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Brett Green

A complete guide to painting and finishing models using an airbrush _ Hundreds of colour photos _
Step-by-step instructions _ Ideas for more creative modelling _ Create detailed and exciting finishes

Airbrushing and
Finishing Scale Models

, '

Brett Green
Series editors Marcus Cowper and Nikolai Bogdanovic

" ,
First published in Great Britain in 2008 by Osprey Publishin •
Midland House, West Way, Botley, Oxford OX2 OPH, UK
443 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016, USA

© 2008 Osprey Publishing Ltd.

Introduction 4
All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose
of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted
under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part
• Chapter 1 Fundamentals of the airbrush 8
of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior
• Chapter 2

Chapter 3
A brief history of colour

Getting started with your airbrush


written permission of the copyright owner. Enquiries should
be addressed to the Publishers.

• Chapter 4 Basic airbrush techniques 30

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from
the British Library Chapter 5 Painting your models 34
ISBN 978 1 84603 199 1

• Chapter 6 Painting and finishing aviation models 86

Editorial by lIios Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK
• Chapter 7 Painting and finishing armour models 144

Page layout by: Ken Vail Graphic Design (
Typeset in Stone Sans and Centaur MT
Chapter 8 Painting and finishing other models 172
Index by Sandra Shotter
Originated by PDQ Digital Media Solutions Ltd.
Printed in China through Worldprint

08 09 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
• Chapter 9 Resources



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Osprey Direct UK, PO Box 140, Wellingborough,
Northants NN8 2FA, UK

Osprey Publishing is supporting the Woodland Trust, the

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the dedication of trees.
4 5

o or scratch-building parts. The
U Internet now represents an
o almost boundless and wholly
accessible source of reference and
Z consultation for any question a
modeller may have on historical
or technical matters.
Nevertheless. despite these same mornil1' \\,1111.
blossoming global communities,
super-detailed kits and high-
INTRODUCTION technology tools, a scale model my attenti 11 1\1,\

his must be a Golden Age will still look like a piece of plastic plastic and It 1\1.11 I '111
T for modellers. New
technologies have brought us
without a well-planned paint job.
When I started building scale
I was nOl l "('WIII til II.

remarkable kits and accessories models in the 1960s, I finished my

Esci's old 1/48· I M,lt ,I
that deliver unprecedented detail. kits using enamel paints applied
is still a resp tabl kit II- I
A new generation of micro power with a cheap brush. Even now, the A careful paint job h Ifl' II I
tools are available for modifying smell of Humbrol paints can still the detail.

This 1/48-scale Achilles tank destroyer is only be imagined in my childhood what the finish should look like
a conversion of Tamiya's M 10. Painting
modelling years was literally at from reference photos. but I
and weathering was largely achieved
using an airbrush. my fingertips. struggled with problems such as
I quickly understood that I spatter, overspray and paint runs.
needed more control over the I was often impatient to move
modelling until the late 1980s. airbrush than the single-action onto the next colour or the
It was only then that I discovered model provided so, within months, second coat; I probably should
some of the luxurious I splashed out and bought a have spent more time cleaning
accoutrements to the hobby - Paasche Type V L. Previously. I the airbrush too.
specialized tools, acrylic paints, had painted complex and irregular It was only when I met other
model clubs and. perhaps the most schemes such as Luftwaffe mottles modellers at my local hobby shop
intriguing of all, the airbrush. with a sponge. or by stippling and at the IPMS New South Wales
I bought my first airbrush, a paint using a cut-down paintbrush. model club that my technique and
simple single-action model, not Now, I could spray the finish in attitude started to improve. I had
long after re-entering the hobby. the same way as the paint was a chance to see beautifully painted
It was inexpensive and clearly applied to the real aircraft. plastic masterpieces, and speak
limited in capability. but it was These early airbrushing years to the modellers about their
equally a revelation. Suddenly, a brought with them equal measures experiences and attitudes. This
whole range of finishes that could of delight and frustration. I knew put me on the right track.
6 7


An airbrush is especially useful for large This book is designed to offer The airbrush is a fabulous tool
models such as the brand-new Airfix a practical guide to airbrushing for the mod eller, but it is far from
1/48-scale Canberra B(I).8. This model
techniques for all sorts of scale the only accessory you will need
has been finished with extensive
masking and subtle weathering. modelling. We will cover some to finish your model authentically.
These techniques will be discussed basic theory early in the book, We will therefore also discuss
in detail over the coming chapters.
Certainly the most influential hand. Instead of the myriad of but the emphasis will be very related tools and supplemental
modeller that I know is Chris needles, nozzles, springs and much on painting techniques and techniques that will often be used
Wauchop. He owned a Sydney handles squeezed inside most you can't fix the problem. Later, our plenty of step-by-step case studies. in t'lndem with your airbrush.
hobby shop in the late 1980s airbrushes, the Aztek featured club devised a system that offered Most of the examples are aircraft
where his models were on display, simple replaceable tips of various more detailed written feedback on models, but we will also cover Brett Crew
a source of both inspiration and widths for different painting tasks. were fortunate to have ,1 '111'1 the judging form, so even those cars, tanks, military vehicles and
education. Chris was always I tested the new airbrush out and and encouraging crew ilt 0111 II I too bashful to ask might benefit. maritime vessels.
willing to offer advice and suggest was immediately hooked. The when 1 was new to the hohh
techniques. He was equally willing improvement in my airbrushing Although I did n t Oflt'll 1'1.1
to take new ideas on board. was obvious and immediate. Both these early competili rh, I ,I'
At the time, Chris was using a Chris and I still use Testor Aztek took the opportunily II I I I
strange looking airbrush called the airbrushes 20 years later. feedback on the judging tWill

Aztek. Unlike all the cylindrical My painting technique and also to talk to judges in 01 I. I
chromed airbrushes that I had seen general modelling skills also benefit from their greill('r I I
to date, this was grey plastic and developed by entering competitions If you don't recognize wh,II I

ergonomically shaped to fit the at my local IPMS model club. We with your technique or .11'1 II
8 9

... and pulled back to control paint
ct: flow. In this way, both paint and air
ct: FUNDAMENTALS OF THE AIRBRUSH may be regulated with a one-handed
Before we start painting, let us examine the origins of the airbrush, its components, and air sour C~.
T he airbrush is far from a
new invention. Indeed, many
prehistoric cave paintings were
• created using tinted liquid blown
through hollow bones or rubes over
a simple shape such as a hand.
f- Airbrushes often have different sized
« This primitive artwork was created needles and nozzles. These are paired,
using the same general principles and will deliver different flows of paint
employed in today's airbrush. depending on the size of the nozzle
(the larger the nozzle diameter, the
Even dle airbrush as a technical
greater the flow).
tool pre-dates scale modelling by
50 years. The airbrush was first
conceived by Abner Peeler of
Webster City, Iowa in 1879. This
makeshift device comprised a spoon,
a sewing machine needle, some
narrow soldering pipes and bent
metal, all attaclled to a handle made
from two wooden blocks connected
at a right angle. Peeler named his
I use several Testor Aztek airbrushes.
invention the 'Paint Distributor', On the left is the metal-bodied M80
and it was originally intended for model, and on the right is the plastic
watercolour painting. This primitive A470 - my regular weapon of choice.
Unlike a conventional airbrush, the
Aztek provides a selection of disposable
TOP This is the Paasche Model VL. tips for different paint applications.
The Paasche Airbrush Company dates
back to 1904.

BonOM The Paasche VL is a double-

action, internal mix, siphon-feed
airbrush. Various sized jars or cups
may be attached to the bottom of
the airbrush. The trigger is pressed
down to control the airflow ...



ABOVE Iwata offers a small final filter BELOW The filter may be seen fitted to the Iwata HP-C Plus airbrush in this photo. In
that fits between the air hose and addition to ensuring clean air, the filter acts as a handy pistol grip. Note the cut-out
the airbrush. at the rear of the handle with a scroll wheel permitting stopping down of the needle.

TOP LEFT My air source is a 'Silair' design. These included the further refined his d,"1 'II hI
silent compressor with a holding tank. introduction of 'd uble action' introducing the world" f" I
This was an expensive investment,
but it has given me many years of
in 1883. This permilled a single internal mix airbrush 111 IK)I
reliable service. trigger to independently control What we might reco 1Il111 ,I

both the air and paint mixture, the first modern ai rbl'l"h \I ,\
TOP RIGHT Most good compressors
making it much easier to operate patented by Thayer (h.1I1 II I
will come fitted with a water trap, an
air regulator and a pressure meter. The the airbrush. The Walkups formed in 1895. This was an inll'lIl.11
black knob on top of my compressor the Airbrush Manur.,cturing mix, double-action airbru,h \I III
controls the airflow, and I can monitor Company. The new airbrush proved a simplified trigger.
the pressure on the circular gauge.
especially popular as a retouching In 1904, Jens Paas hl'
and enhancement LOol in the established the Paasche 1\11 hlu 1
airbrush feawred two triggers - one emerging art of ph tography. Company. The origi nal 1',1.".111
for controlling airflow and a second It was particularly useful for airbrush was the direci all l',ln.
delivering paint, so two-handed modifying or adding colour co the PaascheType AB, still III \\11
operation was reguired. these early monochrome images. use coday. Indeed, the Pa,1', h.
Liberry and Charles Walkup Early airbrush designs blew air Airbrush Company is still 11\

purchased the patent from Peeler downwards. In 1889, Charles L. business more than "100 yC,ll' Lilt,
in 1881, and a number of Burdick patented the first airbrush The other traditional nam,' 111 III
improvements were made co the co blow air forwards. Burdick airbrush industry, Badger. Sl.1lI. I
12 13

business in 1963. A number of the narrow tip and arc directed COLOUR CUP caused by the Venturi effect of the time. The pressure cannot be sizes and prices. The cheapest and
prominent airbrush companies onto the surface of the object All airbrushes ne d a ~I III., III fast, narrowing air. An airbtush controlled and, worse, diminishes simplest are known as reciprocating
have emerged in more recent times, being painted. liguid. A colour cup i~ 1)1'1 .i11 fitted with a side-mounted cup as the air in the can is expended. air compressors. These machines
I including Iwata of Japan. Although The elements common to most by no means the only t 'I" J.lI employs a similar principle. Many Using the can for long periods feature a rapidly moving piston
Iwata is sometimes considered a airbrushes are: also common. aitbrushes are now htted with a can greatly reduce the temperature wirhin a cylinder that displaces and
o relative newcomer, the business was fixed or replaceable cu p on top inside the container, further compresses air. These compressors
...J actuaLly founded in May 1926. BODY AIR HOSE of the body; these are called reducing pressure and shortening tend to be guite noisy. The piston
I- This is the metal housing in which The air hose conne t~ till ,III gravity-feed airbrushes. the spray life. This problem air may be propelled in pulses too,
w THE AIRBRUSH the mechanics of the airbrush source to the airbrush. The other important difference may be temporarily avoided by which will need to be eliminated by
<l: TODAY are housed There are several all"1lI II between airbrushes is external resting the air can in a bowl of the use of either a long hose or a
Z More than one hundred years after airbrush today. The m ~I h,1 I mix versus internal mix. As the water at room temperature or regulator, or both. Unregulated
L.L. it hrst appeared, the airbrush is still TRIGGER airbrushes arc single a 11011, Ih name implies, the liguid from an slightly warmer. pulsing may lead to uneven
• used for its original applications The trigger is usually located trigger delivers a pre-dell'l"IlIIIII" external mix airbrush leaves the Larger gas containers are spraymg.
of photographic retouching, on top of the airbrush and will mix of paint and air. Any 1',111.111 I body before it is mixed with the another option. CO 2 tanks come in One way to overcome the
w signage and hne art. New roles have control airHow and/or paint flow. in line width may nly l)(' .1 1111 air resulting in a lower pressure many sizes and offer a much longer pulsing issue is to purchase a
<l: also emerged in recent decades Many airbrushes will be htted with by altering the distan e (mill till mixture, and therefore larger life than aerosol cans; they can compressor with a holding tank.
including automotive art, nail art, supplementary stops and control subject (moving further ,111'.11 \\ III particles. This may deliver visible either be rented or purchased. A The compressor fills the tank,
make-up, tanning and airbrushing wheels to provide hner control to result in a wider spray 11'11 h.1 It spots and specks rather than a CO 2 tank will reguire a pressure and the ai rbrush is fed from the
for scale models. the air and paint flow. edge, while moving closl'l \\ ill smooth, feathered edge. Even regulator to control the airflow and smooth flow of air from the tank.
The basic elements of an deliver a narrower line II'lIh ,I so, this may not be a problem if a gauge to measure the pressure. When the pressure of the tank
airbrush are the same today as NOZZLE sharper edge), or changin' tI," only large surface areas are being Although a better option than an drops to a pre-determined level,
they were one hundred years ago. In the case of an internal mix tip and nozzle. A single-" 111l1l covered. Internal mix airbrushes aerosol can, the pressure may stiLl the compressor is automaticaLly
An airbrush wJI typically be airbrush, paint and air arc mixed airbrush therefore offers l'IlI111 atomize the paint within the be variable depending on the level activated, returning the tank to the
cylindrical, and around the same in the nozzle. The nozzle is usually scope for fine and varied nozzle at higher pressure, delivering of gas in the bottle, and periodic reguired pressure. Another benefit
length and thickness as a pen. All interchangeable, and (ten available airbrushing effects. finer atomization. refiLls will be reguired. Safety is of a holding tank compressor is
airbrushes atomize and propel in different sizes depending on the Dual-aerion airbru h', off. I also a concern, as the high pressure that the noisy piston will only
liguids, such as paints, inks or width of the spray reguired. The more control, as the trigg", 111.1 AIR SOURCES inside the tank (typically 300 be operating while it refills the
dyes, using compressed air from finer the spray, the smaller the used to independently d'll' I I IlII An air source is essential for any pounds per sguare inch) could tank. A wide variety of more
an external source, such as a nozzle and its opening. air and paint. When the III' "I I airbrush and there are a number potentially wreak havoc in your sophisticated compressors are also
compressor, an air tank or an depressed, more air is d 111'1'1\ I of options available. Compressed workshop if the heavy tank faLls available at higher prices. I own a
aerosol can. NEEDLE When the trigger is pulled h,l air can be purchased in aerosol over and the valve breaks off. Silair silent air compressor that has
This external source supplies The needle is marched to the more paint is available fill' till cans with an adaptor to connect Always secure your CO 2 tank to given me reliable service for well
air to the body of the airbrush and nozzle. The needle is operated by mix. This permits varial iOIl III to an air hose. This may be a wall. Some modellers even use over ten years. Most compressors
passes through a Venturi, which pulling back on the trigger, thus spray width, even as part o( II,. appropriate if you are a very a tyre with a pressure regulator/ will have pressure regulators and
reduces air pressure inside the head opening the hole in the nozzle same stroke. infreguent user of the airbrush, or adaptor as an air source. All of gauges built in.
of the airbrush. This reduction of and permitting the pressurized An airbrush may re eivI' 'I if you need to work in a remote the above-mentioned air sources Another useful accessory is
pressure allows paint to be drawn and atomized liguid to escape. paint feed in a number (",II location. Otherwise, however, are effectively silent. a water trap. This will prevent
into the tip of the airbrush. The The more the needle is pulled Siphon-feed airbrushes will Ii 1\ this is an expensive option with Perhaps the most versatile option unwanted water from entering
resulting high velocity of the air back, the larger the opening and paint up through a tube 0' III a number of technical limitations. for the moderate to heavy airbrush the nozzle of your airbrush - a
atomizes the liguid into tiny the greater the gualllity of paint attached to the bottom (th. For a start, the supply is relatively user is a compressor. Compressors particular risk during humid
particles, which then pass through being sprayed. airbrush by a vacuum in til( Illl. smaLl, resulting in short working are available in all sorts of shapes, weather.
14 15

A BRIEF HISTORY OF COLOUR Four distinctly different hues
o Regardless of the modeller's dexterity with the airbrush, colour and shade will have a critical imp.1I t
>- on the final result. The coming pages examine how colours, tints and shades are broken down, and hllll
o perception changes depending on distance and scale. Several technigues for rendering authcntic s .11 ..

colour are also suggested.


