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S E C O ND D IV IS IO N Martin Guerrero died on October 25, 1988. Subsequently, herein petitioners


filed an action for reconveyance on November 2, 1988, claiming that they are
entitled to inherit one-half of the property in question by right of representation.

G.R. No. 121027 July 31, 1997 At the pre-trial conference, the following issues were presented by both parties
for resolution:
CORAZON DEZOLLER TISON and RENE R. DEZOLLER, petitioners,
vs. (1) whether or not the plaintiffs (herein petitioners) are the
COURT OF APPEALS and TEODORA DOMINGO, respondents. nephew and niece of the late Teodora Dezoller;

(2) whether or not the plaintiffs are entitled to inherit by right of


representation from the estate of the late Teodora Dezoller;

REGALADO, J.: (3) whether or not defendant (herein private respondent) must
reconvey the reserved participation of the plaintiffs to the estate
of the late Teodora Dezoller under Section 4, Rule 74 of the
The present appeal by certiorari seeks the reversal of the judgment rendered by
Rules of Court which was duly annotated on the title of the
respondent Court of Appeals on June 30, 19951 which affirmed the Order of
defendant;
December 3, 1992 issued by the Regional Trial Court of Quezon City, Branch 98,
granting herein private respondent's Demurrer to Plaintiff's Evidence filed in
Civil Case No. Q-88-1054 pending therein. (4) whether or not the plaintiffs are entitled to damages, moral
and exemplary, plus attorney's fees for the willful and malicious
refusal of defendant to reconvey the participation of plaintiffs in
The present appellate review involves an action for reconveyance filed by herein
the estate of Teodora Dezoller, despite demands and knowing
petitioners against herein private respondent before the Regional Trial Court of
fully well that plaintiffs are the niece and nephew of said
Quezon City, Branch 98, docketed as the aforesaid Civil Case No. Q-88-1054,
deceased; and
over a parcel of land with a house and apartment thereon located at San
Francisco del Monte, Quezon City and which was originally owned by the
spouses Martin Guerrero and Teodora Dezoller Guerrero. It appears that (5) whether or not the subject property now in litigation can be
petitioners Corazon Tison and Rene Dezoller are the niece and nephew, considered as conjugal property of the spouses Martin Guerrero
respectively, of the deceased Teodora Dezoller Guerrero who is the sister of and Teodora Dezoller Guerrero.3
petitioner's father, Hermogenes Dezoller. Teodora Dezoller Guerrero died on
March 5, 1983 without any ascendant or descendant, and was survived only by During the hearing, petitioner Corazon Dezoller Tison was presented as the lone
her husband, Martin Guerrero, and herein petitioners. Petitioners' father, witness, with the following documentary evidence offered to prove petitioners'
Hermogenes, died on October 3, 1973, hence they seek to inherit from Teodora filiation to their father and their aunt, to wit: a family picture; baptismal
Dezoller Guerrero by right of representation. certificates of Teodora and Hermogenes Dezoller; certificates of destroyed
records of birth of Teodora Dezoller and Hermogenes Dezoller; death certificates
The records reveal that upon the death of Teodora Dezoller Guerrero, her of Hermogenes Dezoller and Teodora Dezoller Guerrero; certification of
surviving spouse, Martin, executed on September 15, 1986 an Affidavit of destroyed records of live birth of Corazon and Rene Dezoller; joint affidavits of
Extrajudicial Settlement2 adjudicating unto himself, allegedly as sole heir, the Pablo Verzosa and Meliton Sitjar attesting to the parents, date and place of birth
land in dispute which is covered by Transfer Certificate of Title No. 66886, as a of Corazon and Rene Dezoller; joint affidavit of Juliana Cariaga and Manuela
consequence of which Transfer Certificate of Title No. 358074 was issued in the Cariaga attesting to the fact of marriage between Martin Guerrero and Teodora
name of Martin Guerrero. On January 2, 1988, Martin Guerrero sold the lot to Dezoller; and the marriage certificate of Martin and Teodora
herein private respondent Teodora Domingo and thereafter, Transfer Certificate Guerrero.4 Petitioners thereafter rested their case and submitted a written offer
of Title No. 374012 was issued in the latter's name. of these exhibits to which a Comment5 was filed by herein private respondent.
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Subsequently, private respondent filed a Demurrer to Plaintiff's Evidence on the children born in wedlock are legitimate.8 And well settled is the rule that the
ground that petitioners failed to prove their legitimate filiation with the deceased issue of legitimacy cannot be attacked collaterally.
Teodora Guerrero in accordance with Article 172 of the Family Code. It is further
averred that the testimony of petitioner Corazon Dezoller Tison regarding her The rationale for these rules has been explained in this wise:
relationship with her alleged father and aunt is self-serving, uncorroborated and
incompetent, and that it falls short of the quantum of proof required under
The presumption of legitimacy in the Family Code . . . actually
Article 172 of the Family Code to establish filiation. Also, the certification issued
fixes a civil status for the child born in wedlock, and that civil
by the Office of the Local Civil Registrar of Himamaylan, Negros Occidental is
status cannot be attacked collaterally. The legitimacy of the
merely proof of the alleged destruction of the records referred to therein, and
child can be impugned only in a direct action brought for that
the joint affidavit executed by Pablo Verzosa and Meliton Sitjar certifying to the
purpose, by the proper parties, and within the period limited by
date, place of birth and parentage of herein petitioners is inadmissible for being
law.
hearsay since the affiants were never presented for cross-examination.6

The legitimacy of the child cannot be contested by way of


On December 3, 1992, the trial court issued an order granting the demurrer to
defense or as a collateral issue in another action for a different
evidence and dismissing the complaint for reconveyance.7
purpose. The necessity of an independent action directly
impugning the legitimacy is more clearly expressed in the
In upholding the dismissal, respondent Court of Appeals declared that the Mexican Code (Article 335) which provides: "The contest of the
documentary evidence presented by herein petitioners, such as the baptismal legitimacy of a child by the husband or his heirs must be made
certificates, family picture, and joint affidavits are all inadmissible and by proper complaint before the competent court; any contest
insufficient to prove and establish filiation. Hence, this appeal. made in any other way is void." This principle applies under our
Family Code. Articles 170 and 171 of the code confirm this view,
We find for petitioners. because they refer to "the action to impugn the legitimacy." This
action can be brought only by the husband or his heirs and
The bone of contention in private respondent's demurrer to evidence is whether within the periods fixed in the present articles.
or not herein petitioners failed to meet the quantum of proof required by Article
172 of the Family Code to establish legitimacy and filiation. There are two points Upon the expiration of the periods provided in Article 170, the
for consideration before us: first is the issue on petitioner's legitimacy, action to impugn the legitimacy of a child can no longer be
and second is the question regarding their filiation with Teodora Dezoller brought. The status conferred by the presumption, therefore,
Guerrero. becomes fixed, and can no longer be questioned. The obvious
intention of the law is to prevent the status of a child born in
I. It is not debatable that the documentary evidence adduced by petitioners, wedlock from being in a state of uncertainty for a long time. It
taken separately and independently of each other, are not per se sufficient proof also aims to force early action to settle any doubt as to the
of legitimacy nor even of pedigree. It is important to note, however, that the paternity of such child, so that the evidence material to the
rulings of both lower courts in the case are basically premised on the erroneous matter, which must necessarily be facts occurring during the
assumption that, in the first place, the issue of legitimacy may be validly period of the conception of the child, may still be easily
controverted in an action for reconveyance, and, in the second place, that available.
herein petitioners have the onus probandi to prove their legitimacy and,
corollarily, their filiation. We disagree on both counts. xxx xxx xxx

It seems that both the court a quo and respondent appellate court have Only the husband can contest the legitimacy of a child born to
regrettably overlooked the universally recognized presumption on legitimacy. his wife. He is the one directly confronted with the scandal and
There is no presumption of the law more firmly established and founded on ridicule which the infidelity of his wife produces; and he should
sounder morality and more convincing reason than the presumption that decide whether to conceal that infidelity or expose it, in view of
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the moral and economic interest involved. It is only in II. The weight and sufficiency of the evidence regarding petitioner's relationship
exceptional cases that his heir are allowed to contest such with Teodora Dezoller Guerrero, whose estate is the subject of the present
legitimacy. Outside of these cases, none — even his heirs — can controversy, requires a more intensive and extensive examination.
impugn legitimacy; that would amount to an insult to his
memory.9 Petitioners' evidence, as earlier explained, consists mainly of the testimony of
Corazon Dezoller Tison, the baptismal, death and marriage certificates, the
The issue, therefore, as to whether petitioners are the legitimate children of various certifications from the civil registrar, a family picture, and several joint
Hermogenes Dezoller cannot be properly controverted in the present action for affidavits executed by third persons all of which she identified and explained in
reconveyance. This is aside, of course, from the further consideration that the course and as part of her testimony.
private respondent is not the proper party to impugn the legitimacy of herein
petitioners. The presumption consequently continues to operate in favor of The primary proof to be considered in ascertaining the relationship between the
petitioners unless and until it is rebutted. parties concerned is the testimony of Corazon Dezoller Tison to the effect that
Teodora Dezoller Guerrero in her lifetime, or sometime in 1946, categorically
Even assuming that the issue is allowed to be resolved in this case, the burden declared that the former is Teodora's niece. 16 Such a statement is considered a
of proof rests not on herein petitioners who have the benefit of the presumption declaration about pedigree which is admissible, as an exception to the hearsay
in their favor, but on private respondent who is disputing the same. This fact rule, under Section 39, Rule 130 of the Rules of Court, subject to the following
alone should have been sufficient cause for the trial court to exercise conditions: (1) that the declarant is dead or unable to testify; (2) that the
appropriate caution before acting, as it did, on the demurrer to evidence. It declarant be related to the person whose pedigree is the subject of inquiry; (3)
would have delimited the issues for resolution, as well as the time and effort that such relationship be shown by evidence other than the declaration; and (4)
necessitated thereby. that the declaration was made ante litem motam, that is, not only before the
commencement of the suit involving the subject matter of the declaration, but
Ordinarily, when a fact is presumed, it implies that the party in whose favor the before any controversy has arisen thereon.
presumption exists does not have to introduce evidence to establish that fact,
and in any litigation where that fact is put in issue, the party denying it must There is no dispute with respect to the first, second and fourth elements. What
bear the burden of proof to overthrow the presumption. 10 The presumption of remains for analysis is the third element, that is, whether or not the other
legitimacy is so strong that it is clear that its effect is to shift the burden of documents offered in evidence sufficiently corroborated the declaration made by
persuasion to the party claiming illegitimacy. 11 And in order to destroy the Teodora Dezoller Guerrero in her lifetime regarding the pedigree of petitioner
presumption, the party against whom it operates must adduce substantial and Corazon Dezoller Tison or, if at all, it is necessary to present evidence other
credible evidence to the contrary.12 than such declaration.

Where there is an entire lack of competent evidence to the contrary, 13 and American jurisdiction has it that a distinction must be made as to when the
unless or until it is rebutted, it has been held that a presumption may stand in relationship of the declarant may be proved by the very declaration itself, or by
lieu of evidence and support a finding or decision. 14 Perforce, a presumption other declarations of said declarant, and when it must be supported by
must be followed if it is uncontroverted. This is based on the theory that a evidence aliunde. The rule is stated thus:
presumption is prima facie proof of the fact presumed, and unless the fact thus
established prima facie by the legal presumption of its truth is disproved, it One situation to be noted is that where one seeks to set up a
must stand as proved. 15 claim through, but not from, the declarant and to establish the
admissibility of a declaration regarding claimant's pedigree, he
Indubitably, when private respondent opted not to present countervailing may not do by declarant's own statements as to declarant's
evidence to overcome the presumption, by merely filing a demurrer to evidence relationship to the particular family. The reason is that
instead, she in effect impliedly admitted the truth of such fact. Indeed, she declarant's declaration of his own relationship is of a self-serving
overlooked or disregarded the evidential rule that presumptions like judicial nature. Accordingly there must be precedent proof from other
notice and admissions, relieve the proponent from presenting evidence on the sources that declarant is what he claimed to be, namely, a
facts he alleged and such facts are thereby considered as duly proved. member of the particular family; otherwise the requirement to
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admissibility that declarant's relationship to the common family offered to establish. The preliminary proof would render the main evidence
must appear is not met. But when the party claiming seeks to unnecessary.
establish relationship in order to claim directly from the
declarant or the declarant's estate, the situation and the policy Applying the general rule in the present case would nonetheless produce the
of the law applicable are quite different. In such case the same result. For while the documentary evidence submitted by petitioners do
declaration of the decedent, whose estate is in controversy, that not strictly conform to the rules on their admissibility, we are however of the
he was related to the one who claims his estate, is admissible considered opinion that the same may be admitted by reason of private
without other proof of the fact of relationship. While the nature respondent's failure to interpose any timely objection thereto at the time they
of the declaration is then disserving, that is not the real ground were being offered in evidence. 22 It is elementary that an objection shall
for its admission. Such declarations do not derive their be made at the time when an alleged inadmissible document is offered in
evidential value from that consideration, although it is a useful, evidence, 23otherwise, the objection shall be treated as waived, 24 since the
if not an artificial, aid in determining the class to which the right to object is merely a privilege which the party may waive. 25
declarations belong. The distinction we have note is sufficiently
apparent; in the one case the declarations are self-serving, in
As explained in Abrenica vs. Gonda, et al., 26 it has been repeatedly laid down
the other they are competent from reasons of
as a rule of evidence that a protest or objection against the admission of any
necessity. 17(Emphasis ours.)
evidence must be made at the proper time, otherwise it will be deemed to have
been waived. The proper time is when from the question addressed to the
The general rule, therefore, is that where the party claiming seeks recovery witness, or from the answer thereto, or from the presentation of the proof, the
against a relative common to both claimant and declarant, but not from the inadmissibility of the evidence is, or may be inferred.
declarant himself or the declarant's estate, the relationship of the declarant to
the common relative may not be proved by the declaration itself. There must be
Thus, a failure to except to the evidence because it does not conform with the
some independent proof of this fact. 18 As an exception, the requirement that
statute is a waiver if the provisions of the law. That objection to a question put
there be other proof than the declarations of the declarant as to the
to a witness must be made at the time the question is asked. An objection to
relationship, does not apply where it is sought to reach the estate of the
the admission of evidence on the ground of incompetency, taken after the
declarant himself and not merely to establish a right through his declarations to
testimony has been given, is too late. 27 Thus, for instance, failure to object to
the property of some other member of the family. 19
parol evidence given on the stand, where the party is in a position to object, is a
waiver of any objections thereto. 28
We are sufficiently convinced, and so hold, that the present case is one instance
where the general requirement on evidence aliunde may be relaxed. Petitioners
The situation is aggravated by the fact that counsel for private respondent
are claiming a right to part of the estate of the declarant herself. Conformably,
unreservedly cross-examined petitioners, as the lone witness, on the
the declaration made by Teodora Dezoller Guerrero that petitioner Corazon is
documentary evidence that were offered. At no time was the issue of the
her niece, is admissible and constitutes sufficient proof of such relationship,
supposed inadmissibility thereof, or the possible basis for objection thereto,
notwithstanding the fact that there was no other preliminary evidence thereof,
ever raised. Instead, private respondent's counsel elicited answers from the
the reason being such declaration is rendered competent by virtue of the
witness on the circumstances and regularity of her obtention of said documents:
necessity of receiving such evidence to avoid a failure of justice. 20 More
The observations later made by private respondent in her comment to
importantly, there is in the present case an absolute failure by all and sundry to
petitioners' offer of exhibits, although the grounds therefor were already
refute that declaration made by the decedent.
apparent at the time these documents were being adduced in evidence during
the testimony of Corazon Dezoller Tison but which objections were not timely
From the foregoing disquisitions, it may thus be safely concluded, on the sole raised therein, may no longer serve to rectify the legal consequences which
basis of the decedent's declaration and without need for further proof thereof, resulted therefrom. Hence, even assuming ex gratia argumenti that these
that petitioners are the niece and nephew of Teodora Dezoller Guerrero. As held documents are inadmissible for being hearsay, but on account of herein private
in one case, 21 where the subject of the declaration is the declarant's own respondent's failure to object thereto, the same may be admitted and
relationship to another person, it seems absurb to require, as a foundation for considered as sufficient to prove the facts therein asserted. 29
the admission of the declaration, proof of the very fact which the declaration is
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Accordingly, the Certificate of Marriage (Exhibit S) wherein it is indicated that petitioners and private respondent are deemed co-owners of the property
the parents of Teodora Dezoller are Isabelo Dezoller and Cecilia Calpo, as well covered by Transfer Certificate of Title No. 374012 in the proportion of an
as the Certificates of Baptism of Teodora Dezoller 30 (Exhibit H) and undivided one-fourth (1/4) and three-fourths (3/4) share thereof, respectively.
Hermogenes Dezoller (Exhibit J) which both reflect the names of their parents
as Isabelo Dezoller and Cecilia Calpo, to show that Hermogenes Dezoller is the All told, on the basis of the foregoing considerations, the demurrer to plaintiff's
brother of Teodora Dezoller Guerrero; and the Death Certificate of Hermogenes evidence should have been, as it is hereby, denied. Nonetheless, private
Dezoller (Exhibit K) the entries wherein were made by petitioner Corazon respondent may no longer be allowed to present evidence by reason of the
Dezoller Tison as his daughter, together with the Joint Affidavits of Pablo mandate under Section 1 of revised Rule 3 of the Rules of Court which provides
Verzosa and Meliton Sitjar (Exhibits N and P), to prove that herein petitioners that "if the motion is granted but on appeal the order of dismissal is reversed he
are the children of Hermogenes Dezoller — these can be deemed to have shall be deemed to have waived the right to present evidence." 33
sufficiently established the relationship between the declarant and herein
petitioners. This is in consonance with the rule that a prima facie showing is
WHEREFORE, the questioned judgment of respondent Court of Appeals is hereby
sufficient and that only slight proof of the relationship is required. 31 Finally, it
REVERSED and SET ASIDE, and herein petitioners and private respondent are
may not be amiss to consider as in the nature of circumstantial evidence the
declared co-owners of the subject property with an undivided one-fourth (1/4)
fact that both the declarant and the claimants, who are the subject of the
and three-fourths (3/4) share therein, respectively.
declaration, bear the surname Dezoller. 32

SO ORDERED.
III. The following provisions of the Civil Code provide for the manner by which
the estate of the decedent shall be divided in this case, to wit:

Art. 975. When children of one or more brothers or sisters of the


deceased survive, they shall inherit from the latter by FIRST DIVISION
representation, if they survive with their uncles or aunts. But if
they alone survive, they shall inherit in equal portions. G . R . N o. 1 2 4 8 5 3 . F e br u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 9 8

Art. 995. In the absence of legitimate descendants and F R A N C I S C O L . J I S O N , P e t i t i o ne r , v . C O U R T O F A P P E A L S a n d


ascendants, and illegitimate children and their descendants, M O N I N A J I S O N , R e s p o nd e nt .
whether legitimate or illegitimate, the surviving spouse shall
inherit the entire estate, without prejudice to the rights of
D E C I S I O N
brothers and sisters, nephews and nieces, should there be any,
under Article 1001.
DAVIDE, JR., J.:
Art. 1001. Should brothers and sisters or their children survive
with the widow or widower, the latter shall be entitled to one- T hi s i s a p e t i t i o n fo r r e vi e w u nd e r R ul e 4 5 o f t he R ul e s o f C o ur t o f
half of the inheritance and the brothers and sisters or theirs t he 2 7 A p r i l 1 9 9 5 d e c i s i o n o f t he C o ur t o f A p p e a l s ( C A ) i n C A - G . R .
children to the other half. C V N o . 3 2 8 6 0 1 w hi c h r e ve r s e d t he d e c i s i o n o f Br a nc h 2 4 o f t he
R e g i o n a l T r i a l C o u r t ( R T C ) o f Il o i l o C i t y i n C i vi l C a s e N o .
1 6 3 7 3 . 2 T he l a t t e r d i s m i s s e d t he c o m p l a i nt o f p r i v a t e r e s p o nd e nt
Upon the death of Teodora Dezoller Guerrero, one-half of the subject property
M o ni na J i s o n ( he r e a ft e r M O N I N A ) fo r r e c o g ni t i o n a s a n
was automatically reserved to the surviving spouse, Martin Guerrero, as his
i l l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d o f p e t i t i o ne r F r a n c i s c o J i s o n ( he r e a ft e r
share in the conjugal partnership. Applying the aforequoted statutory
F R A N C IS C O ) .
provisions, the remaining half shall be equally divided between the widower and
herein petitioners who are entitled to jointly inherit in their own right. Hence,
Martin Guerrero could only validly alienate his total undivided three-fourths I n i s s ue i s w he t he r o r no t p ub l i c r e s p o nd e n t C o ur t o f A p p e a l s
(3/4) share in the entire property to herein private respondent. Resultantly, c o m m i t t e d r e ve r s i b l e e r r o r , w hi c h, i n t hi s i ns t a n c e , ne c e s s i t a t e s
Page 6 of 42

a n i nq ui r y i nt o t he f a c t s . W hi l e a s a g e ne r a l r ul e , fa c t u a l i s s ue s 3 . I s M o ni n a J i s o n b a r r e d fr o m i ns t i t ut i ng o r p r o s e c ut i ng t he
a r e no t w i t hi n t he p r o v i n c e o f t hi s C o ur t , n e ve r t he l e s s , i n l i g ht o f p r e s e nt a c t i o n b y e s t o p p e l , l a c he s a nd / o r p r e s c r i p t i o n?
t he c o n f l i c t i ng f i nd i ng s o f f a c t s o f t he t r i a l c o ur t a nd t he C o ur t o f
A p p e a l s , t hi s c a s e f a l l s u nd e r a n e x c e p t i o n t o t hi s 4 . D a m a g e s . 7 c r ä l ä w vi r t ua l i b r ä r y
r ul e . 3 c r ä l ä w v i r t ua l i b r ä r y
A t t r i a l o n t he m e r i t s , M O N IN A p r e s e nt e d a t o t a l o f e l e ve n ( 1 1 )
I n he r c o m p l a i nt 4 f i l e d w i t h t he R T C o n 1 3 M a r c h 1 9 8 5 , M O N IN A w i t ne s s e s , na m e l y: he r s e l f , R ub e n C a s t e l l a n e s , S r . , A d e l a
a l l e g e d t ha t F R A N C I S C O ha d b e e n m a r r i e d t o a c e r t a i n L i l i a L o p e z C a s a b ue na , A r s e ni o D ua t i n, Z a fi r o L e d e s m a , D a nt he a L o p e z ,
J i s o n s i n c e 1 9 4 0 . A t t he e nd o f 1 9 4 5 o r t he s t a r t o f 1 9 4 6 , R o m e o Bi l b a o , R ud y T i ng s o n, A l f r e d o B a yl o s i s , D o m i na d o r Z a va r i z
ho w e v e r , F R A N C I S C O i m p r e g n a t e d E s p e r a n z a F . A m o l a r ( w ho w a s a nd L o p e A m o l a r .
t he n e m p l o y e d a s t he na n ny o f F R A N C I S C O ' s d a ug ht e r , L o ur d e s ) .
A s a r e s ul t , M O N I N A w a s b o r n o n 6 A u g u s t 1 9 4 6 , i n D i ng l e , Il o i l o ,
R ub e n C a s t e l l a ne s , S r . , a 6 3 - ye a r o l d r e s i d e nt o f Il o i l o C i t y ,
a nd s i nc e c hi l d ho o d , ha d e nj o y e d t he c o nt i n uo u s , i m p l i e d
t e s t i fi e d t h a t he ha d w o r ke d fo r F R A N C IS C O fo r a t o t a l o f s i x ( 6 )
r e c o g ni t i o n a s a n i l l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d o f F R A N C IS C O b y hi s a c t s a nd
ye a r s a t N e l l y G a r d e n , F R A N C I S C O ' s Il o i l o r e s i d e n c e . T o w a r d s t he
t ha t o f hi s f a m i l y . M O N I N A f ur t he r a l l e g e d t ha t F R A N C I S C O g a ve
e nd o f t he J a p a ne s e o c c up a t i o n, F R A N C I S C O s w i fe s uf fe r e d a
he r s up p o r t a nd s p e nt f o r he r e d uc a t i o n , s u c h t ha t s he o b t a i ne d a
m i s c a r r i a g e o r a b o r t i o n, t he r e b y d e p r i vi ng F R A N C I S C O o f
M a s t e r ' s d e g r e e , b e c a m e a c e r t i f i e d p ub l i c a c c o u nt a nt ( C P A ) a nd
c o ns o r t i u m ; t he r e a ft e r , F R A N C I S C O s w i fe m a n a g e d a ni g ht c l ub o n
e ve nt u a l l y , a C e nt r a l B a n k e x a m i ne r . I n vi e w o f F R A N C I S C O ' s
t he g r o u nd fl o o r o f N e l l y G a r d e n w hi c h o p e r a t e d d a i l y f r o m 6 : 0 0
r e f us a l t o e x p r e s s l y r e c o g ni z e he r , M O N I N A p r a ye d fo r a j ud i c i a l
p . m . t i l l 3 : 0 0 a . m . o f t he fo l l o w i ng d a y , t he r e b y a l l o w i ng
d e c l a r a t i o n o f he r i l l e g i t i m a t e s t a t u s a nd t h a t F R A N C IS C O s up p o r t
F R A N C IS C O fr e e a c c e s s t o M O N IN A s m o t he r , E s p e r a n z a A m o l a r ,
a nd t r e a t he r a s s uc h .
w ho w a s ni c k na m e d P a n s a y .

I n hi s a n s w e r , 5 F R A N C IS C O a l l e g e d t ha t he c o ul d no t ha ve h a d
A d e l a C a s a b ue n a , a 6 1 - ye a r o l d fa r m e r , t e s t i fi e d t ha t s he s e r ve d
s e x ua l r e l a t i o ns w i t h E s p e r a n z a A m o l a r d ur i ng t he p e r i o d
a s t he y a y a ( na n n y) o f L o ur d e s f r o m J ul y 1 9 4 6 up t o F e b r u a r y
s p e c i f i e d i n t he c o m p l a i nt a s s he ha d c e a s e d t o b e i n hi s e m p l o y
1 9 4 7 . A l t ho ug h P a ns a y h a d l e ft N e l l y G a r d e n t w o ( 2 ) w e e ks
a s e a r l y a s 1 9 4 4 , a nd d i d no t k no w o f he r w he r e a b o ut s s i n c e
b e fo r e A d e l a s t a r t e d w o r ki ng fo r t he J i s o ns , P a ns a y r e t u r ne d
t he n; f ur t he r , he ne v e r r e c o g ni z e d M O N I N A , e xp r e s s l y o r
s o m e t i m e i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 6 , o r a b o ut o ne m o nt h a ft e r s he g a ve
i m p l i e d l y , a s hi s i l l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d . A s a f fi r m a t i ve a nd s p e c i a l
b i r t h t o M O N I N A , t o a s k F R A N C I S C O fo r s up p o r t . A s a
d e fe ns e s , F R A N C I S C O c o nt e n d e d t ha t M O N I N A ha d no r i g ht o r
r e s ul t , P a n s a y a nd L i l i a J i s o n, F R A N C I S C O ' s w i fe , q ua r r e l e d i n t he
c a us e o f a c t i o n a g a i n s t hi m a n d t ha t he r a c t i o n w a s b a r r e d b y
l i vi ng r o o m , a nd i n t h e c o ur s e t he r e o f , P a n s a y c l a i m e d t ha t
e s t o p p e l , l a c he s a nd / o r p r e s c r i p t i o n . H e t h us p r a ye d fo r d i s m i s s a l
F R A N C IS C O w a s t he f a t he r o f he r b a b y . T o w hi c h, L i l i a r e p l i e d : I
o f t he c o m p l a i nt a nd a n a w a r d o f d a m a g e s d ue t o t he m a l i c i o us
d i d no t t e l l yo u t o m a ke t h a t b a b y s o i t i s y o ur f a ul t . D ur i ng t he
fi l i ng o f t he c o m p l a i nt .
q ua r r e l w hi c h l a s t e d f r o m 1 0 : 3 0 t i l l 1 1 : 0 0 a . m . , F R A N C IS C O w a s
s up p o s e d l y i ns i d e t he ho u s e l i s t e ni ng .
A ft e r M O N IN A f i l e d he r r e p l y , 6 p r e - t r i a l w a s c o nd uc t e d w he r e t he
p a r t i e s s t i p ul a t e d o n t he f o l l o w i ng i s s ue s :
A r s e ni o D ua t i n, a 7 7 - ye a r o l d r e t i r e d l a b o r e r , t e s t i fi e d t ha t fr o m
1 9 4 7 unt i l 1 9 7 7 , he w o r ke d a s F R A N C IS C O s ho u s e b o y a t t he
1 . D i d F r a n c i s c o J i s o n ha v e a ny s e x ua l r e l a t i o n[ s ] w i t h E s p e r a n z a l a t t e r s ho us e o n 1 2 t h S t r e e t , C a p i t o l S ub d i v i s i o n , Ba c o l o d C i t y .
A m [ o ] l a r a b o ut t he e n d o f 1 9 4 5 o r t he s t a r t o f 1 9 4 6 ? A r s e ni o m e t M O N IN A i n 1 9 6 7 , w he n F e l i p e L a g a r t o , t he
b o o kke e p e r a t N e l l y G a r d e n, i nfo r m e d A r s e n i o t h a t M O N I N A ,
2 . I s M o ni n a J i s o n t he r e c o g ni z e d i l l e g i t i m a t e d a ug ht e r o f F R A N C IS C O s d a ug ht e r , w o ul d a r r i ve a t Ba c o l o d C i t y w i t h a l e t t e r
F r a nc i s c o J i s o n b y t he l a t t e r s o w n a c t s a nd t ho s e o f hi s f a m i l y? o f i nt r o d uc t i o n f r o m L a g a r t o .
Page 7 of 42

I ni t i a l l y , A r s e ni o i d e n t i f i e d s e v e n ( 7 ) b l a c k - a nd - w hi t e Z a fi r o f ur t he r t e s t i fi e d t h a t w hi l e M O N IN A l i ve d w i t h M r s .
p ho t o g r a p h s ( E x hs . X - 5 t o X - 1 1 ) o f M O N I N A , 8 a nd a s he p a i d fo r C ua yc o ng , t he l a t t e r p a i d fo r s o m e o f M O N IN A s s c ho o l ne e d s a n d
t he t e l e p ho ne b i l l s , h e l i k e w i s e i d e nt i f i e d s i x ( 6 ) t e l e p ho ne c a r d s e ve n a s ke d M O N IN A t o w o r k i n a ho s p i t a l o w ne d b y M r s .
( E x hs . G t o L ) . A r s e ni o t he n d e c l a r e d t h a t w he n M O N I N A a r r i ve d C ua yc o ng ; a nd t h a t a no t h e r fi r s t c o u s i n o f F R A N C IS C O s w i fe , a
i n B a c o l o d C i t y , s he i nt r o d uc e d he r s e l f t o h i m a s F R A N C I S C O s c e r t a i n R e m e d i o s L o p e z F r a n c o , l i ke w i s e he l p e d M O N IN A w i t h he r
d a ug ht e r . S he s t a y e d a t F R A N C IS C O s ho us e , b ut w he n t h e l a t t e r s t ud i e s a nd p r o b l e m s , a nd e ve n a t t e nd e d M O N IN A s g r a d ua t i o n i n
a nd hi s w i f e w o ul d c o m e o v e r , A r s e ni o w o ul d c o nc e a l t he p r e s e n c e 1 9 7 8 w he n s he o b t a i n e d a m a s t e r a l d e g r e e i n B us i ne s s
o f M O N IN A b e c a us e M r s . J i s o n d i d no t l i ke t o s e e he r f a c e . O nc e , A d m i ni s t r a t i o n , a s e vi d e nc e d b y a no t he r p h o t o g r a p h ( E x h. X - 1 2 ) .
A r s e ni o hi d M O N I N A i n t he ho u s e o f F R A N C I S C O s s i s t e r , M r s . M o r e o ve r , up o n R e m e d i o s r e c o m m e nd a t i o n , M O N IN A w a s
L ui s a J i s o n A l a no , i n S i l a y C i t y ; a no t he r t i m e , a t t he r e s i d e nc e o f e m p l o ye d a s a s e c r e t a r y a t M e r c h a nt F i n a n c i ng C o m p a n y, w hi c h
F R A N C IS C O s c o u s i n, M r s . C o nc h a L o p e z C u a y c o ng . F i na l l y, w a s m a na g e d b y a c e r t a i n D a nt he a L o p e z , t he w i fe o f a no t he r
A r s e ni o d e c l a r e d t h a t t he l a s t t i m e he s a w M O N I N A w a s w he n s h e fi r s t c o us i n o f F R A N C I S C O s w i fe , a nd a m o n g w ho s e d i r e c t o r s w e r e
l e ft fo r M a ni l a , a f t e r ha v i ng f i ni s he d he r s c ho o l i ng a t L a S a l l e Z a fi r o hi m s e l f, hi s w i f e a nd D a nt he a s h us b a nd . I n c l o s i ng , Z a fi r o
College in Bacolod City. i d e nt i fi e d M O N I N A s S o c i a l S e c ur i t y R e c o r d ( E x h. W ) , w hi c h w a s
s i g ne d b y D a nt he a a s e m p l o ye r a nd w he r e M O N I N A d e s i g n a t e d
O n r e - d i r e c t a nd up o n q ue s t i o n s b y t he c o u r t , A r s e ni o d i s c l o s e d R e m e d i o s a s t he b e ne fi c i a r y .
t ha t i t w a s F R A N C I S C O w ho i ns t r u c t e d t ha t M O N IN A b e hi d d e n
w he ne v e r F R A N C IS C O a nd hi s w i f e w e r e a r o u nd ; t h a t a l t ho ug h D a nt he a L o p e z , a 5 8 - ye a r o l d ho u s e ke e p e r , d e c l a r e d t h a t
F R A N C IS C O a nd M O N I N A s a w e a c h o t he r a t t he B a c o l o d ho us e F R A N C IS C O w a s t he fi r s t c o u s i n o f he r h us b a nd , E u s e b i o D .
o nl y o nc e , t he y c a l l e d e a c h o t he r t h r o ug h l o ng d i s t a nc e ; a nd t ha t L o p e z ; a nd t ha t s he c a m e t o kno w M O N IN A i n t he l a t t e r p a r t o f
M O N I N A a d d r e s s e d F R A N C IS C O a s D a d d y d u r i ng t he i r l o ne 1 9 6 5 w he n R e m e d i o s F r a nc o r e c o m m e nd e d M O N I N A fo r
m e e t i ng a t t he B a c o l o d ho u s e a nd w e r e a f fe c t i o na t e t o e a c h e m p l o ym e nt a t M e r c h a nt F i na n c i ng C o . , w h i c h D a nt he a m a n a g e d
o t he r . A r s e ni o l i k e w i s e d e c l a r e d t h a t M O N I N A s t a ye d a t a t t ha t t i m e . R e m e d i o s i nt r o d uc e d M O N I N A t o D a nt he a a s b e i ng
F R A N C IS C O ' s B a c o l o d ho u s e t w i c e : f i r s t fo r a m o nt h, t he n fo r r e p ut e d l y t he d a ug ht e r o f M r . F r a n k J i s o n ; a nd o n s e ve r a l
a b o ut a w e e k t he s e c o nd t i m e . O n b o t h o c c a s i o n s , ho w e ve r , o c c a s i o ns t he r e a ft e r , R e m e d i o s m a d e D a nt h e a a nd t he l a t t e r s
F R A N C IS C O a nd hi s w i f e w e r e a b r o a d . F i na l l y, A r s e ni o r e c a l l e d h us b a nd u nd e r s t a nd t ha t M O N IN A w a s r e p u t e d l y t he d a ug ht e r o f
t ha t F R A N C I S C O l i k e w i s e b a d e A r s e ni o t o t r e a t M O N I N A l i ke hi s [ F R A N C I S C O ] . W hi l e M O N I N A w o r ke d a t M e r c ha nt F i n a nc i ng ,
( F R A N C I S C O s ) o t he r d a ug ht e r s . D a nt he a k ne w t ha t M O N IN A l i ve d w i t h R e m e d i o s ; ho w e ve r , i n t h e
l a t t e r p a r t o f 1 9 6 6 , a s R e m e d i o s l e ft fo r M a ni l a a nd M O N I N A w a s
T he t e s t i m o n y o f Z a f i r o L e d e s m a , a 7 4 - ye a r o l d b a n ke r a n d s t i l l s t ud yi ng a t S a n A g us t i n U ni ve r s i t y, D a n t he a a nd he r h u s b a nd
fo r m e r m a y o r o f Il o i l o C i t y , i ni t i a l l y t o uc he d o n ho w he a nd hi s i nvi t e d M O N I N A t o l i v e w i t h t he m . D ur i ng M O N IN A s 6 - m o nt h s t a y
w i fe w e r e r e l a t e d t o F R A N C I S C O , F R A N C IS C O ' s w i fe a nd M O N I N A . w i t h t he m , s he w a s n o t c ha r g e d fo r b o a r d a nd l o d g i ng a nd w a s
Z a fi r o f i r s t i d e nt i f i e d E x hi b i t R , a d i a g r a m o f t he f a m i l y t r e e s o f t r e a t e d a s a r e l a t i ve , no t a m e r e e m p l o ye e , a l l o w i ng t o w ha t
t he J i s o n a nd L o p e z f a m i l i e s , w hi c h s ho w e d t h a t fo r m e r V i c e - R e m e d i o s ha d s a i d r e g a r d i ng M O N IN A s fi l i a t i o n. A s D a nt he a
P r e s i d e nt F e r n a nd o L o p e z w a s t he f i r s t c o u s i n o f F R A N C I S C O s u nd e r s t o o d , M O N IN A r e s i g ne d fr o m M e r c ha n t F i n a nc i ng a s s he
w i fe , t he n t o l d t he c o ur t t h a t t he f a m i l y o f V i c e - P r e s i d e nt L o p e z w a s c a l l e d b y M r s . C u a y c o ng , a fi r s t c o us i n o f D a nt he a s h us b a nd
t r e a t e d M O N IN A v e r y w e l l b e c a us e s he i s c o ns i d e r e d a r e l a t i ve w ho l i ve d i n Ba c o l o d C i t y .
xx x b y r e p ut a t i o n , b y a c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n. Z a f i r o l i ke w i s e i d e nt i fi e d
Ex hi b i t s X - 1 3 t o X - 1 8 , p ho t o g r a p hs t a k e n a t t he 1 4 A p r i l 1 9 8 5 R o m e o Bi l b a o , a 4 3 - y e a r o l d s e a m a n , t e s t i f i e d t h a t he ha d w o r ke d
b i r t hd a y c e l e b r a t i o n o f M r s . F e r na nd o L o p e z , w hi c h s ho w e d fo r F R A N C I S C O f r o m 1 9 6 9 up t o 1 9 8 0 a t N e l l y G a r d e n i n v a r i o us
M O N I N A w i t h t he f o r m e r V i c e - P r e s i d e nt a nd o t he r m e m b e r s o f t he c a p a c i t i e s : a s a p r o c u r e m e nt o ffi c e r , h a c i e n d a o ve r s e e r a nd ,
Lopez family. l a t e r , a s h a c i e nd a a d m i ni s t r a t o r . S o m e t i m e i n M a y, 1 9 7 1 , R o m e o
s a w a nd he a r d M O N IN A a s k he r D a d d y ( m e a ni ng F R A N C IS C O ) fo r
t he m o ne y he p r o m i s e d t o g i ve he r , b ut F R A N C I S C O a ns w e r e d
Page 8 of 42

