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LESSON 1

MODES OF NUTRITION IN
PLANTS AND ANIMALS

PREPARED BY CATHLEEN MAE R. PINEDA, RN,MN,LPT


CONCEPT MAP

MODES OF NUTRITION

AUTOTROPHY HETEROTROPHY

OBTAINING ORGANIC
PRODUCING ORGANIC NUTRIENTS FROM
NUTRIENTS ANIMALS

CONSUMER
PRODUCER
BASED ON THE MODE OF
NUTRITION…
2 Groups of Organism:

1. AUTOTROPHS- such as plants &


other photosynthetic organisms,
convert water & carbon dioxide, w/
sun’s energy, into organic sugars w/
c they can use for growth &
development.
2. Heterotrophs- they
con sumed t he or gan i c
sugar from the plants
since they cannot make
their own food, & in
return, they provide the
carbon dioxide that the
plants may again use for
another round of organic
sugar production.
TWO TYPES OF AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION:

1. PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION- light energy is


used to convert simple substances to complex organic
compounds.
2. CHEMOAUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION- the oxidation
of inorganic compounds is used as an energy source for
the conversion of simple inorganic compounds.
OVERALL EQUATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS:
LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION
HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION MAY BE
CHARACTERIZED…

1. Parasitic organisms- or parasites live on or inside


other living organisms called hosts and obtain their
food from them. The host does not benefit from
the parasite. Example of parasites are hookworms,
tapeworms, and leeches.
2. Saprophytic organisms- or saprophytes obtain
their food from dead organisms. They secrete
enzymes that are released on the food material
outside their body. These enzymes break down
complex food into simple forms. Common examples
of saprophytes are fungi and bacteria.
3. Holozoic organisms- ingest
food that is mechanically broken
down and is subsequently
digested by enzymes produced
within the organism. Digested
food is absorbed into the body
and the undigested product is
egested. This kind of nutrition is
found in non-parasitic animals
from the simple ones like amoeba
to the complex one like human
beings.
HOLOZOIC NUTRITION: DIGESTION
DIGESTION - the breaking down of food into
parts that can be utilized by the body.
Stages:

A. Ingestion
B. Digestion
C. Absorption
D. Elimination
TWO TYPES OF DIGESTION:

1. Mechanical Digestion- refers to the breaking


down of food into small pieces as when food is
chewed and ground by the teeth.
2. Chemical Digestion- usually involves enzymes in
breaking down food into simpler molecules like
glucose and amino acids that can be absorbed or
stored by the cells. This type of digestion alters
the chemical composition of food.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Cellular respiration is a set
of metabolic reactions and
processes that take place
in the cells of organisms to
convert biochemical
energy from nutrients into 
adenosine
triphosphate (ATP), and
then release waste
products.
3 METABOLIC PATHWAYS OF CELLULAR
RESPIRATION:

1. Glycolysis

2. Citric Acid Cycle

3. Oxidative phosphorylation
GLYCOLYSIS
Ø It is the first step in cellular respiration where
sugar, usually in the form of glucose, enters a
series of steps to form two molecules of
pyruvate.
Ø The process takes place in the cytoplasm of the
cell.
CITRIC ACID CYCLE

Ø The pyruvate from glycolysis will be further


“digested” during the citric acid cycle in the
mitochondrial matrix.
Ø This process proceeds repeatedly to produce the
majority of molecules needed to transform usable
energy.
Ø This process produces CO2, a few molecules of ATP,
NADH, and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2).
Ø NADH and FADH2 are necessary precursors for
oxidative phosphorylation.
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
Ø Includes the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis.
Ø It occurs in the intermembrane space of mitochondria,
and uses NADH and FADH2.
Ø The electron transport chain is a series of proteins &
organic molecules through which electrons are passed on
from one electron carrier to another.
Ø The chain produces and pumps H ions from the matrix
into the intermembrane space of mitochondria, producing
an electrochemical gradient which are then used to make
ATP in a process called chemiosmosis.
PERFORMANCE TASK

DO ACTIVITY 1.3 UNDERSTANDING


CELLULAR RESPIRATION
INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG AUTOTROPHS
AND HETEROTROPHS IN THE ECOSYSTEM