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Oct 02, 2019

Matlab calculs

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Matlab calculs

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Matlab calculs

Matlab calculs

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Content

This live script reviews functions, function notation and necessary properties.

Table of Contents

Function Notation

Defining Functions Using MATLAB

Plotting Functions Using MATLAB

Function Transformations

Inverse Functions

Summary

A function describes a relationship between two ordered sets, an independent variable set X and a dependent

(sometimes called "output") variable set Y. Each element from the independent variable set (sometimes called

"the input variable"), is related to exactly one element of the dependent variable set, (sometimes called "the

output variable"). This relationship (sometimes also called a "mapping", or a "pair") can be specified using explicit

(1) or implicit (2) or explicit forms as shown below:

These equations describe the same relationship between and . The difference is that in the explicit function

(Equation 1), the dependent variable is given directly in terms of the independent variable (that is y appears

directly and exactly once on the left hand side and does not appear at all in the right hand side), while the implicit

function, (Equation 2), instead states a (more general) relationship between dependent and independent

variables.

Any relationship that has two dependent variables for any one independent variable is not a function. Take the

following equation that describes all points on a circle centered at the origin with a radius of 3, . In this

relationship, when , .

The vertical line test can be used to confirm graphically whether a relationship is a function or not. The vertical line

test involves using a vertical line on the xy-plane. If this line crosses the plot of the function more than once for any

unique , the curve does not represent a function. Below is a graph displaying the circle plot, that fails

the vertical line test:

% define values

th = 0:pi/50:2*pi;

xvalues = 3*cos(th);

yvalues = 3*sin(th);

plot(xvalues,yvalues,[1.5 1.5],[-3 3]);

Functions and Function Notation Review

axis square; grid on; box on;

xlabel('x');ylabel('y');

title('Vertical line test with a circle');

Function Notation

A function can also be expressed using the notation which defines the function and identifies as the

independent variable, as in the following example (basically replaced the dependent variable in the function

definition):

(3)

You can now evalute the function by replacing the variable with a real value. For example, to evalute the function

at , or , you can describe it as shown below:

You can define a function using MATLAB. First, define a symbolic variable x as shown in the following command

Functions and Function Notation Review

syms x

Since is now defined as a symbol, it is possible to assign a mathematical expression to the functon. This

assignment operation will create a new symbolic function:

f(x) = 2*x^2 + 3*x;

After creating this symbolic function, you can evaluate for any value in the possible ranges of the independent

variable (use the "Run Section" button to run the section and show the results below the commands).

f(4)

ans =

f(sqrt(3))

ans =

f(-1)

ans =

You can use other built-in functions provided in MATLAB to define more complicated functions such as:

Logarithmic functions (log, log10, dilog)

Piecewise functions (rectangularPulse, triangularPulse)

Again, you can use the "Run Section" button to run the section and show the results below the commands. You can

also try changing functions in the command below (e.g. use the cosine or tangent functions, or change some

numerical values) and re-run the section to see how the results change.

syms t s k

g(t) = sin(t)

g(t) =

h(s) = log10(s)

h(s) =

Functions and Function Notation Review

l(k) = rectangularPulse(k)

l(k) =

syms x

y = piecewise(x<0, -1, x>0, 1)

y =

pretty(y)

{ -1 if x < 0

{

{ 1 if 0 < x

You may review the documenation for more information regarding the function syms, creating symbolic functions

and finding a list of Symbolic Mathematical Functions.

After defining a function, you can visualize it with the "fplot" command ("plot" is used for pairs of points, "fplot" is

used for functions).

You can specify the range of the independent variable by using a two-element array as the second argument.

Refer to the "fplot" documentation for more information on how to use it.

fplot(g, [0 2*pi])

Functions and Function Notation Review

fplot(h,[0 10])

fplot(l)

Functions and Function Notation Review

Function Transformations

A graph of a function may be transformed either by shifting, scaling or reflecting it across an axis. For instance, to

shift the function horizontally (that is on the x-axis), you need to add or subtract to the "input" of the

function, , therefore obtaining , where , and where notation determines the direction of the shift.

Specifically, shifting the function to the left is obtained with , whereas the shifting is to the right

syms x

f(x) = x^2; % Original function

gLeft(x) = f(x+3); % Horizontal transformation to the left by 3 units

gRight(x)= f(x-3); % Horizontal transformation to the right by 3 units

fplot(f,[-4 4])

hold on % "hold on" allows plotting things on the same figure

fplot(gLeft, [-7 1])

fplot(gRight, [-1 7])

hold off % "hold off" allows plotting things on a new figure next time

grid on

title('Horizontal Transformations of f(x) = x^2') % Add title to graph

legend('f(x)','f(x+3)','f(x-3)','Location','Southeast') % Place lengend in graph

Functions and Function Notation Review

xlabel('x');

For vertical shift transformations (that is on the y-axis), a value must be added to the "output" of the function

. For instance, will shift the function vertically upwards, whereas will shift the function

vertically downwards.