t ha t he d i d no t ha v e t he m o ne y t o g i v e , t he n t o l d M O N I N A t o g o b e t w e e n F R A N C IS C O a nd M O N I N A , R ud y s a w M O N IN A ki s s
s e e M r . J o s e C r uz i n B a c o l o d C i t y . T he n i n t he m i d d l e o f F R A N C IS C O o n t he c h e e k b o t h up o n a r r i vi n g a nd b e fo r e l e a vi ng ,
S e p t e m b e r t ha t y e a r , F R A N C IS C O t o l d R o m e o t o p i c k up M r . C r u z a nd F R A N C IS C O s r e a c t i o n up o n s e e i ng he r w a s t o s m i l e a nd s a y i n
a t t he Il o i l o p i e r a nd b r i ng hi m t o t he o f fi c e o f A t t y . Be nj a m i n t he V i s a y a n d i a l e c t : K a m us t a k a i ha ? ( H o w a r e yo u, d a ug ht e r ? ) ;
T i r o l . A t s a i d o f f i c e , A t t y . T i r o l , M r . C r u z a n d M O N IN A e nt e r e d a a nd t ha t M O N IN A w a s f r e e t o g o i n s i d e t he ho u s e a s t he
r o o m w hi l e R o m e o w a i t e d o ut s i d e . W he n t h e y c a m e o ut , A t t y . ho u s e ho l d s t a ff k ne w o f he r fi l i a t i o n , a nd t h a t , s o m e t i m e s ,
T i r o l ha d p a p e r s f o r M O N IN A t o s i g n , b ut s h e r e f us e d . A t t y. T i r o l M O N I N A w o ul d j o i n t h e m fo r l u n c h .
s a i d t h a t a c he c k w o u l d b e r e l e a s e d t o M O N IN A i f s he s i g ne d t he
p a p e r s , s o M O N IN A a c c e d e d , a l t ho ug h A t t y . T i r o l i nt e nd e d no t t o A l f r e d o Ba yl o s i s , a 6 2 - ye a r o l d r e t i r e d a c c o u nt a nt , t e s t i fi e d t ha t
g i ve M O N IN A a c o p y o f t he d o c um e nt s he s i g ne d . T he r e a ft e r , M r . he w o r ke d fo r F R A N C I S C O a t C e nt r a l S a nt o s - L o p e z i n Il o i l o fr o m
C r u z g a v e M O N I N A a c he c k ( E x h. Q ) , t he n M O N I N A g r a b b e d a 1 9 5 1 up t o 1 9 6 1 , t he n a t N e l l y G a r d e n fr o m 1 9 6 1 unt i l 1 9 7 2 .
c o p y o f t he d o c um e nt s he s i g ne d a nd r a n o u t s i d e . R o m e o t he n A l f r e d o fi r s t s e r ve d F R A N C I S C O a s a b o o kk e e p e r , t he n w h e n M r .
b r o ug ht M r . C r uz t o N e l l y G a r d e n . A s t o hi s m o t i ve fo r t e s t i f yi ng , L a g a r t o d i e d i n 1 9 6 7 o r 1 9 6 9 , A l fr e d o r e p l a c e d M r . L a g a r t o a s
R o m e o s t a t e d t h a t he w a nt e d t o he l p M O N IN A b e r e c o g ni z e d a s o ffi c e m a na g e r .
F R A N C IS C O S d a ug ht e r .
A l f r e d o k ne w M O N I N A s i nc e 1 9 6 1 a s s he us e d t o g o t o N e l l y
R ud y T i ng s o n , a 4 5 - y e a r o l d a nt i q ue d e a l e r , t e s t i fi e d t ha t i n G a r d e n t o c l a i m he r P 1 5 . 0 0 m o nt hl y a l l o w a nc e g i ve n up o n
1 9 6 3 - 1 9 6 4 , he w a s e m p l o y e d b y F R A N C IS C O s w i fe a t t he Ba g ui o F R A N C IS C O s s t a nd i ng o r d e r . A l fr e d o fu r t he r d e c l a r e d t ha t
M i l i t a r y I ns t i t ut e i n B a g ui o C i t y ; t he n i n 1 9 6 5 , R ud y w o r ke d a t M O N I N A s fi l i a t i o n w a s p r e t t y w e l l - k no w n i n t he o f fi c e ; t ha t he ha d
F R A N C IS C O s o f f i c e a t N e l l y G a r d e n r e c o r d i n g ha c i e nd a e xp e ns e s , s e e n M O N I N A a nd F R A N C I S C O g o fr o m t he m a i n b ui l d i ng t o t he
t yp i ng v o uc he r s a nd o f f i c e p a p e r s , a nd , a t t i m e s , a c t i ng a s o ffi c e , w i t h F R A N C IS C O s a r m o n M O N IN A s s ho ul d e r ; a nd t ha t t he
p a ym a s t e r f o r t h e ha c i e nd a s . F r o m t he na t u r e o f hi s w o r k, R ud y o ffi c e p a i d fo r t he b u r i a l e xp e ns e s o f P a ns a y , b ut t hi s w a s no t
k ne w t he p e r s o ns r e c e i v i ng m o ne y f r o m F R A N C IS C O s o f fi c e , a nd r e c o r d e d i n t he b o o k s i n o r d e r t o hi d e i t fr o m F R A N C IS C O s w i fe .
c l e a r l y r e m e m b e r e d t ha t i n 1 9 6 5 , a s p a r t o f hi s j o b , R ud y g a ve A l f r e d o a l s o d i s c l o s e d t h a t t he d i s b ur s e m e n t s fo r M O N IN A s
M O N I N A he r a l l o w a nc e f r o m F R A N C I S C O fo ur ( 4 ) t i m e s , up o n a l l o w a nc e s t a r t e d i n 1 9 6 1 a nd w e r e r e c o r d e d i n a s e p a r a t e c a s h
i ns t r u c t i o ns o f a c e r t a i n M r . L a g a r t o t o g i v e M O N IN A P 1 5 . 0 0 a b o o k. I n 1 9 6 7 , t he a l l o w a nc e s c e a s e d w he n M O N IN A s t o p p e d
m o nt h. R ud y l i k e w i s e r e c a l l e d t h a t he f i r s t m e t M O N I N A i n 1 9 6 5 , s c ho o l i ng a nd w a s e m p l o ye d i n Ba c o l o d C i t y w i t h M i l l e r , C r uz &
a n d t ha t s he w o ul d g o t o N e l l y G a r d e n w he n e ve r F R A N C I S C O s C o . , w hi c h s e r ve d a s F R A N C IS C O s a c c o u nt a nt - a ud i t o r . O nc e , w he n
w i fe w a s no t a r o u nd . O n s o m e o f t he s e o c c a s i o n s , M O N I N A w o ul d A l f r e d o w e nt t o t he o f fi c e s o f M i l l e r , C r u z & C o . t o s e e t he
s p e a k w i t h a nd a d d r e s s F R A N C I S C O a s D a d d y, w i t ho ut o b j e c t i o n m a n a g e r , M r . A t i e n z a , a nd a r r a ng e fo r t he p r e p a r a t i o n o f
fr o m F R A N C I S C O . I n f a c t , i n 1 9 6 5 , R ud y s a w F R A N C I S C O g i ve F R A N C IS C O s i n c o m e t a x r e t ur n , A l fr e d o c ha nc e d up o n M O N I N A .
M O N I N A m o ne y t hr i c e . R ud y f ur t he r d e c l a r e d t h a t i n A p r i l 1 9 6 5 , W he n A l fr e d o a s ke d h e r ho w s he c a m e t o w o r k t he r e , s he
F R A N C IS C O s o f f i c e p a i d P 2 5 0 . 0 0 t o F u ne r a r i a Be r na l fo r t he a n s w e r e d t h a t he r D a d d y, F R A N C IS C O , r e c o m m e nd e d he r , a fa c t
f une r a l e x p e n s e s o f M O N IN A s m o t he r . F i na l l y, a s t o R ud y ' s c o n fi r m e d b y M r . A t i e n z a . A l f r e d o t he n c l a i m e d t ha t M r . J o s e
m o t i v e s f o r t e s t i f y i ng , he t o l d t he c o ur t t ha t he s i m p l y w a nt e d t o C r u z , a p a r t ne r a t M i l l e r , C r uz & C o . , w a s t h e m o s t t r us t e d m a n o f
he l p b r i ng o ut t he t r u t h a nd no t hi ng b ut t h e t r ut h , a nd t h a t F R A N C IS C O .
M O N I N A s f i l i a t i o n w a s c o m m o n k no w l e d g e a m o ng t he p e o p l e i n
t he o f f i c e a t N e l l y G a r d e n.
D o m i na d o r S a va r i z , a 5 5 - ye a r o l d c a r e t a ke r , t e s t i fi e d t ha t he
w o r ke d a s F R A N C IS C O s ho us e b o y a t N e l l y G a r d e n fr o m N o ve m b e r
O n r e - d i r e c t , R ud y d e c l a r e d t ha t t he m o ne y s g i ve n b y 1 9 5 3 up t o 1 9 6 5 . O ne m o r ni ng i n A p r i l 1 9 5 4 , M O N IN A a nd he r
F R A N C IS C O s o f f i c e t o M O N I N A w e r e no t r e fl e c t e d i n t he b o o k s o f m o t he r P a ns a y w e n t t o N e l l y G a r d e n a nd s p o ke w i t h F R A N C I S C O
t he o f f i c e , b ut w e r e k e p t i n a s e p a r a t e b o o k, a s M r . L a g a r t o fo r a b o ut a n ho ur , d u r i ng w hi c h t i m e , D o m i na d o r w a s va c uu m i n g
e xp l a i ne d t h a t F R A N C I S C O s w i f e a nd c hi l d r e n s ho ul d no t k no w t he c a r p e t a b o ut s i x ( 6 ) t o s e ve n ( 7 ) m e t e r s a w a y . D ue t o t he
[ o f] t hi s . R ud y f ur t he r r e v e a l e d t ha t a s t o t he g a r d e n m e e t i ng s no i s e o f t he va c uu m c l e a ne r , F R A N C I S C O a n d M O N IN A s p o ke i n
Page 9 of 42

l o ud v o i c e s , t hu s D o m i na d o r o v e r he a r d t he i r c o n ve r s a t i o n . A s a nd r e c e i ve d p e r m i s s i o n fr o m F R A N C IS C O t o r e s i g n b e c a u s e he
F R A N C IS C O a s k e d P a n s a y w hy t he y c a m e , P a n s a y a ns w e r e d t h a t ( L o p e ) w a s hu r t .
t he y c a m e t o a s k f o r t he s us t e na nc e o f hi s c hi l d M O N IN A .
F R A N C IS C O t he n t o uc he d M O N IN A ' s he a d a nd a s ke d : H o w a r e yo u O n 2 1 O c t o b e r 1 9 8 6 , M O N I N A he r s e l f t o o k t he w i t ne s s s t a nd . A t
H i j a ? , t o w hi c h M O N I N A a ns w e r e d : G o o d m o r ni ng , D a d d y . A ft e r t ha t t i m e , s he w a s 4 0 ye a r s o l d a nd a C e nt r a l Ba n k E x a m i ne r . S h e
F R A N C IS C O t o l d P a n s a y a nd M O N IN A t o w a i t , he p ul l e d s o m e t hi n g a f fi r m e d t ha t a s e vi d e nc e d b y c e r t i fi c a t i o ns fr o m t he O f fi c e o f t he
fr o m hi s w a l l e t a n d s a i d t o P a ns a y : I a m g i v i ng t hi s fo r t h e c hi l d . L o c a l C i vi l R e g i s t r a r ( Ex h s . E a nd F ) a nd b a p t i s m a l c e r t i fi c a t e s
( E x hs . C a nd D ) , s he w a s b o r n o n 6 A u g u s t 1 9 4 6 i n Ba r a ng a y
I n M a y 1 9 5 4 , D o m i n a d o r s a w M O N I N A a t M r . L a g a r t o s o f fi c e T a b ug o n, D i ng l e , Il o i l o , t o E s p e r a n z a A m o l a r ( w ho p a s s e d a w a y
w he r e D o m i na d o r w a s t o g e t t he d a y s e xp e ns e s , w hi l e M O N I N A o n 2 0 A p r i l 1 9 6 5 ) a nd F R A N C I S C O . 9 M O N IN A fi r s t s t ud i e d a t
w a s c l a i m i ng he r a l l o w a nc e f r o m M r . D i a s n e s . T he ne xt m o nt h, S a g r a d o w he r e s he s t a ye d a s a b o a r d e r . W hi l e a t S a g r a d o f r o m
D o m i na d o r s a w M O N I N A a t N e l l y G a r d e n a n d he a r d i n t he o f fi c e 1 9 5 2 unt i l 1 9 5 5 ( up t o G r a d e 4 ) , he r fa t he r , F R A N C I S C O , p a i d fo r
t ha t M O N IN A w a s t he r e t o g e t he r a l l o w a nc e f r o m he r D a d d y. I n h e r t ui t i o n fe e s a nd o t he r s c ho o l e x p e n s e s . S he e i t he r r e c e i ve d
D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 0 , D o m i na d o r s a w M O N IN A a t N e l l y G a r d e n, i n t he t he m o ne y f r o m F R A N C IS C O o r fr o m M r . L a g a r t o , o r s a w
r o o m o f D o n V i c e nt e ( f a t he r o f F R A N C IS C O s w i fe ) , w he r e s he F R A N C IS C O g i ve m o n e y t o he r m o t he r , o r M r . L a g a r t o w o ul d p a y
a s ke d f o r a C h r i s t m a s g i f t a nd s he w a s c a l l i ng D o n S a g r a d o d i r e c t l y. A ft e r S a g r a d o , M O N I N A s t ud i e d i n d i ffe r e nt
V i c e nt e , L o l o ( g r a nd f a t he r ) . A t t ha t t i m e , F R A N C I S C O a nd hi s w i f e s c ho o l s , 1 0 b ut F R A N C I S C O c o nt i n uo us l y a n s w e r e d fo r he r
w e r e no t a r o u nd . T he n s o m e t i m e i n 1 9 6 1 , w he n D o m i na d o r w e nt s c ho o l i ng .
t o M r . L a g a r t o s o f f i c e t o g e t t he m a r k e t i ng e xp e ns e s , D o m i na d o r
s a w M O N I N A o nc e m o r e c l a i m i ng he r a l l o w a nc e . F o r he r c o l l e g e e d uc a t i o n, M O N I N A e nr o l l e d a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f
Il o i l o , b ut s he l a t e r d r o p p e d d ue t o a n a c c i d e nt w hi c h r e q ui r e d a
D o m i na d o r f ur t he r t e s t i f i e d t ha t i n F e b r ua r y 1 9 6 6 , a ft e r he h a d w e e k ' s ho s p i t a l i z a t i o n . A l t ho ug h F R A N C I S C O p a i d fo r p a r t o f t he
s t o p p e d w o r k i ng f o r F R A N C I S C O , D o m i n a d o r w a s a t M r s . F r a nc o s ho s p i t a l i z a t i o n e xp e ns e s , he r m o t he r s ho ul d e r e d m o s t o f t he m . I n
r e s i d e nc e a s s he r e c o m m e nd e d hi m f o r e m p l o ym e nt w i t h he r 1 9 6 3 , s he e nr o l l e d a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S a n A g u s t i n , w he r e s he
s i s t e r , M r s . C o n c ha C ua y c o ng . T he r e , he s a w M O N IN A , w ho w a s s t a ye d w i t h M r s . F r a n c o w ho p a i d f o r M O N I N A ' s t ui t i o n fe e s .
t he n a b o ut 1 5 y e a r s o l d , t o g e t he r w i t h M r s . F r a nc o s d a ug ht e r a n d H o w e ve r , e xp e n s e s fo r b o o ks , s c ho o l s u p p l i e s , uni fo r m s a nd t he
s o n . M r s . F r a nc o p o i n t e d a t M O N IN A a nd a s ke d D o m i n a d o r i f he l i ke w e r e s ho ul d e r e d b y F R A N C I S C O . A t t he s t a r t o f e a c h
k ne w w ho M O N I N A w a s . D o m i na d o r a n s w e r e d t h a t M O N IN A w a s s e m e s t e r , M O N IN A w o ul d s ho w F R A N C IS C O t ha t s he w a s e nr o l l e d ,
F R A N C IS C O s d a ug ht e r w i t h P a n s a y , a nd t he n M r s . F r a n c o t he n he w o ul d a s k he r t o c a nv a s s p r i c e s , t h e n g i ve he r t h e m o ne y
r e m a r k e d t ha t M O N IN A w a s s t a y i ng w i t h he r ( M r s . F r a nc o ) a nd s he ne e d e d . A ft e r fi ni s hi ng t w o ( 2 ) s e m e s t e r s a t U ni ve r s i t y o f S a n
t ha t s he w a s s e nd i ng M O N I N A t o s c ho o l a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S a n A g u s t i n , a s e vi d e nc e d b y he r t r a n s c r i p t o f r e c o r d s ( E xh . Z
Agustin. s ho w i n g t ha t F R A N C IS C O w a s l i s t e d a s P a r e nt / G u a r d i a n [ E x h. Z -
1 ] ) , s he t r a n s fe r r e d t o D e P a ul C o l l e g e , j us t i n fr o nt o f M r s .
L o p e A m o l a r , a 5 0 - y e a r o l d r e s i d e nt o f D i n g l e , Il o i l o , a nd t he F r a nc o s ho us e , a nd s t ud i e d t he r e fo r a ye a r . T he r e a ft e r , M O N IN A
yo u ng e r b r o t he r o f E s p e r a nz a A m o l a r ( P a ns a y ) , t e s t i fi e d t ha t he e nr o l l e d a t W e s t e r n I ns t i t ut e o f T e c h no l o g y ( W I T ) , w he r e s he
w o r ke d f o r F R A N C IS C O a s a ho u s e b o y f r o m M a r c h t o N o ve m b e r o b t a i ne d a b a c he l o r s d e g r e e i n C o m m e r c e i n A p r i l 1 9 6 7 . D u r i n g
1 9 4 5 a t N e l l y G a r d e n. T he r e a f t e r , F R A N C IS C O s e nt L o p e t o w o r k he r s e ni o r ye a r , s he s t a ye d w i t h Eu s e b i o a n d D a nt he a L o p e z a t
a t El e n a A p a r t m e nt s i n M a ni l a . B y N o v e m b e r 1 9 4 5 , P a n s a y w a s H o t e l K a hi r up , o w ne d b y s a i d c o up l e . S he p a s s e d t he C P A b o a r d
a l s o w o r k i ng a t E l e na A p a r t m e nt s , w he r e s h e r e ve a l e d t o L o p e e xa m s i n 1 9 7 4 , a nd t o o k up a n M . B. A . a t D e L a S a l l e U ni ve r s i t y
t ha t F R A N C I S C O i m p r e g na t e d he r . L o p e t he n c o nf r o nt e d a s e vi d e nc e d b y he r t r a ns c r i p t ( E x h . A A ) , w he r e i n F R A N C I S C O
F R A N C IS C O , w ho t o l d L o p e d o nt g e t hu r t a n d d o nt c a us e a n y w a s l i ke w i s e l i s t e d a s G ua r d i a n ( Ex h s . A A - 1 a nd A A - 2 ) .
t r o ub l e , b e c a us e I a m w i l l i ng t o s up p o r t yo ur I nd a y P a n s a y a nd
m y c hi l d . T h r e e ( 3 ) d a y s a f t e r t hi s c o n f r o n t a t i o n , L o p e a s ke d fo r M O N I N A e n um e r a t e d t he d i f fe r e nt m e m b e r s o f t he ho u s e ho l d s t a f f
a t N e l l y G a r d e n, t o w i t : L u z , t he ho us e ho l d c o o k; t he ho us e b o ys
Page 10 of 42

S i l ve s t r e a nd D o m i n g ; t he ho us e m a i d N a t a n g ; t he y a y a o f t he M O N I N A a l s o d e c l a r e d t h a t A t t y . T i r o l t he n t o l d he r t ha t s he
a d o p t e d t r i p l e t s , D e l i ng ; t he y a y a o f L o l o V i c e nt e , A d e l i na ; a nd w o ul d ha ve t o g o t o Il o i l o a nd s i g n a c e r t a i n a ffi d a vi t , b e fo r e M r .
o t he r s . M O N IN A l i k e w i s e e n um e r a t e d t he m e m b e r s o f t he o f fi c e C r u z w o ul d t ur n o ve r t he m o ne y p r o m i s e d b y F R A N C I S C O . S he
s t a f f ( M e s s r s . B a y l o s i s , L a g a r t o , T i ng s o n , D i a s ne s , J a l a nd o ni , w e nt t o A t t y. T i r o l s o f fi c e i n Il o i l o , b ut a ft e r g o i ng o ve r t he d r a ft
S up e r t i s i o s o , D o r o y , a nd o t he r s ) , a nd i d e nt i fi e d t he m fr o m a o f t he a ffi d a vi t , r e f us e d t o s i g n i t a s i t s t a t e d t h a t s he w a s no t
p ho t o g r a p h m a r k e d a s E x hi b i t X - 2 . S he t he n c o r r o b o r a t e d t he F R A N C IS C O s d a ug ht e r . S he e xp l a i ne d t ha t a l l s he h a d a g r e e d w i t h
p r i o r t e s t i m o n y r e g a r d i ng he r e m p l o y m e nt a t M e r c ha nt F i na n c i ng F R A N C IS C O w a s t ha t he w o ul d p a y fo r he r f a r e t o g o a b r o a d , a nd
C o . , a nd he r ha v i ng l i v e d a t H o t e l K a hi r up a nd a t M r s . C ua y c o ng s t ha t s i nc e s he w a s a l i t t l e g i r l , s he kne w a b o ut he r i l l e g i t i m a c y .
r e s i d e nc e i n B a c o l o d C i t y , w hi l e w o r k i ng a t t he ho s p i t a l o w ne d b y S he s t a r t e d c r yi ng , b e g g e d A t t y . T i r o l t o c h a ng e t he a f fi d a vi t , t o
M r s . C u a y c o ng . w hi c h A t t y . T i r o l r e s p o nd e d t h a t he w a s a l s o a f a t he r a nd d i d no t
w a nt t hi s t o h a p p e n t o hi s c hi l d r e n a s t he y c o ul d no t b e b l a m e d
M O N I N A f ur t he r t e s t i f i e d t h a t i n M a r c h 1 9 6 8 , s he w e nt t o M a ni l a fo r b e i ng b r o ug ht i nt o t he w o r l d . S he t he n w r o t e a l e t t e r ( Ex h . O )
a nd m e t F R A N C I S C O a t E l e na A p a r t m e nt s a t t he c o r ne r o f R o m e r o t o F R A N C I S C O a nd s e nt i t t o t he l a t t e r s F o r b e s P a r k r e s i d e n c e
a nd S a l a s S t r e e t s , E r m i t a . S he t o l d F R A N C I S C O t ha t s he w a s ( B a u hi ni a P l a c e ) b y J R S c o ur i e r s e r vi c e ( E x hs . O - 5 t o O - 7 ) .
g o i ng f o r a v a c a t i o n i n B a g ui o C i t y w i t h M r s . F r a nc o s m o t he r , w i t h M O N I N A s ub s e q ue nt l y m e t F R A N C I S C O i n B a c o l o d C i t y w he r e t he y
w ho m s he s t a y e d up t o J u ne 1 9 6 8 . U p o n he r r e t ur n fr o m Ba g ui o d i s c us s e d t he a ffi d a vi t w hi c h s he r e f us e d t o s i g n . F R A N C IS C O t o l d
C i t y , M O N IN A t o l d F R A N C IS C O t ha t s he w a nt e d t o w o r k, s o t he he r t ha t t he a f fi d a vi t w a s fo r hi s w i fe , t ha t i n c a s e s he he a r d
l a t t e r a r r a ng e d f o r he r e m p l o y m e nt a t M i l l e r & C r u z i n Ba c o l o d a b o ut M O N IN A g o i ng a b r o a d , t he a f fi d a vi t w o ul d ke e p he r p e a c e .
C i t y . M O N IN A w e nt t o B a c o l o d C i t y , w a s i nt e r vi e w e d b y M r . J o s e
C r u z , a p a r t ne r a t M i l l e r & C r u z , w ho t o l d h e r s he w o ul d s t a r t M O N I N A t he n na r r a t e d t h a t t he fi r s t t i m e s he w e nt t o A t t y . T i r o l s
w o r ki ng f i r s t w e e k o f S e p t e m b e r , s a n s e xa m i na t i o n. S he r e s i g ne d o ffi c e , s he w a s a c c o m p a ni e d b y o ne A t t y . F e r n a nd o D i vi n a g r a c i a ,
fr o m M i l l e r & C r uz i n 1 9 7 1 a nd l i v e d w i t h M r s . C ua yc o ng a t he r w ho a d vi s e d he r t ha t t he a f fi d a vi t ( E xh . P ) 1 1 w o ul d b o o m e r a n g
F o r b e s P a r k r e s i d e n c e i n M a k a t i . M O N IN A w e nt t o s e e F R A N C IS C O , a g a i ns t F R A N C I S C O a s i t i s c o nt r a r y t o l a w . M O N IN A r e t u r ne d t o
t o l d hi m t ha t s he r e s i g ne d a nd a s k e d hi m f o r m o ne y t o g o t o Ba c o l o d C i t y , t he n m e t w i t h A t t y. T i r o l o nc e m o r e t o r e i t e r a t e he r
S p a i n, b ut F R A N C I S C O r e f us e d a s s he c o ul d no t s p e a k S p a ni s h p l e a , b ut A t t y . T i r o l d i d no t r e l e nt . T hu s , o n t he m o r ni ng o f 2 0 o r
a nd w o ul d no t b e a b l e f i nd a j o b . T he t w o q ua r r e l e d a nd 2 1 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 1 , s he s i g ne d t he a f fi d a vi t a s s he w a s j o b l e s s
F R A N C IS C O o r d e r e d a he l p e r t o s e nd M O N I N A o ut o f t he ho u s e . I n a nd ne e d e d t he m o ne y t o s up p o r t he r s e l f a nd fi ni s h he r s t ud i e s .
t he p r o c e s s , M O N IN A b r o k e m a n y g l a s s e s a t t he p a nt r y a nd c ut I n e x c h a ng e fo r s i g ni ng t he d o c um e nt , M O N I N A r e c e i ve d a B a n k
he r ha nd , a f t e r w hi c h , F R A N C I S C O h ug g e d h e r , g a v e he r o f A s i a c h e c k fo r P 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 ( Ex h . Q ) , w hi c h w a s l e s s t ha n
m e d i c i ne , c a l m e d he r d o w n , a s k e d he r t o r e t ur n t o Ba c o l o d C i t y t he P 2 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 w hi c h F R A N C I S C O a l l e g e d l y p r o m i s e d t o g i ve . A s
a nd p r o m i s e d t h a t he w o ul d g i v e he r t he m o ne y. A t t y . T i r o l s e e m e d he s i t a nt t o g i ve he r a c o p y o f t he a f fi d a vi t
a ft e r no t a r i z i ng i t , M O N I N A m e r e l y g r a b b e d a c o p y a nd
M O N I N A r e t ur ne d t o B a c o l o d C i t y b y p l a ne , us i ng a F i l i p i na s i m m e d i a t e l y l e ft .
O r i e nt A i r w a y s p l a ne t i c k e t ( E x h . M ) w hi c h F R A N C IS C O g a ve . S he
c a l l e d M r . C r u z , t he n A t t y . T i r o l , a s i ns t r uc t e d b y M r . C r u z . T he s e M O N I N A t he n p r e p a r e d t o t r a ve l a b r o a d , fo r w hi c h p u r p o s e , s he
c a l l s w e r e e v i d e nc e d b y P L D T l o ng d i s t a n c e t o l l c a r d s ( E x hs . G t o p r o c u r e d l e t t e r s o f i nt r o d uc t i o n ( E xh s . S a n d T ) fr o m a c o u s i n,
L ) , w i t h a n no t a t i o n s a t t he b a c k r e a d i ng : c h a r g e d a nd p a i d u nd e r M i ke A l a no ( s o n o f F R A N C IS C O s e l d e r s i s t e r L ui s a ) ; a nd a n u n c l e ,
t he n a m e o f F r a n k L . J i s o n a nd w e r e s i g ne d b y A r s e ni o D ua t i n Em i l i o J i s o n ( F R A N C I S C O s e l d e r b r o t he r ) , a d d r e s s e d t o a no t he r
( E x hs . G - 1 t o L - 1 ) . P L D T i s s ue d a c e r t i f i c a t i o n a s t o t he ve r a c i t y c o us i n , Be t h J i s o n ( E m i l i o s d a ug ht e r ) , fo r Be t h t o a s s i s t M O N IN A .
o f t he c o nt e nt s o f t he t o l l c a r d s ( E x h . B B) . L i ke w i s e i nt r o d u c e d i n Ex hi b i t S c o nt a i ne d a s t a t e m e nt ( E x h . S - 1 ) e xp r e s s l y r e c o g ni z i ng
e vi d e nc e w a s a l e t t e r o f i nt r o d uc t i o n p r e p a r e d b y M r . C r u z t ha t M O N IN A w a s F R A N C I S C O s d a ug ht e r . U l t i m a t e l y t ho ug h ,
a d d r e s s e d t o A t t y . T i r o l , o n M O N IN A ' s b e h a l f ( Ex h . N ) . M O N I N A d e c i d e d no t t o g o a b r o a d , o p t i n g i n s t e a d t o s p e nd t he
p r o c e e d s o f t he P 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 c he c k fo r he r C P A r e vi e w , b o a r d e xa m
a nd g r a d ua t e s t ud i e s . A ft e r fi ni s hi ng he r g r a d u a t e s t ud i e s , s he
Page 11 of 42