N ELEMENTS OF psycho-visual studies, suggests that BRIGHTNESS AN
a: COLOUR there are four 'uniguc' colours: red, LUMINANCE
T he business of the airbrush
is colour. We will therefore
spend a little time examining what
yellow, green and bluc. Rcgardless,
hue is a 'pure' colour.
Chromaticity rcfcrs to the
Brightness is the valuc th.lI till
us how light or dark a ulullI
compared to whitc. Lighll'l . III

makes up colour. Colour can be purity of the huc. Thc highcst have a higher valuc than I.\I~" I
Adding black creates a shade of the original colour
described technically as the effect chromaticity valuc is whcn there is colours. Differcnt c lOlli' IIIJ\

of reflected light from an object, no black, grey or whitc prcsent in have the same brightncss \ .• 111 •
and how this helps us ro perceive the colour. The huc will therefore or widely contrasting Vallll'
differences between otherwise be bright and vibrant. Greyscale has no brighlnl" , II
identical objects. We can categorize
the gualities of colours as follows: SHADES, TINTS AND TONES CATEGORIZIN
Strictly speaking, black and white COLOUR
HUE AND CHROMATICITY are not colours: black is a shade, We have already briefly .1'\1 II
Hue is what we normally think of as and white is a tint. Adding white several systems uscd r. I'

colour. Primary colours are arbitrary to a pure hue will crcatc a tint categorizing colour. h( n
sets of hues that are chosen as the of that colour (lightcr than the systems that have dire t \( h \ \I
basis to mix a larger range of original hue). Adding black to a to modeLlers. The Pamon\
colours. For example, in painting, hue will creatc a shadc (darKer than Matching System is a pl'llpllli •
red, yellow and blue might be the original hue). If grcy is added standard for matching \ I, III
Adding white creates a tint of the original colour
considered to be primary colours. to a pure hue, thc rcsult is a tone. printing, paint manufa tlln ,Ill

Any two of these mixed together the fabric industry. The slo\ll III I
would represent a secondary colour SATURATION defines thousands of olll\lI
(e.g. blue plus yellow eguals green), Saturation refers t thc intensity identified by a number \VII h tI
with all three colours producing a of a colour whcn vicwcd under actual colour reprodu cd III I

tertiary hue. All the colours on your different lighting conditions. sample colour fan deck.
computer screen have been blended This is different t brightness or In addition co propriClo\l)
from red, green and blue, hence the lightness. Saturation lcvcls define systems, Governmcnts 11'011111 I I
computer colour acronym 'RGB'. the strength or wcakncss of any have attempted co standal 11/\ tI
Another definition, based on given colour undcr different light. use of colours. Some f Lhl \I
16 17





First digit - finish So, we can tell that our example Ken Merrick's recent books, Luftwaffe
ABOVE A Federal Standard r 9\ 1 - gloss of FS 34092 is a lustreless (flat) Camouflage and Markings 1933-1945,

colour fan is a big inveslm nl, l)Il1 II volumes one and two, each provide
2 - semi-gloss finish as indicated by 3, is green
be very useful to serious slud nl\ f real paint chips of pre-war and
3 - flat or lustreless as indicated by 4, and is guite Luftwaffe colours produced to
camouflage colours and marklnfJ\ II
IPMS Color Cross Reference Guld h.III Second digit - predominant colour dark as suggested by the low the standards of the wartime
excellent companion to inl rpr llllll manufacturers.
classification grouping value of 092. A fan deck
the FS 595A colour fan.
0- brown containing all the Federal standard
1 - red colours is available from specialist including FS 595A, RLM, RAL
LEFT Other colour standard Jr( •• 1
covered in print. The mosl valli II It· 2 - orange retailers tor around 160 US BS and more, against various
of these offer separate sampl 01 II 3 - yellow dollars. Other colour standards brands of available model paints.
colours as actual paint chip. '11
4 - green useful to modellers include It also matched a wide selection
limitations of the convention I Ie"
printing process means lhal Imll 5 - blue British Standard 381, and of model paint colours to the
samples in books are unr Iiabl 6 - grey German RLM (Reich Luft closest Federal Standard colour.
7 - other (white, black, violet, Ministerium - German Air In combination with my Federal
standards are well known in military a unigue identi fler (e.g. F 34092), defines the general c loul til "I I metallic) Ministry) colours used during Standard fan deck, this remains
and modelling circles as the basis of which is associated with a lacguer group (this includcs calC 'UIII 8 - fluorescent World War II. one of my most essential reference
camouflage and marking colours colour sample in n r.1n deck. The for miscellaneous, melnlll ,II' I Last three digits - the last three In the late 1980s, the IPMS sources. There are a number
for vehicles and aircraft. identification number in FS 595 fluorescent colours). Th' f 111.11 digits of the Federal Standard Color Cross-Riference Cuide was of other very useful reference
The American Federal Standard itself provides inf, rmation about three digits describe th 11,11111' number are assigned in the published. This book, by David H. publications that contain actual
595 is one example. Similar to the colour. The first digir states the of the colour - the highcI tIl, approximate order of increasing Klaus, cross-referenced various paint samples matched to the
Pantone, the colours are defined by level of gloss. The second digit number, the lighter the ulellil reflectance. popular colour standards, relevant standards.

Scale effect on Neutral Grey 1/48 scale - add 10 per cent white reverting to dead flat in a fairly beneath. The same effect can be
U 1/32 scale - add 23 per cent white short time. seen on propellers. In fact, on
It is worth considering that scale Paintwork on many military unmade airfields, much of the
>- effect will be different depending vehicles and aircraft will be stained paint on propeller blades can
o on the nature of the light. For from oil, fuel and general grime. be blasted off by sand, small
Vl example, the hue may be more Dirty residues will often be stones or dirt. This effect is
intense when viewed from the retained in the recesses of access usually much more severe on
same distance in the bright, hard hatches and overlapping panels, the rear of the propeller blades.
sunshine of the South Pacific adding a dark 'line' effect even On both aircraft and vehicles,
compared to the softer light of when the panel lines may be the boots of crew members will
• orthern Europe. In this case, a relatively smooth. Flat or chalky leave dirt and may even chip
lower proportion of white would paint finishes will tend to absorb and damage paint work. This
u.J Neutral Grey plus 10% white plus 25% wh be warranted. stains too, so that even a single will be especially noticeable on
« overall colour may appear mottled the wing roots of aircraft. Bare
U EFFECTS OF WEATHERING and irregular. metal may also be exposed on
Scale effect suggests that an aircraft words, the colours should appear as added will lel'l'lld ",II II
or vehicle will generally appear paler
ON PAINT The effects of airflow may also frequently used handles, fasteners
if the real aircraft was nearly 50m scale of the 1110.11'1, ,III II
or the colour will be weaker when Scale effect is not the only factor leave visible marks on an aircraft. and the edges of removable
viewed from a distance. Here is the away. At this distance, atmospheric according LO thl' I'rJ 111111
impacting the original colour Fine, chordwise streaks are often panels. How to reproduce
effect of adding 10 per cent white and effects will be quite noticeable and preference of till' 11'" I. II
applied to an aircraft or a vehicle. seen on wings and tail planes. these effects will be discussed
25 per cent white to the US WWII the saturation and intensity of any A number f dd'llIl1
colour, neutral grey. The colour itself may fade as Cordite stains from guns being in later chapters.
given hue will appear to be less, approaches are ,"' 'I II I
a result of exposure to bright fired in flight, and exhaust gases
while lightness may increase. This 'scale colour'. SOIlH 1111 I II
sunlight or other harsh climatic will frequently leave prominent MODEL PAINTS
COLOUR principle clearly does not apply at argue that 25 pl'r '1' III III
conditions. It may also not marks. In the case of exhaust Model paints arc available from
PERCEPTION very great distances. An aircraft should be added III .II It
fade evenly. Some colours were stains, these may be dark in the an ever-growing selection of
CONSIDERATIONS flying high in the sky, or a ship appropriate scale (01<,,"
notoriously unstable, especially case of an engine running a rich companies, conforming to many
FOR MOD ELLERS oue at sea, will appear to be very 1/48 scale. Under till I
colours with a red component, mixture, or pale (even a chalky different paint standards. For
SCALE EFFECT dark. However, the effect is worth principles, a larger I'll
and may fade to distinctly different white) when resulting from a example, a number of paint
Whether we build cars, tanks, taking into account under most white should be ,l<IlI<'d f
hues even on the same airframe. lean fuel mixture. Sometimes, manufacturers offer model paints
aeroplanes or figures, our replicas circumstances, especially if your scales (for example, ,
During World War II, US Olive a combination of overlaid light that conform to the American
will be much smaller than the model is wearing very dark colours. for 1/72 scale), an I .1
Drab would frequently degrade and dark stains may be seen. Federal Standard 595A. This makes
original subjects. 'Scale effect' is the Scale effect is especially relevant percentage for larger, .11<
to a pale pink on upper fabric In the field, many aircraft and it easy to match the paint of a
general proposition that colours for small-scale models as the scale In Scale Aircraft Modrll",
control surfaces. vehicles were partially repainted real aim'aft that is painted with,
will appear lighter or weaker when viewing distance at one metre will magazine, Volume 5. 111111
Exposure to harsh conditions and repaired. This will result for example, FS 34092, with its
viewed from a certain distance. be much greater for, say, a 1/144- noted aviation colour I r • II
will also affect the level of sheen in more intense areas of fresh model paint counterpart.
The level of lightness or weakness scale aircraft than a 1/24-scale Ian Huntley suggesll'd III II II
on a painted surface. A high gloss colour contrasting with older, Similarly, a number of key
will increase as distance increases. model of the same subject. proportions required III ""
finish will offer a measure of weathered paint. colour standards from World War
If we are looking at a 1/48- In practice, scale effect requires depict chromaticity ulld.1 I I I
protection, but prolonged exposure Dirt and debris can damage II are also covered. Polly Scale,
scale aircraft model from a distance a proportion of white paint to be European lighting c 11.1111111
will result in the surf.Ke becoming paintwork. On aircraft, the leading Xtracolour, Gunze Sangyo and
of one metre, the equivalent scale added to the basic colour in order would be as follows:
flat in appearance and chalky in edges of wings and tail planes are many others offer Luftwaffe RLM
viewing distance of the full sized to reduce its chromaticity. The 1/144 scale - add 7 I'rJ
texture. Sometimes this can happen sometimes seen to be chipped, colours, British Standard colours
aircraft would be 48m. In other actual proportion of white paint 1/72 scale - add 15 111'1
very quickly, with gloss paint revealing primer or even metal and more.
20 21


>- Your airbrush will only be as effective as your surrounding environment and what you put in il.·1 III
f- coming pages examine the ideal airbrushing workspace, different types of paints and other liquid, dUI

S might be used in your airbrush, and how ro actually use this valuable modelling rool. It also OVI", III"
o of the most important aspects of airbrush use - cleaning.

YOUR AIRBRUSHING This semi-enclosed booth will offer is printed on t p th, "I I
ENVIRONMENT a space ro safely paint your models, mat, making it a uS fid .11 II
modeller's workspace will be while potentially toxic fumes are
• measuring and ali nin'

different things for different drawn outside. is used as a base (, I' lIlI'lI' ,
er: people. Some may be lucky enough Try to set up your workspace slicing plastic pans. A 111.111
Cl. to have a dedicated desk, bench under strong light or near a bright Perspex tile is als I )'1' ,II I ,
I or even an entire room for their window. Ideally, artificial light as a hard platform (, I' 11I1111
hobby. Others will need to share should be daylight balanced to phoro-etched and h. 1'1 !'.1I1

space with other members of ensure that your paint job turns out the other side or the 11111111I
the household. Regardless, your the way you expect. Unbalanced is a paper artist' pal III' 1111
workspace should share some fluorescent lighting can give you mainly used rol' bl ndlll' IIIlt .1
common attributes - clear space a misleading impression about and testing mixe I 0111111 .

on which ro work, good lighting colours. If there is insufficient

and adequate ventilation. light, you can purchase a lamp WHAT DO I p ,
Some of the glues, paints and for your workspace. IN MY AIRBRU I\?
thinners that you use may be toxic, Organizing your workbench What do I put in my .11I1,,11 "
so make sure that your workspace is a very personal matter. The Well, paint or liN" 1\111 dl ..
is close to a window with good workspace on my desk is covered not aLl. Most aid)lll~h' ,II. I
airflow. If you are working in a with a large white blotting pad. of handling ink, dy." ,Ill I II
common area of your house, you This protects the surface of crystal-clear, flat.
overcoat for altering
lossy surfaces or
may choose to organize separate the desk from glue, paint and ~rotecting decalS.
workspaces for different tasks. For accidental gouging. Most plastic
NET1314 Fl. OZ (51.7 ml)
example, you might prepare and parts are easy to see on the white CAUTION: I'LAP,l~1ABLf, VAPOR IIAAMfUL.
a tinlet, GUIlZ , ReJtlcaullOflSOIlbJCk
assemble your kit indoors, but paper roo. When the paper is dirty,
acrylics in bOlll
move to the garage when spraying torn or obscured with paint, it is also in a bolll
smelly or potentially toxic paints. simply thrown away and a new
OPPOSITE B I A 'W;a.'1fl'i'!!"' ,r ji
If you are airbrushing frequently, piece put in its place. Next to
flat coaLS V~lIc'ln' \.
it is well worth considering a paint the blotting pad is a self-healing, Sangyo la h',,, I
booth with a powered extractor fan. vinyl cutting mat. A metric grid lacqu r and II lIy
22 23

LEFT Future rio r p '"h, IIII

liquids that may have applications flammable and toxic. Also, lacquers the same brand of thinner as the
from the airbru h , \ ,I h," f , ,
and high-glos oal.' h hUll f for modellers. For example, Future are suitable as a basecoat, but are paint. Acrylics dry fast and are
glass cleaner Wind x 1l1,ly I, I floor polish can be sprayed through not recommended for use over any easy to spray. However, the finish
er: afterwards to cI an th, ,I rhlll I
::J your airbrush. However, paint will other type of paint. can be delicate, being subject to
o Windex may also bUll I tu II'
>- from a model without d.III1,. I" be your main airbrush payload. fingerprints, scratches or being
I underlying painl. There are four common ENAMELS rubbed off A protective coat of
S categories of paint available to Enamels are the traditional paint varnish will help avoid these hazards.
o plastic modellers. These are: for plastic models and are available
r- in an enormous range of colours - OILS
« LACQUER gloss, satin and flat - from Oils are traditional artists' paints,
Lacquer paints are the least companies including Testor but they do have applications for
Z common variety available to (wirh their Model Master range) modellers. They are generally
r- modellers. The only speci flc Humbrol and Xtracolor. Enamels not used in an airbrush, but may
(J lacquer model paint is Mr Color offer good coverage and are easy to be employed to supplement an