% define functions

syms x

f(x) = x^2; % Original function

gUp(x) = f(x)+5; % Vertical transformation upwards by 5 units

gDown(x)= f(x)-5; % Vertical transformation downwards by 5 units

% plot functions

fplot(f,[-6 6])

hold on

fplot(gUp, [-6 6])

fplot(gDown, [-6 6])

hold off

grid on

title('Vertical Transformations of f(x) = x^2') % Add title to graph

legend('f(x)','f(x)+5','f(x)-5','Location','North') % Place lengend in graph

axis square;

xlabel('x');

Functions and Function Notation Review

It is also possible to transform a function by reflecting it across the y-axis, x-axis and the origin. For instance, to

reflect across the x-axis, the output value of the function (that is the dependent variable ) needs to be

multiplied by -1. Therefore, is the reflection of the function accross x-axis. For reflection transformation

across the y-axis, multiply the value of the input (independent) variable by -1 to get the value on the other side of

the y-axis. Therefore, is the reflection of the function across the y-axis. Combine both of these

transformations for reflection across the origin, meaning a reflection across both axes.

Vertical shift downwards:

Horizontal shift to the right:

Horizontal shift to the right:

Y-axis reflection:

X-axis reflection:

Origin reflection:

Inverse Functions

As previously defined, a function is represented as a relationsip between two sets, in which each element from the

independent variable set is related to exactly one element of the dependent variable set (but not the other way

around). For example, in the function , with the indepedent variable set , the

corresponding dependent variable set would be . The ordered pairs can be written as follows:

By interchanging these order pairs, we can see an inverse relationship, where the independent variable now

Functions and Function Notation Review

A function that describes this relationship is called an inverse function. A function is the inverse of the

function , if for each in the domain of and for each in the domain of . The

inverse function of is denoted as . For instance:

Graphing these two function shows the inverted ordered pair relationship as a reflection through the line .

This is known as the reflective property of inverse functions: The graph contains the point if and

only iff the graph of contains the point .

% define functions

syms x

f(x) = 3*x-2;

g(x) = (2+x)/3;

fig1=figure;ax=axes(fig1);

hold on;

fplot(ax,f,[-5 5]);

fplot(ax,g, [-5 5]);

fplot(ax, x, [-5 5],'--r'); % use a red dashed line

hold off;

% make axis square, add grid, adjust viewing range, add minor grid and legend

axis square; grid on

ax.YLim = [-5 5];

ax.XMinorGrid = 'on';

legend('f(x)','g(x)','y = x','Location','Northwest')

Functions and Function Notation Review

However, even if the Reflective Property holds true for a specific funtion, it does not define an inverse funciton. A

function has an inverse if and only if it is one-to-one, meaning that for every unique value of independent variables,

there is exactly one dependent variable with a unique value. This property is also called "injectivity". For instance,

is a function because each independent variable x is related to exactly one independent variable y.

However, does not have an inverse function because sometimes more than one independent variable x is

related to the same dependent variable y, for example but also . While this (having 2 input

values resulting in the same output value) is ok in terms of being a function, (indeed passes the vertical

line test), it means that does not have an inverse because such an inverse would have 2 output values (e.g. 2

and -2) for the same input values (e.g. 4), and this is prohibited by the function definition.

This can be verified by using the horizontal line test. Since all the x-coordinates and y-coordinates are switched in

an inverse functions, the horizontal line test becomes a vertical line test for the inverse function. Below is a graph of

and its mirror across the line . Notice that fails the horizontal line test and its mirrored graph fails

the vertical line test. This means that does not have an inverse.

% define functions

syms x

f(x) = x^2;

g(x) = finverse(f,x);

h(x) = -finverse(f,x);

fig2 = figure;

ax2 = axes(fig2);

fplot(ax2,f,[-3 3])

Functions and Function Notation Review

hold on

fplot(ax2,g,[-3 3],'g','ShowPoles','off')

plot(ax2,[-3 3], [2,2],'--r')

plot(ax2, [2 2], [-3 3],'--r')

fplot(ax2,h,[-3 3],'g','ShowPoles','off')

hold off

ax2.YLim = [-3 3];

grid off; axis square;

ax2.XMinorGrid='on';

ax2.YMinorGrid='on';

legend('f(x)','f^-^1(x)','Test lines','Location','Southwest');

2. Solve for x as a function of y.

3. Interchanging and results in .

4. Define the domain of to be the range of .

5. Verify that .

Example:

Functions and Function Notation Review

1) To determine if is one-to-one, you can use two different generic values, and , where .

If , then is one-to-one.

This proves that the function is one-to-one and that it has an inverse.

3) Interchange and :

Summary

This example has shown a number of Calculus concepts and examples related to functions, including the

corresponding MATLAB code:

1. Function - A relationship (also called association or mapping) between one or multiple elements from a set

of independent variables to a single element from set of dependent variables.

2. Explicit Function - Function in which the dependent variable is written in terms of the independent variables

only.

3. implicit Function - Function in which the dependent variable is not isolated from the independent variable.

Functions and Function Notation Review

4. Vertical Line Test - A test in which a vertical line is drawn on a graph to determine if the relationship plotted

is a function. If a vertical line interesects the graph more than once at any particular independent variable,

the relationship is not a function.

5. Transformation - A shift, reflection, or scaling of a the graph of a function.

6. Inverse Function - Function that "undoes" the action of another function, so that and

.

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