a g a i n p l a n ne d t o t r a v e l a b r o a d , f o r w hi c h r e a s o n , s he o b t a i ne d a d i s a vo w e d a n y k no w l e d g e a b o ut M O N IN A s b i r t h . I n t he s a m e ve i n ,
l e t t e r o f i nt r o d uc t i o n f r o m f o r m e r V i c e P r e s i d e nt F e r na nd o L o p e z he d e ni e d ha vi ng p a i d fo r M O N IN A s t ui t i o n f e e s , i n p e r s o n o r
a d d r e s s e d t o t he n U ni t e d S t a t e s C o ns ul V e r no n M c A nni c h ( E x h. o t h e r w i s e , a n d a s s e r t e d t h a t he ne ve r k ne w t ha t M r . L a g a r t o p a i d
V). fo r t he s e fe e s . M o r e o ve r , F R A N C I S C O c o ul d no t b e l i e ve t ha t
L a g a r t o w o ul d p a y fo r t he s e fe e s d e s p i t e a b s e n c e o f i n s t r uc t i o ns
A s t o o t he r a c t s t e nd i ng t o s ho w he r f i l i a t i o n, M O N I N A r e l a t e d o r a p p r o v a l fr o m F R A N C I S C O . H e l i ke w i s e c a t e g o r i c a l l y d e ni e d
t ha t o n o ne o c c a s i o n , a s F R A N C I S C O s w i fe w a s g o i ng t o a r r i ve a t t ha t he t o l d a n yo ne , b e i t D a nt he a L o p e z , Z a fi r o L e d e s m a , C o nc ha
t he l a t t e r s B a c o l o d C i t y r e s i d e nc e , F R A N C I S C O c a l l e d A r s e ni o C ua yc o ng o r R e m e d i o s F r a nc o , t h a t M O N IN A w a s hi s d a ug ht e r .
D ua t i n a nd i n s t r uc t e d A r s e ni o t o hi d e M O N I N A . T h us , M O N IN A
s t a ye d w i t h M r s . L ui s a J i s o n f o r t h e d ur a t i o n o f t he s t a y o f F R A N C IS C O a l s o d i s c l o s e d t h a t up o n hi s r e t ur n fr o m t he U ni t e d
F R A N C IS C O s w i f e . M O N I N A a l s o c l a i m e d t ha t s he k ne w V i c e S t a t e s i n 1 9 7 1 , he fi r e d A l f r e d o Ba yl o s i s up o n d i s c o ve r i ng t ha t
P r e s i d e nt F e r n a nd o L o p e z a nd hi s w i f e , M a r i q ui t , e ve n b e fo r e A l f r e d o ha d t a k e n a d va nt a g e o f hi s p o s i t i o n d u r i ng t he fo r m e r s
s t a r t i ng t o g o t o s c ho o l . T h u s , M O N I N A a s k e d fo r a a b s e nc e . F R A N C I S C O l i ke w i s e fi r e d R ud y T i ng s o n a nd R o m e o
r e c o m m e nd a t i o n l e t t e r ( E x h. U ) f r o m M r s . M a r i q ui t L o p e z fo r Bi l b a o , b ut d i d no t g i ve t he r e a s o ns t he r e f o r .
p o s s i b l e e m p l o y m e nt w i t h M r s . R o s a r i o L o p e z C o o p e r , a no t he r
s e c o n d c o u s i n o f F R A N C I S C O . I n E x hi b i t U , M r s . L o p e z e xp r e s s l y F i n a l l y , F R A N C I S C O d e ni e d k no w l e d g e o f M O N I N A s l o n g d i s t a n c e
r e c o g ni z e d M O N I N A a s F R A N C IS C O s d a ug ht e r . A s a d d i t i o n a l p r o o f c a l l s f r o m hi s B a c o l o d r e s i d e nc e ; ne ve r t he l e s s , w he n h e
o f he r c l o s e r e l a t i o ns hi p w i t h t he f a m i l y o f V i c e P r e s i d e nt L o p e z , s ub s e q ue nt l y d i s c o v e r e d t hi s , he fi r e d c e r t a i n p e o p l e i n hi s o f fi c e
M O N I N A i d e nt i f i e d p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n a t a b i r t hd a y c e l e b r a t i o n o n fo r t he i r fa i l ur e t o r e p o r t t hi s a no m a l y. A s r e g a r d s t he c a r e t a ke r
14 April 1985. o f hi s Ba c o l o d r e s i d e nc e , F R A N C IS C O e xp l a i ne d t ha t s i n c e
M O N I N A l i ve d a t M r s . C u a yc o ng s r e s i d e nc e , t he c a r e t a ke r t ho ug ht
M O N I N A f i n a l l y c l a i m e d t h a t s he k ne w t he t hr e e ( 3 ) c hi l d r e n o f t ha t h e c o ul d a l l o w p e o p l e w ho l i ve d a t t he C ua yc o ng r e s i d e nc e t o
F R A N C IS C O b y w i f e , n a m e l y , L o u r d e s , F r a nc i s c o , J r . ( J uni o r ) a nd us e t he fa c i l i t i e s a t hi s ( F R A N C I S C O s ) ho us e .
El e n a , b ut M O N IN A h a d m e t o nl y L o u r d e s a n d J u ni o r . M O N IN A ' s
t e s t i m o n y d e a l t l e ng t hi l y o n he r d e a l i ng s w i t h J uni o r a nd t he t w o N o ni t o J a l a nd o ni , b o o kke e p e r a nd p a ym a s t e r a t N e l l ys G a r d e n
( 2 ) o c c a s i o ns w he n s h e m e t w i t h L o u r d e s . T he l a s t t i m e M O N IN A fr o m 1 9 6 3 u p t o 1 9 7 4 , t he n f r o m 1 9 8 0 up t o 1 9 8 6 , t he a s s i s t a nt
s a w F R A N C IS C O w a s i n M a r c h 1 9 7 9 , w he n s he s o ug ht hi s o ve r s e e r o f H a c i e nd a L o p e z , t e s t i fi e d t h a t h e d i d no t k no w
b l e s s i ng s t o g e t m a r r i e d . M O N I N A ; t ha t he l e a r ne d o f he r o nl y i n J u n e 1 9 8 8 , w he n he w a s
i nfo r m e d b y F R A N C IS C O t h a t M O N IN A h a d s ue d hi m ; a nd t ha t he
I n hi s d e f e ns e , F R A N C I S C O o f f e r e d hi s d e p o s i t i o n t a k e n b e fo r e ne ve r s a w M O N I N A a t N e l l ys G a r d e n , ne i t he r d i d he k no w o f a ny
t he n J u d g e R o m e o C a l l e j o o f t he R e g i o n a l T r i a l C o ur t o f M a ni l a , i ns t r u c t i o ns fo r a n yo n e a t N e l l ys G a r d e n t o g i ve m o ne y t o
Br a n c h 4 8 . A s a d d i t i o na l w i t ne s s e s , F R A N C I S C O p r e s e nt e d N o ni t o MONINA.
J a l a nd o ni , T e o d o r o Z u l l a , Ii g o S up e r t i s i o s o , L o u r d e s L e d e s m a ,
J o s e C r u z a nd D o l o r e s A r g e na l . T e o d o r o Z ul l a , F R A N C I S C O s b o o k ke e p e r a n d p a ym a s t e r fr o m 1 9 5 1
up t o 1 9 8 6 , t e s t i fi e d t ha t F R A N C I S C O d i s m i s s e d A l fr e d o Ba yl o s i s
F R A N C IS C O d e c l a r e d t ha t P a ns a y s e m p l o ym e nt c e a s e d a s o f d ue t o c e r t a i n u n s p e c i fi e d d i s c r e p a nc i e s ; a n d t h a t he ne v e r s a w
O c t o b e r , 1 9 4 4 , a nd t h a t w hi l e e m p l o y e d b y hi m , P a ns a y w o ul d M O N I N A r e c e i ve f un d s f r o m e i t he r M r . L a g a r t o o r M r . B a yl o s i s .
s l e e p w i t h t he o t he r f e m a l e he l p e r s o n t he fi r s t fl o o r o f hi s U p o n q ue s t i o n s f r o m t he t r i a l c o ur t , ho w e ve r , T e o d o r o a d m i t t e d
r e s i d e nc e , w hi l e he , h i s w i f e a nd d a ug ht e r s l e p t i n a r o o m o n t he t ha t he p r e p a r e d vo uc he r s fo r o nl y o ne o f F R A N C I S C O s ha c i e nd a s ,
s e c o n d f l o o r . A t t h a t t i m e , hi s ho us e ho l d s t a f f w a s c o m p o s e d o f a nd no t vo uc he r s p e r t a i ni ng t o t he l a t t e r s p e r s o n a l e xp e ns e s .
t hr e e ( 3 ) f e m a l e w o r k e r s a nd t w o ( 2 ) m a l e w o r ke r s .
A ft e r P a ns a y l e f t i n O c t o b e r 1 9 4 4 , s he ne ve r c o m m u ni c a t e d w i t h Ii g o S up e r t i s i o s o t e s t i fi e d t ha t he w o r ke d fo r F R A N C IS C O a t
hi m a g a i n , ne i t he r d i d he k no w o f he r w he r e a b o ut s . F R A N C I S C O N e l l ys G a r d e n fr o m 1 9 6 4 up t o 1 9 8 4 a s a fi e l d i n s p e c t o r ,
s t a u n c hl y d e ni e d h a v i ng h a d s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h P a ns a y a nd p a ym a s t e r , c a s hi e r a n d , e ve nt ua l l y, o f fi c e r - i n - c h a r g e ( O I C ) . H e
Page 12 of 42

c o n fi r m e d A l f r e d o B a y l o s i s d i s m i s s a l d ue t o t he s e un s p e c i fi e d D o l o r e s A r g e n a l , a ho us e he l p e r a t N e l l y G a r d e n fr o m M a y 1 9 4 4 u p
i r r e g ul a r i t i e s , t he n d e ni e d t h a t F R A N C IS C O e ve r o r d e r e d t ha t t o M a y 1 9 4 6 , t e s t i fi e d t h a t s he k ne w t ha t P a n s a y w a s L o u r d e s
M O N I N A b e g i v e n he r a l l o w a nc e . L i k e w i s e , I i g o ne ve r he a r d na n ny ; t h a t L o ur d e s s l e p t i n he r p a r e nt s r o o m ; t ha t s he ha d no t
F R A N C IS C O m e nt i o n t ha t M O N IN A w a s hi s ( F R A N C IS C O s ) s e e n F R A N C IS C O g i ve s p e c i a l t r e a t m e nt t o P a ns a y ; t ha t t he r e w a s
d a ug ht e r . no u n us ua l r e l a t i o ns hi p b e t w e e n F R A N C IS C O a nd P a ns a y , a nd i f
t he r e w a s a n y, D o l o r e s w o ul d ha ve e a s i l y d e t e c t e d i t s i nc e s he
L o ur d e s L e d e s m a , F R A N C IS C O s d a ug ht e r , t e s t i fi e d t h a t s he s a w s l e p t i n t he s a m e r o o m a s P a n s a y . D o l o r e s f ur t he r d e c l a r e d t h a t
( b ut d i d no t k no w ) M O N IN A a t t he O ur L a d y o f M e r c y H o s p i t a l , o n w he ne ve r F R A N C IS C O s w i fe w a s o ut o f t o w n, P a ns a y w o ul d b r i ng
t he o c c a s i o n o f t he b i r t h o f L o ur d e s f i r s t s o n, M a r k . O ve r l u n c h L o ur d e s d o w ns t a i r s a t ni g ht t i m e , a nd t h a t P a n s a y w o ul d no t s l e e p
o ne d a y , L o ur d e s a u nt c a s ua l l y i nt r o d uc e d L o ur d e s a nd M O N I N A i n t he r o o m w he r e F R A N C IS C O s l e p t . F i na l l y, D o l o r e s d e c l a r e d
t o e a c h o t he r , b ut t he y w e r e r e f e r r e d t o o nl y b y t he i r fi r s t n a m e s . t ha t P a n s a y s t o p p e d w o r ki ng fo r F R A N C I S C O a nd hi s w i fe i n
T he n s o m e t i m e i n 1 9 8 3 o r 1 9 8 4 , M O N I N A a l l e g e d l y w e nt t o October, 1944.
L o ur d e s ho us e i n S t a . C l a r a S ub d i v i s i o n r e q ue s t i ng fo r a l e t t e r o f
i nt r o d uc t i o n o r r e f e r r a l a s M O N IN A w a s t he n j o b - h unt i ng . T he r e c e p t i o n o f e vi d e nc e ha vi ng b e e n c o n c l ud e d , t he p a r t i e s
H o w e v e r , L o u r d e s d i d no t c o m p l y w i t h t he r e q ue s t . fi l e d t he i r r e s p e c t i ve m e m o r a nd a .

J o s e C r u z , a p a r t ne r a t M i l l e r , C r u z & C o . , t e s t i fi e d t h a t M O N IN A It ne e d b e r e c a l l e d t h a t J ud g e C a t a l i no C a s t a e d a , J r . p r e s i d e d
w o r ke d a t M i l l e r & C r u z f r o m 1 9 6 8 up t o 1 9 7 1 , ho w e v e r , he d i d o ve r t r i a l up t o 2 1 O c t o b e r 1 9 8 6 , t he r e b y h e a r i n g o nl y t he
no t p e r s o na l l y i nt e r v i e w he r b e f o r e s he w a s a c c e p t e d fo r t e s t i m o ni e s o f M O N IN A s w i t ne s s e s a nd a b o ut h a l f o f M O N I N A s
e m p l o y m e nt . M o r e o v e r , M O N IN A u nd e r w e nt t he us u a l s c r e e ni ng t e s t i m o n y o n d i r e c t e xa m i na t i o n . J ud g e N o r b e r t o E . D e ve r a , J r .
p r o c e d ur e b e f o r e b e i n g hi r e d . J o s e r e c a l l e d t ha t o ne o f t he he a r d t he r e s t o f M O N IN A ' s t e s t i m o ny a nd t ho s e o f F R A N C IS C O s
a c c o u nt a nt s , a c e r t a i n M r . A t i e n z a , r e p o r t e d t h a t M O N IN A c l a i m e d w i t ne s s e s .
t o b e F R A N C IS C O s d a ug ht e r . J o s e t he n t o l d M r . A t i e n z a t o s p e a k
w i t h M O N I N A a nd s e e i f he ( M r . A t i e nz a ) c o ul d s t o p he r fr o m I n i t s d e c i s i o n o f 1 2 N o ve m b e r 1 9 9 0 1 2 t he t r i a l c o ur t , t h r o ug h
s p r e a d i ng t hi s r um o r . M r . A t i e n z a r e p o r t e d t ha t he s p o ke w i t h J ud g e D e ve r a , d i s m i s s e d t he c o m p l a i nt w i t h c o s t s a g a i ns t
M O N I N A , w ho t o l d hi m t ha t s he p l a n ne d t o l e a ve fo r t he U ni t e d M O N I N A . In t he o p e ni ng p a r a g r a p h t he r e o f, i t o b s e r ve d :
S t a t e s a nd ne e d e d P 2 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 f o r t h a t p u r p o s e , a nd i n e xc ha ng e ,
s he w o ul d s i g n a d o c u m e nt d i s c l a i m i ng fi l i a t i o n w i t h F R A N C IS C O .
T hi s i s a c o m p l a i nt fo r r e c o g ni t i o n o f a n i l l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d
T h u s , J o s e i ns t r u c t e d M r . A t i e n z a t o r e q ue s t t h a t M O N IN A m e e t
i ns t i t ut e d b y p l a i nt i f f M o ni na J i s o n a g a i ns t d e fe nd a nt F r a n c i s c o
w i t h J o s e , a nd a t t ha t m e e t i ng , M O N I N A c o n fi r m e d M r . A t i e n z a s
J i s o n . T hi s c o m p l a i nt w a s fi l e d o n M a r c h 1 3 , 1 9 8 5 a t t he t i m e
r e p o r t . J o s e t he n i n f o r m e d A t t y . T i r o l , F R A N C I S C O s p e r s o n a l
w he n p l a i nt i ff , r e c ko n e d f r o m he r d e a t h o f b i r t h , w a s a l r e a d y
l a w ye r , a b o ut t he m a t t e r .
t hi r t y - ni ne ye a r s o l d . N o t e w o r t h y a l s o i s t h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s
i ns t i t ut e d t w e nt y ye a r s a ft e r t he d e a t h o f p l a i nt i ff s m o t he r ,
A t t y . T i r o l t o l d J o s e t o s e nd M O N IN A a nd h e r l a w ye r t o hi s ( A t t y. Es p e r a n z a A m o l a r . F o r t he ye a r s b e t w e e n p l a i nt i ff s b i r t h a nd
T i r o l s ) o f f i c e i n Il o i l o . J o s e t he n w r o t e o ut a l e t t e r o f i nt r o d uc t i o n Es p e r a n z a s d e a t h , no a c t i o n o f a n y ki nd w a s i ns t i t ut e d a g a i ns t
fo r M O N IN A a d d r e s s e d t o A t t y . T i r o l . J o s e r e l a ye d A t t y . T i r o l s d e fe nd a nt e i t he r b y p l a i nt i ff , he r m o t he r E s p e r a nz a o r t he l a t t e r s
m e s s a g e t o M O N IN A t hr o ug h M r . A t i e n z a , t he n l a t e r , A t t y . T i r o l p a r e nt s . N e i t he r h a d p l a i nt i ff b r o ug ht s uc h a n a c t i o n a g a i n s t
t o l d J o s e t o g o t o Il o i l o w i t h a c he c k f o r P 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . J o s e d e fe nd a nt i m m e d i a t e l y up o n he r m o t he r s d e a t h o n A p r i l 2 0 , 1 9 6 5 ,
c o m p l i e d , a nd a t A t t y . T i r o l s o f f i c e , J o s e s a w M O N IN A , A t t y . T i r o l c o ns i d e r i ng t ha t s he w a s t he n a l r e a d y ni ne t e e n ye a r s o l d o r ,
a nd hi s s e c r e t a r y r e a d i ng s o m e d o c um e nt s . M O N IN A t he n w i t hi n a r e a s o na b l e t i m e t he r e a ft e r . T w e nt y ye a r s m o r e h a d t o
e xp r e s s e d he r w i l l i ng ne s s t o s i g n t he d o c u m e nt , s a ns r e vi s i o ns . s up e r ve ne b e fo r e t hi s c o m p l a i nt w a s e ve nt ua l l y i n s t i t ut e d .
J o s e a l l e g e d t h a t he d r e w t he P 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 fr o m hi s p e r s o n a l
f und s , s ub j e c t t o r e i m b ur s e m e nt f r o m a nd d ue t o a n
T he t r i a l c o u r t t he n p r o c e e d e d t o d i s c us s t he fo ur i s s ue s
u nd e r s t a nd i ng w i t h F R A N C IS C O .
s t i p ul a t e d a t p r e - t r i a l , w i t ho ut , ho w e ve r , s um m a r i z i n g t he
Page 13 of 42

t e s t i m o ni e s o f t he w i t ne s s e s no r r e f e r r i ng t o t he t e s t i m o ni e s o f w hi c h r e a s o n t he t r i a l c o ur t e x c l ud e d t he l e t t e r s fr o m
t he w i t ne s s e s o t he r t ha n t ho s e m e nt i o ne d i n t he d i s c us s i o n o f t h e F R A N C IS C O s r e l a t i ve s ( E xh s . S t o V ) .
i s s ue s .
A s t o t he t hi r d i s s ue , t he t r i a l c o ur t he l d t h a t M O N I N A w a s no t
T he t r i a l c o u r t r e s o l v e d t he f i r s t i s s ue i n t h e ne g a t i ve , ho l d i ng b a r r e d b y p r e s c r i p t i o n fo r i t w a s o f t he p e r c e p t i o n t ha t t he
t ha t i t w a s i m p r o b a b l e f o r w i t ne s s L o p e A m o l a r t o h a ve no t i c e d b e ne fi t s o f A r t i c l e 2 6 8 a c c o r d e d t o l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d r e n m a y b e
t ha t P a n s a y w a s p r e g na nt up o n s e e i ng he r a t t he El e na a va i l e d o f o r e xt e nd e d t o i l l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d r e n i n t he s a m e m a n n e r
A p a r t m e nt s i n N o v e m b e r 1 9 4 5 , s i nc e P a ns a y w a s t he n o nl y i n he r a s t he F a m i l y C o d e h a s s o p r o vi d e d ; o r b y l a c he s , w hi c h i s [ a ]
fi r s t m o nt h o f p r e g na nc y ; t ha t t he r e w a s n o p o s i t i ve a s s e r t i o n c r e a t i o n o f e q ui t y a p p l i e d o nl y t o b r i ng e q ui t a b l e r e s ul t s , a nd
t ha t c o p ul a t i o n d i d i n d e e d t a k e p l a c e b e t w e e n F r a n c i s c o a nd a d d r e s s e d t o t he s o u n d d i s c r e t i o n o f t he c o ur t [ a nd ] t he
Es p e r a n z a ; a nd t ha t M O N I N A s a t t e m p t t o s ho w o p p o r t u ni t y o n t h e c i r c um s t a nc e s [ he r e ] w o ul d s ho w t h a t w he t he r p l a i nt i f f fi l e d t hi s
p a r t o f F R A N C I S C O f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r t h a t t he r e w a s a l s o t he c a s e i m m e d i a t e l y up o n t he d e a t h o f he r m o t he r Es p e r a nz a i n 1 9 6 5
o p p o r t u ni t y f o r c o p ul a t i o n b e t w e e n E s p e r a n z a a nd o ne o f t he o r t w e nt y ye a r s t he r e a ft e r i n 1 9 8 5 , xx x t he r e s e e m s t o b e no
s e ve r a l d o m e s t i c he l p e r s a d m i t t e d l y a l s o r e s i d i ng a t N e l l ys i ne q ui t a b l e r e s ul t t o d e fe nd a nt a s r e l a t e d t o t he s i t u a t i o n o f
G a r d e n a t t h a t t i m e . T he R T C a l s o r ul e d t h a t t he p r o b a t i ve va l ue p l a i nt i ff .
o f t he b i r t h a nd b a p t i s m a l c e r t i f i c a t e s o f M O N IN A p a l e d i n l i g ht o f
j ur i s p r ud e nc e , e s p e c i a l l y w he n t he m i s s p e l l i ng s t he r e i n w e r e T he R T C r ul e d , ho w e v e r , t h a t M O N IN A w a s b a r r e d b y e s t o p p e l b y
c o ns i d e r e d . d e e d b e c a us e o f t he a ffi d a vi t ( E x h. P / Ex h . 2 ) w hi c h s he s i g ne d
w he n s he w a s a l r e a d y t w e nt y - fi ve ye a r s , a p r o fe s s i o n a l a nd u nd e r
T he t r i a l c o u r t l i k e w i s e r e s o l v e d t he s e c o nd i s s ue i n t he ne g a t i ve , t he a b l e g ui d a nc e o f c o un s e l .
fi nd i ng t ha t M O N IN A s e v i d e nc e t he r e o n m a y e i t he r b e o ne o f
t hr e e c a t e g o r i e s , n a m e l y : he a r s a y e v i d e nc e , i nc r e d ul o u s F i n a l l y , t he R T C d e ni e d F R A N C I S C O s c l a i m f o r d a m a g e s , fi nd i ng
e vi d e nc e , o r s e l f - s e r v i ng e v i d e nc e . " T o t he fi r s t c a t e g o r y t ha t M O N IN A d i d no t f i l e t he c o m p l a i nt w i t h m a l i c e , s he ha vi ng
b e l o ng e d t he t e s t i m o n i e s o f A d e l a C a s a b ue n a a nd A l f r e d o b e e n p r o p e l l e d b y a n ho ne s t b e l i e f , fo u nd e d o n p r o b a b l e c a u s e .
Ba yl o s i s , w ho s e k no w l e d g e o f M O N I N A s fi l i a t i o n w a s b a s e d , a s t o
t he fo r m e r , o n ut t e r a nc e s o f d e f e nd a nt s w i fe L i l i a a nd Es p e r a n z a
M O N I N A s e a s o na b l y a p p e a l e d t o t he C o u r t o f A p p e a l s ( C A - G . R . C V
a l l e g e d l y d ur i ng t he h e a t o f t he i r q ua r r e l , w hi l e a s t o t he l a t t e r ,
N o . 3 2 8 6 0 ) a nd s o ug h t r e ve r s a l o f t he t r i a l c o ur t s d e c i s i o n o n t he
A l f r e d o ' s c o n c l u s i o n w a s b a s e d f r o m t he r u m o r s g o i ng [ a r o u nd ]
g r o u nd s t ha t :
t ha t p l a i nt i f f i s d e f e n d a nt s d a u g ht e r , f r o m hi s p e r s o n a l
o b s e r v a t i o n o f p l a i nt i f f s f a c i a l a p p e a r a nc e w hi c h he c o m p a r e d
w i t h t ha t o f d e f e nd a n t s a nd f r o m t he w a y t he t w o ( p l a i nt i ff a nd I
d e fe nd a nt ) a c t e d a n d t r e a t e d e a c h o t he r o n o ne o c c a s i o n t ha t he
ha d t he n o p p o r t u ni t y t o c l o s e l y o b s e r v e t he m t o g e t he r . T o t he T H E T R IA L C O U R T W A S E R R O N EO U S L Y P R E D I S P O S ED T O A D J U D G E
s e c o n d c a t e g o r y b e l o n g e d t ha t o f D o m i na d o r S a va r i z , a s : T H I S C A S E A G A I N S T A P P EL L A N T D U E T O IT S M I S P E R C E P T IO N
T H A T A P P EL L A N T S D E L A Y IN F IL I N G H E R C O M P L A I N T W A S F A T A L
A t e a c h p r e c i s e t i m e t ha t E s p e r a nz a a l l e g e d l y vi s i t e d N e l l ys TO HER CASE.
G a r d e n a nd a l l e g e d l y o n t ho s e o c c a s i o ns w h e n d e fe nd a nt s w i fe ,
L i l i a w a s i n M a ni l a , t h i s w i t ne s s w a s t he r e a nd a l l e g e d l y he a r d II
p i e c e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n b e t w e e n d e f e nd a nt a nd E s p e r a n z a r e l a t e d
t o t he p a t e r ni t y o f t h e l a t t e r s c hi l d . x x x
T H E T R IA L C O U R T ER R ED IN I T S R E J E C T IO N O F T H E T ES T IM O N I ES
O F A P P EL L A N T S W I T N ES S ES A S T A IL O R - M A D E , I N A D EQ U A T E A N D
T he R T C t he n p l a c e d M O N I N A s t e s t i m o n y r e g a r d i ng t he a c t s o f IN C R ED I BL E .
r e c o g ni t i o n a c c o r d e d he r b y F R A N C I S C O s r e l a t i ve s u nd e r t he t hi r d
c a t e g o r y , s i n c e t he l a t t e r w e r e ne v e r p r e s e nt e d a s w i t ne s s e s , fo r
Page 14 of 42

III s i l e nc e , t e s t i m o ni e s o f w i t ne s s e s x x x. 1 7 T o t he C o ur t o f A p p e a l s ,
t he b o t t o m l i ne i s s ue w a s w he t he r o r no t M O N IN A e s t a b l i s he d he r
T H E T R IA L C O U R T E R R E D IN I T S R E J E C T IO N O F T H E fi l i a t i o n a s F R A N C I S C O s i l l e g i t i m a t e d a ug ht e r b y p r e p o nd e r a n c e o f
A D M I S S I B IL I T Y O F T H E C E R T IF I E D C O P I E S O F P U BL I C e vi d e nc e , a s t o w hi c h i s s ue s a i d c o ur t fo u n d :
D O C U M E N T S P R E S E N T E D B Y A P P E L L A N T A S P A R T O F H ER
EV ID E N C E . [ N ] o t j us t p r e p o nd e r a nt b ut o ve r w he l m i ng e vi d e nc e o n r e c o r d t o
p r o ve t h a t [ M O N IN A ] i s t he i l l e g i t i m a t e d a u g ht e r o f [ F R A N C I S C O ]
IV a nd t ha t s he h a d c o nt i n uo u s l y e nj o ye d s u c h s t a t us b y d i r e c t a c t s
o f [ F R A N C I S C O ] a nd / o r hi s r e l a t i ve s .
T H E T R IA L C O U R T E R R E D IN I T S R E Q U IR EM EN T T H A T A W I T N E S S
T O T H E A C T U A L A C T O F C O P U L A T IO N B E T W E EN T H E A P P EL L E E I n s o r ul i ng , t he C o u r t o f A p p e a l s o b s e r ve d t h a t t he t e s t i m o ni e s
A N D A P P E L L A N T S M O T H E R S H O U L D H A V E P O S IT I V EL Y T E S T IF I ED o f L o p e A m o l a r , A d e l a C a s a b ue n a a nd D o m i na d o r S a va r i z w e r e
T O S A ID E F F E C T . a l r e a d y s uf fi c i e nt t o e s t a b l i s h M O N IN A s fi l i a t i o n:

V A s a d ve r t e d t o e a r l i e r , t he t r i a l c o ur t d i s c r e d i t e d L o p e A m o l a r s
t e s t i m o n y b y s a yi ng t ha t L o p e c o ul d no t h a ve d e t e c t e d
Es p e r a n z a s p r e g n a nt s t a t e i n N o ve m b e r , 1 9 4 5 s i nc e a t t ha t p o i nt
T H E T R IA L C O U R T E R R E D IN R E J E C T IN G T H E A D M IS S I BI L I T Y O F
i n t i m e [ s i c ] s he w a s s t i l l i n t he i ni t i a l s t a g e o f p r e g n a n c y.
T H E D U L Y ID E N T IF I E D N O T E S A N D L E T T ER O F T H E R E L A T IV E S O F
A p p a r e nt l y, t he t r i a l c o ur t p a i d m o r e e m p ha s i s o n t h e d a t e
THE APPELLEE AS HEARSAY.
m e nt i o ne d b y L o p e A m o l a r t h a n o n t he t e n o r a nd i m p o r t o f hi s
t e s t i m o n y. A s xx x L o p e x x x w a s a s ke d a b o u t a n i n c i d e nt t ha t
VI t r a n s p i r e d m o r e t ha n 4 1 ye a r s b a c k , [ u ] nd e r t he c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t
i s u nr e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t ha t L o p e c o ul d s t i l l b e d e a d r i g ht o n
T H E T R IA L C O U R T E R R E D IN C O N C L U D I N G T H A T A P P EL L A N T S t he s p e c i fi c m o nt h i n 1 9 4 5 t h a t [ he ] m e t a n d c o n fr o nt e d hi s
A F F I D A V IT ( E X H . P ) S E R V E D A S A B A R A G A I N S T H ER C L A I M F O R s i s t e r . A t a ny r a t e , w ha t i s i m p o r t a nt i s no t t he m o nt h t ha t t he y
R E C O G N I T IO N IN S T E A D O F R E I N F O R C IN G S A ID C L A IM . 1 3 m e t b ut t he e s s e n c e o f hi s t e s t i m o n y t h a t h i s s i s t e r p o i nt e d t o
t he i r e m p l o ye r [ F R A N C IS C O ] a s t he o ne r e s p o ns i b l e fo r he r
Ex p e c t e d l y , F R A N C I S C O r e f ut e d t he s e alleged errors in hi s p r e g n a n c y, a nd t ha t u p o n b e i ng c o n fr o nt e d , [ F R A N C IS C O ] a s s u r e d
A p p e l l e e s B r i e f . 1 4 c r ä l ä w v i r t ua l i b r ä r y hi m o f s up p o r t fo r E s p e r a nz a a nd t he i r c hi l d . It w o ul d a p p e a r
t he n t ha t i n a n a t t e m p t t o fi nd fa ul t w i t h L o p e s t e s t i m o n y, t he
t r i a l c o u r t ha s f a l l e n o b l i vi o us t o t he fa c t t ha t e ve n [ F R A N C I S C O ] ,
I n i t s d e c i s i o n o f 2 7 A p r i l 1 9 9 5 , 1 5 t he C o u r t o f A p p e a l s i ni t i a l l y i n hi s d e p o s i t i o n , d i d no t d e n y t h a t he w a s c o n fr o nt e d b y L o p e
d e c l a r e d t ha t a s no v e s t e d o r a c q ui r e d r i g h t s w e r e a f fe c t e d , t he a b o ut w h a t he ha d d o ne t o Es p e r a nz a , d ur i ng w hi c h he
i ns t a nt c a s e w a s g o v e r ne d b y A r t i c l e 1 7 5 , i n r e l a t i o n t o A r t i c l e s u ne q ui vo c a l l y a c kno w l e d g e d p a t e r ni t y b y a s s u r i ng L o p e o f s up p o r t
1 7 2 a nd 1 7 3 , o f t he F a m i l y C o d e . 1 6 W hi l e t he C o ur t o f A p p e a l s fo r b o t h Es p e r a nz a a n d t he i r c hi l d .
r e j e c t e d t he c e r t i f i c a t i o ns i s s ue d b y t he L o c a l C i vi l R e g i s t r a r o f
D i ng l e , Il o i l o ( E x hs . E a nd F ) a s F R A N C I S C O d i d no t s i g n t he m ,
s a i d c o ur t f o c u s e d i t s d i s c us s i o n o n t he o t h e r m e a ns b y w hi c h T he C o ur t o f A p p e l a s fu r t he r no t e d t ha t C a s a b ue na a nd S a va r i z
i l l e g i t i m a t e f i l i a t i o n c o ul d b e p r o v e d , i . e . , t he o p e n a nd t e s t i fi e d on s o m e t hi ng t ha t t he y personally o b s e r ve d or
c o nt i nuo u s p o s s e s s i o n o f t he s t a t us o f a n i l l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d o r , b y w i t ne s s e d , w hi c h m a t t e r s F R A N C IS C O d i d no t d e ny o r r e f ut e .
a n y o t he r m e a ns a l l o w e d b y t he R ul e s o f C o ur t a nd s p e c i a l l a w s , F i n a l l y , s a i d c o ur t a p t l y he l d :
s u c h a s t he b a p t i s m a l c e r t i f i c a t e o f t he c hi l d , a j ud i c i a l
a d m i s s i o n , a f a m i l y b i b l e w he r e i n t he n a m e o f t he c hi l d i s T a ki ng i nt o a c c o u nt a l l t he fo r e g o i ng u nc o nt r o ve r t e d t e s t i m o ni e s
e nt e r e d , c o m m o n r e p ut a t i o n r e s p e c t i ng p e d i g r e e , a d m i s s i o n b y xx x l e t a l o ne s u c h c i r c um s t a nt i a l e vi d e n c e a s [ M O N I N A s ] Bi r t h
C e r t i fi c a t e s x xx a nd B a p t i s m a l C e r t i fi c a t e s w hi c h i n va r i a b l y b e a r
Page 15 of 42

