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# Module 2: Closed-loop Simulation of Continuous Stirred Tank Heater and Isothermal

## Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

Group number:
Name/NIM:
1. Anisa Paramesti Devi 15/381200/TK/43378
2. Rahma Yulima 15/381204/TK/43382

## Part 1. Closed-loop Simulation of Continuous Stirred Tank Heater

As a start-up company, your team has been hired to provide hot water service in a luxurious
resort in Nusa Dua, Bali. The water feed is supplied from a nearby desalination unit and
located around 20 m from your company with the water temperature of 25oC. The resort
consists of 3 clusters and they are located about 50-60 m (cluster A), 80-90 m (cluster B) and
100-120 m (cluster C) from your company. From Unit Operation course, we understand that
the water flowrate in pipe is typically around 5 m/s and thus it allows you to determine the
“dead time” of hot water supply to reach each cluster. The target temperature of hot water
is 80°C (this temperature is your guarantee) and the contract describes that your company
should provide 100 m3 of hot water daily. The resort is well known for famous people and
company to simulate two schemes for hot water supply as follow:

Alternative 1 Alternative 2

1. Describe your parameters that you use for your simulation to provide 100 m3 of hot
water daily at 80oC.

Alternative 1 :
Cp = 4200 J/kg/oC
Rho= 1000 kg/m3
a = 0.5
1
b = 1.5
A = 10 m2
Tref = 0 oC
Ts = 180oC
hss = 5 m
Fin_ss = 0.0012 m3/s
Fout_ss = 0.0012 m3/s
Fs_ss = 98.1395 m3/s
Tin_ss = 70C
Tout_ss = 80C

Assumes that :
𝜌 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝐴 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

## Total Mass Balance in CSTR:

𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐼𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 − 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝑑(𝜌. 𝑉)
𝜌. 𝐹𝑖𝑛 − 𝜌. 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 =
𝑑𝑡
𝑑(𝐴. ℎ)
𝐹𝑖𝑛 −. 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 =
𝑑𝑡
𝑑ℎ
𝐹𝑖𝑛 − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝐴.
𝑑𝑡
𝑑ℎ
𝐹𝑖𝑛 − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝐴.
𝑑𝑡

Laplace transform :
𝐹𝑖𝑛 ′(𝑠) − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 ′(𝑠) = 𝐴. 𝑠. ℎ′ (𝑠)

− = ℎ′ (𝑠)
𝐴𝑠 𝐴𝑠

## Total Heat Balance in CSTR:

𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝐼𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 − 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝑑(ℎ 𝑇)
𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 (𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 ) − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 ) + 𝑄 = 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴
𝑑𝑡
𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑇
𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇 + 𝑈 𝐴 (𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇) = 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 𝑇 + 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 ℎ
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑇
𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇 + 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑏 (𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇) = 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 𝑇 + 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 ℎ
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

Linearization
𝑃 = 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇 + 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑏 (𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇)
′ ′ ′
𝑑𝑃 = 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝐹𝑖𝑛 + 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝑏−1 𝑏−1 ′ 𝑏
+ (𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑠𝑠𝑠 − 𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑠𝑠 )𝐹𝑠 − (𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 + 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 )𝑇′

## The heat balance becomes,

2
′ ′ ′ 𝑏−1 𝑏−1
𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝐹𝑖𝑛 + 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 + (𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑠𝑠𝑠 − 𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑠𝑠)𝐹𝑠′
𝑏 ) ′
𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑇
− (𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 + 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇 = 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 𝑇 + 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 ℎ
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

Laplace transform
′ ( ) ′ ( ) ′ ( )
𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑠 + 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 𝑠 − 𝑇𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑠
𝑏−1 𝑏−1
+ (𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑠 − 𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑠𝑠 )𝐹𝑠′(𝑠) − (𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 + 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝑏 ) ′( )
𝑇 𝑠
′( )
= 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 𝑇𝑠𝑠 𝑠 ℎ 𝑠 + 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 ℎ𝑠𝑠 𝑠 𝑇′(𝑠)

′ ( ) ′ ( ) ′ ( )
𝐶1 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑠 + 𝐶2 𝑇𝑖𝑛 𝑠 − 𝐶3 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑠 + 𝐶4 𝐹𝑠′ (𝑠) − 𝐶5 𝑇 ′ (𝑠) = 𝐶6 𝑠 ℎ′ (𝑠) + 𝐶7 𝑠 𝑇′(𝑠)