• from Japan. Some spray cans thin and spray from an airbrush, or airbrushed finish. Oil paints have
contain synthetic lacquers, apply straight from the bottle using an exceptionally fine grain and
er: BELOW Primers ar all '\11'111 .,1
u.J including Tamiya's :AS' spray range. a paint brush. They are very robust respond well to thll1ners, so they
r- element to any paint I b,' h-II
0.. If desired, these paints can be when dry. The grain is very fine, arc ideal for applying thin washes
« Tamiya's Grey Prim r. th r 1111.
I decanted (removed from the can) resulting in minimal overspray and to panel lines and structural
Primer, a clear M tal Prll11lr 11,,1
II Microfiller and Prim r. by spraying into a container and spattering when spraying fine lines. details. Oil paints are slow drying
pouring the resulting liquid lacquer Their main disadvantage is slow (but faster when thinned) and
into the airbrush paint cup for drying time, although this can expensive, but the quantities used
immediate use, or into a glass jar be improved by thinning. by modellers are so small that
for storage. When storing the a tube of oil paint may literally
decanted paint, make sure you ACRYLICS last a lifetime.
let the lacquer 'breathe' for a few Acrylic paints have increased
minutes before sealing the jar. enormously in both popularity TINS, BOTTLES
This will permit any lingering and range in the last two decades. AND AEROSOL
compressant gas to disperse. Acrylic paints are water based and CANS
Specialized lacquers are also less smelly than eithet lacquers or Model paints are supplied in
available, notably for metallic enamels, making them more family a range of different packaging.
finishes; brands include Testor's friendly. Despite common belief, Small tins were used for some of
Metalizer and Alclad II. These the fumes of some acrylics are toxic the earliest model paints, and they
are available in a wide range of but some, including Testor's Model are still used today by brands such
metallic shades from aluminium Master Acrylic and the Polly Scale as Xtracolor, Airflx, Humbrol
through gunmetal to brass. ranges, are perfectly safe. Acrylic and White Ensign. Typically, these
Lacquer paints can be sprayed paints may be thinned with water tiny tins will hold 14ml of enamel
very thinly and dry fast. They are or alcohol blends, but some paint. The main benefit of a small
also extremely robust when dry. On experimentation may be required tin is that it is unbreakable, so the
the downside, the fumes of lacquer- to ensure compatibility. Generally, paint can be stored and transported
based paint and thinners are highly the most reliable option is to use without special precautions.
24 25

The contents from a ro I til" I I
cr: decanted into contain rs f f 1,llt f II Some specific model paints The hole should be large enough find that they do not usually need
cr: your airbrush. Here, a h ll\ he hI I are sold in aerosol cans. But this to spray paint from the can, but to be thinned. If they do, however,
straw has been alta h d I Ihl II I small enough not to let too much I use lacquer thinners.
is a book about lIsing an airbrush,
cr: of the aerosol can, and th n III I I
being sprayed dire lIy Int ,I 1," so why are we discussing aerosol vapour escape from the container. More recently, I found a tip
o on HyperScale's 'Plane Talking'
>- of cling wrap seals th t P III II I cans? Because some colours are The next step should be taken
I trap toxic vapour and 'MIlt f only available in aerosol cans. For outdoors, and well away from Internet discussion forums for

S example, automotive touch-up any object you wish to stay free simpler and faster method of
o paints are matched to specific of paint. I also recommend that decanting aerosol paints.
I- colours from car manufacturers, you remove your watch and/or Find a common household
<t: any jewellery, roll up your sleeves bendy plastic drinking straw and
l- so these will be very helpful to

car modellers. Other aerosol paints and wear disposable gloves. After attach it to the nozzle of the paint
Z may have technical advantages over thoroughly shaking the aerosol can. The diameter should be close,
I- tinned or bottled products. My can, a quantity of paint should and the nozzle may need to be

LJ favourite silver paint is Tamiya's be sprayed through the hole in trimmed with a sharp hobby knife

• AS-12 Airframe Silver, which is the cling wrap into the container. if it is too large. Place the other
only available in an aerosol can. Tip the container so that the paint end of the straw directly in a
UJ This covers thoroughly, dries starts to pool in a bottom corner storage jar and depress the button
tL quickly, resists fingerprints and (if the paint is spread too thinly on the spray can. The spray paint
I other damage, and features a very along the bottom of the container, will be delivered directly to the jar.
fine metallic grain. It is ideal either it will quickly congeal). You might This method still generates a lot
as an overall aluminium paint notice that the longer you hold of vapour and paint spatter, so the
colour, or as '1 dull metallic shade down the button on the spray process is best performed outdoors
combined with Alclad II or other can, the colder the can will get. and while wearing disposable gloves.
metallic lacquers. Spraying pressure will also Take your watch off and roll up
The problem with aerosol cans decrease. If you want to decant the your sleeves too! The va pour and
is that that the air pressure and entire contents, you will probably overspray can be significantly
width of the spray are not need to do so in several sessions lessened if the storage jar is first
adjustable, making fine line and to allow the can to warm and covered with cling film and the
mottling work virtually impossible. for normal spraying pressure to straw is inserted into a small hole.
The biggest disadvantage is the only a waste of paint, but also BOltles ,In' dll .. Also, aerosol cans often leave an return. The liquid in the temporary You will still need to allow the
design of the lid, which is pressed causes the lid to stick to the can model p,linl 1',11 ~ I II orange peel effect on the surface of container can now be transferred propellant to boil off before using
into a trough around the inside once it dries unless the excess bottles or dlffllllll the paint. We can overcome these to a more permanent storage jar. the paint in your airbrush.
perimeter of the top of the tin. paint is cleaned up thoroughly limitations yet still take advantage The paint will be cold, and may be
When the lid is prised off (with before the tin is re-sealed. This of the aerosol paints by decanting effervescent. The propellant gases THINNING PAINT
a straight-bladed screwdriver), problem can be avoided by the use or melal ,'n \I them from the spray can into a from the spray can will need some The single most important step
the paint can be poured. However, of pipettes to transfer the paint poured dllnl!l bottle for later use in our airbrush. time to bleed out of the paint, so to a successful airbrush project
the trough interferes with pouring from the tin to your airbrush paint c1eanl),. 1\01111 The first step is to find a leave the jar open until the liquid is thinning your paint. The most
and a significant quantity of cup. Paint can be drawn up into more Ilkd\' III disposable plastic container. stabilizes. Once the liquid has expensive airbrush in the world, and
liquid will inevitably remain in the the disposable plastic pipette residue 1\ II fI "" II I usually cover the top of the stabilized, the paint can be used the best painting technique, will be
trough, creating a nliniature 1110at with no need to touch the sides jar, a I''IWII, container with cling film and normally in your airbrush. After useless if the paint is not thinned
at the top of the tin. This is not or top of the tin. (or 11'.ln,fl'lllIl· I punch a small hole in one corner. decanting Tamiya spray paints, I to an appropriate consistency.

::J The greatest challenge • The pail1l may spaller from A'I}I, 1'.11111 .11
'"a: associated with thinning paillls is the nozzle, leaving spots and .le ord,n I til .1 \t'
that there is no hard and fast rule blobs instcad or a smooth layer
::J ror the ratio or paint to thinner. or paint.
o The mixeure will depend on the • The thick coat or paint may
I type or paine used, how thick result in obscured surrace detail
that paint might be, the stage or and paine runs or sags. is not an ,dr.d dU1I1I J
o painting, the size or the surrace • The paint will dry more slowly,
f- being sprayed, the opacity or increasing the risk or damage
<l: coverage required, and whether and blemishes rrom handling.
the paine will be sprayed as • There may be heavy overspray
Z a solid coat, in a soft-edged at the edges or the paint. as Tamiya .llId
f- mottled pattern or as a fine line. • Ie will be harder to spray clean will transform odlt, I
Regardless, however, the ratio or sharp fine lines or sort-edged a gooey me". I h.I' \ I 11I11 ,
• paint to thinner will probably never shapes common hOIl,,'holl "III

be less than 7:3 (seven parts paint Thick paint is also more dirficult
a: to three parts thinner)' In the case to clean rrom your airbrush too. alternative for 11'1111",,11I
"- of spraying fine lines and mottles, Te is particularly important to acrylic brand,. 110\\.,.
I the ratio is more likely to start use the correct thinner ror your really no sulbtlt\ll' '"'
at 1:1, and perhaps three parts paint. Some brands have their own experimentatlOI1 "lIh II ,
paint to seven parts thinner. The proprietary thinners, and these before you C0l1111111 II

latter mix will have the consistency will certainly be the sarest option acrylics.
or milk. If you are spraying a where available.
The conventional airbrush grip is to paint. The solvent may become longer hose will even the airflow -
translucene finish ror weathering Lacquer paints should only LOADING Y LJI hold the body between the thumb separated rrom the pigmene, especially helprul ir you are using
or tinting, the paine to thinner be reduced with lacquer thinners. AIRBRUSH and middle finger, while operating the
resulting in a thick, gluggy deposit a piston compressor without a
In the United Kingdom, these trigger with the index finger.
ratio may be one part paint to tcn Some ai rbrush,', h,I\'
on the bottom or the jar. The holding tank. A moiseure trap
parts thinner, or even lower. are known as cellulose thinners. paint cups, whd,' olllt I I
wooden handle or a paintbrush can should be fitted between the hose
Thin paint will orrer the The fumes or lacquer thinners moulded to th,' 101' III II
from clogging the narrow opening be used to stir these deposits until and the air source. Recently, small
best chance for a smooth coat. In are particularly noxious, especially It is really a m.1I t "I 0' I J
in the bottom or the paint cup. an even consistency is obtained. moiseure trap and filter units that
most cases, the thinners will also when sprayed, so maximum choice whether tlH' 1'.11111 I
Berore adding colour, make sure The paint can then be added to the can be connected direct to thc
significantly reduce the drying time veneilation and a respiratory mixed directly ill till' I'.UIII
that the paint is thoroughly mixed. thinner in the paint cup. A pipette airbrush havc become avadable.
ror your paint. This is especially mask are strongly recommended in an intermediary 11111 II
Disposable pipettes may be used can be used to measure paint by Airbrushes tend to be inherently
true for slow-drying media such whenever dealing with these paints the thinned mix, un 1 1 II
to ensure precise measurement the drop. Once the paint has been unstable, so it is helpful to have
as enamels. The thinner the coat, and thinners. the paint cup.
of paint. Ir the paint is cold, added to the thinner, the liquid a rack or holder to keep your
the raster the drying time. Enamel paints may be thinned Unless I am mixll1'
it may be worth first raising the should be stirred again to ensure airbrush upright when you are
Ir the paint mix is too thick, with enamel thinners, mineral of paint ror a very 1.11 II UI
temperature by holding the paint thorough mixing before spraying. not using it. This will prevent
several problems may be turpentine or lacquer thinners area, I will usually d1l11 Ill' I jar under warm water. Warm paint paint spills.
encountered: (cellulose thinners). Art stores directly in the paint \II II,
will mix, thin and spray more easily HANDLING YOUR Most airbrushes, whether
• The paint may clog the airbrush also sell odourless thinners that should always be add,'d 10 II
than cold paine. AIRBRUSH single or double action, internal
nozzle, railing to spray are suitable ror thinning most cup first. This will 1'1'1'1""1 .,
Orten, shaking the paint jar will Your airbrush should be connected or external mix, share a similar
al together. enamel pai nts. possibility or thi k, Ul1ddUI ,
not be sufficient to rully mix the to its air source with a hose. A configuration. The trigger is located
28 29

An airbrush cleaning station is a good

investment for the frequent user. Paint
and thinners are sprayed directly into
a sealed and filtered container, almost
er: eliminating any fumes and vapours.


A high-quality set of cleaning brushes is
er: also important. These will reach all the
f- nooks and crannies where dried paint
« and dirt may gather.

My unconventional method sees the operation. Instead, I cupped the to accumlll.l\l

airbrush cupped in my hand while I airbrush body in my right hand delical W(l' k
operate the trigger with my thumb.
and operated the trigger with
Don't try this at home, children!
my thumb. Some people have
suggested that it looks as though
at the top of the airbrush body, I am stabbing something rather
usually forward of the centreline. than painting it. I,still use this
The conventional technigue for grip today, although I would not
holding an airbrush is to grip the necessarily recommend it to others. is 0.18111111. It I I At a minimum, the appropriate reduce the chances of bending and thinners can be sprayed

body berween thumb and middle thinners should be sprayed though the fine point. Ideally, the nozzle directly into the jar with minimal

finger, leaving the forefinger free to AIRBRUSH HYGIENE your airbrush between every colour should be reamed with a fine smell and toxic vapour. Ultrasonic

operate the trigger. On a double- Your airbrush will only operate at coat. At the end of a painting specialized brush, also soaked cleaners may also be useful for

action airbrush, the trigger is its best when it is perfectly clean. session, it is advisable to dismantle with thinners. cleaning nooks and crannies

pushed downwards to increase Adeguate thinning and mixing of the airbrush to permit visual A number of accessories are that cannot be reached with a

the airflow, and pulled rearwards paints will help ease the later task inspection of the needle and available to help with cleaning. brush or a cloth. The part is

to increase the paint flow. of cleaning. Some modellers even perform.11l I

nozzle. The needle can be wiped An airbrush cleaning station is immersed in a small bath of

I did not have the benefit of strain their thmned paints while parli b of I with a cloth soaked in thinners. a sealed jar with tube mounted cleaning solution, and ultrasonic

a formal 'lirbrush education, so I pouring them into the paint cup. your "lHlIlI" I Always wipe the needle from the on the top. The nozzle of the vibration loosens the hardest to

was not aware of this conventional Thinned paints are less likely up on lh. III rear in a forward direction to airbrush is inserted in the tube reach particles.

u.J At last it is time to pick up your airbrush and use it! This chapter offers some hints CI1\11I1I1 1
,I II .,

:r and durable paint job. Techniques such as laying down a thin key coat, and covering in l.lp·' III
:J for a satisfactory result. It also discusses various masking media.