t he n a m e o f [ F R A N C IS C O ] a s he r f a t he r , W e c a n no t g o a l o ng w i t h c o s t o f P 1 5 , 0 0 0 , [ F R A N C I S C O ] c l e a r l y b e t r a ye d hi s i nt e nt i o n t o
t he t r i a l c o ur t s t he o r y t h a t [ M O N IN A s ] i l l e g i t i m a t e fi l i a t i o n ha s c o nc e a l o r s up p r e s s h i s p a t e r ni t y o f [ M O N I N A ] . x x x
no t b e e n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e s t a b l i s he d .
I n fi ne , W e ho l d t h a t [ M O N IN A s ] fi l i a t i o n a s [ F R A N C IS C O s ]
xx x i l l e g i t i m a t e d a ug ht e r ha s b e e n c o nc l u s i ve l y e s t a b l i s he d b y t he
u nc o nt r o ve r t e d t e s t i m o ni e s o f L o p e A m o l a r , A d e l a C a s a b ue na a nd
S i g ni f i c a nt l y , [ M O N IN A s ] t e s t i m o n y f i nd s a m p l e c o r r o b o r a t i o n D o m i na d o r S a va r i z t o t he e f fe c t t ha t a p p e l l e e hi m s e l f h a d
fr o m [ F R A N C IS C O s ] f o r m e r e m p l o y e e s , A r s e ni o D u a t i n , R ud y a d m i t t e d hi s p a t e r ni t y o f t he a p p e l l e e , a nd a l s o b y t he
T i ng s o n a nd A l f r e d o B a y l o s i s . x x x t e s t i m o ni e s o f a p p e l l a nt , A r s e ni o D ua t i n, R o m e o Bi l b a o , R ud y
T i ng s o n a nd A l f r e d o B a yl o s i s u ne r r i ng l y d e m o ns t r a t i ng t ha t b y h i s
o w n c o nd uc t o r o v e r t a c t s l i ke s e nd i ng a p p e l l a nt t o s c ho o l , p a yi n g
xx x
fo r he r t ui t i o n fe e s , s c ho o l u ni fo r m s , b o o k s , b o a r d a nd l o d g i ng a t
t he C o l e g i o d e l S a g r a d o C o r a z o n d e J e s u s , d e fr a yi ng a p p e l l a nt s
C a r e f ul l y e v a l ua t i ng a p p e l l a nt s e v i d e nc e o n he r e n j o ym e nt o f t he ho s p i t a l i z a t i o n e xp e ns e s , p r o vi d i n g he r w i t h [ a ] m o nt hl y
s t a t u s o f a n i l l e g i t i m a t e d a ug ht e r o f [ F R A N C IS C O ] vi s - a - a l l o w a nc e , p a yi ng fo r t he f u ne r a l e xp e ns e s o f a p p e l l a nt s m o t he r ,
vi s [ F R A N C IS C O s ] c o n t r o v e r s i o n t he r e o f , W e fi nd m o r e w e i g ht i n a c kno w l e d g i ng a p p e l l a nt s p a t e r na l g r e e t i ng s a nd c a l l i ng a p p e l l a n t
t he fo r m e r . T he p o s i t i v e t e s t i m o ni e s o f [ M O N I N A ] a nd [ he r ] hi s H i j a o r c hi l d , i ns t r uc t i ng hi s o f fi c e p e r s o n ne l t o g i ve
w i t ne s s e s x x x a l l b e a r i ng o n [ F R A N C IS C O s ] a c t s a nd / o r c o nd u c t a p p e l l a nt s m o nt hl y a l l o w a nc e , r e c o m m e nd i n g a p p e l l a nt fo r
i nd ub i t a b l y s ho w i ng t ha t he ha d c o nt i n uo u s l y a c k no w l e d g e d e m p l o ym e nt a t t he M i l l e r , C r u z & C o . , a l l o w i ng a p p e l l a nt t o us e
[ M O N IN A ] a s hi s i l l e g i t i m a t e d a ug ht e r ha ve no t b e e n hi s ho u s e i n Ba c o l o d a nd p a yi ng fo r he r l o n g d i s t a n c e t e l e p ho ne
s u c c e e s s f ul l y [ s i c ] r e f ut e d . I n f a c t , [ F R A N C I S C O ] hi m s e l f, i n hi s c a l l s , h a vi ng a p p e l l a n t s p e nd he r v a c a t i o n i n hi s a p a r t m e nt i n
d e p o s i t i o n, o nl y c a s u a l l y d i s m i s s e d [ M O N I N A s ] e x ha u s t i ve a nd M a ni l a a nd a l s o a t hi s F o r b e s r e s i d e n c e , a l l o w i ng a p p e l l a nt t o u s e
d e t a i l e d t e s t i m o n y a s u nt r ue , a nd w i t h r e s p e c t t o t ho s e g i ve n b y hi s s ur n a m e i n he r s c ho l a s t i c a n d o t he r r e c o r d s ( Ex hs Z , A A , A A - 1
[ M O N IN A s ] w i t ne s s e s , he m e r e l y e x p l a i ne d t ha t he ha d fi r e d t o A A - 5 , W & W - 5 ) , a p p e l l e e ha d c o nt i n uo u s l y r e c o g ni z e d
[ t he m ] f r o m t he i r e m p l o y m e nt . N e e d l e s s t o s t a t e , [ F R A N C IS C O s ] a p p e l l a nt a s hi s i l l e g i t i m a t e d a u g ht e r . A d d e d t o t he s e a r e t he a c t s
va g ue d e ni a l i s g r o s s l y i n a d e q u a t e t o o v e r c o m e t he p r o b a t i ve o f [ F R A N C I S C O s ] r e l a t i ve s a c k no w l e d g i ng o r t r e a t i ng [ M O N IN A ] a s
w e i g ht o f [ M O N IN A s ] t e s t i m o ni a l e v i d e nc e . [ F R A N C I S C O s ] d a ug ht e r ( E x h U ) o r a s t he i r r e l a t i ve ( Ex h s T & V ) .
O n t hi s p o i nt , w i t ne s s Z a fi r o L e d e s m a , fo r m e r M a yo r o f Il o i l o
Eve n t he a f f i d a v i t ( E x h 2 ) w hi c h [ F R A N C I S C O ] h a d fo i s t e d o n t he C i t y , w ho s e s p o u s e b e l o ng s t o t he L o p e z c l a n j u s t l i ke
t r i a l c o u r t x x x d o e s n o t ho l d s w a y i n t he f a c e o f [ M O N IN A s ] [ F R A N C I S C O ] , t e s t i fi e d t h a t [ M O N I N A ] ha s b e e n c o ns i d e r e d b y t h e
l o g i c a l e x p l a na t i o n t h a t s he a t f i r s t d i d a g r e e t o s i g n t he a ffi d a vi t L o p e z e s a s a r e l a t i ve . H e i d e nt i fi e d p i c t u r e s o f t he a p p e l l e e i n t he
w hi c h c o nt a i ne d u nt r u t hf ul s t a t e m e nt s . I n f a c t , s he p r o m p t l y c o m p a n y o f t he L o p e z e s ( E x hs X - 1 6 & X - 1 7 ) . A no t he r w i t ne s s ,
c o m p l a i ne d t o [ F R A N C I S C O ] w ho , ho w e v e r e xp l a i ne d t o he r t ha t D a nt he a H . L o p e z , w h o s e h us b a nd E us e b i o L o p e z i s a p p e l l e e s fi r s t
t he a f f i d a v i t w a s o nl y f o r t he c o ns um p t i o n o f hi s s p o u s e x x x. c o us i n , t e s t i fi e d t ha t a p p e l l a nt w a s i nt r o d u c e d t o he r b y a p p e l l e e s
F u r t he r , t he t e s t i m o n y o f J o s e C r u z c o n c e r ni ng t he e ve nt s t ha t c o us i n , R e m e d i o s L o p e z F r a n c o , a s t he d a u g ht e r o f a p p e l l e e
l e d t o t he e x e c ut i o n o f t he a f f i d a v i t x x x c o u l d no t ha ve b e e n t r ue , F r a nc i s c o J i s o n , fo r w hi c h r e a s o n , s he t o o k he r i n a s [ a ] s e c r e t a r y
fo r a s p o i nt e d o ut b y [ M O N IN A ] , s he s i g ne d t he a f fi d a vi t x x x i n t he M e r c ha nt s F i n a nc i ng C o r p o r a t i o n o f w hi c h s he w a s t he
a l m o s t f i v e m o nt h s a f t e r s he ha d r e s i g ne d f r o m t he M i l l e r , C r u z & m a n a g e r , a nd f ur t he r a l l o w e d he r t o s t a y w i t h he r fa m i l y fr e e o f
Co. xxx b o a r d a nd l o d g i ng . S t i l l o n t hi s a s p e c t , D o m i na d o r S a va r i z
d e c l a r e d t ha t s o m e t i m e i n F e b r ua r y, 1 9 6 6 a p p e l l e e s r e l a t i ve , M s .
A t a n y r a t e , i f [ M O N I N A ] w e r e no t hi s i l l e g i t i m a t e d a ug ht e r , i t R e m e d i o s L o p e z F r a n c o p o i nt e d t o a p p e l l a nt a s t he d a ug ht e r o f
a p p e l l e e F r a nc i s c o J i s o n.
w o ul d ha v e b e e n u nc a l l e d f o r , i f no t a b s ur d , fo r [ F R A N C I S C O ] o r
hi s l a w y e r t o ha v e s e c u r e d [ M O N IN A s ] s w o r n s t a t e m e nt x xx O n
t he c o nt r a r y , i n a s k i n g [ M O N I N A ] t o s i g n t h e s a i d a f fi d a vi t a t t he
Page 16 of 42

F i n a l l y , t he C e r t i f i c a t i o ns o f t he L o c a l C i vi l R e g i s t r a r o f D i ng l e R E S P O N D E N T ' S M O T H ER A T T H E T I M E C O N C EP T IO N W A S
( E x hs E a n d F ) a s w e l l a s [ M O N IN A s ] B a p t i s m a l C e r t i fi c a t e s ( Ex h s S U P P O S ED T O H A V E O C C U R R E D .
C & D ) w hi c h t he t r i a l o c ur t a d m i t t e d i n e vi d e nc e a s p a r t o f
[ M O N IN A s ] t e s t i m o n y , m a y s e r v e a s c i r c u m s t a nt i a l e vi d e n c e t o I I.
f ur t he r r e i nf o r c e [ M O N I N A s ] c l a i m t h a t s he i s [ F R A N C IS C O s ]
i l l e g i t i m a t e d a ug ht e r b y E s p e r a n z a A m o l a r .
IN R E V ER S IN G T H E T R I A L C O U R T S F I N D IN G C O N S ID ER I N G T H A T
P R I V A T E R E S P O N D E N T ' S T E S T I M O N I A L EV ID EN C E O F P A T E R N I T Y
T r ue i t i s t ha t a t r i a l j ud g e s a s s e s s m e nt o f t he c r e d i b i l i t y o f A N D F IL I A T I O N IS N O T C L EA R A N D C O N V IN C IN G .
w i t ne s s e s i s a c c o r d e d g r e a t r e s p e c t o n a p p e a l . B ut t he r ul e
a d m i t s o f c e r t a i n e x c e p t i o ns . O ne s u c h e xc e p t i o n i s w he r e t he
I I I.
j ud g e w ho r e nd e r e d t he j u d g m e nt w a s no t t he o ne w ho he a r d t h e
w i t ne s s e s t e s t i f y . [ c i t a t i o ns o m i t t e d ] T he o t he r i s w he r e t he t r i a l
c o ur t ha d o v e r l o o k e d , m i s u nd e r s t o o d o r m i s a p p r e c i a t e d s o m e IN G I V IN G C R ED E N C E T O D O C U M E N T A R Y E V ID EN C E P R E S EN T ED
fa c t s o r c i r c u m s t a nc e s o f w e i g ht a nd s ub s t a n c e w hi c h , i f p r o p e r l y BY T H E P R IV A T E R E S P O N D EN T A S E V ID E N C E O F F IL IA T IO N
c o ns i d e r e d , m i g ht a f f e c t t he r e s ul t o f t he c a s e . [ c i t a t i o ns C O N S ID ER I N G T H A T T H E S A M E A R E H E A R S A Y , S EL F - S E R V I N G A N D
o m i t t e d ] I n t he p r e s e nt c a s e , b o t h e x c e p t i o ns o b t a i n. A l l o f C A N N O T BI N D T H E P E T I T IO N E R U N D E R T H E B A S IC R U L ES O F
[ M O N IN A s ] w i t ne s s e s x x x w ho s e t e s t i m o ni e s w e r e no t g i ve n EV ID E N C E .
c r e d e nc e d i d no t t e s t i f y b e f o r e t he j ud g e w ho r e nd e r e d t he
d i s p ut e d j ud g m e nt . x x x IV.

T he C o u r t o f A p p e a l s t he n d e c r e e d : IN IN T ER P R E T I N G T H E P R IV A T E R E S P O N D EN T ' S S W O R N
S T A T E M E N T ( E X H . P / E X H . 2 ) IN A M A N N ER N O T IN C O N S O N A N C E
W H ER E F O R E , p r e m i s e s c o n s i d e r e d , t he j ud g m e nt o f t he t r i a l c o u r t W I T H T H E R U L IN G S O F T H E H O N O R A BL E S U P R EM E C O U R T .
i s S E T A S ID E a nd a no t he r o ne i s he r e b y e nt e r e d fo r a p p e l l a nt
M o ni na J i s o n , d e c l a r i n g he r a s t he i l l e g i t i m a t e d a ug ht e r o f V.
a p p e l l e e F r a nc i s c o J i s o n, a nd e nt i t l e d t o a l l r i g ht s a nd p r i vi l e g e s
g r a nt e d b y l a w .
I N N O T C O N S ID E R I N G T H E L O N G A N D U N E X P L A I N ED D EL A Y IN
T H E F IL IN G O F T H E P R E S EN T P A T ER N IT Y S U I T A S EQ U IV A L EN T T O
C o s t s a g a i ns t a p p e l l e e . L A C H ES .

SO ORDERED. A s r e g a r d s t he fi r s t e r r o r , F R A N C I S C O i ns i s t s t ha t t a ki n g i nt o
a c c o u nt t he s e c o nd p a r a g r a p h o f M O N IN A s c o m p l a i nt w he r e i n s he
H i s m o t i o n f o r r e c o ns i d e r a t i o n ha v i ng b e e n d e ni e d b y t he C o ur t o f c l a i m e d t h a t he a nd P a n s a y h a d s e x u a l r e l a t i o ns b y a b o ut t he e n d
A p p e a l s i n i t s r e s o l ut i o n o f 2 9 M a r c h 1 9 9 6 , 1 8 F R A N C I S C O fi l e d t he o f 1 9 4 5 o r t he s t a r t o f 1 9 4 6 , i t w a s p h y s i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e fo r hi m
i ns t a nt p e t i t i o n . H e ur g e s us t o r e v e r s e t he j ud g m e nt o f t he C o ur t a nd P a ns a y t o ha ve h a d s e x ua l c o nt a c t w hi c h r e s ul t e d i n M O N IN A s
o f A p p e a l s , a l l e g i ng t ha t s a i d c o u r t c o m m i t t e d e r r o r s o f l a w : b i r t h , c o n s i d e r i ng t h a t :

I. T he no r m a l p e r i o d o f h um a n p r e g na n c y i s n i ne ( 9 ) m o nt hs . I f a s
c l a i m e d b y p r i v a t e r e s p o nd e nt i n he r c o m p l a i nt t h a t he r m o t he r
w a s i m p r e g na t e d b y F R A N C I S C O a t t he e nd o f 1 9 4 5 o r t he s t a r t o f
IN R E V E R S IN G T H E D E C I S IO N O F T H E T R IA L C O U R T A N D
1 9 4 6 , s he w o ul d h a ve b e e n b o r n s o m e t i m e i n l a t e S e p t e m b e r o r
D E C L A R IN G P R I V A T E R E S P O N D E N T A S T H E IL L EG I T IM A T E C H IL D
e a r l y O c t o b e r a nd no t A ug us t 6 , 1 9 4 6 x xx . T he i ns t a nt c a s e fi nd s
O F P E T I T IO N E R , C O N S ID E R I N G [ T H E ] I M P O S S IB IL I T Y O F S EX U A L
fa c t u a l a nd l e g a l p a r a l l e l s i n C o ns t a nt i no v s . M e nd e z , 1 9 t h us : x xx
CONTACT BETWEEN THE PETITIONER AND THE PRIVATE
Page 17 of 42

F R A N C IS C O f u r t he r c l a i m s t h a t hi s t e s t i m o n y t ha t P a ns a y w a s n o t o p r o ve p a t e r ni t y b y c l e a r a nd c o n vi n c i ng e vi d e nc e , no t m e r e l y a
l o ng e r e m p l o y e d b y h i m a t t he t i m e i n q ue s t i o n w a s un r e b ut t e d , p r e p o nd e r a nc e t he r e o f, w a s no t m e t .
m o r e o v e r , o t h e r m e n ha d a c c e s s t o P a n s a y d u r i ng t he t i m e o f o r
e ve n a f t e r he r e m p l o y m e nt b y hi m . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t he t h i r d a s s i g ne d e r r o r , F R A N C IS C O a r g ue s t h a t
t he C o ur t o f A p p e a l s r e l i a nc e o n t he c e r t i fi c a t i o ns o f t he L o c a l
A s t o t he s e c o nd e r r o r , F R A N C I S C O s ub m i t s t h a t M O N IN A s C i vi l R e g i s t r a r ( E x h s . E a nd F ) a nd Ba p t i s m a l C e r t i fi c a t e s ( E x hs . C
t e s t i m o ni a l e v i d e nc e i s s h a k y , c o nt r a d i c t o r y a nd u n r e l i a b l e , a nd a nd D ) a s c i r c um s t a nt i a l e vi d e n c e i s m i s p l a c e d . F i r s t , t he i r
p r o c e e d s t o a t t a c k t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f he r w i t ne s s e s b y c l a i m i ng , i n g e n ui ne ne s s c o ul d no t b e a s c e r t a i ne d a s t he p e r s o n s w ho i s s ue d
t he m a i n, t ha t : ( a ) L o p e A m o l a r c o ul d no t h a ve d e t e c t e d P a ns a y s t he m d i d no t t e s t i fy . S e c o nd , i n l i g ht o f R e y e s v . C o ur t o f
p r e g n a n c y i n N o v e m b e r 1 9 4 5 w he n t he y m e t s i nc e s he w o ul d ha ve A p p e a l s , 2 2 t he c o nt e n t s o f t he b a p t i s m a l c e r t i fi c a t e s w e r e
b e e n o nl y o ne ( 1 ) m o nt h p r e g n a nt t he n; ( b ) D o m i na d o r S a v a r i z he a r s a y , a s t he d a t a w a s b a s e d o nl y o n w h a t w a s t o l d t o t he
d i d no t i n f a c t w i t ne s s t he m e e t i n g b e t w e e n p r i e s t w ho s o l e m ni z e d t he b a p t i s m , w ho l i ke w i s e w a s no t
F R A N C IS C O , P a n s a y a nd M O N IN A ; ( c ) Z a fi r o L e d e s m a h a d a n p r e s e nt e d a s a w i t ne s s . A d d i t i o na l l y, t he n a m e o f t he f a t he r
ul t e r i o r m o t i v e i n t e s t i f y i ng f o r M O N IN A a s he o w ne d a b a n k i n a p p e a r i ng t he r e i n w a s F r a nq ue J i s o n, w hi c h w a s no t F R A N C IS C O s
Il o i l o w hi c h w a s t he n u nd e r C e nt r a l B a n k s u p e r vi s i o n a nd M O N IN A na m e . T hi r d , i n b o t h Ex hi b i t s E a nd F , t he na m e s o f t he c hi l d s
w a s t h e B a nk E x a m i n e r a s s i g ne d t o Il o i l o ; a nd ( d ) D a nt he a L o p e z p a r e nt s w e r e l i s t e d a s F r a nk H e s o n a nd E s p e r a nz a A m a d o r ( no t
w a s no t r e l a t e d t o hi m b y b l o o d a nd w h a t e ve r f a vo r a b l e t r e a t m e nt A m o l a r ) . F R A N C IS C O f ur t he r p o i nt s o ut t h a t i n Ex hi b i t F , t he
M O N I N A r e c e i v e d f r o m D a nt he a w a s d ue t o t he fo r m e r s s t a t u s o f t he c hi l d i s l i s t e d a s l e g i t i m a t e , w hi l e t he f a t he r s
e m p l o y m e nt a t M e r c h a nt s F i n a nc i ng C o m p a n y a nd a d d i t i o na l o c c u p a t i o n a s l a b o r e r . M o s t i m p o r t a nt l y , t he r e w a s no s ho w i ng
s e r vi c e s r e nd e r e d a t K a h i r up H o t e l ; b e s i d e s , D a nt he a a d m i t t e d t ha t F R A N C I S C O s i g ne d Ex hi b i t s E a nd F o r t ha t he w a s t he o ne
t ha t s he h a d no p e r s o na l k no w l e d g e a s t o t he i s s ue o f p a t e r ni t y w ho r e p o r t e d t he c hi l d s b i r t h t o t he O f fi c e o f t he L o c a l C i vi l
a nd fi l i a t i o n o f t he c o nt e nd i ng p a r t i e s , he n c e S e c t i o ns 3 9 a nd R e g i s t r a r . A s t o M O N I N A s e d uc a t i o n a l r e c o r d s , F R A N C I S C O
4 0 2 0 o f R ul e 1 3 0 o f t h e R ul e s o f C o ur t d i d n o t c o m e i nt o p l a y . i nvo ke s Ba a s v. Ba a s 2 3 w hi c h r e c o g ni z e d t h a t s c ho o l r e c o r d s a r e
F R A N C IS C O l i k e w i s e r e - e c ho e s t he v i e w o f t he t r i a l c o ur t a s p r e p a r e d b y s c ho o l a u t ho r i t i e s , no t b y p ut a t i ve p a r e nt s , t h us
r e g a r d s t he t e s t i m o ni e s o f A d e l a C a s a b ue n a a nd A l f r e d o Ba yl o s i s . i nc o m p e t e nt t o p r o ve p a t e r ni t y . A nd , a s t o t he p ho t o g r a p hs
p r e s e nt e d b y M O N I N A , F R A N C I S C O c i t e s C o l o r a d o v . C o ur t o f
F R A N C IS C O f u r t he r a s s e r t s t h a t M O N IN A s t e s t i m o n y t h a t he A p p e a l s , 2 4 a nd fu r t he r a s s e r t s t ha t M O N I N A d i d no t p r e s e nt a n y o f
a n s w e r e d f o r he r s c ho o l i ng w a s s e l f - s e r vi ng a nd u n c o r r o b o r a t e d t he p e r s o ns w i t h w ho m s he i s s e e n i n t he p i c t ur e s t o t e s t i fy
b y a ny r e c e i p t o r o t he r d o c um e nt a r y e v i d e n c e ; a nd a s s u m i n g he t he r e o n; b e s i d e s t he s e p e r s o n s w e r e , a t b e s t , m e r e s e c o n d
d i d , s uc h s ho ul d b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s a m a ni fe s t a t i o n o f ki nd ne s s c o us i n s o f F R A N C I S C O . H e l i ke w i s e a s s a i l s t he v a r i o us no t e s a nd
s ho w n t o w a r d s t he f a m i l y o f a f o r m e r ho us e ho l d he l p e r . l e t t e r s w r i t t e n b y hi s r e l a t i ve s ( E x hs . S t o V ) a s t he y w e r e no t
i d e nt i fi e d b y t he a ut h o r s . F i na l l y , he s t r e s s e s t ha t M O N IN A d i d
no t t e s t i f y a s t o t he t e l e p ho ne c a r d s ( Ex h s . G t o L ) no r d i d t he s e
A ne nt t he t r e a t m e nt g i v e n b y hi s r e l a t i ve s t o M O N IN A a s hi s
r e ve a l t he c i r c u m s t a n c e s s ur r o u nd i ng t he c a l l s s he m a d e f r o m hi s
d a ug ht e r , F R A N C I S C O p o i nt s t o t h e f a c t t ha t P a n s a y w a s t he
r e s i d e nc e .
fo r m e r l a u nd r y w o m a n o f M r s . F r a nc o ; M O N I N A r e s i d e d w i t h t he
fa m i l i e s o f E us e b i o L o p e z a nd C o nc ha C ua yc o ng b e c a u s e s he w a s
i n t he i r e m p l o y a t K a hi r up H o t e l a nd O ur L a d y o f M e r c y H o s p i t a l , A ne nt t he fo ur t h a s s i g ne d e r r o r , F R A N C I S C O c o nt e nd s t ha t t he
r e s p e c t i v e l y ; M O N IN A f a i l e d t o p r e s e nt M r s . F r a nc o , E us e b i o C o u r t o f A p p e a l s i nt e r p r e t a t i o n o f M O N I N A s a ffi d a vi t o f 2 1
L o p e z a nd M r s . C ua y c o ng ; a nd M O N IN A s e m p l o ym e nt a t t he S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 1 r a n c o unt e r t o D e q ui t o v . L l a m a s , 2 5 a nd
a c c o u nt i ng f i r m o f M i l l e r , C r u z & C o . w a s a t t r i b ut a b l e t o he r o ve r l o o ke d t ha t a t t h e t i m e o f e xe c ut i o n , M O N I N A w a s m o r e t h a n
e d uc a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , t he r e b e i ng a b s o l ut e l y no e vi d e n c e t o 2 5 ye a r s o l d a nd a s s i s t e d b y c o un s e l .
p r o ve t h a t F R A N C I S C O e v e r f a c i l i t a t e d he r e m p l o ym e nt t he r e a t .
H e nc e , i n l i g ht o f B a l u y o t v . B a l u y o t , 2 1 t he q ua nt u m o f e v i d e n c e
Page 18 of 42

A s t o t he l a s t a s s i g ne d e r r o r , F R A N C IS C O b e w a i l s t he C o ur t o f I n t he a b s e n c e o f t he fo r e g o i ng e vi d e nc e , t he l e g i t i m a t e fi l i a t i o n
A p p e a l s f a i l ur e t o c o n s i d e r t he l o n g a nd u n e xp l a i ne d d e l a y i n t he s h a l l b e p r o ve d b y :
fi l i ng o f t he c a s e .
( 1 ) T he o p e n a nd c o nt i n uo u s p o s s e s s i o n o f t he s t a t us o f a
I n he r c o m m e nt , M O N IN A f o r c e f ul l y r e f ut e d F R A N C I S C O s l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d ; o r
a r g um e nt s , l e a d i ng F R A N C I S C O t o f i l e hi s r e p l y t he r e t o .
( 2 ) A n y o t he r m e a n s a l l o w e d b y t he R ul e s o f C o ur t a nd
O n 2 0 N o v e m b e r 1 9 9 6 , w e g a v e d ue c o u r s e t o t hi s p e t i t i o n a nd special laws.
r e q ui r e d t he p a r t i e s t o s ub m i t t he i r r e s p e c t i ve m e m o r a nd a , w hi c h
t he y s ub s e q ue nt l y d i d . T hi s A r t i c l e r e p r o d uc e s , w i t h a m e nd m e nt s , A r t i c l e s 2 6 5 , 2 6 6 a nd
2 6 7 o f t he C i vi l C o d e .
A p a i ns t a k i ng r e v i e w of t he evidence and a r g um e nt s fa i l s to
s up p o r t p e t i t i o n e r . F o r t he s uc c e s s o f a n a c t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h i l l e g i t i m a t e fi l i a t i o n
u nd e r t he s e c o nd p a r a g r a p h , w hi c h M O N IN A r e l i e s up o n g i ve n t h a t
Be fo r e a d d r e s s i ng t he m e r i t s o f t he c o nt r o v e r s y , w e fi r s t d i s p o s e s he ha s no ne o f t he e vi d e nc e m e nt i o ne d i n t he fi r s t p a r a g r a p h , a
o f p r e l i m i na r y m a t t e r s r e l a t i ng t o t he a p p l i c a b l e l a w a nd t he hi g h s t a nd a r d o f p r o o f 2 8 i s r e q ui r e d . S p e c i fi c a l l y , t o p r o ve o p e n
g ui d i ng p r i n c i p l e s i n p a t e r ni t y s ui t s . A s t o t he fo r m e r , p l a i nl y , t h e a nd c o nt i nuo us p o s s e s s i o n o f t he s t a t u s o f a n i l l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d ,
F a m i l y C o d e o f t he P h i l i p p i ne s ( E x e c ut i ve O r d e r N o . 2 0 9 ) g o ve r ns t he r e m us t b e e vi d e n c e o f t he m a ni fe s t a t i o n o f t he p e r m a ne nt
t he p r e s e nt c o nt r o v e r s y . A s c o r r e c t l y c i t e d b y t he C o u r t o f i nt e nt i o n o f t he s u p p o s e d fa t he r t o c o ns i d e r t he c hi l d a s hi s , b y
A p p e a l s , U y g ua ng c o 2 6 s e r v e d a s a j ud i c i a l c o nfi r m a t i o n o f A r t i c l e c o nt i nuo u s a nd c l e a r m a n i fe s t a t i o n s o f p a r e nt a l a ff e c t i o n a nd
2 5 6 o f t he F a m i l y C o d e 2 7 r e g a r d i ng i t s r e t r o a c t i ve e ffe c t u nl e s s c a r e , w hi c h c a n no t b e a t t r i b ut e d t o p ur e c h a r i t y . S uc h a c t s m us t
t he r e b e i m p a i r m e nt o f v e s t e d r i g ht s , w hi c h d o e s no t ho l d t r ue b e o f s u c h a na t ur e t h a t t he y r e ve a l no t o nl y t he c o n vi c t i o n o f
he r e , i t a p p e a r i ng t h a t ne i t he r t he p ut a t i ve p a r e nt no r t he c hi l d p a t e r ni t y , b ut a l s o t h e a p p a r e nt d e s i r e t o h a ve a nd t r e a t t he c hi l d
ha s p a s s e d a w a y a n d t he f o r m e r h a v i ng a c t ua l l y r e s i s t e d t he a s s uc h i n a l l r e l a t i o n s i n s o c i e t y a nd i n l i fe , no t a c c i d e nt a l l y , b ut
latters claim below. c o nt i nuo u s l y . 2 9 c r ä l ä w vi r t ua l i b r ä r y

U nd e r A r t i c l e 1 7 5 o f t he F a m i l y C o d e , i l l e g i t i m a t e fi l i a t i o n , s uc h By c o nt i n uo u s i s m e a nt u ni nt e r r up t e d a nd c o ns i s t e nt , b ut d o e s
a s M O N IN A ' s , m a y b e e s t a b l i s he d i n t he s a m e w a y a nd o n t he no t r e q ui r e a ny p a r t i c ul a r l e ng t h o f t i m e . 3 0 c r ä l ä w vi r t u a l i b r ä r y
s a m e e v i d e n c e a s t ha t o f l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d r e n. A r t i c l e 1 7 2 t he r e o f
p r o vi d e s t he v a r i o us f o r m s o f e v i d e n c e b y w hi c h l e g i t i m a t e T he fo r e g o i ng s t a nd a r d o f p r o o f r e q ui r e d t o e s t a b l i s h o ne s
fi l i a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s he d , t h us : fi l i a t i o n i s fo u nd e d o n t he p r i n c i p l e t ha t a n o r d e r fo r r e c o g ni t i o n
a nd s up p o r t m a y c r e a t e a n u n w ho l e s o m e a t m o s p he r e o r m a y b e
A R T . 1 7 2 . T he f i l i a t i o n o f l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d r e n i s e s t a b l i s he d b y a n y a n i r r i t a nt i n t he fa m i l y o r l i ve s o f t he p a r t i e s , s o t h a t i t m us t b e
o f t he f o l l o w i ng : i s s ue d o nl y i f p a t e r ni t y o r fi l i a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s he d b y c l e a r a n d
c o n vi nc i ng e vi d e n c e . 3 1 c r ä l ä w vi r t ua l i b r ä r y
( 1 ) T he r e c o r d o f b i r t h a p p e a r i n g i n t he c i v i l r e g i s t e r o r a
f i n a l j ud g m e nt ; o r T he fo r e g o i ng d i s c us s i o n, ho w e ve r , m us t b e s i t ua t e d w i t hi n t he
g e ne r a l r ul e s o n e vi d e nc e , i n l i g ht o f t he b u r d e n o f p r o o f i n c i vi l
( 2 ) A n a d m i s s i o n o f l e g i t i m a t e f i l i a t i o n i n a p ub l i c c a s e s , i . e . , p r e p o nd e r a n c e o f e vi d e n c e , a nd t he s hi ft i ng o f t he
d o c um e nt o r a p r i v a t e ha nd w r i t t e n i ns t r um e nt s i g ne d b ur d e n o f e vi d e nc e i n s uc h c a s e s . S i m p l y p ut , he w ho a l l e g e s t he
b y t he p a r e nt c o n c e r n e d . a f fi r m a t i ve o f t he i s s u e ha s t he b u r d e n o f p r o o f, a nd up o n t he
p l a i nt i ff i n a c i vi l c a s e , t he b ur d e n o f p r o o f ne ve r p a r t s . H o w e ve r ,
i n t he c o ur s e o f t r i a l i n a c i vi l c a s e , o n c e p l a i nt i ff m a ke s o ut
Page 19 of 42

a p r i m a f a c i e c a s e i n hi s f a v o r , t he d ut y o r t he b u r d e n o f hi s d a ug ht e r a nd t ha t M O N IN A ha s b e e n e n j o yi ng t he o p e n a nd
e vi d e nc e s hi f t s t o d e f e nd a nt t o c o nt r o v e r t p l a i nt i ff s p r i m a c o nt i nuo u s p o s s e s s i o n o f t he s t a t us a s F R A N C I S C O s i l l e g i t i m a t e
fa c i e c a s e , o t he r w i s e , a v e r d i c t m us t b e r e t ur ne d i n fa vo r o f d a ug ht e r .
p l a i nt i f f . M o r e o v e r , i n c i v i l c a s e s , t he p a r t y ha vi ng t he b u r d e n o f
p r o o f m us t p r o d uc e a p r e p o nd e r a nc e o f e vi d e nc e t he r e o n, w i t h W e r e a d i l y c o n c l u d e t ha t t he t e s t i m o ni a l e v i d e nc e o f fe r e d b y
p l a i nt i f f ha v i ng t o r e l y o n t he s t r e ng t h o f h i s o w n e vi d e nc e a nd M O N I N A , w o v e n b y he r na r r a t i o n o f c i r c um s t a nc e s a nd e ve nt s t ha t
no t up o n t he w e a k ne s s o f t he d e f e nd a nt s . T he c o nc e p t o f o c c u r r e d t hr o ug h t he ye a r s , c o n c e r ni ng he r r e l a t i o ns hi p w i t h
p r e p o nd e r a nc e o f e v i d e nc e r e f e r s t o e v i d e n c e w hi c h i s o f g r e a t e r F R A N C IS C O , c o up l e d w i t h t he t e s t i m o ni e s o f he r w i t ne s s e s ,
w e i g ht , o r m o r e c o n v i nc i ng , t ha t w hi c h i s o ffe r e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o o ve r w he l m i ng l y e s t a b l i s he d t he fo l l o w i ng f a c t s :
i t ; a t b o t t o m , i t m e a n s p r o b a b i l i t y o f t r ut h . 3 2
1 ) F R A N C IS C O i s M O N IN A s fa t he r a nd s he w a s c o nc e i ve d a t t he
W i t h t he s e i n m i nd , w e no w p r o c e e d t o r e s o l ve t he m e r i t s o f t he t i m e w he n he r m o t he r w a s i n t he e m p l o y o f t he fo r m e r ;
i ns t a nt c o nt r o v e r s y .
2 ) F R A N C IS C O r e c o g n i z e d M O N IN A a s hi s c hi l d t hr o ug h hi s o ve r t
F R A N C IS C O s a r g um e n t s i n s up p o r t o f hi s fi r s t a s s i g ne d e r r o r a c t s a nd c o nd uc t w hi c h t he C o u r t o f A p p e a l s t o o k p a i n s t o
d e s e r v e s c a nt c o ns i d e r a t i o n . W hi l e i t ha s b e e n o b s e r ve d t h a t e n um e r a t e , t hu s :
u nl a w f ul i nt e r c o ur s e w i l l no t b e p r e s um e d m e r e l y fr o m p r o o f o f a n
o p p o r t u ni t y f o r s uc h i nd ul g e n c e , 3 3 t hi s d o e s no t fa vo r
[ L ] i ke s e n d i ng a p p e l l a nt t o s c ho o l , p a yi ng f o r he r t ui t i o n
F R A N C IS C O . A k i n t o t he c r i m e o f r a p e w he r e , i n m o s t i ns t a n c e s ,
fe e s , s c ho o l u ni fo r m s , b o o k s , b o a r d a nd l o d g i ng a t t he
t he o nl y w i t ne s s e s t o t he f e l o ny a r e t he p a r t i c i p a nt s i n t h e s e x u a l
C o l e g i o d e l S a g r a d o d e J e s u s , d e fr a yi ng a p p e l l a nt s
a c t t he m s e l v e s , i n d e c i d i ng p a t e r ni t y s ui t s , t he i s s ue o f w he t he r
ho s p i t a l i z a t i o n e xp e ns e s , p r o vi d i n g he r w i t h [ a ] m o nt hl y
s e x ua l i nt e r c o ur s e a c t ua l l y o c c ur r e d i ne vi t a b l y r e d o u nd s t o t he
a l l o w a nc e , p a yi ng fo r t he f u ne r a l e xp e ns e s o f a p p e l l a nt s
vi c t i m s o r m o t he r s w o r d , a s a g a i ns t t he a c c us e d s o r p ut a t i ve
m o t he r , a c k no w l e d g i n g a p p e l l a nt s p a t e r na l g r e e t i ng s a nd
fa t he r s p r o t e s t a t i o ns . In t he i n s t a nt c a s e , M O N I N A s m o t he r c o ul d
c a l l i ng a p p e l l a nt hi s H i j a o r c hi l d , i n s t r uc t i n g hi s o f fi c e
no l o ng e r t e s t i f y a s t o t he f a c t o f i nt e r c o u r s e , a s s he ha d ,
p e r s o n ne l t o g i ve a p p e l l a nt s m o nt hl y a l l o w a n c e ,
u nfo r t u na t e l y , p a s s e d a w a y l o ng b e f o r e t he i n s t i t ut i o n o f t he
r e c o m m e nd i ng a p p e l l a nt fo r e m p l o ym e nt a t t he M i l l e r ,
c o m p l a i nt f o r r e c o g ni t i o n. B ut t hi s d i d no t m e a n t ha t M O N I N A
C r u z & C o . , a l l o w i ng a p p e l l a nt t o us e hi s ho us e i n Ba c o l o d
c o ul d no l o ng e r p r o v e he r f i l i a t i o n. T he fa c t o f he r b i r t h a nd he r
a nd p a yi ng fo r he r l o n g d i s t a n c e t e l e p ho ne c a l l s , h a vi ng
p a r e nt a g e m a y b e e s t a b l i s h e d b y e v i d e n c e o t he r t h a n t he
a p p e l l a nt s p e nd he r v a c a t i o n i n hi s a p a r t m e nt i n M a ni l a
t e s t i m o n y o f he r m o t h e r . T he p a r a m o u nt q u e s t i o n t he n i s w he t he r
a nd a l s o a t hi s F o r b e s r e s i d e n c e , a l l o w i ng a p p e l l a nt t o
M O N I N A s e v i d e nc e i s c o he r e nt , l o g i c a l a nd
us e hi s s ur na m e i n he r s c ho l a s t i c a nd o t he r r e c o r d s ( E x hs
na t ur a l . 3 4 c r ä l ä w v i r t u a l i b r ä r y
Z, AA, AA-1 to AA-5, W & W-5)