′ ( ) ′ ( ) ′ ( )
𝐶1 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑠 + 𝐶2 𝑇𝑖𝑛 𝑠 − 𝐶3 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑠 + 𝐶4 𝐹𝑠′ (𝑠) − 𝐶6 𝑠 ℎ′ (𝑠) = (𝐶5 + 𝐶7 𝑠) 𝑇′(𝑠)

𝐶1 ′ ( ) 𝐶2 ′ ( ) 𝐶3 ′ ( )
𝐶4
𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑠 + 𝑇𝑖𝑛 𝑠 − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑠 + 𝐹 ′ (𝑠 )
(𝐶5 + 𝐶7 𝑠) (𝐶5 + 𝐶7 𝑠) (𝐶5 + 𝐶7 𝑠) (𝐶5 + 𝐶7 𝑠) 𝑠
𝐶6 𝑠
− ℎ′ (𝑠) = 𝑇′(𝑠)
(𝐶5 + 𝐶7 𝑠)

## 𝐶1 = 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝜌 = 2,94 × 108

𝐶2 = 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝜌 = 4,86 × 103
𝐶3 = 𝑇𝑠𝑠 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝜌 = 3,36 × 108
𝑏−1 𝑏−1
𝐶4 = 𝑎 × 𝑏 × 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 × 𝑇𝑠 − 𝑎 × 𝑏 × 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 × 𝑇𝑠𝑠 = 742,99
𝐶5 = 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑠 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝜌 + 𝑎 × 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 5,1 × 103
𝑏

## 𝐶6 = 𝜌 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝐴 × 𝑇𝑠𝑠 = 3,36 × 109

𝐶7 = 𝜌 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝐴 × ℎ𝑠𝑠 = 2,1 × 108

2,94 × 108 ′ ( )
4,86 × 103
𝐹 𝑖𝑛 𝑠 + 𝑇 ′ 𝑖𝑛(𝑠)
5,1 × 103 + 2,1 × 108 𝑠 5,1 × 103 + 2,1 × 108 𝑠
3,36 × 108
− 𝐹 ′ 𝑜𝑢𝑡(𝑠)
5,1 × 103 + 2,1 × 108 𝑠
742,99 ′ ( )
3,36 × 109
+ 𝐹 𝑠 𝑠 − ℎ ′ 𝑠 (𝑠 )
5,1 × 103 + 2,1 × 108 𝑠 5,1 × 103 + 2,1 × 108 𝑠
= 𝑇′(𝑠)

Alternative 2:
Parameters :
T1 = 70oC
T2 = 50oC
Total Mass Balance :
𝐹𝑖𝑛 ′(𝑠) 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 ′(𝑠)
− = ℎ′ (𝑠)
𝐴. 𝑠 𝐴. 𝑠
Heat Balance in Heat Exchanger
𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 (𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 ) + 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 (𝑇1 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 )
− 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 ) − 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 (𝑇2 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 ) = 0

## 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 (𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇2 ) = 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 (𝑇 − 𝑇1 )

3
𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 (𝑇1 − 𝑇) + 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑇𝑖𝑛
𝑇2 =
𝐹𝑖𝑛