PREPARING YOUR perceptible thickness. It also
• means that the surface of your
aint will not hide flaws on model should be totally free of

P the surface of your models.
Correctly applied, your airbrushed
imperfections before the first coat
of primer or paint is laid down.
U Your model may suffer from
coat of paint will be measured in
microns. This microscopic coverage visible join seams, gaps, sink
will ensure that surface details marks, glue stains, sanding marks,
remain crisp, and that multiple scuffs and any number of other
coats will not build up to a blemishes. All these flaws should

On the left are three Mastercaster foam kits prior to removing them from will probably set the spray width to
sanders of various grits. These are great their sprues. Washing resin parts maximum (this will still give you
for general sanding work. On the right,
is a good idea too. the control to manually spray a fine
Micro-Mesh polishing cloths are
available from 3,600 grit up to 12,000 line, or a line of variable width).
and beyond. FREEHAND While practising, you may also
SPRAYING - wish to experiment with the air
any persistent problems. Extra CONTROLLING pressure. There are no firm rules
care should be taken if the model YOUR AIRBRUSH for the perfect air pressure. This
is destined for a high gloss or a Your model is ready, your airbrush will vary depending on the type of
metallic finish. is loaded, you are almost ready to airbrush, the thickness of the paint
The surface of the plastic start painting. Before committing and personal preference. I usually
must also be completely free from paint to plastic, it is a good idea spray at a pressure between 20 and
mould-release agents, grease or to practise your technique on 35 pounds per square inch (PSI),
other coatings. These coatings can some scrap material. I usually use but this is higher than most would
potentially reduce paint adhesion a piece of paper. If your airbrush use. Most modellers seem happy
or encourage beading on the is equipped with a pre-set spray- with between 10 and 20 PSI. Once
surface. These days it is rare to find width control, try several different the air pressure is set and you are
a mainstream model kit with such settings to see what spray diameter satisfied with your technique, you
coatings, but it is advisable to wash you prefer. If you are about to are ready to start putting some
the parts from limited-run plastic apply primer or a basecoat, you paint on plastic.
32 33

(j coat will be heavily thinned. The of painting camouflage schemes Like masking tape, frisket is
-Z ratio may be as low as three parts and markings. A large variety of flexible. Shapes may be cut out
U paint to seven parts thinner. This masking materials are available. of it before the mask is applied,
f- thin mix will then be sprayed at Some of these include: or after the material has been
Vl relatively low pressure as a 'misted' secured to the model.
et: coat. After the first coat, the paint MASKING TAPE
et: is likely still be translucent. A Masking tape is widely available POST-IT NOTES
second misting coat can be applied from a number of manufacturers These handy, low-tack paper
Vl as soon as the key coat is dry. in widths ranging from pin stripe stickers can be used to mask short,
to If you are spraying a single to 40mm and beyond. The tape is straight areas quickly and easily.
• colour on a large area, you may usually self adhesive, and flexible
'<t now wish to spray a more to permit conformance to BLU- TACK/PLASTICI NE
w /'. substantial mixture of paint for compound curves. Blu-Tack or plasticine can be
"- better coverage. This might be rolled into sausages and used
I mixed at a ratio of 5:5, or up to PLAIN PAPER to mask irregular shapes.
7:3 (paint to thinners). Despite the Plain paper has a myriad of These are particularly useful
thicker paint, you should still spray masking applications. The edges for disruptive upper surface
in several thin coats rather than may be used as straight masks, camouflage on British and
one thick layer. If you are spraying or patterns can be cut for more Commonwealth World War II
lacquer or acrylic paints thinly, the complex schemes. Paper can be aircraft.
coat will be dry almost as soon as stuck directly to a model's surface
the atomized paint hits the plastic, for hard demarcation, or stood DIE-CUT COMMERCIAL
so you may be able to re-coat off the surface using small balls MASKS
immediately. of Blu-Tack to deliver a slightly A number of companies now
soft edge. offer die-cut self-adhesive masks
Tamiya masking tape comes in various reaches the edge of the model, KEY COA ANI I MASKING for specific camouflage patterns
widths. Post-It notes and Blu-Tack are and keep your finger on the trigger BUILDIN IA II MATERIALS AND FRISKET and colour schemes. A huge range
also valuable masking media.
after the paint has passed the The fi rSl .11 I II TECHNIQUES Specialist airbrush supply retailers of pre-cut self-adhesive masks is
other end. Paint masks offer the modeller sell translucent, self-adhesive sheets also available for canopies, wheels
For sprayi ng large surface areas, As far as practicable, the a time-saving and precise method of masking material called frisket. and markings.
the airbrush should be moved airbrush should be held
smoothly from one side of the perpendicular to the surface being
model to the other, then back in sprayed. This will avoid uneven
the reverse direction. Repeat this coverage. When spraying into
painting sweep until the first curved areas such as wing roots,
coat of paint is complete. It is air turbulence may cause the paint
important to spray thin coats and surface to be slightly coarse to
build the colour up slowly. In order the touch. To avoid this problem,
to avoid heavy accumulation of reduce the air pressure and try
paint at either end of your sweep, to spray in line with the curve
start spraying before the paint if possible.
34 35

u.J LEFT Fully boxed wheel wells are cast
o into the upper wing halves. Detail is
~ PAINTING YOUR MODELS excellent, so it is well worth spending
ex: a little time painting and weathering.
:::J The airbrush is not the only tool that you will use to paint your modeL This chapter illu 11'~1 , 11111011 Following the application of the
o basecoat of Tamiya XF-4 Yellow Green,
>- masking techniques that will be used to help paint camouflage finishes and canopies. M l~lIi , hl.h ~ III f
\J fine streaks were added using a thin mix
Z white, and silver finishes also require specific approaches. It also covers weathering techniqu , III III III
of Tamiya XF-1 Flat Black and XF-64 Red
I- pre-shading, post-shading, diffusion, washes, exhaust stains, pastels and winter camouflag .', hI' .lId III I Brown in a 5:5 ratio, and reduced to a
has an important role in markings and decal application too. watery consistency with isopropylene
CI. alcohol. The insides of the gear doors

• received the same treatment.


T he demarcation between
colours on camouflage
schemes varies widely. Some
camouflage schemes were painted
freehand, while others were
applied with the aid of full-sized
camouflage masks. British aircraft
of World War II featured quite
hard-edged camouflage patterns.
Many of these patterns were
sprayed using thick rubber mats cut
MIDDLE LEFT Before assembling the
into the shapes of the camouflage beautifully detailed engine, I primed all
patterns. These rubber masks were the parts with Tamiya Primer straight
laid over the surface of the aircraft. from the can, and then painted the
cylinders and mount Alclad II
Depending on the angle at which
Magnesium. The crankcase received
the painter was spraying the paint, a coat of medium grey, while the
the demarcation could be perfectly manifolds were painted in a 5:5 mix of
flat black and red brown.
sharp, or could be softened if the
colour was sprayed over the edge
MIDDLE RIGHT Finally, an oil wash was
applied to the cylinders, crankcase and
TOP Many models feature large surface
manifold. All this work is well worth-
areas with single colours. Fleet Air Arm
while, as the side cowling covers may
aircraft after the end of World War II
be removed, revealing our carefully
until the 1960s were often finished in
painted resin gem.
a simple two-tone scheme of extra dark ABOVE This is Aki Products' all-resin 1172-scale Blackburn Fir brtll1 J II ' •
sea grey on the upper surfaces and sky resin is quite soft and pliable, but no special preparation is r quil ct II.,
below. Our challenge is to give life and XF-4 Yellow Green has been sprayed into the engine bay and tall wil" BOTTOM Speed of assembly and the high quality of fit is truly remarkable. Far more time was spent painting this model than
interest to these one- and two-colour The cockpits of these 1950s-era Fleet Air Arm aircraft were bla k, hill I I building it. The cockpit opening was plugged with Blu-Tack and the open engine cowling was masked with Tamiya tape. Only
camouflage schemes. XF- 63 German Grey as a 'scale black' substitute. minimal filler was required along the wing root and at the starboard side join of the forward cowling

The undercarriage doors acted as a
o mask for the painted wheel bays.
~ Xtracrylix's Sky shade is very authentic.
The front of the torpedo was painted
Xtracylix Trainer Yellow, while the rear
section was sprayed with the ubiquitous
\J flat black and red-brown mix. The
Z rockets received a coat of dark green.
Z The tips were painted with a spot of
<l: white, and the bottom of the warheads
Q.. had some yellow added to suggest
• stencil markings.

After an overall application of Polly Scale
Gloss, the kit decals were applied. These
are as impressive as the rest of the kit,
settling down beautifully into panel lines
with the assistance of Micro-Set and
Micro-Sol decal solutions.

A thin layer of Polly Scale Flat Clear

was sprayed over the model before the
airframe was very lightly shaded with
a thin mix of flat black and red brown.
This was sprayed along control-surface
hinge lines in a limited way, in a light
exhaust stain, plus some general
staining on the wing roots and on
the mid cowl deck. A finishing coat of
Polly Scale Flat sealed the weathering.
38 39

UJ TOP In this instance, camouflage masks
Cl have been cut from the instruction sheet
o of Tamiya's Spitfire Mk I. This contains a
convenient 1/48-scale upper surface and
fuselage camouflage pattern printed in
black and white. The masks are held
off the surface of the model with small
Z blobs of Blu-Tack, and secured to the
I- edges with masking tape.
« MIDDLE The aim of the Blu-Tack is
to lift the edges of the masks from'
• the plastic, thereby delivering a very
slightly soft demarcation between the
UJ camouflage colours. In this photo, the
0.. main colours have been applied and
« decals are in place over a gloss coat.
BOTTOM From a distance, the
camouflage demarcation appears hard
edged but when viewed closely, slight
blending may be seen. Here, the model
has received two th in coats of Polly
Scale Flat to achieve a flat finish and
blend the colours and decals. Subtle
weathering has also been applied with
the airbrush.
40 41

o of the mats, the top of which feathered demarcation between the PAINTING
o might have been several inches colours, the masks should be stood CANOPIES
higher than the surface of the off the plastic by a few millimetres Many modellers will I'lllh.111 I II
aircraft beneath. using small balls of Blu-Tack fixed you that painting anol'" I 'II

We can replicate this varied to the bottom of the masks at of their le'lst t.WOIIl'ill' IlIII.!' 1111I
soft-hard demarcation by making regular intervals. tasks. On the one h.\I1d, .1 11I1
our own camouflage masks in Even with a hard-edged with crisply painlcd (LliIII II ,

the appropriate scale. Some kits camouflage scheme, care must be the crowning glory or .1 Ill" I III
include scale plans printed with taken to avoid an unsightly and project. On thc Ol hCI h.lIl t,
• the camouflage pattern. These unrealistic build up of paint along actually pail/lil/g can01'11'
TOP LEFT The kit's clear parts were thin
plans can be used to create masks. the edges of the masks. This can especially largc, ml'll' and free of distortion, but they were less
Simply cut out the pattern of happen if the paint is applied canopies, can bc lcdlOll' III I than completely sparkling, as may be
seen in this photograph. I dipped all
the colour you wish to mask (the too thickly or too quickly. The fraught with dangcr.
the clear parts in Future floor polish to
palest colour is usually painted disruptive colour should be There are ;1 nllmhu "I obtain a brilliant finish prior to masking.
first, so you will want the masks adequately thinned so that the
to be the shape of the light first coat is little more than a mist. TOP RIGHT There is no substitute for
the time-consuming task of cutting
camouflage colour)' The coats should then be gradually
precise masks for each clear canopy
If you do not have access to built up. brush. This is unllkl'h I .. II panel. The front of the Dornier Do 17
scale plans, masks can be created by If you wish to vary the hardness precise results lholllh, ,\ I bristled with defensive machine guns.
Rather than risk smearing glue on the
drawing the pattern freehand onto of the demarcation between the those with lhc sh,lIl'l
painted canopy, I sliced the protruding
blank paper using photographs or colours, you can spray the paint at the steadicst lund. barrels from the machine guns and
reference books as an aid. different angles on different areas Some modcllcl' III f, I I glued the rear halves (with ammo
Once the base colour is sprayed of the camouflage finish. Make pre-paint sclf',ldh,""' containers attached) to their respective
positions inside the canopy.
onto the model, the camouflage sure you spray at the same angles foil in the appml'lI.II'
masks can be secured. on your second and subsequent colours, thcn .11'1' 1111 I MIDDLE The masked canopy and
If you want a completely coats though! into strips of IIH ,1111' clear nose sections were glued to the
kit fuselage prior to painting. This
hard-edged camouflage pattern,
permitted me to check for gaps and
the masks should be fixed flat finish filling before paint was applied.
to the surface of the model. Because the clear parts had been coated
This technique also applies to with Future, I could use superglue to
secure them to the fuselage.
camouflage patterns that were
applied by brush on their full-sized BOTTOM The first painting step is to
counterparts. For a slightly spray the clear canopy frames with the
equivalent of RLM 66 Black Grey. In this
instance I used Tamiya XF-63 German
The complex glazed nose of a bomber
Grey. It may be a little pale but suits
can be a spectacular focal point on your
the scale appearance of the very dark accurate demarcation between the Being thinner, the overlapping
model, but painstaking work may be
grey colour. canopy frames and the clear panels, effect of the layers of decal film
required to achieve crisply painted
canopy frames. This is Classic Airframes' but the overlapping strips can may be less noticeable on the
1/48-scale Dornier Do 17 Z in Finnish
the canopy frames. These strips be noticeable and distracting. finished model.
markings. When I built this kit, there
were no commercially available pre-cut are then applied to the canopy. A similar technique is to use pre- Probably the most effective,
canopy masks available. The effect does deliver sharp and painted strips of clear decal film. bur also the most labour-Intensive,
u.J The Fast Frames are supplied in clear
o vinyl. The first step is to paint the
~ frames. This should be done while the
Cl: frames are still on their backing sheet.
Take care to spray thin coats or you
>- might clog the fine die-cut lines on the
LJ vinyl sheet. Here, I have sprayed Gunze
Z H69 Grey Violet over a basecoat of
f- Tamiya XF-63 German Grey.

U Some paints can become brittle when
completely dry, so it is wise to apply the
Fast Frames to your canopy as soon as
the painted vinyl may be handled. I use
the tip of a new hobby knife blade to
lift each vinyl frame from its backing
sheet. Extreme care must be taken to
avoid stretching or otherwise distorting
irregular sh.1p'" <III III the frames when removing and
handling them.
my model". I ,11111\ ,I • 'I
in a varielY or WI II" I
canopies. I find IIl.1l ( II ,

10l11m arc lIu' Il\ll I II I

masking lap" c.ln '11 I I
to the clear .1IHII) II I
The frames should be dipped into a
This techni'll\( '.1\<
small bowl of warm water with a few
leaves no maPl1l "" drops of dishwashing detergent. This
inaccurale UI III II.h will permit the vinyl frames to be slid
into the exact position over the kit
with your hobb kill'
canopy's raised frames.
forever el hed 1111<1 \ • I

canopy panel,. II I 1111

consuming. bill I.
the masks beroll .1111 II

co the clear 1'1."11 I

True Details offer an alternative to the technique for painting canopies by cutting very IIHII
hard labour of canopy masking. These is masking. This technique masks the border o( • ,j "
are Fast Frames - self-adhesive, die-cut
off the clear panels. The exposed and then cover II\\" 1.11
vinyl frames that can be applied to your
kit canopies. A good selection of Fast frames are then sprayed first in exposed seCllllll'.
Frames is available for a popular the interior colour. followed by Ie is imp rl.1I1l I • II
selection of model aircraft.
the external camouflage colours. the tape is cOI11I'II" I II
44 45

W TOP Alclad II offers a wide selection
o Republi . I:dll,l! III
of metallic finishes, tints, primers and
o simibr 10 -1~1I111_1 1.11 more. Alclad II is ideal for multi-toned
metallic aircraft finishes.
o MIDDLE Many aircraft may initially
appear to be bare metal but are actually
Z painted silver.
<l: few doll~rs 01' iI-, _
masks are ~ gll"ll III
• otherwise ll'i k) 1,,1 horrifying proportions. Surface
0:: preparation is therefore especially
METALLI important for metallic finishes.
J: Fast Frames are a time-saving alternative canopy frames after the camouflage The surface of the model
U to cutting your own canopy masks. coat has been applied. TECHNIQUE should be polished with Micro-
They can also be very precise when
There are a few commercially Mesh cloths before even a primer
applied carefully. The example we have
used here is for ProModeler's 1/48-scale produced alternatives to rhese DIY coat is applied. After polishing,
Messerschmitt Bf 110 GA. We will see masks. Fast Frames are produced carefully examine the plastic
the canopy on the completed model
by Squadron from the USA. These have seen 111~'''1'l lilli' against the best available light
later in this book.
are die-cut vinyl canopy frames - and at different angles. If you
not masks. The entire sheet is can detect any scratches, scuffs or
the clear plastic. Paint can easily painted before it is dipped into seams, now is the time to eliminate
bleed under any areas that have warm soapy water and the canopy them completely.
lifted, resulting in unsightly frames carefully removed. These If you are planning a regular
blemishes or ragged demarcation painted frames are then stuck onto metallic finish, a coat or two of
lines on your clear canopy panels. the clear canopy. The soapy water grey primer will be sufficient. If
Run your fingertip firmly along should offer some margin for the model is destined to be finished
all the canopy masks immediately repositioning the frames before the in highly polished Chrome, a gloss
prior to painting. adhesive grabs permanently. These black primer will be required.
As an insurance policy against Fast Frames are a bit tricky to use, Alclad II offers both the grey and
leakage and bleeding, you can first and special care must be taken to the gloss black primers in their
spray the masked canopy with avoid stretching or distorting the coating. A V,'I range. Alclad II's primers and
Future floor polish or any gloss vinyl during handling. Even so, metallic h.1 I", I I metallic paints seem to produce an
clear coating. If there are any when used correctly they certainly especially large and noxious cloud
undetected leakages, the clear live up to their 'Fast' name! of vapour, so make sure you have
liquid will plug the gaps without More common today are die-cut adequate ventilation and, ideally,
leaving an obvious paint mark canopy masks. These are pre-cut, Alclad II dd""1 a respirator before you start.
on your canopy. Don't forget to ready to lift off their backing on the sure, Once the primer coat has been
spray the interior colour prior sheet and apply to specific aircraft Combined \ applied, the model should once
to the exterior camouflage colour. models. A number of companies this means I h,ll • again be polished and checked for
The interior colour will remain produce these, of which the most imperfe lion Ill! III Metallic finishes often present different tones and shades on different panels. any lingering flaws. After these
visible on the inside of the prolific is Eduard from the Czech the model will h. I have been dealt with, we are ready
46 47