T he c o m p l a i nt s t a t e d t ha t F R A N C I S C O h a d c a r na l kno w l e d g e
3 ) S uc h r e c o g ni t i o n h a s b e e n c o n s i s t e nt l y s ho w n a nd m a ni fe s t e d
o f P a ns a y b y a b o ut t h e e nd o f 1 9 4 5 . W e a g r e e w i t h M O N IN A t h a t
t hr o ug ho ut t h e ye a r s p ub l i c l y, 3 5 s p o nt a ne o u s l y , c o nt i n uo us l y a n d
t hi s w a s b r o a d e no ug h t o c o v e r t he f o ur t h q ua r t e r o f s a i d ye a r ,
i n a n u ni nt e r r up t e d m a n ne r . 3 6
he nc e he r b i r t h o n 6 A ug u s t 1 9 4 6 c o ul d s t i l l b e a t t r i b ut e d t o
s e x ua l r e l a t i o ns b e t w e e n F R A N C I S C O a nd M O N I N A s m o t he r . I n
a n y e v e nt , s i n c e i t w a s e s t a b l i s he d t h a t he r m o t he r w a s s t i l l i n A c c o r d i ng l y , i n l i g ht o f t he t o t a l i t y o f t he e vi d e nc e o n r e c o r d , t h e
t he e m p l o y o f F R A N C I S C O a t t he t i m e M O N I N A w a s c o nc e i ve d a s s e c o n d a s s i g ne d e r r o r m us t f a i l .
d e t e r m i ne d b y t he d a t e o f he r b i r t h, s e x u a l c o nt a c t b e t w e e n
F R A N C IS C O a nd M O N I N A s m o t he r w a s no t a t a l l i m p o s s i b l e , T he r e i s s o m e m e r i t , ho w e ve r , i n t he t hi r d a s s i g ne d e r r o r a g a i n s t
e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g ht o f t he o v e r w he l m i ng e vi d e nc e , a s he r e a ft e r t he p r o b a t i ve va l ue o f s o m e o f M O N IN A s d o c um e nt a r y e vi d e nc e .
s ho w n, t ha t F R A N C I S C O f a t he r e d M O N I N A , ha s r e c o g ni z e d he r a s
Page 20 of 42

M O N I N A s r e l i a nc e o n t he c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s s ue d b y t he L o c a l C i vi l S e c t i o n 4 0 . F a m i l y r e p ut a t i o n o r t r a d i t i o n r e g a r d i ng p e d i g r e e . - -
R e g i s t r a r c o nc e r ni ng he r b i r t h ( E x h s . E a nd F ) i s c l e a r l y T he r e p ut a t i o n o r t r a d i t i o n e xi s t i ng i n a fa m i l y p r e vi o us t o t he
m i s p l a c e d . It i s s e t t l e d t h a t a c e r t i f i c a t e o f l i ve b i r t h p ur p o r t e d l y c o nt r o ve r s y , i n r e s p e c t t o t he p e d i g r e e o f a n y o ne o f i t s
i d e nt i f y i ng t he p ut a t i v e f a t he r i s no t c o m p e t e nt e vi d e nc e a s t o m e m b e r s , m a y b e r e c e i ve d i n e vi d e n c e i f t h e w i t ne s s t e s t i f yi ng
t he i s s ue o f p a t e r ni t y , w he n t he r e i s no s ho w i ng t ha t t he p ut a t i ve t he r e o n b e a l s o a m e m b e r o f t he fa m i l y , e i t he r b y c o n s a ng ui ni t y
fa t he r ha d a ha nd i n t he p r e p a r a t i o n o f s a i d c e r t i fi c a t e s , a nd t he o r a f fi ni t y . E nt r i e s i n fa m i l y b i b l e s o r o t he r fa m i l y b o o k s o r
L o c a l C i v i l R e g i s t r a r i s d e v o i d o f a ut ho r i t y t o r e c o r d t he p a t e r ni t y c h a r t s , e ng r a vi ng s o n r i ng s , f a m i l y p o r t r a i t s a nd t he l i ke , m a y b e
o f a n i l l e g i t i m a t e c hi l d up o n t he i n f o r m a t i o n o f a t hi r d r e c e i ve d a s e vi d e n c e o f p e d i g r e e . ( u nd e r s c o r i ng s up p l i e d )
p e r s o n . 3 7 S i m p l y p ut , i f t he a l l e g e d f a t he r d i d no t i nt e r ve ne i n t h e
b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e , e . g . , s up p l y i ng t he i n f o r m a t i o n hi m s e l f, t he It i s e vi d e nt t h a t t hi s p r o vi s i o n m a y b e d i vi d e d i nt o t w o ( 2 )
i ns c r i p t i o n o f hi s na m e b y t he m o t he r o r d o c t o r o r r e g i s t r a r i s n u l l p a r t s : t he p o r t i o n c o n t a i ni ng t he fi r s t un d e r s c o r e d c l a u s e w hi c h
a nd v o i d ; t he m e r e c e r t i f i c a t e b y t he r e g i s t r a r w i t ho ut t he p e r t a i n s t o t e s t i m o ni a l e vi d e n c e , u nd e r w hi c h t he d o c u m e nt s i n
s i g n a t u r e o f t he f a t he r i s no t p r o o f o f v o l u n t a r y a c kno w l e d g m e nt q ue s t i o n m a y no t b e a d m i t t e d a s t he a ut ho r s t he r e o f d i d no t t a ke
o n t he l a t t e r s p a r t . 3 8 I n l i k e m a n ne r , F R A N C IS C O s l a c k o f t he w i t ne s s s t a nd ; a n d t he s e c t i o n c o nt a i ni ng t he s e c o n d
p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t he p r e p a r a t i o n o f t he b a p t i s m a l c e r t i fi c a t e s u nd e r s c o r e d p hr a s e . W h a t m u s t t he n b e a s c e r t a i ne d i s w he t he r
( E x hs . C a nd D ) a nd s c ho o l r e c o r d s ( E x h s . Z a nd A A ) r e nd e r s Ex hi b i t s S t o V , a s p r i va t e d o c um e nt s , f a l l w i t hi n t he s c o p e o f t h e
t he s e d o c um e nt s i nc o m p e t e nt t o p r o v e p a t e r ni t y, t he fo r m e r c l a us e a nd t he l i ke a s q ua l i fi e d b y t he p r e c e d i ng p h r a s e [ e ] nt r i e s
b e i ng c o m p e t e nt m e r e l y t o p r o v e t he a d m i ni s t r a t i o n o f t he i n f a m i l y b i b l e s o r o t h e r fa m i l y b o o k s o r c h a r t s , e ng r a vi ng s o n
s a c r a m e nt o f b a p t i s m o n t he d a t e s o s p e c i fi e d . 3 9 H o w e ve r , r i g ht s [ a nd ] fa m i l y p o r t r a i t s .
d e s p i t e t he i n a d m i s s i b i l i t y o f t he s c ho o l r e c o r d s p e r s e t o p r o v e
p a t e r ni t y , t he y m a y b e a d m i t t e d a s p a r t o f M O N I N A s t e s t i m o n y t o
W e ho l d t h a t t he s c o p e o f t he e n um e r a t i o n c o nt a i ne d i n t he
c o r r o b o r a t e he r c l a i m t ha t F R A N C I S C O s p e n t fo r he r e d uc a t i o n .
s e c o n d p o r t i o n o f t hi s p r o vi s i o n, i n l i g ht o f t he r ul e o f e j u s d e m
g e ne r i s , i s l i m i t e d t o o b j e c t s w hi c h a r e c o m m o nl y k no w n a s fa m i l y
W e l i k e w i s e d i s a g r e e w i t h t he r ul i ng o f t he C o u r t o f A p p e a l s t h a t p o s s e s s i o n s , o r t ho s e a r t i c l e s w hi c h r e p r e s e nt , i n e f fe c t , a f a m i l y s
t he c e r t i f i c a t e s i s s ue d b y t he L o c a l C i v i l R e g i s t r a r a nd t he j o i nt s t a t e m e nt o f i t s b e l i e f a s t o t he p e d i g r e e o f a
b a p t i s m a l c e r t i f i c a t e s m a y b e t a k e n a s c i r c u m s t a nt i a l e vi d e n c e t o p e r s o n . 4 2 T he s e ha ve b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s o b j e c t s o p e nl y e x hi b i t e d
p r o ve M O N IN A s f i l i a t i o n. S i n c e t he y a r e p e r s e i na d m i s s i b l e i n a nd w e l l k no w n t o t he f a m i l y, 4 3 o r t ho s e w h i c h , i f p r e s e r ve d i n a
e v i d e nc e a s p r o o f o f s uc h f i l i a t i o n , t he y c a n no t b e a d m i t t e d fa m i l y , m a y b e r e g a r d e d a s g i vi ng a f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n . 4 4 O t he r
i nd i r e c t l y a s c i r c um s t a nt i a l e v i d e nc e t o p r o ve t he s a m e . e xa m p l e s o f t he s e o b j e c t s w hi c h a r e r e g a r d e d a s r e fl e c t i ve o f a
fa m i l ys r e p ut a t i o n o r t r a d i t i o n r e g a r d i ng p e d i g r e e a r e i n s c r i p t i o n s
A s t o E x hi b i t s S , T , U a nd V , t he v a r i o u s no t e s a nd l e t t e r s w r i t t e n o n t o m b s t o ne s , 4 5 m o n um e nt s o r c o ffi n p l a t e s . 4 6 c r ä l ä w vi r t ua l i b r ä r y
b y F R A N C I S C O s r e l a t i v e s , n a m e l y M i k e A l a n o , Em i l i o J i s o n ,
M a r i q ui t L o p e z a nd F e r n a nd o L o p e z , r e s p e c t i ve l y , a l l e g e d l y P l a i nl y t he n , Ex hi b i t s S t o V , a s p r i v a t e d o c um e nt s no t
a t t e s t i ng t o M O N IN A s f i l i a t i o n , w hi l e t he i r d ue e xe c ut i o n a nd c o ns t i t ut i ng " fa m i l y p o s s e s s i o n s " a s d i s c us s e d a b o ve , m a y no t b e
a ut he nt i c i t y a r e no t i n i s s ue , 4 0 a s M O N I N A w i t ne s s e d t he a ut ho r s a d m i t t e d o n t he b a s i s o f R ul e 1 3 0 , S e c t i o n 4 0 . N e i t he r m a y t he s e
s i g ni ng t he d o c u m e nt s , ne v e r t he l e s s , u nd e r R ul e 1 3 0 , S e c t i o n 3 9 , e x hi b i t s b e a d m i t t e d o n t he b a s i s o f R ul e 1 3 0 , S e c t i o n 4 1
t he c o nt e nt s o f t he s e d o c um e nt s m a y no t b e a d m i t t e d , t he r e r e g a r d i ng c o m m o n r e p ut a t i o n, 4 7 i t ha vi ng b e e n o b s e r ve d t h a t :
b e i ng no s ho w i ng t ha t t he d e c l a r a nt s - a ut ho r s w e r e d e a d o r u na b l e
t o t e s t i f y , ne i t he r w a s t he r e l a t i o n s hi p b e t w e e n t he d e c l a r a nt s
[ T ] he w e i g ht o f a ut ho r i t y a p p e a r s t o b e i n f a vo r o f t he t he o r y
a nd M O N I N A s ho w n b y e v i d e nc e o t he r t h a n t he d o c u m e nt s i n
t ha t i t i s t he g e n e r a l r e p ut e , t he c o m m o n r e p ut a t i o n i n t he
q ue s t i o n. 4 1 A s t o t he a d m i s s i b i l i t y o f t he s e d o c um e nt s u nd e r R ul e
fa m i l y , a nd no t t he c o m m o n r e p ut a t i o n i n c o m m u ni t y, t ha t i s a
1 3 0 , S e c t i o n 4 0 , ho w e v e r , t hi s r e q ui r e s f u r t he r e l a b o r a t i o n .
m a t e r i a l e l e m e nt o f e v i d e nc e g o i ng t o e s t a b l i s h p e d i g r e e . x x x
[ T h us ] m a t t e r s o f p e d i g r e e m a y b e p r o ve d b y r e p ut a t i o n i n t he
R ul e 1 3 0 , S e c t i o n 4 0 , p r o v i d e s : fa m i l y , a nd no t b y r e p ut a t i o n i n t he ne i g hb o r ho o d o r vi c i ni t y,
Page 21 of 42

e xc e p t w he r e t he p e d i g r e e i n q ue s t i o n i s m a r r i a g e w hi c h m a y b e I nd e e d , i f M O N IN A w e r e t r ul y no t F R A N C I S C O s i l l e g i t i m a t e
p r o ve d b y c o m m o n r e p ut a t i o n i n t he d a ug ht e r , i t w o ul d ha ve b e e n u nne c e s s a r y fo r hi m t o ha ve g o ne
c o m m uni t y . 4 8 c r ä l ä w v i r t ua l i b r ä r y t o s uc h g r e a t l e ng t h s i n o r d e r t h a t M O N IN A d e no un c e he r
fi l i a t i o n . F o r a s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s he d b e fo r e t he t r i a l c o ur t a nd
T he i r i na d m i s s i b i l i t y n o t w i t hs t a nd i ng , E x hi b i t s S t o V , i n c l us i ve , p r o p e r l y a p p r e c i a t e d b y t he C o u r t o f A p p e a l s , M O N IN A h a d
m a y , i n l i k e m a n ne r a s M O N I N A ' s s c ho o l r e c o r d s , p r o p e r l y b e r e s i g ne d fr o m M i l l e r & C r uz fi ve ( 5 ) m o nt h s p r i o r t o t he e xe c ut i o n
a d m i t t e d a s p a r t o f h e r t e s t i m o n y t o s t r e n g t he n he r c l a i m t h a t , o f t he s w o r n s t a t e m e nt i n q ue s t i o n, he n c e ne g a t i ng F R A N C I S C O s
i nd e e d , r e l a t i v e s o f F R A N C I S C O r e c o g ni z e d he r a s hi s d a ug ht e r . t he o r y o f t he ne e d t o q ua s h r u m o r s c i r c ul a t i ng w i t hi n M i l l e r &
C r u z r e g a r d i ng t he i d e n t i t y o f M O N I N A s f a t he r . H e nc e , c o up l e d
w i t h t he a s s e s s m e nt o f t he c r e d i b i l i t y o f t he t e s t i m o ni a l e vi d e n c e
W e no w d i r e c t o u r a t t e nt i o n t o M O N IN A s 2 1 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 1
o f t he p a r t i e s d i s c us s e d a b o ve , i t i s e vi d e n t t h a t t he s t a nd a r d t o
a f fi d a v i t ( E x h . P / E x h. 2 ) , s ub j e c t o f t he fo u r t h a s s i g ne d e r r o r ,
c o nt r a d i c t a no t a r i a l d o c um e nt , i . e . , c l e a r a nd c o nvi nc i ng
w he r e s he a t t e s t s t ha t F R A N C I S C O i s no t h e r fa t he r . M O N IN A
e vi d e nc e a nd m o r e t h a n m e r e l y p r e p o nd e r a nt , 4 9 ha s b e e n m e t b y
c o nt e nd s t ha t s he s i g ne d i t u nd e r d ur e s s , i . e . , s he w a s j o b l e s s ,
MONINA.
ha d no s a v i ng s a nd n e e d e d t he m o ne y t o s up p o r t he r s e l f a nd
fi ni s h he r s t ud i e s . M o r e o v e r , s he s i g ne d E x hi b i t P up o n t he a d vi c e
o f A t t y . D i v i n a g r a c i a t ha t f i l i a t i o n c o ul d no t b e w a i ve d a nd t ha t P l a i nl y t he n , t he b ur d e n o f e vi d e n c e f ul l y s hi ft e d t o F R A N C I S C O .
F R A N C IS C O s p l o y w o u l d b o o m e r a ng up o n hi m . O n t he o t he r h a n d ,
F R A N C IS C O a s s e r t s t h a t f ul l c r e d e nc e s ho ul d b e a ffo r d e d E x hi b i t P T w o ( 2 ) g l a r i ng p o i nt s i n F R A N C IS C O s d e fe n s e b e g t o b e
a s M O N IN A w a s a l r e a d y 2 5 y e a r s o l d a t t he t i m e o f i t s e xe c ut i o n a d d r e s s e d : F i r s t , t ha t hi s t e s t i m o ny w a s c o m p r i s e d o f m e r e
a nd w a s a d v i s e d b y c o un s e l ; f u r t he r , b e i ng a no t a r i z e d d o c um e n t , d e ni a l s , r i fe w i t h b a r e , u ns ub s t a nt i a t e d r e s p o ns e s s u c h a s T h a t i s
i t s g e n ui ne ne s s a nd d ue e x e c ut i o n c o ul d no t b e q ue s t i o ne d . H e no t t r ue , I d o no t b e l i e ve t h a t , o r N o ne t h a t I k no w . In d e c l i ni ng
r e l i e s o n t he t e s t i m o n y o f J o s e C r u z , a p a r t ne r a t t he a c c o u nt i ng t he n t o l e nd c r e d e nc e t o F R A N C IS C O s t e s t i m o n y, w e r e s o r t t o a
fi r m o f M i l l e r & C r u z , w ho d e c l a r e d t ha t he i nt e r ve n e d i n t he g ui d i ng p r i n c i p l e i n a d j ud g i ng t he c r e d i b i l i t y o f a w i t ne s s a nd t he
m a t t e r a s M O N I N A w a s s p r e a d i ng r um o r s a b o ut he r fi l i a t i o n w i t hi n t r ut hf ul ne s s o f hi s s t a t e m e nt s , l a i d d o w n a s e a r l y a s 1 9 2 1 :
t he fi r m , w hi c h m i g ht ha v e h a d d e l e t e r i o u s e ffe c t s up o n t he
r e l a t i o n s hi p b e t w e e n t he f i r m a nd F R A N C I S C O . T he e xp e r i e nc e o f c o u r t s a nd t he g e ne r a l o b s e r va t i o n o f h um a ni t y
t e a c h us t ha t t he na t ur a l l i m i t a t i o ns o f o ur i n ve nt i ve fa c ul t i e s a r e
O n t hi s i s s ue , w e f i n d f o r M O N IN A a nd a g r e e w i t h t he fo l l o w i n g s u c h t ha t i f a w i t ne s s u nd e r t a ke s t o f a b r i c a t e a nd d e l i ve r i n c o ur t
o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t he C o ur t o f A p p e a l s : a fa l s e na r r a t i ve c o nt a i ni ng n um e r o u s d e t a i l s , he i s a l m o s t
c e r t a i n t o fa l l i nt o f a t a l i nc o ns i s t e n c i e s , t o m a ke s t a t e m e nt s
Eve n t he a f f i d a v i t ( E x h 2 ) w hi c h [ F R A N C I S C O ] h a d fo i s t e d o n t he w hi c h c a n b e r e a d i l y r e f ut e d , o r t o e xp o s e i n hi s d e m e a no r t h e
t r i a l c o u r t x x x d o e s n o t ho l d s w a y i n t he f a c e o f [ M O N IN A s ] fa l s i t y o f hi s m e s s a g e .
l o g i c a l e x p l a na t i o n t h a t s he a t f i r s t d i d a g r e e t o s i g n t he a ffi d a vi t
w hi c h c o nt a i ne d u nt r u t hf ul s t a t e m e nt s . I n f a c t , s he p r o m p t l y F o r t hi s r e a s o n i t w i l l b e fo u nd t h a t p e r j ur e r s u s u a l l y c o n fi ne
c o m p l a i ne d t o [ F R A N C I S C O ] w ho , ho w e v e r e xp l a i ne d t o he r t ha t t he m s e l ve s t o t he i nc i d e nt s i m m e d i a t e l y r e l a t e d t o t he p r i nc i p a l
t he a f f i d a v i t w a s o nl y f o r t he c o ns um p t i o n o f hi s s p o u s e x x x. fa c t a b o ut w hi c h t he y t e s t i fy , a nd w he n a s k e d a b o ut c o l l a t e r a l
fa c t s b y w hi c h t he i r t r ut h f ul ne s s c o ul d b e t e s t e d , t he i r a ns w e r s
A t a n y r a t e , i f [ M O N I N A ] w e r e no t hi s i l l e g i t i m a t e d a ug ht e r , i t no t i n fr e q ue nt l y t a ke t he s t e r e o t yp e d fo r m o f s u c h e xp r e s s i o ns a s
w o ul d ha v e b e e n u nc a l l e d f o r , i f no t a b s ur d , fo r [ F R A N C I S C O ] o r I d o nt kno w o r I d o nt r e m e m b e r . x x x 5 0 c r ä l ä w vi r t u a l i b r ä r y
hi s l a w y e r t o ha v e s e c u r e d [ M O N IN A s ] s w o r n s t a t e m e nt x xx O n
t he c o nt r a r y , i n a s k i n g [ M O N I N A ] t o s i g n t h e s a i d a f fi d a vi t a t t he S e c o nd , t he r e a s o n s f o r t he d i s m i s s a l s o f T i ng s o n , Ba yl o s i s a nd
c o s t o f P 1 5 , 0 0 0 , [ F R A N C I S C O ] c l e a r l y b e t r a ye d hi s i nt e nt i o n t o S a va r i z w e r e u n s p e c i f i e d o r l i ke w i s e u ns ub s t a nt i a t e d , he n c e
c o nc e a l o r s up p r e s s h i s p a t e r ni t y o f [ M O N I N A ] . x x x F R A N C IS C O s a t t e m p t t o p r o ve i l l - m o t i ve o n t he i r p a r t t o fa l s e l y
t e s t i f y i n M O N IN A s fa vo r m a y no t s u c c e e d . A s m a y b e g l e a ne d ,
Page 22 of 42

t he o nl y d e t a i l w hi c h F R A N C IS C O c o ul d f u r n i s h a s t o t he F R A N C IS C O s o f fi c e , S up e r t i c i o s o a d m i t t e d t ha t hi s ni c k n a m e w a s
c i r c um s t a nc e s s u r r o u nd i ng t he d i s m i s s a l s o f hi s fo r m e r e m p l o ye e s Ii ng a nd t ha t t he r e w a s no o t he r p e r s o n n a m e d Ii ng i n
w a s t ha t B a y l o s i s a l l e g e d l y t o o k a d v a nt a g e o f hi s p o s i t i o n w hi l e F R A N C IS C O s o f fi c e . 5 7 c r ä l ä w vi r t u a l i b r ä r y
F R A N C IS C O w a s i n t h e U ni t e d S t a t e s . B ut a s i d e fr o m t hi s b a r e
c l a i m , F R A N C IS C O s a c c o u nt i s b a r r e n , he n c e un a b l e t o p r o vi d e A l l t o l d , M O N I N A s e vi d e nc e h ur d l e d t he hi g h s t a nd a r d o f p r o o f
t he b a s i s f o r a f i nd i ng o f b i a s a g a i ns t F R A N C IS C O o n t he p a r t o f r e q ui r e d fo r t he s u c c e s s o f a n a c t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h o ne s i l l e g i t i m a t e
hi s fo r m e r e m p l o y e e s . fi l i a t i o n w he n r e l yi ng up o n t he p r o vi s i o ns r e g a r d i ng o p e n a nd
c o nt i nuo u s p o s s e s s i o n o r a n y o t he r m e a n s a l l o w e d b y t he R ul e s o f
A s t o F R A N C IS C O s o t h e r w i t ne s s e s , no t hi ng s ub s t a nt i a l c o ul d b e C o u r t a n d s p e c i a l l a w s ; m o r e o ve r , M O N IN A p r o ve d he r fi l i a t i o n b y
o b t a i ne d e i t he r . N o ni t o J a l a n d o ni a v o w e d t h a t he o nl y c a m e t o m o r e t ha n m e r e p r e p o nd e r a n c e o f e vi d e n c e .
k no w o f M O N I N A i n J u ne 1 9 8 8 ; 5 1 t ha t d u r i n g hi s e m p l o y m e nt a t
N e l l y G a r d e n f r o m 1 9 6 3 up t o 1 9 7 4 , he d i d no t r e c a l l e ve r h a vi n g T he l a s t a s s i g ne d e r r o r c o n c e r ni ng l a c he s l i ke w i s e f a i l s t o
s e e n M O N I N A t he r e , n e i t he r d i d he k no w o f a n y i n s t r uc t i o ns f r o m c o n vi nc e . T he e s s e nt i a l e l e m e nt s o f l a c he s a r e : ( 1 ) c o nd u c t o n
F R A N C IS C O no r M r . L a g a r t o ( F R A N C IS C O s o ffi c e m a na g e r b e fo r e t he p a r t o f t he d e fe nd a nt , o r o f o ne u nd e r w ho m he c l a i m s , g i vi n g
p a s s i ng a w a y ) r e g a r d i ng t he d i s b u r s e m e nt o f M O N IN A s r i s e t o t he s i t u a t i o n o f w hi c h t he c o m p l a i nt s e e k s a r e m e d y; ( 2 )
a l l o w a nc e . 5 2 T e o d o r o Z ul l a c o r r o b o r a t e d J a l a nd o ni s t e s t i m o n y d e l a y i n a s s e r t i ng t he c o m p l a i n a nt s r i g ht s , t he c o m p l a i na nt
r e g a r d i ng no t ha v i ng s e e n M O N I N A a t N e l l y G a r d e n a nd M O N IN A s ha vi ng h a d k no w l e d g e o r no t i c e o f t he d e fe nd a nt s c o nd uc t a s
a l l o w a nc e ; d e c l a r e d t ha t A l f r e d o B a y l o s i s w a s d i s m i s s e d d ue t o ha vi ng b e e n a f fo r d e d a n o p p o r t u ni t y t o i ns t i t ut e a s ui t ; ( 3 ) l a c k
d i s c r e p a n c i e s d i s c o v e r e d a f t e r a n a ud i t , w i t ho ut a n y f ur t he r o f k no w l e d g e o r no t i c e o n t he p a r t o f t he d e fe nd a nt t ha t t he
e l a b o r a t i o n , ho w e v e r ; b ut a d m i t t e d t ha t he ne ve r p r e p a r e d t he c o m p l a i nt w o ul d a s s e r t t he r i g ht i n w hi c h h e b a s e s hi s s ui t ; a nd
vo u c he r s p e r t a i ni ng t o F R A N C I S C O s p e r s o n a l e xp e ns e s , m e r e l y ( 4 ) i nj u r y o r p r e j ud i c e t o t he d e fe nd a nt i n t he e ve nt r e l i e f i s
t ho s e i nt e nd e d f o r o n e o f F R A N C IS C O s h a c i e nd a s . 5 3 T he n , Ii g o a c c o r d e d t o t he c o m p l a i na nt , o r t he s ui t i s no t he l d b a r r e d . 5 8 T he
S up e r t i c i o s o c o n f i r m e d t h a t a c c o r d i ng t o t h e r e p o r t o f a c e r t a i n l a s t e l e m e nt i s t he o r i g i n o f t he d o c t r i ne t h a t s t a l e d e m a nd s a p p l y
M r . A t i e n z a , B a y l o s i s w a s d i s m i s s e d b y M r . J i s o n fo r o nl y w he r e b y r e a s o n o f t he l a p s e o f t i m e i t w o ul d b e i ne q ui t a b l e
i r r e g ul a r i t i e s , w hi l e S up e r t i c i o s o w a s i n fo r m e d b y F R A N C I S C O t o a l l o w a p a r t y t o e n fo r c e hi s l e g a l r i g ht s . 5 9 c r ä l ä w vi r t ua l i b r ä r y
t ha t T i ng s o n w a s d i s m i s s e d f o r l o s s o f c o n fi d e n c e . S up e r t i c i o s o
l i ke w i s e d e ni e d t ha t M O N I N A r e c e i v e d m o n e y fr o m F R A N C I S C O s
A s F R A N C I S C O s e t up l a c he s a s a n a f fi r m a t i ve d e fe ns e , i t w a s
o ffi c e , ne i t he r w a s t h e r e a s t a nd i ng o r d e r f r o m F R A N C IS C O t o
i nc um b e nt u p o n hi m t o p r o ve t he e xi s t e n c e o f i t s e l e m e nt s .
r e l e a s e f u nd s t o he r . 5 4 c r ä l ä w v i r t ua l i b r ä r y
H o w e ve r , h e o nl y s u c c e e d e d i n s ho w i ng M O N I N A s d e l a y i n
a s s e r t i ng he r c l a i m , b ut m i s e r a b l y fa i l e d t o p r o ve t he l a s t
It i s a t o n c e o b v i o us t ha t t he t e s t i m o ni e s o f t he s e w i t ne s s e s fo r e l e m e nt . I n a n y e ve nt , i t m us t b e s t r e s s e d t ha t l a c he s i s b a s e d
F R A N C IS C O a r e l i k e w i s e i ns u f f i c i e nt t o o ve r c o m e M O N IN A s up o n g r o u nd s o f p ub l i c p o l i c y w hi c h r e q ui r e s , fo r t he p e a c e o f
e vi d e nc e . T he f o r m e r m e r e l y c o ns i s t o f d e ni a l s a s r e g a r d s t he s o c i e t y , t he d i s c o u r a g e m e nt o f s t a l e c l a i m s , a nd i s p r i nc i p a l l y a
l a t t e r s h a v i ng g o ne t o N e l l y G a r d e n o r ha vi ng r e c e i ve d he r q ue s t i o n o f t he i ne q ui t y o r u n fa i r ne s s o f p e r m i t t i ng a r i g ht o r
a l l o w a nc e f r o m F R A N C I S C O s o f f i c e , w hi c h , b e i ng i n t he fo r m o f c l a i m t o b e e nfo r c e d o r a s s e r t e d . T he r e i s no a b s o l ut e r ul e a s t o
ne g a t i v e t e s t i m o ny , n e c e s s a r i l y s t a nd i n fi r m a s a g a i ns t p o s i t i ve w ha t c o ns t i t ut e s l a c h e s ; e a c h c a s e i s t o b e d e t e r m i ne d a c c o r d i ng
t e s t i m o n y ; 5 5 b a r e a s s e r t i o ns a s r e g a r d s t he d i s m i s s a l o f B a yl o s i s ; t o i t s p a r t i c ul a r c i r c u m s t a nc e s . T he q ue s t i o n o f l a c he s i s
i g no r a n c e o f F R A N C I S C O s p e r s o na l e x p e n s e s i nc a p a b l e o f e vi n c i n g a d d r e s s e d t o t he s o u n d d i s c r e t i o n o f t he c o ur t , a nd s i n c e i t i s a n
t ha t F R A N C I S C O d i d n o t p r o v i d e M O N I N A w i t h a n a l l o w a n c e ; o r e q ui t a b l e d o c t r i ne , i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i s c o nt r o l l e d b y e q ui t a b l e
he a r s a y e v i d e n c e a s r e g a r d s t he c a us e fo r t he d i s m i s s a l s o f c o ns i d e r a t i o ns . It c a n no t b e w o r ke d t o d e fe a t j us t i c e o r t o
Ba yl o s i s a nd T i ng s o n . B ut w h a t t he n s e r ve s a s t he c o up d e g r c e i s p e r p e t u a t e fr a ud a nd i nj us t i c e . 6 0 S i n c e t he i ns t a nt c a s e i n vo l ve s
t ha t d e s p i t e S up e r t i c i o s o s c l a i m t ha t he d i d no t kno w p a t e r ni t y a nd fi l i a t i o n , e ve n i f i l l e g i t i m a t e , M O N I N A fi l e d he r
M O N I N A , 5 6 w he n c o n f r o nt e d w i t h E x hi b i t H , a t e l e p ho ne t o l l t i c ke t a c t i o n w e l l w i t hi n t he p e r i o d g r a nt e d he r b y a p o s i t i ve p r o vi s i o n
i nd i c a t i ng t ha t o n 1 8 M a y 1 9 7 1 , M O N IN A c a l l e d a c e r t a i n Ei ng a t
Page 23 of 42

o f l a w . A d e ni a l t he n o f he r a c t i o n o n g r o u nd o f l a c he s w o ul d Flight No. 264 from Naga City to Manila on September 24, 1985,
c l e a r l y b e i ne q ui t a b l e a nd u nj u s t . scheduled to depart for Manila at 4:25 p.m. The tickets were
brought sometime in August 1985. Among the conditions
W H E R E F O R E , I N V I E W O F T H E F O R E G O IN G , t he p e t i t i o n i s he r e b y included in plaintiffs tickets is the following:
D EN I E D a nd t he c ha l l e ng e d d e c i s i o n o f t he C o u r t o f A p p e a l s o f 2 7
A p r i l 1 9 9 5 i n C A - G . R . C V N o . 3 2 8 6 0 i s A F F I R M ED . 1. CHECK-IN TIME — Please check in at the Airport Passenger
check-in counter at least one hour before PUBLISHED departure
C o s t s a g a i ns t p e t i t i o n e r . time of your flight. We will consider your accommodation
forfeited in favor of waitlisted passenger if you fail to check-in at
least 30 minutes before PUBLISHED departure time. (Exhs. (1-
SO ORDERED.
A-A, 2-A-1, S-A, O-A-1, tsn. Nov 23, 1987, p. 8).

Plaintiffs claim in their Complaint that they went tot he check-in


counter of the defendant's Naga branch at least one (1) hour
F IR S T D IV IS IO N before the published departure time but no one was at the
counter until 30 minutes before departure, but upon checking -
in and presentation of their tickets to the employee/clerk who
showed up, their tickets were cancelled and the seats awarded
to chance passengers; plaintiffs had to go to Manila by bus, and
G.R. No. 92740 March 23, 1992
seek actual, moral and exemplary damages, and attorney's fees
for breach of contract of carriage.
PHILIPPINE AIRLINES, INC., petitioner,
vs.
Defendant disclaim any liability, claiming that the non-
JAIME M. RAMOS, NILDA RAMOS, ERLINDA ILANO, MILAGROS ILANO,
accommodation of plaintiff on the said flight was due to their
DANIEL ILANO AND FELIPA JAVALERA, respondents.
having check-in (sic) late for their flight. It is averred even if
defendant is found liable to the plaintiffs such liability is confined
to, and limited by, the CAB Economic Regulations No. 7 in
conjunction with P.D. 589.