## Heat Balance in Reactor

𝑑(ℎ 𝑇1 )
𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 (𝑇2 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 ) − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 (𝑇1 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 ) + 𝑄 = 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴
𝑑𝑡
𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑇1
𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇2 − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇1 + 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑏 (𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇1 ) = 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 𝑇1 + 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 ℎ
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Substitud T2 into T1,
𝐶𝑝 𝜌 [𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 (𝑇1 − 𝑇) + 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑇𝑖𝑛 ] − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇1 + 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑏 (𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇1)
𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑇1
= 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 𝑇1 + 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 ℎ
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑇1
−𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇 + 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 + 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑏 𝑇𝑠 − 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑏 𝑇1 = 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 𝑇1 + 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 ℎ
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Linearization
𝑃 = −𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇 + 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 + 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑏 𝑇𝑠 − 𝑎 𝐹𝑠𝑏 𝑇1
′ ′ ′
𝑑𝑃 = 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑖𝑛 + 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇′
𝑏−1 𝑏−1 ′
+ (𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑠 − 𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇1 )𝐹𝑠
The heat balance of reactor becomes,
′ ′ ′
𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑖𝑛 + 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇′
𝑏−1 𝑏−1 ) ′
𝑑ℎ 𝑑𝑇1
+ (𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑠 − 𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇1 𝐹𝑠 = 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 𝑇1 + 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 ℎ
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Laplace Transform
′ ( ) ′ ( ) ′ ( )
𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑠 + 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑖𝑛 𝑠 − 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑠 − 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑠 𝐶𝑝 𝜌 𝑇 ′ (𝑠)
𝑏−1 𝑏−1 ) ′ ( )
+ (𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑠 − 𝑎 𝑏 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑇1 𝐹𝑠 𝑠
′( )
= 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 𝑇1 𝑠 ℎ 𝑠 + 𝜌 𝐶𝑝 𝐴 ℎ𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑇1 ′(𝑠)
′ ( ) ′ ( ) ′ ( )
𝐶1 𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑠 + 𝐶2 𝑇𝑖𝑛 𝑠 − 𝐶3 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑠 − 𝐶4 𝑇 ′(𝑠) + 𝐶5 𝐹𝑠′ (𝑠) = 𝐶6 𝑠 ℎ′ (𝑠) + 𝐶7 𝑠𝑇1 ′(𝑠)
𝐶1 ′ 𝐶 ′ 𝐶 ′ 𝐶 𝐶𝑠 𝐶𝑠
𝑇 ′ (𝑠) = 𝐹𝑖𝑛 (𝑠) + 2 𝑇𝑖𝑛 (𝑠) − 3 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡 (𝑠) + 5 𝐹𝑠′ (𝑠) − 6 ℎ′ (𝑠) − 7 𝑇1′(𝑠)
𝐶4 𝐶4 𝐶4 𝐶4 𝐶4 𝐶4
With,
𝐶1 = 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝜌 = 1,26 × 108
𝐶2 = 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑠 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝜌 = 2,1 × 107
𝐶3 = 𝑇𝑠𝑠 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝜌 = 6,3 × 108
𝑏−1 𝑏−1
𝐶4 = 𝑎 × 𝑏 × 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 × 𝑇𝑠 − 𝑎 × 𝑏 × 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 × 𝑇𝑠𝑠 = 800
𝐶5 = 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑠𝑠 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝜌 + 𝑎 × 𝐹𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 2,1 × 107
𝑏

## 𝐶6 = 𝜌 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝐴 × 𝑇𝑠𝑠 = 2,94 × 109

𝐶7 = 𝜌 × 𝐶𝑝 × 𝐴 × ℎ𝑠𝑠 = 2,1 × 108

′(
1,26 × 108 ′ 2,1 × 107 ′ 6,3 × 108 ′
𝑇 𝑠) = 𝐹 (𝑠 ) + 𝑇 (𝑠 ) − 𝐹 (𝑠 )
2,1 × 107 𝑖𝑛 2,1 × 107 𝑖𝑛 2,1 × 107 𝑜𝑢𝑡
800 ′( )
2,94 × 109 𝑠 ′ 2,1 × 108 𝑠
+ 𝐹 𝑠 − ℎ ( 𝑠 ) − 𝑇 ′(𝑠)
2,1 × 107 𝑠 2,1 × 107 2,1 × 107 1

2. Develop block diagram for alternative 1 and alternative 2 in Laplace domain and
deviation variables!
4
Alternative 1

3. Set your Controlled Variable (CV), Manipulated Variables (MV) and Disturbances (D)
for both alternatives. In addition, you may also propose first order transfer function
to describe Gm and Gv here.
Alternative 1
Controlled Variable (CV) = h, T (Tout)
Manipulated Variable (MV) = Fout, Fs
Disturbances (D) = Fin

Alternative 2
Controlled Variable (CV) = h, T (Tout)
Manipulated Variable (MV) = Fout, Fs
Disturbances (D) = Fin

## 4. Complete feedback loop simulation

There are two types of closed-loop simulations for our interest: disturbance change
and set-point change (servo mechanism). Run your simulation in SIMULINK to show
the response of CV for 3 sets of PID parameters for each simulation type. You could
also plot the open loop response for the sake of comparison. Discuss your finding!

5
Alternative 1
H:

T:

5. In reality, the value of input variable may fluctuate randomly. Rerun your simulation
with new (random) input variables that you define using random block as your
source! Discuss the results!

