Sunteți pe pagina 1din 2


1. Pravelence Of HIV among adults age 15 to 49 estimated by WHO region. World

Health Organization, last update 2018-07-11. Akses: Tanggal 10 Oktober 2018.

2. Lauren N,Bowen., Bryan Smith, Daniel Reich, Martha Q, Avindra N,. HIV-
Associated Opportunistic CNS Infections: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and
Treatment. Nature Review Neurolgy.12.662-674.2016.

3. Putri Aghnia J, Eryati Darwin, Efrida E. Pola Infeksi Oportunistik yang

Menyebabkan Kematian pada Penyandang AIDS.

4. Kemenkes RI. Statistik Kasus HIV/AIDS di Indonesia,. Jakarta: Kementrian

Kesehatan RI, Maret 2018.

5. Coelho, L. et al. Trends in AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses incidence over

25 years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PLoS ONE 9, e98666 (2014).

6. Waree P. Toxoplasmosis: Pathogenesis and Immune Response. Thammasat

Medical Journal, Vol. 8 No. 4, October-December 2008; 487-496.

7. Okubo Y, Shinozaki M, Yoshizawa S, et al. Diagnosis of systemic toxoplasmosis

with HIV infection using DNA extrated from paraffin-embedded tissue for
polymerase chain reaction: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Report, 2010

8. Bhatti, AD., Muhammad Usman., Ventakaramana Kandi., Current Scenario of

HIV/AIDS, Treatment Option, and Major Challenges with Compliance to
Antiretroviral Therapy. Cureus 8(3):2016: e515. DOI 10.7759/cureus.515.

9. de Béthune MP: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), their

discovery, development, and use in the treatment of HIV-1 infection: a review of
the last 20 years (1989- 2009). Antiviral Res. 2010, 85:75–90.

10. Guideline on When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy and On-exposure Prophylaxis

of HIV. World Health Organization, September 2015.
11. Porter SB, Sande MA. Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system in the
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. Dec 3;327(23):1643-8.

12. Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infection In HIV-

Infected Adult and Adolescent. Myobacterium Tuberculosis Infection and
Disease.Hal:F1-F15;September 22,2017. Akses
on 10/15/2018.

13. Mastini, KA., Zubairi D., Evy Y., Hamzah S. The Patterns of Primary
Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis in Adult HIV Patients in HIV Integrated Clinic Cipto
Mangunkusumo Hospital Jakarta in 2004-2013. Jurnal Penyakit Dalam Indonesia.
Vol.4 . Desember 2017.