MEDIALDEA, J.: The trial court rendered judgment finding defendant guilty of
breach of contract of carriage in bumping-off the plaintiffs from
This petition for review on certiorari seeks to reverse the decision of the Court its F264 flight of September 25, 1985, and ordered defendant to
of Appeals dated March 15, 1990 affirming in toto the decision of the Regional pay:
Trial Court of Imus, Cavite, Branch 21, directing the Philippine Airlines, Inc.
(PAL, for short) to pay the private respondents the amounts specified therein as 1) P1,250.20 — the total value of the tickets:
actual, moral and temperate damages as well as attorney's fees and expenses
of litigation.
2) P22.50 — the total value of airport security fees and terminal
fees;
The antecedents facts are briefly recounted by the appellate court, as follows:
3) P20,000.00 — for each of the plaintiffs for moral and
Plaintiffs Jaime Ramos, Nilda Ramos, Erlinda Ilano, Milagros temperate damages; and
Ilano, Daniel Ilano and Felipe Javalera, are officers of the
Negros Telephone Company who held confirmed tickets for PAL
Page 24 of 42

4) P5,000.00 — for attorney's fees and expenses of litigation. We reverse. This case once more illustrates Our power to re-weigh the findings
(Rollo, pp. 35-36) of lower courts when the same are not supported by the record or not based on
substantial evidence (see Cruz v. Villarin, G.R. No. 75679, January 12, 1990,
PAL appealed to the Court of Appeals. On March 15, 990, the appellate court 181 SCRA 53, 61).
rendered a decision, the dispositive portion of which, reads:
It is an admitted fact that the private respondents knew of the required check-in
WHEREFORE, the decision appealed from is AFFIRMED in time for passengers. The time requirement is prominently printed as one of the
toto, with costs against appellant. conditions of carriage on their tickets, i.e., that the airport passenger should
check-in at least one hour before published departure time of his flight and PAL
shall consider his accommodation forfeited in favor of waistlisted passengers if
SO ORDERED. (Rollo, p. 42)
he fails to check-in at least 30 minutes.

Hence, this present petition with the following legal questions:


We note that while the aforequoted condition has always been applied strictly
and without exception (TSN, December 16, 1987, p. 11), the station manager,
1. Can the Honorable Court of Appeals validity promulgate the however, may exercise his discretion to allow passengers who checked-in late to
questioned decision by the simple expedient of adopting in board provided the flight is not fully booked and seats are available (ibid, pp.
toto the trial court's finding that defendant-appellant is liable for 17-18). On September 24, 1985, flight 264 from Naga to Manila was fully
damages on the sole issue of credibility of witnesses without booked owing to the Peñafrancia Festival (TSN, January 25, 1988, p.5). In
considering the material admissions made by the plaintiffs and addition, PAL morning flights 261 and 262 were canceled resulting in a big
other evidence on record that substantiate the defense of number o f waitlisted passengers. (TSN, November 23,
defendant-appellant. 1987, p. 6).

2. Can the Honorable Court award legally moral and temperate The private respondents claim that they were on time in checking-in for their
damages plus attorney's fees of P5,000.00 contrary to the flight; that no PAL personnel attended to them until much later which accounted
evidence and established jurisprudence. (Rollo, p. 9) for their late check-in; that PAL advanced the check-in time and the departure
of their flight resulting in their non-accommodation; and that they suffered
Under Section 1, Rule 131 of the Rules of Court, each party in a case is required physical difficulties, anxieties and business losses.
to prove his affirmative allegations. In civil cases, the degree of evidence
required of a party in order to support his claim is preponderance of evidence or The evidence on record does not support the above contentions. We note that
that evidence adduced by one party which is more conclusive and credible than there were two other confirmed passengers who came ahead of the private
that of the other party (Stronghold Insurance Company, Inc. vs. Court of respondents but were refused accommodation because they were late.
Appeals, et al., G.R. No. 83376, May 29, 1989, 173 SCRA 619, 625). Edmundo Araquel, then the check-in-clerk, testified on this point, as follows:

The case at bar presents a simple question of fact: Whether or not the private Atty. Marcelino C. Calica, counsel for PAL
respondents were late in checking-in for their flight from Naga City to Manila on
September 24. 1985. It is immediately apparent from the records of this case
Q Before the plaintiffs arrive (sic) at the check-in
that the claims of the parties on this question are dramatically opposed. As a
counter, do you recall if there were other
rule, the determination of a question of fact depends largely on the credibility of
passengers who arrived at the counter and they
witnesses unless some documentary evidence is available which clearly
were advised that they were late?
substantiates the issue and whose genuineness and probative value is not
disputed (Legarda v. Miaile, 88 Phil. 637, 642). The exception to the rule now
runs true in this case. A Yes, sir.

Q Who were those persons?


Page 25 of 42

A My former classmates at Ateneo, sir, Rose the ticket. (TSN of November 23, 1987, pp. 11-
Capati and Go, Merly. 12)

Q Were these two passengers also confirmed Shortly after, the private respondents followed the aforesaid two passengers at
passengers on this flight? the counter. At this juncture, Araquel declared, thus:

A Yes, sir. Q Now, you said that you met the plaintiffs in
this case because they were passengers of Flight
Q I show to you a document which is entitled 264 on September 24, 1985 and they were not
"Passenger Manifest of flight 264, September accommodated because they checked in late,
24, 1985," which we request to be marked as what time did these plaintiffs check in?
Exh. "5" you said earlier that aside from the
plaintiffs here there were two other passengers A Around 4:02 p.m., sir.
who also checked in but they were also late and
you mentioned the names of these passengers Q Who was the clerk at the check in counter who
as Capati and Go, please point to us that entry attended to them?
which will show the names of Go and Capati?
A I was the one, sir.
A Here, sir, numbers 13 and 14 of the Manifest.
xxx xxx xxx
ATTY. CALICA: We request that passengers 13
and 14 be marked in evidence, Go for 13 and
Q You said when you were presented the tickets
Capati for 14 as Exh. "5-A."
of the plaintiffs in this case and noting that they
were late for checking in, immediately after
Q You said that these two passengers you advising them that they were late, you said you
mentioned were also similarly denied made annotation on the tickets?
accommodations because they checked in late,
did they check in before or after the plaintiffs?
A Yes, sir.

A Before, sir.
Q I am showing to you Exhs. "A," "B," "C," and
"D," which are the tickets of Mr. & Mrs. Jaime
Q What time did they appear at the counter? Ramos for Exh. "A," Exh. "B" ticket of Mr. & Mrs.
Daniel Ilano, "C" ticket of Felipa Javalera and
A 4:01 p.m., sir. "D" ticket of Erlinda Ilano, will you please go
over the same and point to us the notations you
Q What happened when they checked in at said you made on these tickets?
4:01?
A This particular time, sir. (Witness pointing to
A I told them also that they were late so they the notation "Late" and the time "4:02"
cannot be accommodated and they tried to appearing at the upper righthand of the tickets
protest, but they decided later on just to refund Exhs. "A," "B," "C," and "D.")
Page 26 of 42

Q How long did it take after the tickets were twenty (20) minutes the check-in counter and
tendered to you for checking in and before you other PAL Offices there — the whole counter was
made this notation? completely unmanned? I am referring to the
whole area there where it is enclosed by a
A It was just seconds, sir. counter.

Q On the tickets being tendered for check-in and I will describe to you, for the benefit of the
noting that they were late, you mean to say you court.
immediately made annotations?
When you approach the counter at Naga Airport,
A Yes, sir. That is an S.O.P. of the office. the counter is enclosed, I mean, you cannot just
go inside the PAL office, right? there is some
sort of counter where you deal with the PAL
Q So on what time did you base that 4:02?
personnel and you approximate this counter to
be five (5) to six (6) meters. Now, this space
A At the check-in counter clock, sir. after the counter, did you observe what fixtures
or enclosures are contained there inside the
Q At the time you placed the time, what was the enclosed space?
time reflected at the counter clock?
A I am not sure whether there are offices or
A 4:02, sir. (ibid, pp. 8-11) enclosures there.

The private respondents submitted no controverting evidence. As clearly Q You have been traveling and had opportunity
manifested above, the intervening time between Capati and Go and the private to check-in your tickets so may times. Everytime
respondents took only a mere second. If indeed, the private respondents were that you check-in, how many personnel are
at the check-in counter at 3:30 p.m., they could have been the first ones to be manning the check-in counter?
attended to by Araquel than Capati and Go. They cold have also protested if
they were the earliest passengers at the counter but were ignored by Araquel in A There are about three (3) or four (4), sir.
favor of Go and Capati. They did not.
Q Everytime, there are three (3) or four (4)?
It is likewise improbable that not a single PAL personnel was in attendance at
the counter when the check-in counter was supposed to be opened at 3:25 p.m.
A Everytime but not that time.
It mist be remembered that the morning flight to Manila was canceled and
hence, it is not farfetched for Us to believe that the PAL personnel then have
their hands full in dealing with the passengers of the morning flight who became Q I am referring to your previous trips, I am not
waitlisted passengers. Moreover, the emphatic assertions of private respondent referring to this incident.
Daniel Javalora Ilano regarding the absence of a PAL personnel lost its impact
during the cross examination: On previous occasions when you took the flight
with Pili Airport and you see three (3) or four (4)
ATTY. CALICA — personnel everytime, are all these three (3) or
four (4) personnel at the counter or some are
standing at the counter or others are seated on
Q So, you maintain therefore that for all the
time that you waited for there for the whole
Page 27 of 42

the table doing something or what? Will you A A total of four personnel with the assistance of
describe to us? others.

A Some are handling the baggages and some Q Who are these personnel are assigned to the
are checking-in the tickets. counter and what specific duties they
performed?
Q So, on most occasions when you check-in and
say, there were at least three (3) of four (4) A Mr. Oropesa handled the cargo, Mr. Espiritu
people at the check-in counter, one would handled the ticketing, Mr. Valencia and me
attend to the tickets, another to the check in handled the checking in of passengers.
baggage, if any. Now, do you notice if somebody
evade when you check-in your ticket. This other Q Are you referring to this particular flight 264
person would receive the flight coupon which is on September 24, 1985?
detached from your ticket and record it on what
we call passenger manifest?
A Yes, sir.

A That's true.
Q Who was assigned as check-in clerk that
particular time?
Q Now, it is clear one would attend to the
baggage, another person would receive the
A I was the one with Mr. Valencia, sir.
ticket, detach the coupon and one would record
it on the passenger manifest. What about the
fourth, what was he doing, if you recall? Q What was Mr. Valencia doing?

A I think, putting the identification tags on the A He assisted me, sir.


baggages (sic). (TSN, November 17, 1986, p.
38) Q How?

Ilano's declaration becomes even more patently unreliable in the face of A If a group of passengers simultaneously check
the Daily Station Report of PAL dated September 24, 1985 which in, we divided the work between us. (TSN,
contained the working hours of its personnel from 0600 to 1700 and November 23, 1987, p. 7)
their respective assignments, as follows:
xxx xxx xxx
ATTY. CALICA
Q When the plaintiffs testified in this case
Q Normally upon opening of the check-in particularly plaintiff Daniel Ilano and Felipa
counter, how many PAL personnel are assigned Javalera at the previous hearings said plaintiffs
to man the counter? stated that they arrived at the check-in counter
at about 3:25 or 3:30 and there was nobody in
EDMUNDO ARAQUEL the counter, what can you say to that?
Page 28 of 42

A We cannot leave the counter, sir. That was deployment of personnel of PAL Naga Station on
always manned from 3:25 up to the last minute. September 24, 1985 as "6-A."
We were there assigned to handle the checking
in of the passengers. Q Plaintiffs in this case testified that when they
checked in there was nobody manning the
Q You mentioned earlier that aside from you counter and they had to wait for twenty minutes
there were other personnel assigned to the before someone came in to the counter, what
check-in counter and you even mentioned about can you say to that?
a certain Valencia assisting you, do you have
any evidence to show said assignment of A It is not true because all the time we were
personnel at the airport? there from the start, an hour before the flight
we were there because we were assigned there.
A Yes, sir.
Q Plaintiff Daniel Ilano testified that he went to
Q I show to you a daily station report from 24 the counter twice, first at 3:25 and it was only
September 1985 covering working hours 0600 at 4:00 p.m. that somebody went to the counter
to 1700, will you please go over the same and and attended to him and while he expected his
thereafter tell us from the personnel listed in boarding pass he was told instead that plaintiffs
this Daily Station Report what were the name could not be accommodated because they were
(sic) of the personnel assigned to man a check- late, what can you say to that?
in counter at that time?
A The truth is we were always there and we
A There (sic) persons assigned were Mr. never left the counter from the start of the
Oropesa, Mr. Espiritu, Mr. Medevilla, myself and check-in time of 3:25 we were all there, we
Mr. Valencia. never left the counter.

Q You mentioned about Mr. Espiritu, what was Q Until what time did you remain at the check-in
his specific task at that time? counter?

A He was handling the ticketing, sir. A At around 4:15 p.m., sir.

Q What about Mr. Medevilla? Q You said that the check-in counter was closed
at 3:55, for what purpose were you still manning
A He was taking care of the ramp handling. the check-in counter?

Q And Mr. Oropesa? A To attend to the passenger who are late in


checking in because they also need assistance in
explaining to them the situation.
A He was handling the incoming cargo.

Q So it was for that purpose you were there?


ATTY. CALICA: We request that this Daily
Station Report be marked Exh. "6" and the
portion of the Report which shows the A Yes, sir. (ibid., pp. 16-18)
Page 29 of 42

It is significant to note that there were no other passenger who checked-in late that all the passengers have already boarded, there was no sense in keeping
after the private respondents (TSN, November 23, 1987, p. 13). In the absence them waiting for the scheduled time of departure before the plane could take
of any controverting evidence, the documentary evidence presented to flight.
corroborate the testimonies of PAL's witnesses are prima facie evidence of the
truth of their allegations. The plane tickets of the private respondents, exhs. ACCORDINGLY, the petition is GRANTED. The questioned decision of the Court
"1," "2," "3," "4," (with emphasis on the printed condition of the contract of of Appeals dated March 15, 1990 is hereby ANNULLED and SET ASIDE. No
carriage regarding check-in time as well as on the notation "late 4:02" stamped costs.
on the flight coupon by the check-in clerk immediately upon the check-in of
private respondents) and the passenger Manifest of Flight PR 264, exh. "5,"
SO ORDERED.
(which showed the non-accommodation of Capati and Go an the private
respondents)are entries made in the regular course of business which the
private respondents failed to overcome with substantial and convincing evidence
other than their testimonies. Consequently, they carry more weight and
credence. A writing or document made contemporaneously with a transaction in
which are evidenced facts pertinent to an issue, when admitted as proof of SECOND DIVISION
those facts, is ordinarily regarded as more reliable proof and of greater
probative force than the oral testimony of a witness as to such facts based upon [G.R. No. 140023. August 14, 2003.]
memory and recollection (20 Am Jur S 1179, 1029 cited in Francisco, Revised
Rules of Court in the Philippines Annotated, 1973 Edition, Volume VII, Part II, p. RUDY LAO, Petitioner, v. STANDARD INSURANCE CO.,
654). Spoken words could be notoriously unreliable as against a written INC., Respondent.
document that speaks a uniform language (Spouses Vicente and Salome de
Leon v. CA., et al., G.R. No. 95511, January 30, 1992). This dictum is amply D E C I S I O N
demonstrated by the diverse allegations of the private respondents in their
complaint (where they claimed that no one was at the counter until thirty (30)
minutes before the published departure time and that the employee who finally QUISUMBING, J.:
attended to them marked them late, Records, p. 2) and in their testimonies
(where they contended that there were two different PAL personnel who
attended to them at the check-in counter. TSNs of November 17, 1986, pp. 41- The instant petition seeks the reversal of the Court of Appeals’
45 and of May 18, 1987, pp. 5-6). Private respondents' only objection to these Decision 1 dated February 4, 1999, as well as its Resolution, 2 dated
documents is that they are self-serving cannot be sustained. The hearsay rule September 7, 1999, in CA-G.R. CV No. 47227. The assailed decision
will not apply in this case as statements, acts or conduct accompanying or so dismissed petitioner’s appeal and the resolution denied petitioner’s
nearly connected with the main transaction as to form a part of it, and which motion for reconsideration. chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary
illustrate, elucidate, qualify or characterize the act, are admissible as apart of
the res gestae (32 C.J.S., S. 411, 30-31). Based on these circumstances, We The original action was lodged before the Regional Trial Court of
are inclined to believe the version of PAL. When the private respondents Iloilo City, Branch 25, as Civil Case No. 17045 for breach of contract
purchased their tickets, they were instantaneously bound by the conditions of and damages, as a result of the insurance company’s refusal of
the contract of carriage particularly the check-in time requirement. The terms of petitioner’s claim on the insurance policy of his truck which figured in
the contract are clear. Their failure to come on time for check-in should not an accident during the effectivity of t he policy.
militate against PAL. Their non-accommodation on that flight was the result of
their own action or inaction and the ensuing cancellation of their tickets by PAL The following are the antecedent facts: chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
is only proper.
Petitioner Rudy Lao is the owner of a Fuso truck with Plate No. FCG -
Furthermore, We do not find anything suspicious in the fact that PAL flight 264 538. The truck was insured with respondent Standard Insurance Co.,
departed at 4:13 p.m. instead of 4:25 p.m. Apart from their verbal assertions, Inc. under Policy No. CV-21074 3 for t he maximum amount of
the private respondents did not show any evidence of irregularity. It being clear P200,000 and an additional sum of P50,000 to cover any damages
Page 30 of 42

that might be caused to his goods. April 27, 1985. However, respondent insurance company was firm in
its denial of the claim.
While the policy was in effect, an accident occurred. At around 8:00
p.m. of April 24, 1985, in Barangay Buhang, Jaro, Iloilo City, the Hence, petitioner filed the civil case before the RTC. After trial, the
insured truck bumped another truck, with Plate No. FBS -917, also court disposed of the case as follows: chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
owned by petitioner Lao. The latter truck was running ahead of the
insured truck and was bumped from the rear. The insured truck WHEREFORE, premises considered, the Court finds that plaintiff lacks
sustained damages estimated to be around P110,692, while the sufficient cause of action against the defendant and hence ordered
damage to the other truck and to properties in the vicinity of the his case dismissed and further orderes (sic) him to pay the defendant
accident, were placed at P35,000 more or less. the following:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library

Petitioner filed a claim with the insurance company for the proceeds 1) P20,000.00 as attorney’s fees plus P500.00 for appearance fee;
from his policy. However, the claim was denied by the insurance and
company on the ground that when its adjuster went to investigate the
matter, it was found that the driver of the insured truck, Leonardo 2) P50,000.00 as exemplary damages.
Anit, did not possess a proper driver’s license at the time of the
accident. The restriction 4 in Leonardo Anit’s driver’s licen se provided SO ORDERED. 8
that he can only drive four -wheeled vehicles weighing not more than
4,500 kgs. Since the insured truck he was driving weighed more than On appeal with the Court of Appeals, the RTC decision was affirmed.
4,500 kgs., he therefore violated the "authorized driver" clause 5 of The petition was dismissed and the motion for reconsideration was
the insurance policy. In addition, res pondent cited the following denied. The CA stated:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
excerpts from the police blotter of the Iloilo INP, to wit: chanrob1es
virtual 1aw library IN VIEW OF THE FOREGOING, the decision appealed from is hereby
AFFIRMED. Consequently, the complaint is DISMISSED for lack of
C-UN-85 DAMAGE TO PROPERTY W/ PHY INJURIES — R/IMPRUDENCE merit.

11:30 PM — Sgt. A. Bernas informed this office that a collision took SO ORDERED. 9
place at Brgy. Buhang, Jaro, IC. Investigation conducted by Pat.
Villahermosa, assisted by Lt. P. Baclaron (OD), disclosed that at In his petition for review now before us, petitioner cites the following
about 8:00 PM this date at the aforementioned place, a collision took as grounds therefor:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
place between a truck (Hino) with Plate Nr FB[S] 917 owned by Ru dy
Lao and driven by BOY GIDDIE Y COYEL, 38 yrs, a res. of Balasan, A. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS AND THE LOWER COURT
Iloilo, with License Nr DLR 1108142 and another truck with Plate Nr. RELIED MAINLY ON SECTION 44, RULE 130 OF THE RULES OF COURT
FCG-538 owned by Rudy Lao and driver (sic) by LEONARDO ANIT Y IN UPHOLDING THE ENTRY IN THE POLICE BLOTTER WHICH STATED
PANES, 33 yrs, a res. of Brgy Laya, Balasan, Iloilo with License Nr THAT THE DRIVER OF THE INSURED VEHICLE WAS LEONARDO ANIT Y
1836482 . . . . (Emphasis supplied.) 6 PANES, WHO WAS NOT AN AUTHORIZED DRIVER. UNDER THE SAID
SECTION 44, RULE 130 ITSELF HOWEVER, THE POLICE BLOTTER IS
Petitioner claims that at the time of the accident, it was in fact MERELY A PRIMA FACIE EVIDENCE OF T HE FACTS STATED THEREIN
another driver named Giddie Boy Y Coyel who was driving the insured WHICH MAY BE NULLIFIED BY OTHER EVIDENCE; 10
truck. Giddie Boy possessed a driver’s license authorizing him to
drive vehicles such as the truck which weighed more than 4,500 kgs. B. PERCEPTION OF THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS’ ON THE
As evidence, petitioner presented the Motor Vehicle Accident Report 7 "DIMINISHED" CREDIBILITY OF PAT. FELIPE VILLAHERMOSA, THE
wherein the Investigating Officer, Pat. Felipe D. Villahermosa, stated TRAFFIC POLICE INVESTIGATOR, IS MISPLACED AND UNFOUNDED;
that it was Giddie Boy driving the insured truck a nd not Leonardo 11
Anit. The said report was made three days after the accident or on
Page 31 of 42

C. THE DRIVER OF THE INSURED TRUCK WITH PLATE NR. FCG -538 requisites for its admissibility: chanrob1es virtual 1aw library
WAS GIDDIE BOY Y COYEL, AN AUTHORIZED DRIVER OF THE SAID
TRUCK. THE DRIVER OF THE OTHER TRUCK INVOLVED IN THE (a) that the entry was made by a public officer, or by another person,
ACCIDENT WITH PLATE NR. FBS -917 WAS LEONARDO ANIT Y PANES; specially enjoined by law to do so;
12
(b) that it was made by the public officer in the performance of his
D. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS MISAPPLIED ARTICLES 2232 duties, or by such other person in the performance of a duty specially
AND 2208 OF THE NEW CIVIL CODE IN GRANTING EXEMPLARY enjoined by law;
DAMAGES AND ATTORNEY’S FEES TO RESPONDENT. UNDER ARTICLES
2229 AND 2234 OF THE NEW CIVIL CODE, EXEMPLARY DAMAGES (c) that the public officer or other person had sufficient knowledge of
CANNOT BE AWARDED IN THE ABSENCE OF AN AWARD FOR MORAL, the facts by him stated, which must have been acquired by him
TEMPERATE, LIQUIDATED OR COMPENSATORY DAMAGES; 13 personally or through official information. 19

E. TESTIMONIES OF THE WITNESSES OF RESPONDENT NAMELY, SGT. We agree with the trial and appellate courts in finding that the police
BERNAS, THE DESK OFFICER AND ROMEO GUIERGEN, INSURANCE blotter was properly admitted as they form part of official records. 20
ADJUSTER, WERE INCONSISTENT AND UNRELIABLE; 14 and Entries in police records made by a police officer in the performance
of the duty especially enjoined by law are prima facie evidence of the
F. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS UPHELD THE D ECISION OF fact therein stated, and their probative value may be either
THE LOWER COURT DESPITE GLARING MISAPPLICATION OF THE LAW substantiated or nullified by other competent evidence. 21 Although
AND JURISPRUDENCE ESTABLISHED BY THIS HONORABLE SUPREME police blotters are of littl e probative value, they are nevertheless
COURT AS WELL AS CLEAR MISAPPREHENSION OF THE FACTS IN THIS admitted and considered in the absence of competent evidence to
CASE. 15 refute the facts stated therein.

Three issues must be resolved: (1) The admissibility and pro bative In this case, the entries in the police blotter reflected the information
value of the police blotter as evidence; (2) The assessment of the subject of the controversy. Stated therein was the fact that Leonardo
credibility of witnesses; and (3) The propriety and basis of the Anit was driving the insured truck with plate number FCG -538. This is
awards for exemplary damages and attorney’s fees. Also pertinent unlike People v. Mejia, 22 where we said that "entries in the police
here is the factual issue of whether or not Leonardo Anit, an blotters should not be given undue significance or probative value,"
unauthorized driver, was driving the insured truck at the time of the since the Court there found that "the entries in question are sadly
accident. wanting in material particulars" .

Petitioner assails the admissibility and evidentiary weight given to Furthermore, in this case the police blotter was identified and
the police blotter, as a basis for the factual finding of the RTC and formally offered as evidence. The person who made the entries was
the CA. He contends that t he same entry was belied by the Motor likewise presented in court; he identified and certified as correct the
Vehicle Accident Report and testimony of the investigating policeman entries he made on the blotter. The information was supplied to the
himself, attesting that it was Giddie Boy Coyel, not Leonardo Anit, entrant by the investigating officer who did not protest about any
who was driving the insured vehicle. 16 inaccuracy when the blotter was presented to him. No explanation
was likewise given by the i nvestigating officer for the alleged
Respondent avers that the same police r eport and testimony were of interchange of names.
dubious nature. Both trial and appellate courts noted that the report
was made three days after the accident and did not form part of the Petitioner also assails the credence given by the trial court to the
official police records. 17 version of the respondents vis -a-vis the testimonies of the witnesses.
Time and again we have reiterated the settled doctrine t hat great
The police blotter was admitted under Rule 130, Section 44 o f the weight, and even finality, is given to the factual conclusions of the
Rules of Court. 18 Under the said rule, the following are the Court of Appeals which affirm those of the trial courts. 23 We find on
Page 32 of 42

this score no reason to overturn such conclusions. M AN IL A EL EC TR IC CO MP AN Y, petitio ne r,


vs .
On the issue of damages, we agree with petitioner tha t the award of H on. SE CR E T ARY OF L A BOR LE ONAR DO QU I SU MB ING a nd
exemplary damages was improper. In Tiongco v. Atty. Deguma 24 we M ER A LC O E MP LO Y EES and WORK ER S A S SO CI A TI ON
held that the entitlement to the recovery of exemplary damages must ( M EWA ), res po nde nt .
be shown. In the case at bar, respondent have not shown sufficient
evidence that petitioner indeed schemed t o procure the dubious R E S O L U T I O N
documents and lied through his teeth to establish his version of the
facts. What was found was that the document he presented was
Y N ARE S -S AN TI AG O, J .:
inadmissible, and its contents were dubious. However, no proof was
adduced to sufficiently establish that it came to his hands through his
employment of underhanded means. In Tiongco, we further In t he De ci sio n pro m ulg ated o n Ja nuar y 27 , 19 99 , t he Co urt
stated:chanrob1es virtual 1aw library di spo sed o f t he c a se as fol l ow s :

Although exemplary damages cannot be recovered as a matter of W H ER EFO R E, t he petitio n i s gr a nted a nd t he or der s o f p ubli c
right, they also need not be proved. But a complainant must stil l r esp onde nt Sec ret ar y o f L abor d ated A ug ust 19 , 199 6 a nd
show that he is entitled to moral, temperate or compensatory De ce mbe r 28 , 1996 are set a side to t he e xt ent s et fo rt h
damages before the court may consider the question of whether or a bo ve . T he p a rties ar e di rec ted to e xe c ute a C olle cti ve
not exemplary damages should be awarded.25 cralaw:red Ba rg ai ni ng Agr eeme nt i n c orpo rati ng t he term s a nd
c o nditio ns co nt ai ned in t he una ffe cted po rtio ns o f t he
Thus, it was error for the courts below to award exemplary damages S e cret ar y o f L abor ' s or der s o f A ug ust 19 , 1996 a nd
in the absence of any award for moral, temperate or compensatory De ce mbe r 28 , 1996 , and t he modi fic atio ns set fo rt h abo ve .
damages. T he ret ire me nt fund iss ue is rem a nded to t he Se cret ar y o f
L abo r fo r re cept io n o f e vid e nce a nd dete rmi na tio n of t he
The award of attorney’s fees must also be deleted. Such award was leg al pe rs onalit y o f t he M ER AL C O reti re me nt fund . 1
given in its extraordinary concept as indemnity for damages to be
paid by the losing party to the prevailing party. 26 But it was not T he mod ifi c atio ns o f the p ub lic res po nde nt 's r esol utio ns i ncl ude t he
sufficiently shown that petitioner acted maliciously in instituting the follo wi ng :
claim for damages. Perforce, the award of attorney’s fees was
improper.
Secretary's
WHEREFORE, the assailed Decision and Resolution of the Court of January 27, 1999 decision
resolution
Appeals are AFFIRMED, with the MODI FICATION that the award of
exemplary damages and attorney’s fees is hereby DELETED. No Wages - P1,900.00 for 1995-96 P2,200.00
pronouncement as to costs. chanrob1es virtua1 1aw 1ibrary
X'mas bonus - modified to one month 2 months
SO ORDERED.
Retirees - remanded to the Secretary granted

Loan to coops - denied granted


S P E C IAL F IRS T D IV IS IO N
GHSIP, HMP
and
G .R . N o. 1 2 7 5 9 8 Fe b r u ar y 22 , 2 0 00
Housing loans - granted up to P60,000.00 granted
Page 33 of 42

Signing bonus - denied granted P etitio ne r wa r ns t hat if t he wag e i nc rea se o f P 2 ,200 .00 p er mo nt h
a s o rd er ed b y t he Secr eta r y is allo wed , it wo uld sim ply pa ss t he
Union leave - 40 days (typo error) 30 days c ost co veri ng s uc h i ncr ea se to t he co ns um ers thro ug h a n i nc rea se
i n t he r ate o f ele ctr icit y. T hi s is a no n se q uit ur . T he Co urt ca nnot
High - not apply to those who are members of a team be t hre ate ned wit h s uc h a mi sle adi ng arg ume nt . A n i nc rea se i n t he
voltage/pole not exposed to the risk p ric es o f ele ctri c c urr ent need s t he appr oval o f t he a ppro pri ate
r eg ul ator y go ve r nme nt a ge nc y a nd doe s not a uto ma tic all y re s ult
Collectors - no need for cash bond, no fro m a mere i ncr ea se in t he wa ges o f pet itione r' s em plo yee s.
need to reduce quota and Be side s , t his arg ume nt p res uppos es t hat petitio ne r is ca pab le of
MAPL m eeti ng a w age i ncre as e . T he All Asi a Cap ital r eport upo n w hi c h
t he U nio n reli e s to s uppo rt it s posit io n reg ar di ng t he wa ge is s ue
exclude confidential c a nnot be a n a cc urat e b asi s a nd co ncl usi ve det er mi na nt o f t he r ate
CBU - include
employees o f wag e i nc rea se . Sectio n 45 o f R ule 130 R ule s o f Evi de nce
p ro vide s:
Union security - maintenance of membership closed shop

Contracting out - no need to consult union consult first C om me rci al lis ts and the li ke . — Evide nce o f s tate me nt s o f
m atte rs o f i nte re st to pe rs ons e ng age d i n a n oc c up atio n
existing terms and c o ntai ne d i n a li st, regi ste r, perio dic al , or ot he r p ubli s hed
All benefits - all terms
conditions c ompil atio n i s ad mis sible as t e ndi ng to p ro ve t he t r ut h of
a ny rel e v a nt m atter so s tate d i f t hat co mpila tio n is
Dec. 28, 1996-Dec. 27, p ub lis he d fo r use by pe rso ns e ng aged i n t hat o cc up atio n a nd
Retroactivity - from Dec. 1, 1995
199(9) i s ge ne rall y used a nd r elied upo n b y t he m the rei n.