LU A basecoat of Tamiya Grey Primer was
o for the first metallic coat. In most gloss black undercoat include most frcgucnll)' (l lit II I.. I
sprayed onto the model before a coat
o instances, we will commence with Polished Aluminium, Chrome and removi ng masks, If of Xtracrylics Ocean Grey (a bit paler
c.:: Alclad II Aluminium Shade A. Stainless Steel. Transparent reds, tape is too I rOil> ,111 I tI.. than extra dark sea grey, so a nice
::J representation of a faded version of the
o A fine, misting coat is plenty to yellows, blues and greens may be between paint 1.1)'(1 I ..
upper surface colour). The black wing
>- start with, and the nozzle of the sprayed over these metallic shades the ta pe ma), Ii (I 'Olllt "I tI walks were also masked and sprayed at
Z airbrush should be fairly close to to produce interesting effects. A few simplc lui, 1\111 this stage. Next, the grey upper surfaces
f- the surface of the plastic - no Alclad II also offers Prismatic minimizc thc ri~k: were masked using various widths of
Z Tamiya masking tape. Now, Xtracrylics
<l: more than about 10Cll1. Alclad II finishes that change colour 1. Spray c mpalil II 1.1 • I
Q. Sky was now sprayed onto the
dries very guickly when applied depending on the light and the examplc, In 'll1l" p.ltlll , remainder of the airframe.
• properly, so the model will be viewing angle. These will be sprayed as a b'l'l ·(l.ll. III I
c.:: ready for the fine second coat especially relevant to car modellers. directly 11 lOp of III h" I
almost without pause. Do take care In general, Alclad II finishes do coats, but lhc), 111,1 h'. '"
:c when spraying into the curve of not reguire a protective gloss or if sprayed ovcr ,I I ,II '" n
U the wing root and other complex flat coat. I don't usually make any paints, imilar!, ,'1\.111111, '
Disaster struck when the masking tape
shapes, Try to follow the contours special preparations for applying should n l bc '11.1 ., I tl I was removed. Several large sections
with the tip of your airbrush to decals over Alclad II either. acrylics. of the acrylic paint had lifted from the
wing leading edges and underneath
minimize air turbulence and avoid Markings will usually settle down 2. Spray thin coal', .111 I III
the wing, leaving grey primer exposed
a noticeably grainy finish. with little or no visible carrier film. paint to dr), ~ Cl W,'I' II beneath and ragged edges to the
When the base shade has Alclad II also seems impervious to coats will pro"i"" IlIllf. III damaged paintwork. The cause of
achieved complete opague coverage decal-setting solvents too. further laycrs. this problem may have been overly
thick application of the acrylic paint,
after two or three coats, set the
inadequate drying time, overly tacky
model aside to completely dry for LIFTED PAINT AND masking tape, or overenthusiastic
a few hours. (You really should do REPAIRS exertion when removing the tape
this, but I can hardly ever contain Even the most meticulous modeller
my impatience to proceed for will occasionally encounter
more than 15 minutes. Despite problems with lifting paint and
my non-compliant behaviour, other damage. These problems
I have rarely encountered any
Regardless of the cause, the problem
resulting problems.) needed to be fixed. First, I carefully
Individual panels may now feathered the edges of the damaged
be masked off and sprayed in paint, starting with a Squadron sanding
stick and moving to finer Micro-Mesh
different shades from Aluminium
cloths - 3,600 to 6,000 grit. At this
B through to E. Other metallic point, I sprayed three very thin coats of
shades are available too, including Sky on the damaged lower surface areas
and allowed the paint to dry overnight.
Pale Burnt Metal, White
The wing leading edge was then
Aluminium, Gold, Copper, masked with Tamiya tape and carefully
Magnesium, Steel and Jet Exhaust. resprayed ocean grey.
Buffing is not reguired, and does
not make a huge difference to the
sheen of Alclad II in any case. The
high shine finishes that require a



TOP Black and white are two of the

more difficult shades to apply. Either
shade may appear stark and unrealistic,
especially on large surface areas. We will
be examining some techniques that
3. R.educe the 'tack' of the masking 3,600-6,OOO-grit Micro-Mesh
will help achieve easier and more
tape's adhesive before applying cloths) can be used to wet-sand convincing black and white coats.
it to the model. To do this, the plastic. Make sure that there
MIDDLE Our first task regardless of
you can press the tape onto a is no raised edge or lip remaining
the final colour scheme is masking the
clean tabletop and remove it. at the boundary of the lifted canopy. There are a number of available
Personally, I use my large paintwork. The area should now after-market die-cut masking sets
expanse of forehead for the job! be polished. You will now be available for this kit, but I decided to
cut the masks myself from Tamiya tape.
4. Allow the paint to dry ready to re-mask and re-spray the
Note that the mounts for the turrets
completely before masking. plastic. These techniques may also have been modified to permit them
If you follow all these be used to repair paintwork that SCALE BlA K to be painted separately and installed
when the entire paint job is complete
suggestions and a chunk of paint is rough, crazed or has an orange Earlier in th l( lk II.

still does lift on your model, all peel effect. BonOM This is the Airfix 1/72-scale
is not lost. Lancaster. Although the kit dates from
First, lightly dry-sand the BLACK AND WHITE the 1970s, it is still quite respectable
in terms of accuracy. Surface texture
paint damage and its immediate You might be forgiven for thinking
comprises fine raised panel lines and
surrounds using fine abrasive paper. that black and whi te are the easiest thousands upon thousands of tiny raised
When the edge of the damaged or paints to spray, as there is little rivets. Apart from the wings, which
were partially rescribed, most of this
lifted paint appears to be blending room for interpreting the 'real'
surface detail was retained.
with the surrounding area, a finer shade. Black is black, and white
grade of paper (or perhaps is white, isn't it? Well, yes and no. limits our opli /1\ 11'11" I

u.J A random application of spots and
o streaks was added using Gunze H072
o Dark Earth. This subtly different shade
offers some variation to the large
::J surface areas on the Lancaster's wings
o in particular.

The canopy was install d ~Ild (II "nil I I scanned the drawings on the Airfix kit
for the turrets, window ~'ld II III I I instructions, enlarged them to 1/72
were plugged with roll r IMp'" I I scale and printed the resulting scale
a thorough primer o~t W,ll 01, plo, I plans. These drawings were used as
camouflage templates. The white
camouflage sections were cut from the
paper and prepared for the paint job.

\ .

The homemade camouflage masks were

attached to the brown-painted plastic
using tiny balls of Blu-Tack, encouraging
a very finely feathered edge to the
camouflage pattern. Once the masks
were in place, painting the RAF Dark
Green camouflage sections did not take
long at all.
52 53

u.J I was feeling pleas d with my 11 ""III The black wing walks were revealed
Cl I later removed the an py nM k 11.1 when the masking tape was removed.
o realized that I had ma k d IIlI WIll""
camouflage section . I ha I I VI I .,.1
:J the dark green and dark nil" hUll
o because I had assum I thut Iltl II Ihl
section on the diagram wa lit lI"ltl.
Z colour - dark earth. If I h~d IOnk, I
f- more closely, I would h v I n II f

Z Humbrol paint refer n f r t."



I wanted to minimiz th numl"1 The upper fuselage, tops of the wings
decals due to the larg numb, r CIt , .• and the horizontal stablizers were now
rivets on the model. Th r1vt'l\ masked with 10mm and 40mm Tamiya
interfere with the fit of nMr W tape. The masking tape protected the
such as wing walks, with upper surface camouflage colours and
a distinct possibility. I th r fOil also ensured crisp demarcation between
the areas surrounding th win" the top and bottom of the model.
with Tamiya masking tap

Pure black was not used for the lower

surface. Instead, a 5:5 mix of Tamiya
XF-l Flat Black and XF-64 Red Brown
was sprayed onto the lower surfaces.
This mixture is less stark and, to my
eyes, more realistic than 100 per cent
black on a scale model.

LU TOP Til olowf,,1 111011 If ,
o sourc d from ltlily Itolll
o enUre mod I r ( IVI d I I
Future floor poll 11 hl'l II

decals wer appli d

Z Tile mission mMk\ 011 Ih I

f- the aircraft od Il'llIl W

Z in two piec s a h 10 111 III
Cl. alignment. A xp' II d, Ih ,
rivets did produ II
• generous appli dll
11 of 11<11 ,

eliminated th bulk of thl 1"


Scale Flat Clear too.


Lancasters frequently show cJ,lt~« I
exhaust stains on the upp r \1111" ,
the wings. I chose dark tdlll lUI Ih
project, using the same bla k ,Ill I"
brown mix that was appli d to 1111
surfaces but much more 11 .wlly Ihll I

More than 90 per cent thinn r w'"

used on this occasion.
o Revell's recent l/72-scale Lancaster
o boasts far better interior detail than
2 either the Airfix or Hasegawa kits in
the same scale. The front office was
painted using Xtracrylix RAF Interior
Grey/Green. This base colour was
\) masked and the appropriate areas of the
cockpit (those visible under the large
Z canopy) were sprayed black. Details
<l; were picked out with a fine paintbrush.
a.. Kit decals were used for the radios and
• the instrument panel.


By far the most daunting aspect of this

project was the canopy and turrets.
The intricate framing in this small scale
required serious concentration when
slicing masks from Tamiya tape. The
canopy frames were destined to be
white, and would therefore be very
ABOVE This is a Lancaster B Mk III. The later variants were BELOW I wanted a clear difference belw n Ih tw III
obvious against the dark interior, so
fitted with broad-bladed propeller blades, but Airfix only so how could I resist a white-painted Lan a I rl I II \ I I I this was time well spent.
supplies the narrow-chord propeller assembly. White-metal Lancaster MR.3 performed maritime reconn, I 1,111 I tllIll
broad blades were sourced from Aeroclub. after World War II.

The canopy and spine windows were

glued in place prior to painting, but the
turrets and nose glazing were left off.
The deck behind the cockpit opening
was sprayed black before these clear
parts were installed, as this area would
later be inaccessible under the canopy.

TOP The time spent masking the

canopies and turrets was well
worthwhile. The white frames stand
out starkly against the black interior.
Gluing the canopy in place before
painting also ensured that the edges
\.J of the clear part were convincingly
Z faired in to the fuselage.
Z MIDDLE LEFT A gr y prll11l" I I MIDDLE The condition of these
« revealed a number of f1"W\ Ih I I maritime Lancasters varied widely. Some
to be dealt with b f r Ihl 111111
• were applied. The air r"ft \flllll.
were photographed in pristine order,
while others were filthy. I decided to
edges and outer win plllll'llin keep my Lancaster fairly clean, befitting
filled, sanded and poll h f 10.11 I its peacetime role, but I did add the
0- a smooth overall finish. dark exhaust stains so typical of this
« aircraft type. The stains were built up
U from many fine streaks of heavily
thinned black and red-brown paint.

BonOM Selected panel lines received

an airbrushed coat of this grubby mix.
They were also subtly highlighted with
a thin wash of oil paint applied with a
fine brush.

further weathering - we cannot

layer any darker shades on top
of black.
In rheory, white should be added
to black to obtain scale effect. In

practice, I prefer to usc a red-brown

colour. Specifically, when I am
painting any large black surfaces
in any scale, I will mix 50 per cent
Tamiya XF-l Flat Black with 50
per cent XF-64 Red Brown. The
mix may look alarmingly brownish
in the paint cup and during the
first misting coat on the model, but
I urge you to keep the faith. This
brownish-black shade will look
suitably dark when combined with
ABOVE Tamiya's Fine White Primer was used for the bulk of the paintwork. The primer was decanted from its a r ~ol ,lflUI

small container, and from there into my airbrush paint cup. This primer offers several advantages over other whll fl,llnt If other colours of the camouflage
is slightly off-white - ideal for 'scale effect' in 1/72. Secondly, it covers well in two coats. Lastly, the finish is a m Ih \1'/111.,' scheme and markings. Variety can
that responds well to gloss coats and decals. also be lent to oLir 'scale black'
60 61

o shade by highlighting control- resisting fingerprints and other The type we l1111drllll
o surface hinge lines, panel lines and damage. You will still need at least most likely LO l"I' .111' 111111 III
et: tandom patches with 100 per cent two thin coats though. Tamiya's watermOul1l dl' "I,..lldlllll I
pure black. White Primer also dries to a we arc more likely \<1 I .11 11\ I
smooth semi-gloss that responds waterslide de al~. \ .111\ II"
Z SCALE WHITE extremely well to further gloss decals arc prinled <Ill .• "111I
f- The challenges of pure white coats and decals. that has been 0,111' I 1111 I I
« arc similar, but this time distance backing sheet. 1\1111<1'1 .1111 I II
actually has the effect of making YELLOW, RED AND ORANGE process may be l"l' I 1<1 II II II
• white seem slightly darker. A I would also strongly recommend image. Typically, III 'h 1111.111
et: smaller proportion of colour is using a white primer underneath decals with product II II 1111\ II
required to achieve this effect. any shades of yellow, red or orange. the hundreds 10 l<lw \ hllll III I
« A few spots of red brown or black will be produ I'd 011 ,d~ "I
U will be more than enough to tone MARKINGS These offer goo I 'I lid III. III

down the almost luminescent pure DECALS reproduction.

white on a scale model. Probably the easiest and certainly Conventionalw,III'I,lhl, I
In addition to scale effect, the most widely available source are surrounded by ,I 11.11111 I
however, white also presents of markings for models are decals. of carrier film. all I 111 11\ I III I Decals are usually used for national bubbles is known as silvering. paintwork. The impact will be
the problem of coverage. It is In its broadest definition, a decal decals may be 51 id I If markings, stencils and unique aircraft Decal setting and softening different with any combination of
identifiers, but they may also be
notoriously difficult to obtain a is an image that is designed to sheet after il ha~ bl 'II II solutions are useful in assisting solution, decal and paint. so test
employed as a time-saving device
good, opaque finish with white be transferred to another surface. warm water for a li'll I 1111 I for other tasks. reluctant decals to conform to first on a piece of scrap plastic or
paint. The temptation is to spray These might include markings that Excessive soakil1g 111,1\ II III surface details such as raised rivets, risk suffering the consequences!
a thick mix of white, but this is arc fired onto ceramics in a kiln, the effectiveness <If till I III I smooth transitions between half curves or recessed panel lines.
not a good strategy. As with other pressure-sensitive stickers and even Smaller producl iOI1 I\111 III tones, but the modeller must cut However, care should be exercised, RUB-DOWN MARKINGS
colours, white paint should also images that arc fused to plastic or produced on I\I.Jl~ 1111111 the shapes out of a sheet covered as some decal solutions may Rub-down markings are an
be sprayed in thin multiple coats. cloth under ultra-violet lighr. offer the 0PP0rlUI1111 III I II with decal film. New technologies damage or even melt the decals alternative to waterslide decals. The
Recently, I discovered Tamiya's are now emerging that can produce themselves and/or the surrounding markings are printed on the back
aerosol White Primer. This can be similar quality half-tone
decanted into your airbrush paint reproduction with individual decals.
cup as described earlier, and used Waterslide decals require a
either as a primer or as a white glossy surface on the model. A flat
paint. The colour is actually just paint job may trap tiny air bubbles
off-white - perfect as a 'scale between the irregularities in the
white' for most purposes. Coverage paint surface and the back of the
is better than most white paints decal. The effect of these air
that I have used and it dries fast,
E€ti US4¥V@.J I
.. \.\~' r-
, •• .IIl

On this tiny 1172-scale resin Spitfire

d,'" {."
Decal setting solutions are designed ~j~~ Mk VII from Czech Master. the decals
to help waterslide markings conform include black stripes for the invasion
to irregular surface detail. Check the stripes. These are applied over white-
compatibility of the solution with your painted bands on the wings and
paint though, as some are quite potent. fuselage of the model.