6. It is time for reflection! What lessons that you have learnt from the closed-loop
simulation of part 1? What are the pros and cons of alternative 1 and 2? Discuss on
6
how you may increase the complexity of the system to mimic the real life situation!
Here, you are expected to put your insights on what you have done so far and you
don’t need to run any further simulation for this question.

## Part 2. Simulation of Isothermal CSTR

to Describe Van de Vusse reaction

In an ideal CSTR, we would like to run a reaction scheme consisting of following irreversible
reactions namely Van de Vusse reaction:

This scheme was presented by Van de Vusse (1964) and for this task, k1=5/6, k2=5/3, k3=1/6
and the steady state Cain = 10. The desired product is B. The reactor operates under
isothermal condition.
7. With those parameters, calculate the steady-state concentrations as a function of
space velocities! In addition, you can also set your own parameters to simulate this
task. Find the optimum space velocity for production of B!

7
CBopt = 1.5877

8. Develop block diagram (in Laplace and deviation variables) for evaluating the outlet
concentrations as a function of inlet concentration of A. For closed loop simulation
later, determine your CV, MV and D!
Component A mole balance equation in Mixer
𝑑𝐶𝐴1
𝐹𝐴𝑖𝑛 + 𝐹𝐴2 − 𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐴1 = 𝑉1
𝑑𝑡
Laplace
′ ( ) ′ ( ) ′ ( ) ′ ( )
𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑠 + 𝐹𝐴2 𝑠 − 𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐴1 𝑠 = 𝑉1 . 𝑠. 𝐶𝐴1 𝑠
′ ( ) ′ ( ) ′ ( )
𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑠 + 𝐹𝐴2 𝑠 = 𝐶𝐴1 𝑠 (𝐹𝑣 + 𝑉1 . 𝑠)
′ ( ) ′ ( )
′ ( )
𝐹𝑖𝑛 𝑠 𝐹𝐴2 𝑠
𝐶𝐴1 𝑠= +
𝐹𝑣 + 𝑉1 𝑠 𝐹𝑣 + 𝑉1𝑠
Component A mole balance equation in Reactor
𝑑𝐶𝐴2
𝐹𝑣. 𝐶𝐴1 − 𝐹𝑣. 𝐶𝐴2 + (−𝑘1 . 𝐶𝐴 − 𝑘3 . 𝐶𝐴2 ). 𝑉2 = 𝑉2
𝑑𝑡
𝐹𝑣 2
𝑑𝐶𝐴2
(𝐶 − 𝐶𝐴2 ) + (−𝑘1 . 𝐶𝐴 − 𝑘3 . 𝐶𝐴 ) =
𝑉2 𝐴1 𝑑𝑡
Laplace
′ ( ) ′ ( ) ′ ( )) ′ ( )) ′ ( )
𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐴1 𝑠 − 𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐴2 𝑠 − (𝑘1 . 𝐶𝐴2 𝑠 + (2𝑘3 . 𝐶𝐴2𝑠𝑠 . 𝐶𝐴2 𝑠 . 𝑉2 = 𝑉2 . 𝑠. 𝐶𝐴2 𝑠
′ ( )
𝐹𝑣
𝐶𝐴2 𝑠 = 𝐶 ′ (𝑠 )
𝐹𝑣 + (𝑘1 + 2𝑘3 . 𝐶𝐴2𝑠𝑠 ). 𝑉2 + 𝑉2 𝑠 𝐴1

## Component B mole balance equation in Reactor

𝑑𝐶𝐵2
0 − 𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐵2 + 𝑟𝐵 . 𝑉2 = 𝑉2
𝑑𝑡
8
𝑑𝐶𝐵2
−𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐵2 + (𝑘1 . 𝐶𝐴 − 𝑘2 . 𝐶𝐵2 ). 𝑉2 = 𝑉2
𝑑𝑡
𝐹𝑣 𝑑𝐶𝐵2
− 𝐶 + (𝑘1 . 𝐶𝐴 − 𝑘2 . 𝐶𝐵2 ) =
𝑉2 𝐵2 𝑑𝑡