Di s sati s fi ed wi t h t he De ci s i on, some al l eg ed m emb er s o f p ri va te U nder t he a fore -q uoted r ule , st atem e nt o f ma tter s co nt ai ned i n a
r esp onde nt uni o n ( U ni o n for b re vi t y ) fi l ed a mo tio n fo r i nte rve ntion pe riodi ca l, ma y be adm itted o nl y "i f t hat com pilat io n i s p ubl is hed
a nd a m oti o n fo r re cons i de rati o n o f t he s aid De ci sio n. A sepa r ate for use b y pe rso ns e ng aged i n t hat oc c up atio n a nd is ge ner all y
i nte r ve nti o n wa s l i ke wi se m ade b y t he s upe rvi sor 's unio n us ed a nd relie d upo n b y t he m t herei n. " As co rre ctl y held i n o ur
( FL A M E S 2 ) o f pe ti ti o ner cor por ati o n a l l egi ng t hat it ha s bo na De ci sio n dat ed J a nua ry 27 , 199 9, t he cited r epor t i s a mer e
fide le gal i nt ere st i n the o ut come o f t he ca se . 3 T he Co urt req ui red ne w spa per ac co unt a nd not e ve n a co mme rci al list . At mo st , it is
t he "p rope r pa rti e s " to f i l e a com me nt to t he t hr ee motio ns for b ut a n a nal ysi s or opinio n w hic h ca rri es no pe rs ua si ve w eig ht for
r eco nsi de rat i o n b ut t he Sol i ci tor -G e ner al a sked t hat he be e xc used p urpo ses o f t hi s c ase a s no s uffi cie nt fig ures to s uppo rt it wer e
fro m fi l i ng t he comm ent be ca use t he "pet itio n filed i n t he i nsta nt p res e nted . N eit her d id a nybod y testi fy to it s a c c ur ac y. It c a nnot be
c a se wa s gr a nted " b y t he Co urt . 4 Co nseq ue ntl y, petitio ner filed it s s aid t hat b usi nes sm e n ge ne ra ll y rel y o n ne ws item s s uc h a s t his i n
o w n co nsol i d ated comm e nt. A n " Appe al Seeki ng Immed iate t hei r oc c up atio n. Be side s , no e vide nce wa s p res e nted t hat the
R eco nsi de r ati o n" w as a l so fi l e d b y t he al le ged ne wl y el ecte d p ub lic atio n wa s re gular ly pre pa red b y a p er so n i n to uc h wit h t he
p res ide nt o f t he U ni o n. 5 O t her s ubs eq ue nt ple adi ng s were fil ed b y m a rket a nd t hat it is ge ne ral ly reg ar ded a s tr ust wo rt hy a nd
t he p arti es a nd i nte rve no rs . r elia ble . A bse nt e xt ri ns ic p ro o f o f t heir ac c ur a c y, t he se repor ts are
not a dmi ssi ble . 6 In t he sa me m a nner , ne w sp ape rs co ntai ni ng sto ck
q uot atio ns ar e no t adm is sible i n e vid e nce whe n t he so ur ce o f t he
T he is s ue s r ai se d i n the moti o ns fo r re co nsi de ratio n had al re ad y
r epor ts i s a va ilabl e. 7 W it h mo re re as on, mer e a nal yse s or
be e n pa ss ed upo n b y the Co urt i n t he Ja nuary 27 , 199 9 deci sio n.
p roje ctio ns o f s uc h repo rts ca nnot b e ad mitted . In p arti c ul ar , t he
N o ne w ar g ume nt s wer e pre se nte d fo r co nside ra tio n o f t he Co urt .
s o ur ce o f the repo rt i n t hi s c ase ca n b e ea sily m ade avail able
N o net hel e ss , cert ai n m atte rs wi l l b e co nside red he rei n, pa rti cula rl y
c o nsid eri ng t hat t he sa me i s nece s sa r y fo r com plia nce wit h c ert ai n
t ho se i nvol vi ng t he amo unt o f w age s a nd the retro act ivity o f t he
go ve r nme nt al r eq uir em e nts .
C olle cti ve Ba rg ai ni ng A g reem ent ( C B A) arbitr al aw ar ds .
Page 34 of 42

N o net hel e ss , b y pe ti ti o ne r' s o w n al l e gati o ns, its act ual tot al net T he a ss aile d re sol ution w hic h i ncor por ated the C BA to be
i ncome fo r 1996 wa s P5 .1 bi l l i o n. 8 A n e stim ate b y t he All Asi a s ig ned b y t he p ar ties w a s p rom ulg ated o n June 5 , 198 9, t he
fi na nci al a nal yst stat ed t hat peti ti o ne r 's net ope rati ng i nco me for e xpi r y dat e of t he pa st C BA . Base d o n t he pr ovisio n o f
t he sa me yea r wa s abo ut P5 .7 bi l l i o n, a fig ur e w hi c h t he U nio n S e ctio n 253 -A , it s ret ro acti vit y s ho uld be agr eed upo n b y
r elie s on to s uppo rt i ts cl ai m . As s umi ng witho ut a dmitt i ng the t he p arti es . But si nce no a gre eme nt to t hat e ffe ct w a s
t r ut h t hereo f , t he fi g ur e i s hi g her t ha n t he P4 .17 1 billio n al legedl y m ade , p ub lic res po nd ent did not ab use its dis c retio n i n
s ugge sted b y p eti ti o ner a s i ts p roje cted net ope ra ti ng i nco me . T he gi vi ng t he s aid C BA a p ros pecti ve effect . The actio n o f t he
P 5 .7 bi l l i o n w hi c h w a s t he Sec ret ar y 's b a sis for gr a nti ng t he p ub lic res po nde nt is wit hi n t he ambit o f it s aut ho rit y ve ste d
P 2 ,200 .00 i s hi g he r t ha n t he a ct ual net i ncom e of P5 .1 bill io n b y e xi sti ng l aw .
a dmitt ed b y peti ti o ner. It wo ul d be p rope r the n to i ncre as e t his
C o urt ' s a wa rd o f P1 ,900 .0 0 to P2 ,00 0. 00 for t he two ye ar s o f t he O n t he o ther ha nd , t he U ni on ar g ues t hat t he aw a rd s ho uld
C BA a wa rd . Fo r 199 2, t he agr eed C BA w age inc re as e fo r r a nk - a nd- r etro act to s uc h ti me g ra nte d b y t he S ec reta r y, citi ng the 1993
file w as P1 ,400 .00 a nd w as r ed uc ed to P 1, 350 .0 0; for 1 993 ; de ci sio n of St . L uke 's . 1 6
furt her r ed uc ed to P 1,15 0. 00 fo r 199 4. For supe r viso r y em plo yee s,
t he agr eed wag e i nc rea se fo r the y ea rs 19 92 - 1994 are P1 ,74 2.5 0,
F i nall y, t he e ffe cti vit y o f t he O rde r of Ja nuar y 2 8, 1 991 ,
P 1 ,682 .50 a nd P1 ,442. 50 , re spe cti vel y . Ba sed o n t he fo regoi ng
m ust r etro act to t he da te o f t he e xpir atio n of t he p re vio us
fig ures , t he P2 ,000 .0 0 i nc re ase fo r t he t wo -ye ar pe rio d a wa rded to
C BA , co ntr ar y to t he po sitio n o f petitio ne r . Unde r t he
t he ra nk -a nd - fi l e i s muc h hi g her t ha n t he hig he st i ncre ase gr a nted
c ir c um sta nce s o f t he ca se , Arti cle 25 3 - A c a nnot be p rope rl y
to super vi sor y e mpl o yee s . 9 As me nti o ned i n t he Ja nuar y 27 , 19 99
a pplie d to herei n ca se. A s co rr ectl y stat ed by p ubli c
De ci si o n, t he Co urt doe s " not see k to e numer ate i n t hi s de cisio n
r esp onde nt i n his as saile d Or der o f Ap ril 12 , 199 1
t he fa cto rs t hat s ho ul d a ff ect wa ge dete rmina tio n" bec a use
di smi s si ng petitio ner 's M otio n fo r Reco nside ra tio n —
c olle cti ve ba rg ai ni ng di sp ute s pa rti c ul a rl y t ho se a ffe cti ng t he
na tio nal i nte re st a nd p ub l i c ser vi ce "r eq uires d ue co nside rat io n a nd
p rope r bal a nci ng o f t he i nte re sts o f t he p artie s to t he di sp ute a nd A ne nt t he a lleged l ac k o f ba si s fo r t he r etroa cti vit y
o f t hos e w ho mi g ht be a f fe cted b y t he di sp ute . " 1 0 T he Co urt t a ke s p ro visio ns a w ar ded ; we wo uld stre s s that t he
j udici al noti c e t hat t he ne w a mo unt s gr a nted he rei n a re p ro visio n o f l a w i nvo ked by t he Ho spit al , A rti cle 253 -
s ig ni fi c a ntl y hi g he r t ha n t he w ei g hted a ver age sal a ry c ur re ntl y A o f t he La bor Code , spe a ks o f agr eeme nt s by a nd
e njo y ed b y ot her ra nk - a nd - fi l e e mpl o yee s w it hi n t he com munity. It bet w ee n t he pa rtie s , and not arbit ra l a wa rd s . . .
s ho ul d be noted t hat the rel ati o ns b et we e n la bor a nd c apit al is
i mpre s sed wi t h p ubl i c i nte re st w hi c h m ust yield to t he com mo n T her efo re , i n t he a bsenc e of a s peci fi c p rovis io n of l a w
goo d. 1 1 N ei t her p ar ty s ho ul d a ct opp re ssi vely a gai nst t he ot her o r p ro hibiti ng ret roa cti vity o f t he e ffecti vit y o f a rbit ra l a wa rd s
i mpai r t he i nte rest o r c o nv e ni e nc e o f t he publi c . 1 2 Be sid es , m atte rs i ss ue d b y the Se c reta ry o f La bor p urs ua nt to A rti cle 26 3(g )
o f s al ar y i nc re ase s a re p art o f m a na geme nt p rero gati ve . 1 3 o f t he L abor Cod e, s uch a s her ei n i nvol ved , p ub lic
r esp onde nt is deem ed ve sted wit h ple nar y and di s cretio nar y
O n t he ret roa cti vi t y o f t he C B A ar bi tr al a w ard , it i s we ll to re call po we rs to d eter mi ne t he e ffe cti vit y t her eof.
t hat t hi s pe ti ti o n had i t s ori gi n i n t he re negoti atio n o f t he pa rtie s'
19 92 -1 997 C BA i nso far a s t he l a st t wo - ye ar pe riod t he reo f is In t he 19 97 c ase o f Mind a nao Te rmi nal, 1 7 t he Co urt appl ied t he St.
c o nce r ned . Whe n t he S e cret ar y o f L abor as sum ed j ur isdi ctio n a nd L uke ' s doct ri ne a nd r uled t hat :
g ra nte d t he a rbi t ral aw a rd s , t here w as no que stio n t hat t he se
a rbit ra l a wa rd s w ere to be gi v e n ret roa cti ve e ffe ct. Ho we ve r , t he In S t . L uke ' s Me dic al C e nte r v . Tor re s, a dea dloc k also
p arti es di sp ute t he re ck o ni ng pe ri od w he n ret roa ctio n s hall de ve loped d uri ng t he C BA negoti atio ns b etwee n
c om me nce . Peti ti o ne r c l ai ms t hat t he a w ard s ho uld ret ro act o nl y m a nagem e nt a nd t he unio n. T he S e cr eta r y o f L abor as s ume d
fro m s uc h ti me t hat t he Se cret ar y o f L abor re nd ered t he a wa rd , j uris dicti on a nd or dered t he ret roa ctio n o f the C BA to t he
i nvo ki ng t he 19 95 de ci si o n i n Pi er 8 ca se 1 4 w he re t he Co urt , d ate o f e xpi ratio n o f the p re vio us C BA . A s in t hi s c ase , it
c iti ng U nio n o f Filipi no E m ploy ees v . N LR C , 1 5 s aid :
Page 35 of 42

w a s a l l eged t hat t he Se cre ta ry o f L abo r gr a vel y ab us ed its t he Se cret ar y co nsi deri ng t he ab se nce o f a n a ppli ca ble la w . U nd er
di sc reti o n i n ma ki ng hi s a w ard retro a cti ve . In di smi ssi ng A rti cle 25 3 - A : "( I)f a ny s uc h ag ree me nt i s ente red i nto be yo nd si x
t hi s co nte nti o n t hi s Cour t hel d: mo nt hs , t he p artie s s ha ll ag ree o n t he d uratio n o f ret roa cti vit y
t he reo f." I n ot he r word s , the la w c ontempl ate s ret ro acti vit y
T her efo re , i n t he a bsenc e of a s peci fi c p rovis io n of w het he r t he ag ree me nt be e nt ere d i nt o be for e or aft er t he sai d
l a w pro hi b i ti ng ret ro ac ti ve o f t he e ffecti vit y o f s i x- mo nt h perio d. T he a gre eme nt o f t he p artie s need not b e
a rbi t ra l a wa rd s i s s ued b y t he Sec ret ar y o f La bor c ate gori call y stat ed for t heir act s m a y be cons ide red i n
p urs ua nt to A rti cl e 263 (g ) o f t he L abo r Code , s uc h a s det er mi ni ng t he d uratio n o f ret roa cti vit y. In t hi s co nne ctio n, t he
he rei n i nvo l ved , p ubl i c re spo nde nt i s dee med ve sted C o urt co ns ider s t he lette r o f petitio ne r' s C ha ir ma n o f t he Boa rd
w i t h pl e nar y a nd di sc reti o nar y po we r s to dete rmi ne a nd its Pr esi de nt ad dre ss ed to t heir stoc kholde r s, w hi c h st ate s t ha t
t he e f fe cti vi t y t her eof . t he C BA "fo r t he r a nk -a nd- fil e emplo ye es cove ri ng t he pe riod
De ce mbe r 1, 1 995 to N o vemb er 30 , 19 97 is s till wit h t he S upre me
C o urt , " 2 0 a s i ndi cati ve o f petitio ne r 's reco g nitio n t hat t he CBA
T he Co urt i n t he Ja nua r y 27 , 199 9 Dec i sio n, s tate d t hat t he C BA
a w ar d co ve rs t he sai d pe riod . Ea rlie r , petitione r' s negoti ati ng
s hall b e " ef fe cti ve for a peri o d of 2 ye ar s counted from De ce mbe r
p a nel tr a nsmitte d to the U nio n a co py o f it s p ropo sed C BA co ver i ng
28 , 19 96 up to De cembe r 27 , 199 9. " Pa re ntheti cal ly, t hi s a ct ual ly
t he sa me pe riod i nc lusi ve . 2 1 In addit io n, p etitio ne r doe s not
c over s a t hree - y ea r pe ri od . La bor l a ws are s ile nt a s to w he n a n
di sp ute t he alleg atio n t hat i n t he pa st C BA ar bitr al a w ar ds , t he
a rbit ra l a wa rd i n a l abo r di s pute w here t he S e cret ar y had a ss umed
S e cret ar y g ra nt ed ret ro acti vit y com me nci ng fro m t he pe riod
j uris di cti on by vi rt ue o f Arti cl e 263 (g ) of the L abo r Co de s hall
i mmedi atel y follo wi ng t he l ast d a y o f t he e xpi red C BA. T hus, b y
r et ro act . In ge ner al , a C B A ne goti at ed wit hin si x mo nt hs a fter t he
pet itio ner ' s o w n action s , t he Co urt see s no r ea so n to ret roa ct t he
e xpi rat i o n o f t he e xi sti ng C B A ret roa ct s to the d a y im medi atel y
s ubje ct C BA a wa rd s to a differe nt d ate . T he pe riod i s here i n set at
follo wi ng s uc h d ate a nd i f a gre ed t her ea fte r , t he e ffe cti vit y
t wo ( 2) ye ar s from Dec emb er 1 , 199 5 to Nove mber 3 0, 1997 .
de pe nd s o n t he ag reem e nt of t he pa rti e s. 1 8 O n t he o ther ha nd , t he
l a w i s s i l e nt a s to t he r etro act i v i ty o f a C BA a rbit ra l a wa rd o r t hat
g ra nte d not b y vi rt ue o f t he m ut ual a gree me nt o f t he p arti es b ut O n t he alle gatio n co nce r ni ng t he g ra nt o f loan to a coope rati ve ,
b y i nte r ve nti o n o f t he go ve r nme nt . D espi te the sile nc e of t he l a w , t he re is no merit i n t he unio n's clai m t hat it i s no d iffe re nt fro m
t he Co urt r ul e s herei n t hat C B A a rbi t ral a war ds g ra nt e d a fte r si x ho usi ng loa ns gr a nted b y t he e mplo yer . T he a w ar d o f lo a ns fo r
mo nt hs fro m t he e xpi ra ti o n of t he l a st C BA sha ll ret roa ct to s uc h ho usi ng is justi fie d bec a use it pe rtai ns to a b asi c ne ces sit y o f li fe .
ti me ag ree d upo n b y bot h e mpl o yer a nd t he e mplo yee s or t hei r It i s pa rt o f a p ri vilege reco g ni zed b y t he em plo yer a nd al low ed by
unio n. A bse nt s uc h a n a gre eme nt as to r etroa cti vit y, t he a w ar d l a w. In co ntr ast , p ro vidi ng see d mo ne y for the e sta blis hme nt o f
s hall retro a ct to t he fi r st d a y a fte r t he si x -mo nt h pe rio d fol low ing t he e mplo yee ' s coope ra ti ve is a m atter i n whi c h the empl oyer ha s
t he e xpi r ati o n of t he l a st d a y of t he C B A s ho uld t he re be o ne . In no b usi nes s i nte rest or l ega l o blig atio n. Co ur ts s ho uld not be
t he abs e nce o f a C B A , t he Sec ret ar y 's d eterm i natio n o f t he d ate of utili ze d a s a tool to com pel a ny p er so n t o gra nt loa ns to a not he r
r etro act i v i ty as pa rt of hi s d i s cret i o na ry pow e rs o ve r a rbitr al nor to fo rce pa rtie s to unde rta ke a n oblig atio n wit ho ut
a w ar ds s hal l co ntro l . j usti fi catio n. O n t he co nt ra ry, it i s t he go ver nme nt t hat ha s the
obli gatio n to re nde r fina nci al a ssi st a nce to coope r ati ves a nd t he
C oope rat ive Co de does not ma ke it a n obliga tio n of t he emplo ye r
It i s tr ue t hat a n arb i tr al aw ar d c a nnot pe r se be ca tegor iz ed a s a n
o r a ny pri vate i ndi vi dua l. 2 2
a gre eme nt vol unt ari l y e nte red i nto b y t he p ar ties bec a us e i t
r eq uir es t he i nte r fe renc e a nd i mpo si ng po we r of t he St ate t hr u t he
S e cret ar y o f L abor w he n he as s ume s j uri sd ic tio n. Ho we ve r , t he A ne nt t he 40 -d ay union le a ve, t he Co urt fi nds that t he sa me is a
a rbit ra l a wa rd ca n be c o nsi d ere d a s a n a ppro xim atio n o f a t ypog ra p hic al e rro r. In or der to a void a ny co nfusi on, it i s here i n
c olle cti ve ba rg ai ni ng ag ree me nt whi c h wo uld ot he rw ise ha ve bee n de cl are d t hat t he union le a ve is o nl y t hi rty (30 ) d ays a s g ra nte d by
e nte red i nto b y t he p ar ti es . 1 9 T he t er ms o r pe riod s set fo rt h in t he Se cret ar y o f L abor a nd a ffir med i n t he De cis ion o f t hi s Co urt .
A rti cl e 25 3 - A pe rtai ns e xpl i ci tl y to a C B A . But t he re is not hi ng t hat
w o uld p re ve nt i t s ap pl i cati o n b y a nal o gy to a n ar bitr al a w ar d b y
Page 36 of 42

T he a dded req ui reme nt o f co ns ul ta ti o n i mpos ed b y t he Sec ret ar y in S O OR D ER ED .


c a ses o f co ntr acti ng out for si x (6 ) mo nt hs o r mor e ha s bee n
r eje cted b y t he Co urt. S uf fi ce i t to sa y t ha t t he e mplo ye r is
a llo wed to co nt r act o ut ser vi ces fo r si x months o r mo re . H ow ever ,
a l i ne m ust be d ra w n bet w ee n m a nage me nt p rero gati ve s r ega rdi ng
b usi ne ss ope r ati o ns pe r se a nd t hos e w hi c h a ffe ct t he rig hts o f SECOND DIVISION
e mplo yee s , a nd i n t rea ti ng t he l a tter , t he em plo yer s ho uld see to it
t hat i ts e mpl o yee s a re at l ea s t pro perl y i nfor med o f it s de cisio n o r [ G . R . N os . 1 1 5 3 3 8 - 3 9 . S e pt e m be r 1 6 , 1 9 9 7 ]
mo des o f acti o n i n o rde r to att ai n a har mo nio us labo r - ma nage me nt
r elatio ns hi p a nd e nl i ghte n t he wo rk er s co nce r ni ng t hei r P E O P L E O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S , P l a i nt i ff - A p p e l l e e , v . L A N I E
r ig hts . 2 3 Hi ri ng o f wo rke rs i s wi t hi n t he em plo ye r' s i nher e nt O R T I Z - M I Y A K E a c c u s e d - a p pe l l a n t .
fr eedom to reg ul ate and i s a va l i d e xer ci se o f its ma nage me nt
p rero gati ve s ubj ect o nl y to s peci al l aw s a nd a gre eme nt s o n t he
D E C I S I O N
m atte r a nd t he f ai r sta nda rd s of j usti ce . 2 4 The m a nagem e nt c a nnot
be de ni ed t he f ac ul t y o f p romoti ng e f fi ci e ncy a nd att ai ni ng
e co nom y b y a st ud y o f w hat uni t s a re e ss e nti al fo r it s o per atio n. It REGALADO, J.:
ha s t he ul ti mate determ i nati o n o f w het he r se r vice s s ho ul d be
pe r for med b y i t s pe rso nnel o r co nt ra cted to o uts ide a ge nci es . A c c u s e d - a p p e l l a nt L a ni e O r t i z - M i y a ke w a s c h a r g e d w i t h i l l e g a l
W hile t he re s ho ul d be m ut ual co ns ul t ati o n, eve nt uall y de fer e nce i s r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e i n t he R e g i o n a l T r i a l C o ur t o f M a k a t i o n
to be p ai d to w hat mana gem e nt dec i de s . 2 5 Co nt ra cti ng o ut o f a c o m p l a i nt i ni t i a t e d b y El e ni t a M a r a s i g a n , Im e l d a G e ne r i l l o a nd
s er vi ce s i s an ex er ci s e o f b usi nes s j udg me nt or ma nage me nt R o s a m a r d e l R o s a r i o . I n a d d i t i o n , s he w a s i nd i c t e d fo r e s t a fa b y
p rero gati ve . 2 6 A bse nt p roo f t hat m a nagem e nt a cte d i n a m alic io us m e a n s o f fa l s e p r e t e n s e s i n t he s a m e c o u r t , t he o f fe nd e d p a r t y
o r ar bi tr ar y ma nne r , the Co urt wi l l not i nt erfe re w it h the e xer ci se b e i ng El e ni t a M a r a s i g a n a l o ne .
o f j ud gme nt b y a n empl o ye r . 2 7 As me nti o ne d i n t he Ja nuar y 27 ,
19 99 De ci si o n, t he l aw al re ad y s uf fi ci e ntl y r eg ul ates t hi s T he i nfo r m a t i o n i n t h e c ha r g e o f i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e
m atte r . 2 8 J uri sp rude nce al so p ro vi de s a deq ua te limit atio ns, s uc h i n C r i m i n a l C a s e N o . 9 2 - 6 1 5 3 r e a d s a s fo l l o w s :
t hat t he emp l oy er m ust be moti vate d b y good fait h a nd t he
c o ntr acti ng o ut s ho ul d not be reso rted to circ um ve nt t he l a w o r
m ust not ha ve bee n t he res ul t o f mal i ci o us or ar bitr ar y T h a t i n o r a b o ut t he p e r i o d c o m p r i s e d fr o m J u ne 1 9 9 2 t o A ug u s t
a ctio ns . 2 9 T he se a re ma tter s t hat ma y be ca tego ri call y de ter mi ned 1 9 9 2 , i n t he M uni c i p a l i t y o f P a r a a q ue , M e t r o M a ni l a , P hi l i p p i ne s
o nl y w he n a n act ual sui t o n t he m atte r a rise s . a nd w i t hi n t he j ur i s d i c t i o n o f t hi s H o no r a b l e C o ur t , t he a b o ve -
na m e d a c c u s e d , fa l s e l y r e p r e s e nt i ng he r s e l f t o ha ve t he c a p a c i t y
a nd p o w e r t o c o nt r a c t , e nl i s t a nd r e c r ui t w o r ke r s fo r e m p l o ym e nt
W H ER E FO R E , t he moti o n for reco nsi de r atio n i s P A RT IAL LY a b r o a d d i d t he n a nd t he r e w i l l f ul l y , unl a w f u l l y, a nd fe l o ni o us l y
G R A NT E D a nd t he as sa i l ed De ci si o n i s MO D IF IED a s follo ws : (1 ) c o l l e c t fo r a fe e , r e c r ui t a n d p r o m i s e e m p l o ym e nt / j o b p l a c e m e nt
t he arbi t r al a wa rd s hal l retro act f rom D ece mbe r 1 , 1995 to a b r o a d t o t he fo l l o w i n g p e r s o n s , t o w i t : 1 ) R o s a m a r d e l R o s a r i o ;
N o vemb er 30 , 19 97; and (2) t he a wa rd o f wa ge is i ncr ea sed fro m 2 ) El e ni t a M a r a s i g a n; 3 ) Im e l d a G e ne r i l l o , w i t ho ut fi r s t s e c u r i ng
t he o ri gi nal amo unt o f O ne T ho usa nd Ni ne Hund red Peso s t he r e q ui r e d l i c e ns e o r a ut ho r i t y fr o m t he D e p a r t m e nt o f L a b o r
( P1 ,9 00 .00 ) to T wo T ho usa nd Pe sos (P 2, 000 .00 ) for t he ye ar s 1995 a nd Em p l o ym e nt , t hu s a m o u nt i ng t o i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e
a nd 1996 . T hi s Re sol uti o n i s s ub ject to t he mo neta r y ad va nce s s c a l e , i n vi o l a t i o n o f t he a fo r e c i t e d
g ra nte d b y peti ti o ne r to i t s r a nk - a nd- fi l e emplo ye es d uri ng t he l a w . 1 c ha nr o b l e s vi r t u a l l a w l i b r a r y
pe nde nc y o f t hi s c ase a s s umi ng s uc h ad va nce s had act uall y bee n
di str i b uted to t he m. The as sai l ed D e ci s i on i s A F F IRM ED i n all ot he r
r esp ect s . 1â w phi1 . nêt T he i nfo r m a t i o n i n t h e c ha r g e fo r e s t a f a i n C r i m i na l C a s e N o . 9 2 -
6154 alleges:
Page 37 of 42

T h a t i n o r a b o ut o r s o m e t i m e i n t he m o nt h o f A ug us t , 1 9 9 2 , i n t o T a i w a n , a l l e g e d l y i s s ue d i n he r n a m e . 8 A p p e l l a nt i s s ue d
t he M u ni c i p a l i t y o f P a r a a q ue , M e t r o M a ni l a , P hi l i p p i ne s a nd w i t hi n M a r a s i g a n a p ho t o c o p y o f h e r p l a ne t i c ke t , 9 t he o r i g i n a l o f w hi c h
t he j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t hi s H o no r a b l e C o ur t , t h e a b o ve - na m e d w a s p r o m i s e d t o b e g i ve n t o h e r b e fo r e he r
a c c us e d , b y m e a ns o f f a l s e p r e t e n s e s e xe c u t e d p r i o r t o o r d e p a r t ur e . 1 0 c ha nr o b l e s vi r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y
s i m ul t a ne o us l y w i t h t he c o m m i s s i o n o f t he fr a ud , f a l s e l y
p r e t e nd i ng t o ha v e t h e c a p a c i t y a nd p o w e r t o s e nd c o m p l a i n a nt M a r a s i g a n w a s ne ve r i s s ue d a vi s a . 1 1 N e i t h e r w a s s he g i ve n t he
El e ni t a M a r a s i g a n t o w o r k a b r o a d , s uc c e e d e d i n i nd uc i ng t he p r o m i s e d p l a ne t i c k e t . U n a b l e t o d e p a r t fo r T a i w a n , s he w e nt t o
l a t t e r t o g i v e a nd d e l i v e r t o he r t he t o t a l s u m o f P 2 3 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , t he t he t r a ve l a g e nc y w hi c h i s s ue d t he t i c ke t a nd w a s i n fo r m e d t h a t
a c c us e d k no w i ng f ul l y w e l l t ha t t he s a i d m a ni fe s t a t i o ns a nd no t o nl y w a s s he no t b o o ke d b y a p p e l l a nt f o r t he a l l e g e d fl i g ht ,
r e p r e s e nt a t i o n a r e f a l s e a nd f r a ud ul e nt a nd c a l c ul a t e d o nl y t o b ut t h a t t he s t a f f i n t he a g e nc y d i d no t e ve n k no w a p p e l l a nt .
d e c e i v e t he s a i d c o m p l a i na nt t o p a r t w i t h h e r m o ne y, a nd , o n c e i n
p o s s e s s i o n t he r e o f , t h e s a i d a c c u s e d d i d t he n a nd t he r e w i l l f ul l y,
L a t e r , M a r a s i g a n p r o c e e d e d t o t he s up p o s e d r e s i d e n c e o f
u nl a w f ul l y a nd f e l o ni o us l y a p p r o p r i a t e , a p p l y a nd c o n ve r t t he
a p p e l l a nt a nd w a s i n f o r m e d t ha t a p p e l l a nt d i d no t l i ve
s a m e t o he r o w n p e r s o na l u s e a nd b e ne fi t , t o t he d a m a g e a nd
t he r e . 1 2 U p o n ve r i fi c a t i o n w i t h t he P hi l i p p i ne O ve r s e a s
p r e j ud i c e o f t he s a i d E l e ni t a M a r a s i g a n, i n t he a fo r e m e nt i o ne d
Em p l o ym e nt A d m i ni s t r a t i o n ( P O E A ) , i t w a s r e ve a l e d t ha t a p p e l l a nt
a m o u nt o f P 2 3 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 2 c ha nr o b l e s v i r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y
w a s no t a ut ho r i z e d t o r e c r ui t w o r ke r s fo r o ve r s e a s
e m p l o ym e nt . 1 3 M a r a s i g a n w a nt e d t o r e c o ve r he r m o ne y b ut , b y
U p o n a r r a i g nm e nt , a p p e l l a nt p l e a d e d no t g ui l t y t o t he c ha r g e s t he n, a p p e l l a nt c o ul d no l o ng e r b e l o c a t e d .
a nd t he c a s e s w e r e t r i e d j o i nt l y i n B r a n c h 1 4 5 o f t he R e g i o na l
Trial Court of Makati.
T he p r o s e c ut i o n s o ug ht t o p r o ve t h a t G e ne r i l l o a nd D e l R o s a r i o ,
t he t w o o t he r c o m p l a i na nt s i n t he i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt c a s e , w e r e
O f t he t hr e e c o m p l a i n a nt s i n t he c a s e f o r i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n a l s o vi c t i m i z e d b y a p p e l l a nt . I n l i e u o f t he i r t e s t i m o ni e s , t he
l a r g e s c a l e , M a r a s i g a n w a s t he o nl y o ne w ho t e s t i fi e d a t t he t r i a l . p r o s e c ut i o n p r e s e nt e d a s w i t ne s s e s L i l i a G e ne r i l l o , t he m o t he r o f
T he t w o o t he r c o m p l a i na nt s , G e ne r i l l o a nd D e l R o s a r i o , w e r e Im e l d a G e ne r i l l o , a nd V i c t o r i a A m i n , t he s i s t e r o f D e l R o s a r i o .
u na b l e t o t e s t i f y a s t h e y w e r e t he n a b r o a d .
L i l i a G e ne r i l l o c l a i m e d t h a t s he g a ve he r d a ug ht e r P 8 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 t o
M a r a s i g a n t e s t i f i e d t h a t s he w a s a 3 2 y e a r - o l d u nm a r r i e d s a l e s c o ve r he r a p p l i c a t i o n fo r p l a c e m e nt a b r o a d w hi c h w a s m a d e
r e p r e s e nt a t i v e i n 1 9 9 2 w he n s he w a s i nt r o d uc e d t o a p p e l l a nt b y t hr o ug h a p p e l l a nt . 1 4 T w i c e , s he a c c o m p a ni e d he r d a ug ht e r t o t h e
he r c o - c o m p l a i n a nt s . 3 A p p e l l a nt p r o m i s e d M a r a s i g a n a j o b a s a r e s i d e nc e o f a p p e l l a nt s o t h a t s he c o ul d m e e t he r ; ho w e ve r , s he
fa c t o r y w o r k e r i n T a i w a n f o r a P 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 f e e . A t t h a t t i m e , w a s no t i n vo l ve d i n t h e t r a n s a c t i o ns b e t w e e n he r d a ug ht e r a nd
M a r a s i g a n ha d a p e nd i ng a p p l i c a t i o n f o r o v e r s e a s e m p l o ym e nt a p p e l l a nt . 1 5 N e i t he r w a s s he a r o und w he n p a ym e nt s w e r e m a d e
p e nd i ng i n a r e c r ui t m e nt a g e nc y . R e a l i z i ng t ha t t he fe e c ha r g e d t o a p p e l l a nt . Im e l d a G e ne r i l l o w a s u na b l e t o l e a v e f o r a b r o a d a n d
b y a p p e l l a nt w a s m uc h l o w e r t ha n t h a t o f t he a g e nc y , M a r a s i g a n L i l i a G e ne r i l l o c o nc l ud e d t h a t s he h a d b e c o m e a vi c t i m o f i l l e g a l
w i t hd r e w he r m o ne y f r o m t he a g e nc y a nd g a ve i t t o r e c r ui t m e nt .
a p p e l l a nt . 4 c ha n r o b l e s v i r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y
T he p r o s e c ut i o n p r e s e nt e d V i c t o r i a A m i n , t h e s i s t e r o f R o s a m a r
M a r a s i g a n p a i d a p p e l l a nt P 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , b ut s h e w a s l a t e r r e q ui r e d t o D e l R o s a r i o , t o s ho w t ha t t he l a t t e r w a s a l s o a vi c t i m o f i l l e g a l
m a ke a d d i t i o na l p a y m e nt s . B y t he m i d d l e o f t he ye a r , s he ha d r e c r ui t m e nt . V i c t o r i a A m i n t e s t i fi e d t ha t a p p e l l a nt w a s s up p o s e d
p a i d a t o t a l o f P 2 3 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 o n i n s t a l l m e nt b a s i s . 5 S a ve fo r t w o t o p r o vi d e he r s i s t e r a j o b a b r o a d . S he c l a i m e d t ha t s he g a ve he r
r e c e i p t s , 6 M a r a s i g a n w a s no t i s s ue d r e c e i p t s fo r t he f o r e g o i ng s i s t e r a t o t a l o f P 1 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 w hi c h w a s i nt e n d e d t o c o ve r t he
p a ym e nt s d e s p i t e he r p e r s i s t e nc e i n r e q ue s t i ng fo r t he s a m e . l a t t e r s p r o c e s s i ng fe e . 1 6 c ha nr o b l e s vi r t u a l l a w l i b r a r y

M a r a s i g a n w a s a s s ur e d b y a p p e l l a nt t ha t o b t a i ni ng a T a i w a ne s e
vi s a w o ul d no t b e a p r o b l e m . 7 S he w a s a l s o s ho w n a p l a ne t i c ke t
Page 38 of 42

V i c t o r i a A m i n ne v e r m e t a p p e l l a nt a nd w a s no t a r o und w he n he r I n c o n vi c t i ng a p p e l l a n t o f i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e n t i n l a r g e s c a l e , t he
s i s t e r m a d e p a y m e nt s . S he a s s u m e d t h a t t h e m o ne y w a s p a i d t o l o w e r c o ur t a d o p t e d a p r e vi o u s d e c i s i o n o f Br a n c h 7 8 o f t he
a p p e l l a nt b a s e d o n r e c e i p t s , a l l e g e d l y i s s ue d b y a p p e l l a nt , w hi c h M e t r o p o l i t a n T r i a l C o u r t o f P a r a a q ue a s a b a s i s fo r t he j ud g m e nt .
he r s i s t e r s ho w e d he r . 1 7 D e l R o s a r i o w a s u na b l e t o l e a ve fo r S a i d p r e vi o u s d e c i s i o n w a s a c o n vi c t i o n fo r e s t a fa p r o m ul g a t e d o n
a b r o a d d e s p i t e t he r e p r e s e nt a t i o n s o f a p p e l l a nt . V i c t o r i a A m i n J ul y 2 6 , 1 9 9 3 , 2 3 r e nd e r e d i n C r i m i na l C a s e s N o s . 7 4 8 5 2 - 5 3 ,
c l a i m e d t h a t he r s i s t e r , l i k e M a r a s i g a n a nd G e ne r i l l o , w a s a vi c t i m i nvo l vi ng t he s a m e c i r c um s t a nc e s i n t he i ns t a nt c a s e , w he r e i n
o f i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt . c o m p l a i na nt s G e ne r i l l o a nd D e l R o s a r i o c h a r g e d a p p e l l a nt w i t h
t w o c o u nt s o f e s t a fa . T hi s d e c i s i o n w a s no t a p p e a l e d a nd h a d
T he fi n a l w i t ne s s f o r t he p r o s e c ut i o n w a s R i z a Ba l b e r t e , 1 8 a b e c o m e fi na l a nd e xe c ut o r y.
r e p r e s e nt a t i v e o f t he P O E A , w ho t e s t i f i e d t ha t a p p e l l a nt w a s
ne i t he r l i c e ns e d no r a ut ho r i z e d t o r e c r ui t w o r ke r s fo r o ve r s e a s I n t h us c o n vi c t i ng a p p e l l a nt i n t he i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt c a s e , t he
e m p l o y m e nt , P O E A c e r t i f i c a t e d e c i s i o n t he r e i n o f t h e R e g i o na l T r i a l C o ur t s t a t e d t ha t t he fa c t s
c e r t i f i c a t i o n . 1 9 c h a n r o b l e s v i r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y i n t he fo r e g o i ng e s t a f a c a s e s w e r e t he s a m e a s t ho s e i n t he
i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt c a s e b e fo r e i t . It , t he r e f o r e , a d o p t e d t he fa c t s
U p o n t he f o r e g o i ng e v i d e nc e , t he p r o s e c ut i o n s o ug ht t o p r o ve a nd c o nc l u s i o n s e s t a b l i s he d i n t he e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n a s i t s o w n
t ha t a l t ho ug h t w o o f t he t h r e e c o m p l a i na nt s i n t he i l l e g a l fi nd i ng s o f f a c t s a nd a s i t s r a t i o na l e fo r t h e c o n vi c t i o n i n t he c a s e
r e c r ui t m e nt c a s e w e r e un a b l e t o t e s t i f y , a p p e l l a nt w a s g ui l t y o f b e fo r e i t . 2 4 c h a n r o b l e s vi r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y
c o m m i t t i ng t he o f f e ns e a g a i n s t a l l t hr e e c o m p l a i n a nt s a nd ,
t he r e f o r e , s ho ul d b e c o nv i c t e d a s c ha r g e d . I n C r i m i n a l C a s e N o . 9 2 - 6 1 5 3 , t he M a ka t i c o ur t s e nt e nc e d
a p p e l l a nt t o s e r ve t he p e na l t y o f l i fe i m p r i s o nm e nt fo r i l l e g a l
O n t he o t he r ha nd , a p p e l l a nt , w ho w a s t he s o l e w i t ne s s fo r t he r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e , a s w e l l a s t o p a y a fi ne
d e fe ns e , d e ni e d t ha t s he r e c r ui t e d t he c o m p l a i na nt s fo r o ve r s e a s o f P 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . A p p e l l a nt w a s a l s o o r d e r e d t o r e i m b ur s e t he
e m p l o y m e nt a nd c l a i m e d t ha t t he p a y m e nt s m a d e t o he r w e r e c o m p l a i na nt s t he fo l l o w i ng p a y m e nt s m a d e t o he r , v i z . : ( a )
s o l e l y f o r p ur c ha s i ng p l a ne t i c k e t s a t a d i s c o unt e d r a t e a s s he M a r a s i g a n , P 2 3 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 ; ( b ) G e ne r i l l o , P 2 , 5 0 0 . 0 0 ; a nd ( c ) D e l
ha d c o n ne c t i o ns w i t h a t r a v e l Rosario, P2,500.00.
a g e n c y . 2 0 c h a n r o b l e s v i r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y
I n t he s a m e j ud g m e nt a nd fo r t he e s t a fa c h a r g e d i n C r i m i na l C a s e
S he d e ni e d t h a t s he w a s p a i d b y M a r a s i g a n t he a m o u nt N o . 9 2 - 6 1 5 4 , t he M a k a t i c o ur t s e nt e nc e d a p p e l l a nt t o s u f fe r
o f P 2 3 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , c l a i m i ng t h a t s he w a s p a i d o nl y P 8 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , a s i m p r i s o nm e nt o f fo ur ( 4 ) ye a r s a nd t w o ( 2 ) m o nt h s o f p r i s i o n
s ho w n b y a r e c e i p t . S he f ur t he r i ns i s t e d t h a t , t h r o ug h t he t r a ve l c o r r e c c i o n a l , a s m i ni m um , t o e i g ht ( 8 ) ye a r s o f p r i s i o n m a yo r , a s
a g e n c y , 2 1 s he w a s a b l e t o p ur c ha s e d i s c o u nt e d p l a ne t i c ke t s fo r m a xi m u m , a nd t o p a y t he c o s t s .
t he c o m p l a i na nt s up o n p a r t i a l p a y m e nt o f t he t i c ke t p r i c e s , t he
b a l a nc e o f w hi c h s h e g ua r a nt e e d . A c c o r d i n g t o he r , t he I n t he i ns t a nt p e t i t i o n , a p p e l l a nt s e e ks t he r e ve r s a l o f t he
c o m p l a i na nt s w e r e s u p p o s e d t o p a y he r t he b a l a n c e b ut b e c a us e fo r e g o i ng j ud g m e nt o f t he R e g i o n a l T r i a l C o ur t o f M a ka t i
t he y f a i l e d t o d o s o , s he w a s o b l i g e d t o p a y t he e nt i r e c o s t o f c o n vi c t i ng he r o f i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e a nd e s t a fa .
each ticket. S p e c i fi c a l l y , s he i ns i s t s t ha t t he t r i a l c o u r t e r r e d i n c o n vi c t i ng he r
o f i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e a s t he e vi d e nc e p r e s e nt e d w a s
T he e v i d e nc e p r e s e nt e d b y t he p a r t i e s w e r e t h u s c o nt r a d i c t o r y i ns u ffi c i e nt .
b ut t he t r i a l c o ur t f o u nd t he p r o s e c ut i o n s e vi d e nc e m o r e c r e d i b l e .
O n D e c e m b e r 1 7 , 1 9 9 3 , j ud g m e nt w a s r e n d e r e d b y s a i d c o u r t M o r e o ve r , a p p e l l a nt c l a i m s t h a t s he i s no t g ui l t y o f a c t s
c o n vi c t i ng a p p e l l a nt o f b o t h c r i m e s a s c o ns t i t ut i ng i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt , i n l a r g e s c a l e o r o t he r w i s e ,
c h a r g e d . 2 2 c ha nr o b l e s v i r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y b e c a us e c o nt r a r y t o t he fi nd i ng s o f t he t r i a l c o ur t , s he d i d no t
r e c r ui t t he c o m p l a i n a nt s b ut m e r e l y p ur c ha s e d p l a ne t i c ke t s fo r
t he m . F i n a l l y , s he c o n t e nd s t ha t i n c o n vi c t i ng he r o f e s t a fa , t h e
Page 39 of 42

l o w e r c o ur t e r r e d a s s he d i d no t m i s a p p r o p r i a t e t he m o ne y p a i d x x x Il l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i s d e e m e d c o m m i t t e d i n l a r g e s c a l e i f
t o he r b y M a r a s i g a n , he nc e t h e r e w a s no d a m a g e t o t he c o m m i t t e d a g a i ns t t hr e e ( 3 ) o r m o r e p e r s o n s i nd i vi d u a l l y o r a s a
c o m p l a i na nt s w hi c h w o ul d s ub s t a nt i a t e t he c o n vi c t i o n. g r o up .