The key to a convincing exhaust stain is

of a translucent sheet, and placed such as Montex Mask supply Special dccal (11m It)1 ho" ,hoi I
to build it up slowly. A real exhaust stain
directly over the spot on the model self-adhesive stencils for national inkjet and lascr pril1ll'" I .11 II is built up over time, with different-
where the markings will be applied. markings, serial numbers, codes available. uSlOmi/l·d 111.111'.111' coloured gases depending on the
richness of the mixture. A lean mixture
The top of the sheet over the and more. Generic stencils are may be dcsigncd all .\ 1" I 0".11
will tend to be chalky and pale - almost
marking is rubbed with a blunt available, as are individual stencil computer and prinll'd .11 "011I' white in some cases. Exhaust from a
Z object such as the end of the sets for specific aircraft. Using this mcthod. \ 1111' III I rich fuel mixture will be dark and oily.
I- The same rules apply to light colours annal mll.111I I A combination of light and dark stains
wooden handle of a paintbrush.
Z can be seen on some aircraft.
« For frequent rub-down decal users, spraying with stencils as painting reproduced, so Omhlll.IIIOIl III
there are specialized burnishing with masks. Make sure that the white decal (11m m.IY Ill" III •
• tools available. edges of the stencil are hard Home-printed dc a" . hollill
l:l: The advantage of rub-down against the surface of the model. sprayed with a proll 11\'\ ,.1111
l- markings is that there is no carrier Spray with a thin mix, and not before use.
« film. The disadvantage is that it too high a pressure to avoid a
U will stay exactly where you rubbed build up of paint along the edges WEATHERING
In this case, a dark exhaust stain has
it down - there are no second of the stencil. Real aircraft and vchtd.. II been mixed from 50 per cent XF-l
chanccs! subject to thc cffc I' of till" Tamiya Flat Black and 50 per cent XF-64
Tamiya Red Brown. Although it was rare
CUSTOM MADE environment. Evcn I111 Ill." "Ill
for Sea Furies to be quite this filthy,
STENCILS Modellers may purchase blank even in Korean War service, the stain
Exhaust stains can eompl It Iy I It I
Stencilling is the technique of decal film in a range of colours certainly makes an impact!
the character of your m tl I IIt
applying a marking by spraying or clear. Custom designs may be very simple and in xp 11 Iv 1 III
through a cut-out shape. Stencils painted by brush or airbrush Hobbycraft Sea Fury. 111 Ilhhll
weathering, and in PMll ul,lf \1,
for modellers are seen more (with or without the assistance of
exhaust stain, has tr,m r /Ill. ellh
frequently as die-cut technology masks), cut out of the sheet and otherwise plain seh m 111\11 II,
becomes less expensive. Companies then used as a conventional decal. essence of a hard-fi I1th1l1 w"t

Modern military aircraft frequently suffer

from similar staining. The jet engines
of the English Electric Canberra were
started by cordite charges inserted
into the rim of the engine intakes. The
resulting explosions left heavy stains on
the sides of the fuselage adjacent to the
charges. This was particularly noticeable
on the pale camouflage finish of the
last Canberras.

....l This is South Front's 1j48-scale LaGG-3 .
o It is a difficult kit with limited detail and
o poor fit in a number of important areas,
~ but it is the only injection-moulded
0:: LaGG-3 currently available. A grey
o primer coat kicks off the paint job to
>- identify any remaining gaps or flaws
\J before proceeding with the camouflage

U The LaGG-3 was of mainly wooden
construction so surface features are
sparse. Control-surface hinge lines and
a few other structural details were
'pre-shaded' with Tamiya XF-l Flat
Black on the lower surface only before
camouflage colours were applied. I did
not bother pre-shading the upper
ABOVE The heavy stains were also drawn underneath surface, as the effect would be lost
the wing, leaving a filthy mess that is quite a challenge under the dark camouflage colours
to reproduce with the airbrush. This is Classic Airframes' nd the subsequent winter coat.
1j48-scale Canberra T.17.

The lower surface was painted light

blue. I mixed Tamiya XF-23 Light Blue
with approximately 20 per cent X-14
Sky Blue to obtain a fairly vivid shade.
Once the entire lower surfaces were
covered, I mottled the basecoat with
100 per cent XF-23 Light Blue to obtain
a subtly irregular effect, being careful
to retain the underlying pre-shading.
66 67
>- IT

0. '--.,
Black can sometim s look I,,, k ,",,1
unrealistic on a model, simi j'd II
per cent XF-l Flat Black wllh 0 p•.,
cent XF-64 Red Brown for a \t.,I, II
colour. The camouflag wal l/l,.ly'"
freehand (i.e. withoul ma kll, hilI III .

tight, semi-hard demar all "I I IIMh I

the finish seen in wartim ph lUI

ABOVE Tamiya XF-2 Flat White was

thinned at a ratio of approximately 30
per cent paint to 70 per cent thinners.
The thin white mix was sprayed at the
finest setting of the airbrush in a
weathered pattern according to a
wartime photograph of this aircraft. The
masked star acted as a guide to paint
around the Soviet national marking.

RIGHT The process was repeated for

the wings and forward fuselage. This
finish was heavily weather beaten, with
much of the white temporary paint
having worn off. The reference photo
was very useful when painting the
winter scheme.

maintained aeroplanes will paint repairs and dirty panel fade or even flake off. A variety
accumulate grime on the bottom lines, especially around engine of methods can be employed
of the fuselage, dirt on the tyres cowlings continually exposed to replicate these effects. In
and exhaust stains on the fuselage. to oil and smoke. Cordite stains addition to understanding these
Harsh operating conditions may may also appear around guns. weathering techniques, it is also
lead to a patchwork quilt of In extreme climates, paint may essential to know when to stop,
68 69

Cl DIFFUSION EXHAUST AND CORDITE camouflage, or they may have been
o A large expanse of a single colour STAINS roughly painted around or even
0:: can look stark and unconvincing. Many operational aircraft can be painted over.
o It is possible to break up the seen with dark, dirty exhaust stains These temporary finishes were
>- colour by spraying small, random stretching back along the fuselage. especially susceptible to weathering.
Z spots and streaks of a different These stains may be added using The first places that we would
I- shade on the base colour. The a thinned mix of black and brown, expect winter camouflage to reveal
shades should not be too different Take your time building layers the permanent colours beneath are
to the base colour. Try adding carefully and slowly, as it is easy the leading edges of wings and the

l/') a few spars of white or black to go overboard. Lean-running nose of the aircraft, which bear
0:: to your airbrush paint cup to engines frequently cause a pale, the brunt of fast airflow and tiny
I- achieve this subtle variation. almost white stain. For variety, pieces of dirt and debris. The
« a thinner pale streak can be white finish would also be quickly
U WASHES added over the top of the dark scuffed off the wing-root areas due
The completed palnlw rk W,I ,

with a two thin coa r I' lIy /·1 A wash of thinned paint can exhaust stain. to the boars of pilots and crew.
Flat acrylic. The winl r IfllllUIl."" highlight important aircraft A realistically chalky exhaust Canopy sills, the fuselage below the
certainly sets this mod 1,111"11' It
features but, once again, care must stain can be obtained by adding canopy, fuel fillers and other access
a conventionally painl d III 1,,1
be taken to avoid dark, exaggerated a small blob of Tamiya Flat Base hatches would be worn due to
division of your model. A wash to your thin exhaust colour mix. frequent handling and rubbing.
may be based on acrylic or oil Cordite stains from machine guns The most aurhentic way to
paints. If the wash is thin enough, and cannon can be replicated using replicate a temporary winter finish
you will only need to touch the this same method. Many of these is to paint the base camouflage
loaded brush to the edge of the effects are equally applicable to finish first. This may appear to be
panel and capillary action will military vehicles. a waste of time, bur it is sometimes
draw the wash into the recessed surprising how much details (such
line. The effect is not obvious, WINTER CAMOUFLAGE as the colours themselves,
but can add the impression Winter camouflage was demarcation and even chipping
otherwise your model may look paint before rhe camouflage colour POST-SHADIN of grime accumulated during occasionally applied at the factory, and weathering of the basecoat)
better suited to the boneyard than is applied. Post-shading is ,,, .llll'IIM" normal operations. but more often in the field. Factory may be seen beneath a weathered
rhe airfield! The camouflage colour is to pre-shading r, I" 11I.hl, .11111 winter camouflage may have been winter camouflage coat.
first sprayed between the lines, panel lines, c nll" I ~1I1 (.. I I. PASTELS regular, even and hard wearing; Once the summer camouflage
PRE-SHADING effectively colouring in the panels. and other stru lW';ll (,.11 III Pastel chalks may be used to bur field-applied camouflage would is in place, you should mask any
As the name implies, pre-shading Several light, misting coats of the First, the mod I is 1.11111. I. I add dusty effects to wheels and normally have been a temporary areas that would have been covered
lays down a layer of weathering camouflage colour are then sprayed camouflage col Ul"~, landing gear components, or finish applied with whatever during the winter paint job on the
even before the camouflage paint over the entire surface. The darker structural feawl" as an alternative method of tools were on hand - airbrush, real aircraft. With the masks In
has been applied. This technique lines should be visible under the with a dark-c I til I I ,11111 applying stains to the airframe, paintbrush or even brooms! place, white paint may be sprayed
is used to subtly highlight panel thin colour coat, but not too shading can ea ily I ( 11\11 I Pastel chalks may be applied The initial application may very thinly in the areas that will
lines, control-surface hinges obvious. Pre-shading is most resulring in a hal"~h '('11111 using a brush or a foam sponge. have been patchy and uneven. wear the heaviest part of the winter
and other structural features. effective under paler colours, and grid based on p. ,,('/ 11111 A muddy slurry can be made National markings and other coat. It is particularly important to
These lines and features are on interior areas such as cockpits application will del,\", III by mixing pastel chalks with a painted markings may have been thin the paint sufficiently and build
sprayed with a dark coloured and wheel wells. pleasing resull . thinner such as turpentine. masked prior to the winter the winter camouflage up gradually,

otherwise you risk a solid white

coat that will obscure all the
details beneath. It is a good idea
to test your technique on a scrap
of cardboard or plastic before
Z committing the airbrush to your
f- model. When you are satisfied with
« your temporary winter finish, you
may wish to add more variety and
• simulate damage by lightly sanding

with very fine sandpaper or Micro-


a.. Mesh cloths.

All of the hard work put into your
paint Job needs protection. A coat
of acrylic or enamel varnish will
not only reduce the risk of damage
to the paint, but will also blend in
the decals and any variation of
sheen on your model.

1!ID!flJINisH used properly, Future will deliver a and pools are still present after the A high-gloss coat will protect your

There are a number of good TOu~OHNAGCLASTING SHIN gorgeous deep lustre to the surface clear coat has dried, the common model and increase its sheen, but it
will not hide imperfections such as the
options available for aitcraft and RYLIC PROt of your model. It may be sprayed household cleaner Windex will
orange peel effect seen on the bottom
military vehicles needing a flat without thinning, or cut with remove the Future without of the starboard side wing. This was the
CAUTION: around 10 per cent alcohol to damaging the paint underneath. result of paint applied straight from an
finish. These include Polly Scale,
aerosol can.
Gunze-Sangyo and Xttacrylix flat reduce drying time. Future dries
finishes. Similar to application of more slowly th'lIl conventional ENAMEL TOPCOATS

paints, the best results for a flat acrylic paints and clear coats. It is Enamel topcoats will provide a noticeably over time. I would

coat will be obtained by applying also thicker. These two attributes harder shell for your model, but suggest sticking to specialist model

several thin layets. combine to dramatically increase they will also take longer to dry. finishing products.

Gloss coats are available from the risk of pools and runs on the Enamel varnishes include Dullcote

Polly Scale, Gunze and Xtracrylix surface of your model. Try to avoid and Glosscote from Testor, and HARD-EDGED
too, but there is also the option of spraYing in anyone area too heavily. various sheens of varnish offered DEMARCATION
using Future floor polish. When The good news is that Future by Xtracolour and Humbrol. In This project will demonstrate
'shrinks' while it is drying, so the theory, enamel and polyurethane hard-edged demarcations for
Protective coats include enamel, lacquer NET13/4 L
thick coat and any runs that are varnishes designed for woodwork camouflage and special recognition
and acrylic varnishes made specifically CAUTION markings. The model is Special
R, visible while the liquid is still wet may also be used. Although these
for the hobby, but can also include
will disappear once it has dried. may be significantly cheaper by the Hobby's 1/48-scale Blackburn
less likely products such as Future
floor polish. More good news too - if the runs millilitre, some of these will yellow Skua Mk II.



ABOVE Cockpits of most British military aircraft were painted interior grey BELOW Some spots of thinned black oil paint
ABOVE Multi-coloured camouflage is very common. During BELOW Before we paint the exterior, we n d l green until the last year of the war. This early-war Skua interior was painted were added to the floors and the fuel tanks
World War II, most British military aircraft were finished in schemes cockpit. Special Hobby's interior looks good lr I and weathered before the fuselage halves were joined. The larger surfaces representing random stains. Oil wash was
with two colours on the upper surfaces, one or two colours below, the box, but a few key features are missing. Th such as the forward cockpit sub-assembly, the main cockpit floor and also used to add further interest to the photo-
and hard-edged demarcation between the different hues. Special added using lead foil and blocks of plastic b frill' IIUII" bulkheads, and the sidewalls were painted with the Aztek A470 airbrush. etched harness straps (sourced from Reheat).
Hobby's 1j48-scale Blackburn Skua offers us the chance to test out the interior parts. Details were picked out by hand using acrylic paints and a fine brush.
one of these British World War II schemes.

