.263 30 City Centre “Ninth” layout: Image plan, p.329 31 City Contre “Ninth” layout: Spatial Plan, p.331 32 City Centre “Ninth” layout Land-use plan, p.333 33 City Centre “Ninth” layout ; Transportation plan, p335 34 City Centre “Ninth” layout: Stage development plan, p.337 38 City Centre “Ninth” layout: Development of focal points, 339 36 Decisions made in 1965- 1966 for implementation of capital works, p.353 LIST OF FIGURES 1 Diagram of Skopje urban planning work, pp. 122-123 2 Relations between economic and physical planning, p.129 3 Distribution in homogeneous residential areas, 1965, p.174 4 Needs in dwelling units through 1981, p.177 5 Railcoad volumes, 1965, p.182 6 Freight yolumes, 1980, p.182 7 General railroad alignments p.183 8 Existing and recommended railway system, p.184 9 Hous- ing programme, 1981, in square metres of usable floor area, p.192 10 Housing Programme, 1981, in dwelling units, p.193 11 Cost per capitd according to building height, p.195 12 Occupancy standards, p.196 13 Conclusions from cost analysis, p.198 14 Organization and structure of residential communities, p.200 18 Community, p,202 16 Sectors,p.203 17 Hourly and daily trafficvari- ations, p.212 18 Traffic volumes, 1965,p.213 19 Auto desire lines, 1981, p.214. 20 Recommended 1981 road plan, p.215 21 Typical cross-sections, p.216 22 Housing: Type L1-08, p.273 23 Housing: Type 12-03, p.274 24 Housing: Corridor type, p.275 25 Housing: Gallery type, p.226 26 Hou core type, p.277 27 “Karpos” type prefabricated multi-storey apartment build- ing, p.280 28 Existing and proposed water sourees, p.284 29 Adequacy of water sources in the Skopje area, p.285 30 City Centre traffic local and through, 1981, p.290 31 Functional plan: Southern Boulevard, p.351 TABLE Standart for the provision of service faci ee ee PREFACE B. the nature of the emergency which prompted it, the Skopje Urban Plan Project was unlike any other operation of its kind ever undertaken by the United Nations Special Fund. By the same token it was, indeed, unique in the history of town planning, The features that distinguish it from other plans and other projects are also features that should interest ordinary people the world over, as well as those whose special concern is with town planning, public administration or the activities of international organizations, A formal record of its conduct, with detailed accounts of the pro fessional work involved, has been compiled in the usual way by the Project Manager, Mr. Adolf Ciborowski, and is available both at United Nations Headquarters and at the offices of the Yugoslav authorities. This book is published in the belief that a wider public will want to read the story of the Project—of the circumstances that gave rise to it, the problems it encountered, the way it tackled them and the results it achieved—as a landmark in the field of human relations. To extract this story from the voluminous technical documentation of the Project (listed in Annex VI) and to collaborate with the Pro- ject Manager in presenting it to the general reader, the United Na- tions engaged the services of Mr. Derek Senior, a United Kingdom writer specializing in planning and local government. Acknowledge- ments are also due to the authors of the many maps, diagrams and illustrations: to Polservice, Warsaw, and the City Centre Team, in the case of the maps; to Doxiadis Associates, Athens, and Pol- service, Warsaw, in the case of the drawings and diagrams; and to Messrs. Kiro Georgieyski and Blagoja Drnkov of Skopje, and Osamu Murai of Tokyo, the Institute of Town Planning and Architec- ture, Skopje, and United Nations Archives, in the case of the photo- graphs. 1 EXPLANATORY NOTE Spelling and terminology are in accordance with the practice of the United Nations. The designations employed do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country of territory or its authorities. The term “billion” signifies a thousand million.