W e up ho l d t he f i nd i ng t h a t a p p e l l a nt i s g ui l t y b ut w e a r e , A r t . 3 9 . P e na l t i e s . -
c o m p e l l e d t o m o d i f y t he j u d g m e nt f o r t he o ffe n s e s s he s ho ul d b e
c o n vi c t e d o f a nd t he c o r r e s p o nd i n g p e n a l t i e s t he r e fo r . ( a ) T he p e na l t y o f l i fe i m p r i s o n m e nt a nd a f i ne o f O ne H u nd r e d
T ho us a nd P e s o s ( P 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 ) s ha l l b e i m p o s e d i f Il l e g a l
A p p e l l a nt m a i nt a i ns t ha t he r c o nv i c t i o n fo r i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n R e c r ui t m e nt c o ns t i t ut e s e c o no m i c s a b o t a g e a s d e fi ne d he r e i n ;
l a r g e s c a l e i s e r r o ne o us . It i s he r v i e w t ha t i n t he p r o s e c ut i o n o f
a c a s e f o r s uc h o f f e ns e , a t l e a s t t h r e e c o m p l a i na nt s a r e r e q ui r e d x x x
t o a p p e a r a s w i t ne s s e s i n t he t r i a l a nd , s i nc e M a r a s i g a n w a s t he
o nl y c o m p l a i na nt p r e s e nt e d a s a w i t ne s s , t h e c o n vi c t i o n w a s
( c ) A n y p e r s o n w ho i s ne i t he r a l i c e n s e e no r a ho l d e r o f a ut ho r i t y
g r o u nd l e s s .
u nd e r t hi s T i t l e fo u nd vi o l a t i ng a n y p r o vi s i o n t he r e o f o r i t s
i m p l e m e nt i ng r ul e s a n d r e g ul a t i o ns s ha l l , u p o n c o n vi c t i o n t he r e o f,
T he S o l i c i t o r G e ne r a l a l s o a d v o c a t e s t he c o n vi c t i o n o f a p p e l l a nt s u f fe r t he p e na l t y o f i m p r i s o nm e nt o f no t l e s s t h a n fo u r ( 4 ) ye a r s
fo r s i m p l e i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt w hi c h p r o vi d e s a l o w e r p e na l t y. T he no r m o r e t ha n e i g ht ( 8 ) ye a r s o r a fi ne o f n o t l e s s
C o u r t f i nd s t he a r g um e nt s o f t he S o l i c i t o r G e ne r a l m e r i t o r i o u s t ha n P 2 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 no r m o r e t ha n P 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , o r b o t h s uc h
a nd a d o p t s hi s p o s i t i o n. i m p r i s o nm e nt a n d fi n e , a t t he d i s c r e t i o n o f t he c o u r t . x x
x 2 6 c ha nr o b l e s vi r t u a l l a w l i b r a r y
T he L a b o r C o d e d e f i ne s r e c r ui t m e nt a nd p l a c e m e nt a s x x x a n y
a c t o f c a n v a s s i ng , e nl i s t i ng , c o nt r a c t i ng t r a ns p o r t i ng , ut i l i z i ng , D ur i ng t he p e nd e nc y o f t hi s c a s e , R e p ub l i c A c t N o . 8 0 4 2 ,
hi r i ng o r p r o c ur i ng w o r k e r s a nd i n c l ud e s r e f e r r a l s , c o nt r a c t o t he r w i s e k no w n a s t he M i g r a nt W o r ke r s a nd O ve r s e a s F i l i p i no s
s e r vi c e s , p r o m i s i ng o r a d v e r t i s i ng f o r e m p l o ym e nt , l o c a l l y o r A c t o f 1 9 9 5 , w a s p a s s e d i n c r e a s i ng t he p e n a l t y fo r i l l e g a l
a b r o a d , w he t he r f o r p r o f i t o r no t x x r e c r ui t m e nt . T hi s ne w l a w , ho w e ve r , d o e s n o t a p p l y t o t he i ns t a n t
x . 2 5 c ha nr o b l e s v i r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y c a s e b e c a us e t he o ffe ns e c h a r g e d he r e i n w a s c o m m i t t e d i n 1 9 9 2 ,
b e fo r e t he e f fe c t i vi t y o f s a i d R e p ub l i c A c t N o . 8 0 4 2 . H e nc e , w h a t
Il l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i s l i k e w i s e d e f i ne d a nd m a d e p u ni s h a b l e u nd e r a r e a p p l i c a b l e a r e t he a fo r e c i t e d L a b o r C o d e p r o vi s i o ns .
t he L a b o r C o d e , t h u s :
It i s e vi d e nt t h a t i n i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt c a s e s , t he n um b e r o f
A r t . 3 8 . I l l e g a l R e c r ui t m e nt . - p e r s o n s vi c t i m i z e d i s d e t e r m i n a t i ve . W he r e i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i s
c o m m i t t e d a g a i ns t a l o ne vi c t i m , t he a c c u s e d m a y b e c o nvi c t e d o f
( a ) A n y r e c r ui t m e nt a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l ud i ng t h e p r o hi b i t e d p r a c t i c e s s i m p l e i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt w hi c h i s p u ni s ha b l e w i t h a l o w e r
e n um e r a t e d u nd e r A r t i c l e 3 4 o f t hi s C o d e , t o b e u nd e r t a ke n b y p e na l t y u nd e r A r t i c l e 3 9 ( c ) o f t he L a b o r C o d e . C o r o l l a r i l y , w he r e
no n - l i c e ns e e s o r no n - ho l d e r s o f a ut ho r i t y s ha l l b e d e e m e d i l l e g a l t he o f fe n s e i s c o m m i t t e d a g a i n s t t hr e e o r m o r e p e r s o ns , i t i s
a nd p u ni s ha b l e und e r A r t i c l e 3 9 o f t hi s C o d e . x x x . q ua l i fi e d t o i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e w hi c h p r o vi d e s a
hi g he r p e na l t y u nd e r A r t i c l e 3 9 ( a ) o f t he s a m e C o d e .
( b ) Il l e g a l r e c r ui t m e n t w he n c o m m i t t e d b y a s y nd i c a t e o r i n l a r g e
s c a l e s ha l l b e c o ns i d e r e d a n o f f e n s e i n v o l vi ng e c o no m i c s a b o t a g e T he p o s i t i o n o f t he S o l i c i t o r G e ne r a l i s t h a t t he c o n vi c t i o n o f
a nd s h a l l b e p e na l i z e d i n a c c o r d a nc e w i t h A r t i c l e 3 9 he r e o f . a p p e l l a nt s ho ul d b e m e r e l y fo r t he l e s s e r o f fe ns e o f s i m p l e i l l e g a l
r e c r ui t m e nt . H e s ub m i t s t ha t t he R e g i o n a l T r i a l C o ur t o f M a k a t i
e r r e d i n c o n vi c t i ng a p p e l l a nt o f i l l e g a l r e c r u i t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e
b e c a us e t h e c o n vi c t i o n w a s b a s e d o n a n e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n o f t he
Page 40 of 42

M e t r o p o l i t a n T r i a l C o u r t o f P a r a a q ue w he r e a p p e l l a nt w a s fo u nd m a y b e g i ve n i n e vi d e nc e a g a i n s t t he a d ve r s e p a r t y w ho ha d t he
g ui l t y o f e s t a f a c o m m i t t e d a g a i ns t G e ne r i l l o a nd D e l R o s a r i o . o p p o r t u ni t y t o c r o s s - e xa m i ne hi m .

It i s a r g ue d t ha t t he M a k a t i c o ur t c o ul d no t v a l i d l y a d o p t t he U nd e r t he a fo r e c i t e d r ul e s , t he a c c us e d i n a c r i m i n a l c a s e i s
fa c t s e m b o d i e d i n t he d e c i s i o n o f t he P a r a a q ue c o ur t t o s ho w t h a t g ua r a nt e e d t he r i g ht o f c o n fr o nt a t i o n. S u c h r i g ht h a s t w o
i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt w a s c o m m i t t e d a g a i ns t G e ne r i l l o a nd D e l p ur p o s e s : fi r s t , t o s e c ur e t he o p p o r t u ni t y o f c r o s s - e x a m i na t i o n;
R o s a r i o a s w e l l . Il l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt w a s a l l e g e d l y p r o ve n t o h a ve a nd , s e c o nd , t o a l l o w t he j ud g e t o o b s e r ve t he d e p o r t m e nt a nd
b e e n c o m m i t t e d a g a i n s t o nl y o ne p e r s o n, p a r t i c ul a r l y , El e ni t a a p p e a r a n c e o f t he w i t ne s s w hi l e
M a r a s i g a n . A p p e l l a nt , t he r e f o r e , m a y o nl y b e he l d g ui l t y o f s i m p l e t e s t i f yi ng . 2 7 c ha n r o b l e s vi r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y
i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt a n d no t o f s u c h o f f e n s e i n l a r g e s c a l e .
T hi s r i g ht , ho w e ve r , i s no t a b s o l ut e a s i t i s r e c o g ni z e d t h a t i t i s
H e f ur t he r s ub m i t s t h a t t he a d o p t i o n b y t h e M a k a t i c o u r t o f t h e s o m e t i m e s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e c a l l o r p r o d uc e a w i t ne s s w ho ha s
fa c t s i n t he d e c i s i o n o f t he P a r a a q ue c o ur t f o r e s t a f a t o c o ns t i t ut e a l r e a d y t e s t i f i e d i n a p r e vi o us p r o c e e d i ng , i n w hi c h e ve nt hi s
t he b a s i s o f t he s ub s e q ue nt c o n v i c t i o n f o r i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i s p r e vi o us t e s t i m o n y i s m a d e a d m i s s i b l e a s a d i s t i nc t p i e c e o f
e r r o ne o us a s i t i s a v i o l a t i o n o f t he r i g ht o f a p p e l l a nt t o c o n fr o nt e vi d e nc e , b y w a y o f e xc e p t i o n t o t he he a r s a y r ul e . 2 8 T he
t he w i t ne s s e s , t ha t i s , c o m p l a i na nt s G e ne r i l l o a nd D e l R o s a r i o , p r e vi o us t e s t i m o n y i s m a d e a d m i s s i b l e b e c a us e i t m a ke s t he
d ur i ng t r i a l b e f o r e i t . H e c i t e s t he p e r t i ne nt p r o vi s i o n o f R ul e 1 1 5 a d m i ni s t r a t i o n o f j us t i c e o r d e r l y a nd
o f t he R ul e s o f C o ur t , t o w i t : e xp e d i t i o u s . 2 9 c h a nr o b l e s vi r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y

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p r o s e c ut i o n s , t he a c c us e d s h a l l b e e nt i t l e d : fa c t s s t a t e d i n t he d e c i s i o n o f t he P a r a a q ue t r i a l c o ur t d o e s no t
fa l l u nd e r t he e x c e p t i o n t o t h e r i g ht o f c o n f r o nt a t i o n a s t he
x x x e xc e p t i o n c o nt e m p l a t e d b y l a w c o ve r s o nl y t he ut i l i z a t i o n
o f t e s t i m o ni e s o f a b s e nt w i t ne s s e s m a d e i n p r e vi o us p r o c e e d i ng s ,
a nd d o e s no t i nc l ud e ut i l i z a t i o n o f p r e vi o us d e c i s i o n s o r
( f) T o c o n f r o nt a nd c r o s s - e x a m i n e t he w i t n e s s e s a g a i ns t hi m a t
j ud g m e nt s .
t he t r i a l . E i t he r p a r t y m a y ut i l i z e a s p a r t o f i t s e vi d e n c e t he
t e s t i m o n y o f a w i t ne s s w ho i s d e c e a s e d , o u t o f o r c a n no t , w i t h
d ue d i l i g e n c e b e f o un d i n t he P hi l i p p i ne s , u na va i l a b l e o r o t he r w i s e I n t he i ns t a nt c a s e , t he p r o s e c ut i o n d i d no t o f fe r t he t e s t i m o ni e s
u na b l e t o t e s t i f y , g i v e n i n a n o t he r c a s e o r p r o c e e d i ng , j ud i c i a l o r m a d e b y c o m p l a i na nt s G e ne r i l l o a nd D e l R o s a r i o i n t he p r e vi o us
a d m i ni s t r a t i v e , i n v o l v i ng t he s a m e p a r t i e s a nd s ub j e c t m a t t e r , e s t a f a c a s e . I ns t e a d , w ha t w a s o f fe r e d , a d m i t t e d i n e vi d e nc e , a nd
t he a d v e r s e p a r t y ha v i ng h a d t he o p p o r t u ni t y t o c r o s s - e x a m i ne ut i l i z e d a s a b a s i s fo r t he c o n vi c t i o n i n t he c a s e fo r i l l e g a l
hi m . r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e w a s t he p r e vi o us d e c i s i o n i n t he e s t a fa
case.
x x x
A p r e vi o us d e c i s i o n o r j ud g m e nt , w hi l e a d m i s s i b l e i n e vi d e n c e ,
m a y o nl y p r o ve t h a t a n a c c us e d w a s p r e vi o us l y c o nvi c t e d o f a
It w i l l b e no t e d t h a t t he p r i nc i p l e e m b o d i e d i n t he fo r e g o i ng r ul e
c r i m e . 3 0 It m a y no t b e us e d t o p r o ve t ha t t he a c c us e d i s g ui l t y o f
i s l i ke w i s e f o u nd i n t h e f o l l o w i ng p r o v i s i o n o f R ul e 1 3 0 :
a c r i m e c ha r g e d i n a s ub s e q ue nt c a s e , i n l i e u o f t he r e q ui s i t e
e vi d e nc e p r o vi ng t he c o m m i s s i o n o f t he c r i m e , a s s a i d p r e vi o u s
S e c t i o n 4 7 . T e s t i m o n y o r d e p o s i t i o n a t a fo r m e r p r o c e e d i ng . - T he d e c i s i o n i s he a r s a y . T o s a n c t i o n i t s b e i n g u s e d a s a b a s i s fo r
t e s t i m o n y o r d e p o s i t i o n o f a w i t ne s s d e c e a s e d o r u na b l e t o c o n vi c t i o n i n a s ub s e q ue nt c a s e w o ul d c o n s t i t ut e a vi o l a t i o n o f
t e s t i f y , g i v e n i n a f o r m e r c a s e o r p r o c e e d i n g , j ud i c i a l o r t he r i g ht o f t he a c c us e d t o c o n fr o nt t he w i t ne s s e s a g a i n s t hi m .
a d m i ni s t r a t i v e , i n v o l v i ng t he s a m e p a r t i e s a nd s ub j e c t m a t t e r ,
Page 41 of 42

A s e a r l i e r s t a t e d , t he M a k a t i c o ur t s ut i l i z a t i o n o f a nd r e l i a nc e o n T he w i t ne s s e s c l a i m e d t h a t a p p e l l a nt i l l e g a l l y r e c r ui t e d G e ne r i l l o
t he p r e v i o u s d e c i s i o n o f t he P a r a a q ue c o u r t m us t b e r e j e c t e d . a nd D e l R o s a r i o . N o ne t he l e s s , w e fi nd t he i r a ve r m e nt s t o b e
Eve r y c o n v i c t i o n m us t b e b a s e d o n t he fi nd i ng s o f fa c t m a d e b y a u nfo u nd e d a s t he y w e r e no t e ve n p r e s e nt w he n G e ne r i l l o a n d D e l
t r i a l c o u r t a c c o r d i ng t o i t s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t he e vi d e nc e b e fo r e i t . R o s a r i o ne g o t i a t e d w i t h a nd m a d e p a ym e nt s t o a p p e l l a nt .
A c o n v i c t i o n m a y no t b e b a s e d m e r e l y o n t h e fi nd i ng s o f fa c t o f
a no t he r c o ur t , e s p e c i a l l y w he r e w ha t i s p r e s e nt e d i s o nl y i t s F o r i ns u f fi c i e nc y o f e v i d e nc e a nd i n t he a b s e nc e o f t he t hi r d
d e c i s i o n s a ns t h e t r a n s c r i p t o f t he t e s t i m o n y o f t he w i t ne s s e s w h o e l e m e nt o f i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e , p a r t i c ul a r l y , t h a t t h e
t e s t i fi e d t he r e i n a nd up o n w hi c h t he d e c i s i o n i s b a s e d . o ffe ns e i s c o m m i t t e d a g a i ns t t h r e e o r m o r e p e r s o n s , w e c a n no t
a f fi r m t he c o nvi c t i o n f o r i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e .
F u r t he r m o r e , t hi s i s n o t t he o nl y r e a s o n w h y a p p e l l a nt m a y no t N o ne t he l e s s , w e a g r e e w i t h t he fi nd i ng o f t he t r i a l c o ur t t h a t
b e he l d l i a b l e f o r i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e . A n e va l u a t i o n a p p e l l a nt i l l e g a l l y r e c r ui t e d M a r a s i g a n , fo r w hi c h s he m u s t b e
o f t he e v i d e n c e p r e s e nt e d b e f o r e t he t r i a l c o ur t s ho w s u s t ha t , he l d l i a b l e fo r t he l e s s e r o f fe ns e o f s i m p l e i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt .
a p a r t f r o m t he a d o p t e d d e c i s i o n i n t he p r e v i o us e s t a fa c a s e , t he r e
w a s no o t he r b a s i s f o r s a i d t r i a l c o u r t s c o nc l us i o n t ha t i l l e g a l A p p e l l a nt s d e fe n s e t h a t s he d i d no t r e c r ui t M a r a s i g a n b ut m e r e l y
r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e w a s c o m m i t t e d a g a i n s t a l l t hr e e p ur c h a s e d a p l a ne t i c ke t fo r he r i s b e l i e d b y t he e vi d e n c e a s i t i s
c o m p l a i na nt s . u nd e ni a b l e t h a t s he r e p r e s e nt e d t o M a r a s i g a n t ha t s he h a d t he
a b i l i t y t o s e nd p e o p l e t o w o r k a s fa c t o r y w o r ke r s i n T a i w a n. H e r
T he d i s t i nc t i o n b e t w e e n s i m p l e i l l e g a l r e c r u i t m e nt a nd i l l e g a l p r e t e xt t h a t t he fe e s p a i d t o he r w e r e m e r e l y p a ym e nt s fo r a
r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e a r e e m p ha s i z e d b y j u r i s p r ud e n c e . p l a ne t i c ke t i s a d e s p e r a t e a t t e m p t t o e xo n e r a t e he r s e l f fr o m t he
S i m p l e i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i s c o m m i t t e d w h e r e a p e r s o n: ( a ) c h a r g e s a nd c a nno t b e s us t a i ne d .
u nd e r t a k e s a n y r e c r ui t m e nt a c t i v i t y d e f i ne d und e r A r t i c l e 1 3 ( b ) o r
a n y p r o hi b i t e d p r a c t i c e e nu m e r a t e d u nd e r A r t i c l e s 3 4 a nd 3 8 o f F u r t he r m o r e , no i m p r o p e r m o t i ve m a y b e a t t r i b ut e d t o M a r a s i g a n
t he L a b o r C o d e ; a nd ( b ) d o e s no t h a v e a l i c e ns e o r a ut ho r i t y t o i n c ha r g i ng a p p e l l a nt . T h e f a c t t ha t M a r a s i g a n w a s p o o r d o e s no t
l a w f ul l y e ng a g e i n t he r e c r ui t m e nt a nd p l a c e m e nt o f m a ke he r s o he a r t l e s s a s t o c o nt r i ve a c r i m i na l c ha r g e a g a i ns t
w o r ke r s . 3 1 O n t he o t h e r ha nd , i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e a p p e l l a nt . S he w a s a s i m p l e w o m a n w i t h b i g d r e a m s a nd i t w a s
f ur t he r r e q ui r e s a t hi r d e l e m e nt , t ha t i s , t h e o f fe ns e i s c o m m i t t e d a p p e l l a nt s d up l i c i t y w hi c h r e d uc e d t ho s e d r e a m s t o na ug ht .
a g a i ns t t h r e e o r m o r e p e r s o n s , i nd i v i d u a l l y o r a s a M a r a s i g a n ha d no m o t i ve t o t e s t i f y fa l s e l y a g a i n s t a p p e l l a nt
g r o up . 3 2 c ha nr o b l e s v i r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y e xc e p t t o t e l l t he t r ut h. 3 3 c ha nr o b l e s vi r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y

I n i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e , w hi l e t he l a w d o e s no t Be s i d e s , i f t he r e w a s a n yo ne w ho s e t e s t i m o n y ne e d e d
r e q ui r e t ha t a t l e a s t t hr e e v i c t i m s t e s t i f y a t t he t r i a l , i t i s c o r r o b o r a t i o n , i t w a s a p p e l l a nt a s t he r e w a s no t hi ng i n he r
ne c e s s a r y t ha t t he r e i s s u f f i c i e nt e v i d e nc e p r o vi ng t h a t t he t e s t i m o n y e x c e p t t he b a r e d e ni a l o f t he a c c us a t i o ns . 3 4 If
o ffe ns e w a s c o m m i t t e d a g a i n s t t hr e e o r m o r e p e r s o ns . T hi s C o ur t a p p e l l a nt r e a l l y i nt e n d e d t o p u r c ha s e a p l a ne t i c ke t a nd no t t o
a g r e e s w i t h t he t r i a l c o ur t t h a t t he e v i d e n c e p r e s e nt e d r e c r ui t M a r a s i g a n, s h e s ho ul d ha ve p r e s e nt e d e vi d e n c e t o s up p o r t
s u f fi c i e nt l y p r o v e s t h a t i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt w a s c o m m i t t e d b y t hi s c l a i m . A l s o , i n he r t e s t i m o n y, a p p e l l a nt na m e d a n e m p l o ye e
a p p e l l a nt a g a i ns t M a r a s i g a n , b ut t he s a m e c o nc l u s i o n c a n no t b e i n t he t r a ve l a g e nc y w ho w a s a l l e g e d l y he r c o nt a c t p e r s o n fo r t h e
m a d e a s r e g a r d s G e ne r i l l o a nd D e l R o s a r i o a s w e l l . p ur c h a s e o f t he t i c ke t . S he c o ul d ha ve p r e s e nt e d t h a t p e r s o n, o r
s o m e o t he r e m p l o ye e o f t he a g e nc y , t o s ho w t ha t t he t r a ns a c t i o n
T he t e s t i m o ni e s o f G e ne r i l l o s m o t he r , L i l i a G e ne r i l l o , a nd D e l w a s m e r e l y fo r b uyi ng a t i c ke t . H e r f a i l u r e t o d o t he fo r e g o i ng
R o s a r i o s s i s t e r , V i c t o r i a A m i n, r e v e a l t ha t t he s e w i t ne s s e s ha d n o a c t s b e l i e s he r p r e t e n s i o ns .
p e r s o n a l k no w l e d g e o f t he a c t ua l c i r c u m s t a n c e s s ur r o u nd i ng t he
c h a r g e s f i l e d b y G e ne r i l l o a nd D e l R o s a r i o f o r i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt T he C o u r t l i ke w i s e a ff i r m s t he c o n vi c t i o n o f a p p e l l a nt fo r e s t a fa
i n l a r g e s c a l e . N e i t he r o f t he s e w i t ne s s e s w a s p r i vy t o t he w hi c h w a s c o m m i t t e d a g a i ns t M a r a s i g a n. C o n vi c t i o n u nd e r t he
t r a n s a c t i o ns b e t w e e n a p p e l l a nt a nd e a c h o f t he t w o c o m p l a i n a nt s . L a b o r C o d e fo r i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt d o e s no t p r e c l ud e p u ni s hm e nt
Page 42 of 42

u nd e r t he R e v i s e d P e na l C o d e f o r t he f e l o n y o f e s t a fa . 3 5 T hi s i nc r e m e nt a l p e n a l t y f o r t he a m o unt i n e x c e s s
Court i s c o n v i nc e d t h a t t he p r o s e c ut i o n p r o ve d b e yo nd r e a s o na b l e o f P 2 2 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 3 7 T ha t p e n a l t y i m m e d i a t e l y l o w e r i n d e g r e e
d o ub t t ha t a p p e l l a nt v i o l a t e d A r t i c l e 3 1 5 ( 2 ) ( a ) o f t he R e vi s e d i s p r i s o n c o r r e c c i o n a l i n i t s m i ni m u m a nd m e d i um p e r i o d s , w i t h a
Penal C o d e w hi c h p r o v i d e s t ha t e s t a f a i s c o m m i t t e d : d ur a t i o n o f s i x ( 6 ) m o nt h s a nd o ne ( 1 ) d a y t o fo ur ( 4 ) ye a r s a nd
t w o ( 2 ) m o nt h s . O n t he s e c o ns i d e r a t i o ns , t he t r i a l c o ur t c o r r e c t l y
2 . B y m e a ns o f a ny o f t he f o l l o w i ng f a l s e p r e t e ns e s o r fr a ud ul e nt fi xe d t he m i ni m um a n d m a xi m um t e r m s o f t he i nd e t e r m i na t e
a c t s e x e c ut e d p r i o r t o o r s i m ul t a ne o us l y w i t h t he c o m m i s s i o n o f s e nt e nc e i n t he e s t a f a c a s e .
t he fr a ud :
W hi l e w e m u s t b e vi g i l a nt a nd s ho ul d p u ni s h, t o t he ful l e s t e xt e n t
( a ) By us i ng f i c t i t i o us na m e o r f a l s e l y p r e t e nd i ng t o p o s s e s s o f t he l a w , t ho s e w ho p r e y up o n t he d e s p e r a t e w i t h e m p t y
p o w e r , i n f l ue n c e , q ua l i f i c a t i o ns , p r o p e r t y, c r e d i t , a g e nc y , p r o m i s e s o f b e t t e r l i v e s , o nl y t o fe e d o n t h e i r a s p i r a t i o ns , w e
b us i ne s s o r i m a g i na r y t r a n s a c t i o ns , o r b y m e a n s o f o t he r s i m i l a r m us t no t b e he e d l e s s o f t he b a s i c r ul e t ha t a c o n vi c t i o n m a y b e
deceits. s u s t a i ne d o nl y w he r e i t i s fo r t he c o r r e c t o f fe ns e a nd t he b ur d e n
o f p r o o f o f t he g ui l t o f t he a c c us e d ha s b e e n m e t b y t he
p r o s e c ut i o n .
T he e v i d e nc e i s c l e a r t ha t i n f a l s e l y p r e t e nd i ng t o p o s s e s s p o w e r
t o d e p l o y p e r s o n s f o r o v e r s e a s p l a c e m e nt , a p p e l l a nt d e c e i ve d t h e
c o m p l a i na nt i nt o b e l i e v i n g t ha t s he w o ul d p r o vi d e he r a j o b i n W H E R E F O R E , t he j ud g m e nt o f t he c o ur t a q uo fi nd i ng a c c u s e d -
T a i w a n. H e r a s s ur a n c e s m a d e M a r a s i g a n e x ha us t w h a t e ve r a p p e l l a nt L a ni e O r t i z - M i y a ke g ui l t y b e yo n d r e a s o na b l e d o ub t o f
r e s o u r c e s s he ha d t o p a y t he p l a c e m e nt fe e r e q ui r e d i n e x c h a ng e t he c r i m e s o f i l l e g a l r e c r ui t m e nt i n l a r g e s c a l e ( C r i m i n a l C a s e N o .
fo r t he p r o m i s e d j o b . T he e l e m e nt s o f d e c e i t a nd d a m a g e fo r t hi s 9 2 - 6 1 5 3 ) a nd e s t a fa ( C r i m i na l C a s e N o . 9 2 - 6 1 5 4 ) i s he r e b y
fo r m o f e s t a f a a r e i nd i s p ut a b l y p r e s e nt , he nc e t he c o n vi c t i o n fo r M O D IF I ED , a s fo l l o w s :
e s t a f a i n C r i m i na l C a s e N o . 9 2 - 6 1 5 4 s ho ul d b e a f fi r m e d .
1 ) A c c u s e d - a p p e l l a nt i s d e c l a r e d g ui l t y b e y o nd r e a s o n a b l e d o ub t
U nd e r t he R e v i s e d P e na l C o d e , a n a c c us e d fo u nd g ui l t y o f e s t a fa o f s i m p l e i l l e g a l r e c r u i t m e nt , a s d e fi ne d i n A r t i c l e 3 8 ( a ) o f t he
s h a l l b e s e nt e nc e d t o : L a b o r C o d e , a s a m e nd e d . S he i s he r e b y o r d e r e d t o s e r ve a n
i nd e t e r m i na t e s e nt e nc e o f fo u r ( 4 ) ye a r s , a s m i ni m um , t o e i g ht
( 8 ) ye a r s , a s m a xi m u m , a nd t o p a y a fi ne o f P 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 .
x x x T he p e n a l t y o f p r i s i o n c o r r e c c i o n a l i n i t s m a xi m u m p e r i o d
t o p r i s i o n m a y o r i n i t s m i ni m um p e r i o d , i f t he a m o u nt o f t he fr a u d
i s o v e r 1 2 , 0 0 0 b ut d o e s no t e x c e e d 2 2 , 0 0 0 p e s o s , a nd i f s uc h 2 ) I n C r i m i n a l C a s e N o . 9 2 - 6 1 5 4 fo r e s t a f a , he r e i n a c c u s e d -
a m o u nt e x c e e d s t he l a t t e r s u m , t he p e n a l t y p r o vi d e d i n t hi s a p p e l l a nt i s o r d e r e d t o s e r ve a n i nd e t e r m i n a t e s e nt e nc e o f fo ur
p a r a g r a p h s ha l l b e i m p o s e d i n i t s m a x i m um p e r i o d , a d d i ng o ne ( 4 ) ye a r s a nd t w o ( 2 ) m o nt h s o f p r i s i o n c o r r e c c i o na l , a s
year for each additional 10,000 pesos x x m i ni m um , t o e i g ht ( 8 ) ye a r s o f p r i s i o n m a y o r , a s m a xi m u m , a nd
x . 3 6 c ha nr o b l e s v i r t ua l l a w l i b r a r y t o r e i m b ur s e El e ni t a M a r a s i g a n t he s um o f P 2 3 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 .

T he a m o u nt i nv o l v e d i n t he e s t a f a c a s e i s P 2 3 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . A p p l yi ng I n a l l o t he r r e s p e c t s , t he a fo r e s t a t e d j ud g m e nt i s A F F IR M ED , w i t h
t he I nd e t e r m i n a t e S e nt e nc e L a w , t he m a xi m um p e na l t y s ha l l b e c o s t s a g a i n s t a c c u s e d - a p p e l l a nt i n b o t h i ns t a nc e s .
t a ke n f r o m t he m a x i m um p e r i o d o f t he fo r e g o i ng b a s i c p e n a l t y ,
s p e c i f i c a l l y , w i t hi n t h e r a ng e o f i m p r i s o nm e nt fr o m s i x ( 6 ) ye a r s , SO ORDERED.
e i g ht ( 8 ) m o nt hs a nd t w e nt y - o ne ( 2 1 ) d a y s t o e i g ht ( 8 ) ye a r s .

O n t he o t he r ha nd , t h e m i ni m um p e na l t y o f t he i nd e t e r m i n a t e
s e nt e nc e s h a l l b e w i t h i n t he r a ng e o f t he p e na l t y ne xt l o w e r i n
d e g r e e t o t h a t p r o v i d e d b y l a w , w i t ho ut c o ns i d e r i ng t he