First, I primed thc 111m'

airframe with Tamiya ,rl' , PI 1111' ,

All paint was 'lpplicd U,II1 , till

Testor Aztek mctal-bodll I

airbrush fitted with lh 'I lilt

tan tip.
The lower starboar I 11'111 '

sprayed white. Thc port \\ III '

was then painted 'scalI' hI., ~

5:5 mix of Tamiya I c I III 1\\11

Flat Black - before bl I h \\111
were masked for a hard I'
demarcation. NCXI, til( III I ,I
of the fuselage and till' III I ,f II

uJ OPPOSITE TOP Regrettably, most of the
o detailing and painting will be hidden
~ inside the fuselage halves. At least we
ex: know it is there! Xtracrylics XA101 RAF
::J Interior Grey/Green was used for the
o basic cockpit colour.
Z OPPOSITE BOnOM The fit of the
I- kit was generally good except for the
area of the wing fold join. This area
c.. had a gap of between one and two

• millimetres on each wing. Some serious

filling (with strips of plastic and putty)
ex: was required to fill these gaps. The
uJ entire inner wings on both sides were
thoroughly sanded when filling was
:c complete. Most of the panel lines and
U other surface details were eliminated
during this process. They were restored
with a scriber prior to painting.

TOP The cockpit was masked in

anticipation of paint. A coat of primer
was essential to ensure that all the gaps
and steps had been filled, and that all
the panel lines had been consistently
restored. Tamiya Grey Primer was used
straight from the aerosol can.

MIDDLE The primer revealed a few

persistent steps and gaps. Some of
these were on he lower surface.

BonOM A seam line was also still

visible on the leading edge of the wing.
This was repaired and sanded before
painting continued. Note that the wing-
mounted landing lights have already
been installed and masked.


• MIDDLE The black al,d whll! II

surfaces did not rn lin lhl 1111""1

the wings were rna k d If 11111111 I

UJ 10mm and 40mm lap 111 Jl"'p.Il .1
0. for the remaining cam Ufl,I)1
U BonOM Next, the upp r 1",11, I II
fuselage and the lOP of lh will"
coated with Tamiya XF.2 RI M ."
This does not really look mll h Ii •
RLM 02, but it seems 10 , al
match for faded dark lal fll'y

OPPOSITE TOP The di rupllv I ,111"

was applied using pap r m~ kl lill.,.
slightly off the surface wllh 111 ,III hI< h
of Blu-Tack to achieve a fairly h,"ef
edged demarcation. I m, rk t oul Ihl
camouflage pattern on Po I II II lo'

using the kit instruction a , CJu fit


experimenting with a f w 01 u".
I finally settled on Tamiya XI 24 I .Ilk
Grey for the 'mixed grey' u d 11 Ih,
real aircraft. In contra 110 Ih I1Md Iult
demarcation of the upp r lIrfa
colours, I wanted to achi v a
completely hard edge b Iw n 111
upper and lower surfac s. ramly I I,lp.
(both 10mm and 40mrn) w, 111 I fUll
applied direct to the pia li .

u.J Following maskin ,til IllWI I III TOP A coat of Polly Scale Flat Clear
o and fin were paint d with I"", JI was sprayed over the model before the
o Sky Grey.
~ airframe was shaded with a thin mix
c:: of flat black and red brown. This was
:J sprayed along control-sllrface hinge
o lines, selected panels, in a few random
\J spots and streaks and along the
Z demarcation line between the dark
I- slate grey and mixed grey. This slightly
redllces the harshness of the sharply
0.. masked demarcation.

• MIDDLE I also made a point of spraying

c:: this weathering mix on the bottom of
the wing fillets to emphasize the gllll-
"- wing effect behind the bomb recess.
I The engine cowl was masked and the
U cowl ring sprayed with Testor's Brass
non-bllffing Metalizer. The exhallst
The bottom of the fll "tt)l (1'11, 01 pipe received a mix of Testor's BlIrnt
looks interesting with III \\,"h' ." I Iron and Flat Black.
wing, black port win ~l1d Ilfhl It
centre ~ection. BonOM The canopy was dipped in
Future floor polish to improve its shine.
After being allowed to dry overnight,
the clear parts were masked with
Eduard canopy masks. With the masks
in place, first the interior colour is
sprayed (this will be visible through the
clear canopy), followed by the upper
surface camouflage colours.
80 81

Cl wings were o~ted, 11 II 1.\1111 I
o XF-22 RLM Jrey, I III "
0: really look mu h likl' I I , til.
but it seem to be ,I 1\',1 \ 11,.('1
>- match for faded 1.1"k 1.11\ '\
Z The disruptivc p~t 11"" I' ,I 'II It
I- using paper masks lirll'd h ,1111
<l: off the surface with \111,111 (,1 I
of Blu-Tack t a hlcvl' ,I Lilli
• hard-edged demar ~ll lll, \flo \
0: experimenting with ,\ (l'lV I I. III
I- I finally settled n -"11111 ',I
J: Dark Grey for th '1111 I'd 'II"
U used on the real air '''lft,
The high fuscla J' ,1I11llllfl

ABOVE Masking canopies can be time BELOW A finishing coat of Polly demarcation, win I' ot, ,III I
consuming and tedious - especially a relatively Scale Flat sealed the weathering. horizorltal stabiliz 1', IVI'I' 1111
large glasshouse such as the Skua. Canopy Detail parts were painted with
masks are time-saving accessories that will a combination of airbrush and
masked with TamiY;I l.\1'1 (,.1 '\
take most of the pain away from this task. paintbrush. the lower fuselage and (III \I. \

painted with Tamiya XF-19 Sky I liked the look of these markings, The masking techniques for hard-edged
Grey. With all the major colours however, and decided to use the and semi-soft-edged demarcation used
on this Skua are applicable to many
applied, it was important to apply kit decals to depict the aircraft
other World War I, World War II and
a protective topcoat. I find Tamiya in late 1939 or early 1940, modern aircraft models.
paints are almost chalky once prior to its Norwegian exploits.
applied, and can very easily be The decals, produced by
scratched or worn off even with Aviprint, performed flawlessly in surface hinge lines, selected panels,
careful handling. I therefore combination with Micro-Set and in a few random spots and streaks
immediately applied two light coats Micro-Sol. The engine cowl was and along the demarcation line
of Polly Scale Gloss to seal the masked and the cowl ring sprayed between the dark slate grey and
paint job. This also created an with Testor's Brass non-buffing mixed grey. This slightly reduces
ideal surface for the decals. Metalizer. The exhaust pipe the harshness of the sharply
The kit decals were used. received a mix of Testor's Burnt masked demarcation. I also made
Although the box is labelled Iron and Flat Black. a point of spraying this weathering
'Norwegian Campaign', it would A coat of Polly Scale Flat Clear mix on the bottom of the wing
appear that the combination of was sprayed over the model before fillets to emphasize the gull-wing
Type A roundels on the upper the airframe was shaded with a thin effect behind the bomb recess.
wings and carrier codes on the fin mix of flat black and red brown. A finishing coat of Polly Scale
were phased out by early 1940. This was sprayed along control Flat sealed the weathering.
82 83

o RECONDITIONING even remove all the paint - only Now we will renHlW II.. ,.
o You might have old models enough to offer an even base for The easiest way 10 g' I II I .. f II.
cluttering your shelves. I know that a new coat of camouflage. majority of waLerslldl' 1ll.1I~1II' I
o I cringe when I look at some of my Ideally, the first step when to lay a strip (sLi k)' I 'I' II •

>- early kits with paint jobs finished preparing a model for the decal (don'L LIS" Ill.' ~ Ill' I
Z more than a decade ago when I reconditioning is to remove the
t- was stiU learning basic airbrushing fragile protrusions such as the
<l: techniques. Sometimes I am not undercarriage, propeller assembly,
happy with brand new paint canopy and antenna. Take care not
• jobs either. to break these parts during removal,
~ A lot of time and effort was although this is easier said than
t- put into these models at the time done. If a part is completely
<l: though. In some cases, the kits may uncooperative, then a clean slice OPPOSITE TOP (oml11 11 I (ky I 'I
:c masking tape may bud tll IC'IIl' I
U be rare or even unavailable today. with a hobby knife is preferable
decals prior to applyin ,r I elil
It seems a shame to simply discard to a ragged, random break. As an paint job. Simply press Ih hll 1111
these kits. So why not recondition alternative, you might prefer to over the decal ...

the model? Markings and paint can mask some of these parts to protect
OPPOSITE BELOW ... Ih 11 1111 I I
be stripped from a model fairly them from the reconditioning and the tape off. This should 1 IlltlYI
easily. It is not really necessary to repainting process. of the markings.


Chris Wauchop repainted myoid

Spitfire Mk Vb. The kit dates from the
1970s, and I built it in the late 19805.
The new paint job certainly gave the
:::l model a new lease of life!

« cockpit detail was
U not too bad for a kit of brown was
its era. a darker and
This kit was on display at redder shade than RAF Dark
Chris Wauchop's Sydney hobby Earth. Decals are from Aeromaster
shop until 1997. One day I told sheet number 48-124 'Spitfires
him I was taking away a few kits Down Under'. The aircraft
combination (including this one) to break up depicted is actually a Mk Y c.
of heavy engraved lines around and use for spares. Chris asked if The main visible differences are
The process was repeated several times Now, wet-sand the surface of You may wi h L '1'1.1. '" the engine cowling and lightly he could keep a couple. This was the wing armament, the bulged

until all evidence of the original decals the model gently with no coarser of the original kiL p.1I1 raised lines on the remainder of one result of the 'reconditioning'. fairings and alternate wing panel
had been removed with no damage
than 600-grit abrasive paper. wheels and can pi~. lin III , the aircraft. The raised detail is Chris used Gunze paints to arrangements. Conversions are now
to the surrounding paint. I can now
lightly sand and polish the model in I have also recently started to use replacements f, I' SlI h IWI II so petite that it is difficult to reproduce the dark green and earth available to either replace the wings
preparation for its new paint job. Mastercasters' sponge sanding readily available f, I' pUplll.1! II differentiate from recessed panel brown finish typical of Australian or just the bulges, but no surgery
sticks for this type of job. So now the m I I I' .\ bllll lines from some angles. Even the Spitfires during this period. Earth was applied to this model.
as it is not as tacky as regular Unless the paint was very canvas for a sec nd llln', II I '
sticky tape), rub it firmly onto the thickly applied in the first place, for your new art i ti 'II I. 1\ • II

surface, and lift the tape quickly. I usually do not find it necessary
This is a bit like waxing for plastic. to completely strip the paint. A RECONDITI NI 1'1' III

If portions of the decal remain, Stripping the entire model can be I built the old Air IX 1/ IX
repeat the procedure using packing time consuming, smelly, messy and Spitfire Vb kit ba kill'''' II'
tape. Sometimes a second or third might contaminate interior parts of 1980s. It was ri inall, filII "

attempt will remove more of the the model (especially the cockpit) in a mid-stone, dark \',111" I.
decal film. with old paint and thinners. scheme. Although III II' ,1111 I

You may still have remnants of The surface should be sanded and better detailed Sill fa"
decals left on the surface, especially with progressively finer grades of have appeared in the 11111'1 \t 11I11

in the recesses of panel lines. Don't paper or sponge sanders until it is years, the Airl1x kit .111 1111 I
worry too much, as the next stage smooth. Micro-Mesh cloths can claim to perhap tl1I' IIHI • ,I I I

should take care of the residue. then be used to polish the surface. outline of them all. I Ilk. I"
86 87

TOP The main cabin has received a
o coat of zinc chromate - a distinctly
~ PAINTING AND FINISHING yellow shade. To lend even more
variety, the rear gunner's section and
z AVIATION MODELS the bombardier's nose have been
painted in a colour representing tinted
<{ zinc chromate. In this photograph,
Now that we have covered many common airbrush techniques, let's put them into practice Oil "'111 ,J
some weathering has been added to
models. This chapter details a variety of different types of models and camouflage finishe, to ,1..11""1 II
the structural features to improve their
\J these airbrushing and weathering techniques in action.
Z visibility in the dark recesses of the
I interior.

z MIDDLE The bomb bay has retained

its natural metal finish. Tamiya's AS-12
o Airframe Silver was used for this colour.
<{ raw umber and black oil paint colour and sprayed II III II" With all this detail and variation, it
\J WEATHERED OLIVE mixed with odourless thinners was bombardier's and 111(' 1\.11 '11I11I I almost seems a shame to close the
Z fuselage halves.
I- DRAB FINISH selectively applied to the edges of compartments.
Z I built a 1/48-scale Monogram various surfaces. At this stage the fil'l'l.l '. BonOM World War II US Olive Drab
CL B-25J Mitchell, backdated to a Subsequent to all this painting, halves were joined alld II" III II was a notoriously unstable colour that
• late B-25D variant. Contemporary I found a source on HyperScale's components were ,1"I'llIhl. I I" faded rapidly after application. This
instability offers the modeller many
photos show the olive drab finish Discussion Forums that suggested was generally good, hUl II" opportunities for an interesting
of these aircraft suffering extreme that the main interior colour was line on the upper ('U'I'I.I'I )' II patchwork finish on an otherwise
"- uniform coloured model. For this
<{ weathering when serving in the not actually zinc chromate yellow, was particularly rCI,lll'1l1.11I1
I example, we will be using Monogram's
U South Pacific theatre. but a custom mix of zinc chromate
venerable B-25j Mitchell backdated to
and approximately 10 per cent the D variant.
COCKPIT COLOURS black, resulting in a muddy olive
The cockpit was painted dull dark green shade. I decided to take
green (using Tamiya XF-5 Flat an each-way bet. Rather than
Green) and the remainder of repainting the entire incerior,
the interior was coated in zinc I mixed up a batch of the new
chromate yellow (Tamiya XF-4
Yellow Green), except for the
bomb bay which was masked
off and painted silver.
Weathering was applied
reasonably heavily to permit some
effect to be visible inside the dark
recesses of the fuselage. First, the
structural detail was highlighted
with a thin spray of a black and
red-brown mix. Next, details such
as boxes, straps, switches and
buttons were picked out with a fine
brush. Finally, a wash of thinned

88 89

....J II
uJ Sanding the putty completed the
o important task of blending the clear
2 and coloured plastic parts. This will
be an important factor in obtaining
o a convincing paint job. The canopy,
~ nose and turrets were masked with an
Eduard self-adhesive masking set.



Z Before the exterior paint was applied,
the canopy, nose and turret frames
0.. received two thin coats of zinc
• chromate (actually Tamiya's XF-4 Yellow
Green). This interior colour will be
a: visible on the inside of the canopy
~ and turret framing even after the

camouflage has been applied.

The canopy and larg n

were glued into pia l The rear gunner's blister and machine
they blended in wilh th gun fairing were modified.
paintwork. Both part dl pl"y, I
noticeable steps b tw n lht· .1, II

plastic and the fusela . II I c I, ·If I

were masked and th t p\ IIIIt I I
white Milliput. This putty r '/11,1111
workable with wat r b f It II ,.,
so it was smoothed with ,I e1111 I'
fingertip to minimiz lat I \.11I III
90 91

LU The lower surfaces have also been
0 mottled with paler versions of neutral
grey. Once again, the fabric control
surfaces have come in for special
0 treatment with the palest shade. Note
f= that the open bomb bay has been
::: stuffed with tissue paper as a masking
« medium - simple but effective!


« These Pacific Mitchells were sparsely
marked, so I did not spray the entire
• model with a gloss coat in preparation
\0 for decals - only those areas destined
c:r: to receive decals. Despite being very
I- old, the decals performed well. In this
« photo, the first coat of Polly Scale
Flat has already been applied and
post-camouflage weathering has
commenced. The light coloured line
at the wing root is wet Testor's Window
Maker, applied as impromptu filler for
a persistent gap.