Laplace
′ ( ) ′ ( )) ′ ( )
−𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐵2 𝑠 + (𝑘1 . 𝐶𝐴2𝑠𝑠 ). 𝑉2 − (𝑘2 . 𝐶𝐵2 𝑠 . 𝑉2 = 𝑉2 . 𝑠. 𝐶𝐵2 𝑠

## (𝑘1 . 𝐶𝐴2𝑠𝑠 ). 𝑉2 = 𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐵2′ ( ) ′ ( )) ′ ( )

𝑠 + (𝑘2 . 𝐶𝐵2 𝑠 . 𝑉2 + 𝑉2 . 𝑠. 𝐶𝐵2 𝑠
′ ( )
( 𝑘 . 𝐶
1 𝐴2𝑠𝑠 ) . 𝑉2
𝐶𝐵2 𝑠 =
𝐹𝑣 + 𝑘2 . 𝑉2 + 𝑉2 𝑠

## Component C mole balance equation

𝑑𝐶𝑐2
0 − 𝐹𝑣𝐶𝑐2 + 𝑟𝑐 . 𝑉2 = 𝑉2
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝐶𝑐2
−𝐹𝑣𝐶𝑐2 + (𝑘2 . 𝐶𝐵 ). 𝑉2 = 𝑉2
𝑑𝑡
𝐹𝑣 𝑑𝐶𝑐2
− 𝐶 + (𝑘2 . 𝐶𝐵 ) =
𝑉2 𝑐2 𝑑𝑡
Laplace
′ ( ) ′ ( )) ′ ( )
−𝐹𝑣𝐶𝑐2 𝑠 + (𝑘2 . 𝐶𝐵2 𝑠 . 𝑉2 = 𝑉2 . 𝑠. 𝐶𝑐2 𝑠
′ ( )) ′ ( ) ′ ( )
(𝑘2 . 𝐶𝐵2 𝑠 . 𝑉2 = 𝐹𝑣𝐶𝑐2 𝑠 + 𝑉2 . 𝑠. 𝐶𝑐2 𝑠
′ ( )
𝑘2 𝑉2
𝐶𝑐2 𝑠 = 𝐶 ′ (𝑠 )
𝐹𝑣 + 𝑉2 𝑠 𝐵2

## Component D mole balance equation

𝑑𝐶𝐷2
0 − 𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐷2 + 𝑟𝐷 . 𝑉2 = 𝑉2
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝐶𝐷2
−𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐷2 + (𝑘3 . 𝐶𝐴2 ). 𝑉2 = 𝑉2
𝑑𝑡
𝐹𝑣 2
𝑑𝐶𝐷2
− 𝐶 + (𝑘3 . 𝐶𝐴 ) =
𝑉2 𝐷2 𝑑𝑡
Laplace
′ ( )
𝑘3 2 ′ ( )
−𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐷2 𝑠 +( .𝐶 (𝑠)) . 𝑉2 = 𝑉2 . 𝑠. 𝐶𝐷2 𝑠
2 𝐴2𝑠𝑠
𝑘3 2 ′ ( ) ′ ( )
( . 𝐶 (𝑠)) . 𝑉2 = 𝐹𝑣𝐶𝐷2 𝑠 + 𝑉2 . 𝑠. 𝐶𝐷2 𝑠
2 𝐴𝑠𝑠
2
′ ( )
𝑘3 𝐶𝐴2𝑠𝑠. 𝑉2
𝐶𝐷2 𝑠 =
2(𝐹𝑣 + 𝑉2 𝑠)

Controlled variable : CB
Manipulated variable : FA in
Deviation : Fin

9
9. Complete feedback loop simulation
There are two types of closed-loop simulations for our interest: disturbance change
and set-point change (servo mechanism). Run your simulation in SIMULINK to show
the response of CV for 3 sets of PID parameters for each simulation type. You could
also plot the open loop response for the sake of comparison. Discuss your finding!

CB :

10
10. It is time for reflection! What lessons that you have learnt from the closed-loop
simulation of part 2? Is it realistic? Discuss on how you may increase the complexity
of the system. Here, you are expected to put your insights on what you have done so
far and you don’t need to run any further simulation for this question.

References:
B. Wayne Bequette, Process Control Modeling, Design and Simulation, Prentice Hall
Professional, 2003
Thomas Marlin, Process Control 2nd ed., McMaster University Canada (available from internet)

11