Selected panel lines and all control-

surface hinge lines have been
highlighted with a thin mix of Tamiya
XF-l Flat Black and XF-64 Red Brown.
The same mix has been used to apply
random spots, stains and streaks,
especially on the upper surfaces of the
wings and tail planes. Fresh olive drab
has been brush painted onto the wing
root to suggest mechanics' boots
scuffing back the surface to fresh paint.
92 93

Cl I eventually eliminated the seam the time that would have been the carrier film. I applied Gunze
0 using a coarse Mastercaster sanding required if I was cutting masks Mr Mark Softer to one of the
stick to attack the entire spine, from tape, and more precise too. decals and, with some difficulty
0 followed by progressively finer At last my Mitchell was ready and no little self-control, left the
<{ sanders to eliminate the deep for camouflage. model alone for several hours.
<{ sanding gouges. The lower surface was sprayed When I came back I was
\) I had to restore the scribed panel Tamiya XF-53 Neutral Grey before pleased to find that the residue
:r line detail after this. The fuselage being broken up with a mottle of a had completely disappeared.
'"Z was primed again after the sanding 50:50 mix of the eutral Grey and Furthermore, the decals had
LL was complete. The wings received a Tamiya XF-19 Sky Grey. The base snuggled beautifully into the
Cl coat of Tamiya Primer after sanding colour for the upper surface was scribed panel lines and were
<{ too. The fit of the wings to the Xrracylics' XA 1113 Olive Drab. perfectly opaque over the dark
\) fuselage was reasonable. The port This dark shade was broken up olive drab surface. There did not
j:: wing was nor quite thick enough, with pale streaks and oversprays on seem to be any difference between
resulting in a narrow gap at the the upper surface. A lighter version the roundel with the Mr Mark
c... upper wing root, but I managed to of the colour was also sprayed Softer treatment and the one
• cram some scrap plastic between the onto the control surfaces, as the without. Patience and faith were
top and bottom join of the wing. fabric faded much faster than the the main factors!
This mostly fixed the problem. rest of the airframe. Some RAAF I started applying the rest of the
<{ A swipe of Tamiya Surfacer resulted Mitchells in 1945 featured decals. Unfortunately, the bottle
U in a gap-free finish. overpainted roundels. The new of Micro-Sol and its contents were
The nose and canopy style was smaller, so a dark patch knocked over the decal sheet. At
transparencies were glued in of fresh olive drab or foliage green that point it was panic stations - I
place to ensure that they blended could be seen under the new floated the decals off the sheet and
smoothly with the fuselage. A few roundels. These were masked and onto the model as fast as possible.
steps were present. Those that sprayed onto the paintwork before It was inevitable then that at least
could not be eliminated by sanding decals were applied. one of the decals is a bit crooked -
were filled with Milliput. When The base colours were coated the 'z' on the port side.
this two-part epoxy filler had with Polly Scale Gloss in Polly Scale Flat acrylic was
dried, I used 1,OOO-grit Tamiya preparation for the decals. These applied over the decals and
Abrasive Paper to sand and polish were from Aussie Decals and were the glossy paint, immediately
the filler. It was worth the extra around 15 years old. The decal film improving the appearance of the
time to properly fair in the canopy was discoloured with age, so I was olive drab finish to my eye. The
and nose, completely eliminating not sure how they were going to upper wings and part of the
the small steps between the dear perform. I tested just the upper fuselage were post-shaded with
parts and the grey fuselage. wing roundels just in case there was panel highlighting, chordwise
Eduard mask set number EX a problem. These were laid down streaks and random spots using a
119 was used to mask the dear with my customary application of very thin mix of Tamiya XF-64
parts. In total, masking with these Micro-Set and Micro-Sol. Once Red Brown and XF-l Flat Black.
die-cut flexible masks took a little applied, there was a very noticeable The panel structure of these
more than an hour - far less than pale residue apparently underneath weary and weathered Mitchells is
94 95


f- I loaded up my tru ty A/II
with the same xhau\l 1111
a... used before - Tamlya XI I
• and a blob of Flat Ba ,hilI I I
more time build in up 1l111lly "
c:r: individual streaks until' '"111 "
with which I was mor ,,,11"11 I
careful to associat th' ht· 11111
I each exhaust str ak with ,Ill II I
U ejector stack, eventually I 1,'11 h,
first as narrow streaks of Tamiya In some photos, the exhaust stain may
streams into two wid ",I very obvious in wartime photos so
be seen extending over the horizontal
top of the wing . I felt that I had been given licence XF-57 Buff, thinned heavily and
tail planes and onto the bottom of the
to go slightly crazy. sprayed straight behind each fin. Both dark and chalky stains were
I thought that I had covered the exhaust ejector, then gradually built added to the bottom of the fin
up and flared out to finally join as according to a pattern found in one of
gap at the wing root but the flat
my reference photos.
coat revealed a persistent seam one large stain at the ends of the
line. Rather than putty and sand, top and bottom of the engi ne
I was much happi r with Ihl I
effect. Although it ml ht l)l I decided to fill this narrow seam nacelles. Tamiya XF-55 Deck Tan, repair to the wing root, much in
there are many wartlm I hUlt with Testor's Clear Parts Cement. an even paler colour, was then used the same way as it might have on
show exhaust stainin t Ih I to emphasize the more directed the real aircraft. I left the obvious
This is a water-soluble white glue
is never too late to r vi
that is thinner than Krystal Kleer stains directly behind the ejectors. repair visible, and added a couple
paint job - even aft r d .11\ Mill
coat have been campi t d and can be applied straight from a The ubiquitous red-brown/black of repair 'patches' on the wings

narrow plastic tube attached to the mix was applied very lightly at the using the same batch of paint. The

bottle. I thought that it might be edges of the pale stain and in a control-surface hinge lines, scribed

an effective way to fill the gap couple of streaks. The pale streaks panel lines and other structural

without the risk of damaging were also extended to subtler details were subtly highlighted with

the surrounding paintwork. applications on the horizontal Tamiya X-18 Semi-Gloss Black,

The chalky exhaust stain was and vertical tail planes. thinned heavily with water and

also typical of No.2 Squadron A fresh batch of unfaded olive used as a pinpoint wash applied

RAAF B-25s. These were applied drab was used to paint over the with a fine brush.
o At the end of the Polish for the Luftwaffe's aggressive would seem that several front-line
o ---.
~ I campaign, Jagdgeschwader (JG) 53 tactics over the open country of fighter units were experimenting
z I tested several experimental schemes. Western Europe. wi th grey shades, possibly custom
I- These involved raising the During the Battle of Britain, mixed and applied by Luftwaffe
camouflage demarcation line on Luftwaffe fighters were operating forward maintenance units. The
the fuselage, and replacing the dark over the open water of the English grey shades were better suited
Z RLM 70/71 greens with various Channel and the North Sea. to over-water operations.
:I: combinations of RLM 65 Light Although camouflage did not alter In November 1941, the RLM

z Blue, RLM 71 Dark Green and much during the early months of (Reich Air Ministry) issued a
RLM 02. This quickly led to a the campaign, mottling on the new instruction that officially
z new facrory camouflage scheme fuselage sides was common. introduced the colours RLM 74
with the lower surfaces and the Combinations of RLM 70 Black Grey Green, RLM 75 Grey Violet
Z fuselage sides painted in RLM 65 Green, RLM 71 Dark Green
Eduard's instructions suggest painting
Z Light Blue, and a softer-edged and RLM 02 Grey were used, their magnificent 1/48-scale
~ splinter pattern of RLM 02 Grey in applications that ranged from Messerschmitt Bf 110 E in the mid-war
and RLM 71 on the wing upper careful mottling with a spray gun greys RLM 74/75/76. My research
• surfaces, spine, upper cowl and to messy stippling with a broom.
suggests that the earlier scheme of
RLM 02 Grey, RLM 71 Dark Green and
0:: top of the tail planes. This By October 1940, at the very RLM 65 Light Blue would be more likely
I- scheme was much more suitable end of the Battle of Britain, it for this early production Bf 110 E.
Dark vertical streaks were sprayed When the modern monoplane
onto the forward fuselage. These prototypes of the Messerschmitt
represent stains from water and fuel.
Note the random discoloured Bf 109 and Heinkel He 100 were being implemcntcd. I IH' III \

patches on the fuselage deck too. tested under fire during the Spanish RLM 70 Black rt'l'lI .111 I I
Strips of self-adhesive foil were Civil War in 1937, it appears that Dark Green wcrc appll • I III I I. I I
used for the upper turret canopy
they were first delivered (and saw edged splintcr p~l.Ierll ttltill "II
action) in a bare metal finish with surfaces of Luftwarrl, '1.111. I II
a greenish translucent protective as the Messerschmil.l. n, Ill') II III
LUFTWAFFE coating that permitted the varying Messerschmitt Br I I ). II" 111111
DAY-FIGHTER metallic shades ro show through.
CAMOUFLAGE Soon, however, production - so much so that S )1Ilt' 'lllll •
FINISHES versions of the Messerschmitt claim that early eX~l1lpl " \ • I
Luftwaffe paint finishes changed Bf 109 were delivered ro Spain in finished in a single l Ill' III '11 II
considerably from the rise of overall RLM 02 Grey. This was a on the upper surf., s. JI\l' hili .. I

Hitler in the early 1930s until the greenish-grey shade that was also of the wings, fusrl:t>, .111 I 1.1111'11
end of the war in Europe in 1945. widely used as an interior colour. were paintcd RLM 65 1.1 ,III III",
The Heinkel and Arado fighters A disruptive scheme of RLM 61 This new camouna '(' \ ,I I I. 11111

in service during the early ro Dark Brown and/or 62 Green was

mid-1930s wore an overall finish sometimes seen in conjunction also effectivc ovcr thl' d,ll k. I. II •

of RLM 63 Grey. with RLM 02. forests of Easlcrn I~ur IH',

98 99

o and RLM 76 Light Blue. This some being bluer, and some taking RLM 65 Light Blue. Arll'I' Ihl'
o resulted in a long, stable period on a less saturated, almost concrete cockpit and wheel w lis Wl'Il'
z during which Luftwaffe day-fighters hue. There is evidence of a further masked, the model re eived ,I
o including the Messerschmitt Bf variation on upper surface colours in basecoat of Tamiya AS-5 1.1 .hl
« 109, Bf 110 and Focke-Wulf Fw the last months of the war roo. A Blue (Luftwaffe). my l'l'l', till
> 190 would wear these colours until ambiguously labelled olmll IIIII~
« number of Messerscl1mitt Bf 109s
lJ the end of 1944. and Focke-Wuld Fw 190s featured a somewhere between RLM 6 I I ,III
On 1 July 1944, the RLM first very p,ile grey colour in combination Blue and RLM 76 Li ht Bhll', hili
mentioned the introduction of the with RLM 75 Grey Violet. can work for ei ther.
brand new colours RLM 81 Brown The chaotic state of the war, The advantage of this '1".1 III

o Violet, RLM 82 Bright Green and and the widespread razi ng of paint is that it is a t u h, .1'1
« RLM 83 Dark Green. At this Germany in the closing months, drying lacquer. The disadv,IIlI,I" I ,

lJ stage, they were not intended means that documentary evidence if sprayed straight from til(' l,lIl,
fo- for use on fighter aircraft, but as of these late Luftwaffe colours the paint can display a slight
z TOP Eduard's Bf 110 E cockpit
replacements for the colours RLM s scarce. From a modeller's orange peel finish. This pmhlrlll combines plastic and photo-etched
a. 70 Black Green and RLM 71 Dark viewpoint, this gives us a limited can be avoided by de ~ntil1' till parts. Even before painting and the
• Green, still in widespread use on licence to interpret these colour paint from the can by spr.I),1I1 • II addition of colour photo-etched parts,
the cockpit detail is outstanding. In this
bombers, transports and many schemes as we see fit. With late-war into a small container. TIll' 11,111
cr: image, the plastic components are test
other types of military aircraft. Luftwaffe fighters, the model is blue paint can then be p(lllll' I fitted prior to painting.
« In August 1944, the RLM our canvas! into a paint cup for U'e ill '1111
I MIDDLE All cockpit components were
U announced the phasing out regular airbrush.
given an overall coat of Tamiya XF-1 Flat
of RLM 74 Grey Green. By PAINTING A One of the app ~Iin' .1'1"'\ I "I Black. This acts as a pre-shading coat,
November 1944, a number of LUFTWAFFE this scheme is the RLM 01 ',II. remaining in deep shadow areas after
manufacturers including Focke- DAY-FIGHTER the main interior colour has been
theatre markings. Yell w 1'.11111,
applied. Note that I have attached the
Wulf were specifying the use of CAMOUFLAGE however, is notoriou' r( ,. I'IIIl1
smaller cockpit parts to a small box.
the new brown and green colours SCHEME coverage. To ensure ~ villl.11l1 filII I This makes the parts easier to handle
for new fighter aircraft production. This is Eduard's 1/48 scale white undercoat was ~I)I.I ., I "" II while painting, and reduces the risk of
dropping or losing them.
However, the implementation was Messerschmitt Bf 110 E kit. mid fuselage and I wer 1V1l1' III

erratic and inconsistent, making Camouflage of the which were destined t(l II \, ", BOTTOM Contrary to the Eduard's kit
it difficult to pinpoint the exact Messerschmitt Bf 110 E is not yellow theatre markin ," II. II instructions, the sidewalls were glued to
colours used on some aircraft. perfectly documented, and is white basecoat was Ii " 1,11111 •
the inside of each fuselage before the
cockpit parts were assembled. Gunze
Further complicating the issue was further confused by the fact that spray-can colour TS '1 ( ,111111
H70 RLM 02 Grey was sprayed over the
the f'let that the colours RLM 82 camouflage orders changed late in Yellow was decanl d 111111 .1 black basecoat. This acrylic paint was a
and 83 varied widely in tone, often the production run of this variant. container and spr~)'l'd III III good match for the colour of the pre-
painted photo-etched parts.
appearing similar to each other on Although Eduard's lI1structions appropriate pia e,. I Ilk, rill
colour samples. suggest that this subject should be high-gloss, ri h sh.ld,' Ilf .11,
A new undocumented lower finished in the mid-war grey tones, The yell w 1I1l'.IIIl' 111.11 II

surface colour was also introduced RLM 74, 75 and 76, I thought were masked an I thl "11' I
around this time. It was a greenish that it was more likely that the received a c al or /11111. I

shade similar to RAF Sky. There aircraft left the factory in RLM 02 H70, RLM 02
were variations of this shade roo, Grey, RLM 71 Dark Green and motrles on this (llmll \\11

A wash of thinned oil paint helps the
o sidewall and floor detail leap out of
~ the plastic. A 5:5 mix of Winsor and
z Newton Lamp Black and Raw Umber,
o thinned to the consistency of water, was
f- used for this wash. Although it seems
overemphasized now, the advantage
« of this technique is that the detail will
\.J remain visible even when trapped
Z between the fuselage halves.
z The same painting and weathering
« techniques were employed for the
c.. wheel well as for the cockpit. A few
• spots of thinned oil paint have been
dabbed here and there to represent
cr oil stains. A brown artist's pencil has
f- also been dotted lightly in this area to
« depict chipping and minor damage
:r: to the paintwork.
U ABOVE Detail parts su h I III I,ll
cushion and boxes weI' p,lnl d willi
a fine brush before pro din willi
further weathering and a I'll Illy

Following assembly, some filling of

gaps and steps was required. Half
an hour was spent sanding the putty
and polishing the overall airframe in
preparation for painting. The canopy
and wheel wells were masked using
Tamiya tape to prevent unwanted
LEFT Eduard's colour ph I overspray
parts complement our lar r ,1111, I I
interior surfaces. Th lay I' d 111\1' "
panel with its crackl nnl h h I lit ,I I
example of the state-of-th tift cI"I,,'
available to modell rs In lh 1\1
century. It would b virtu lIy IIlII
to match the photo-r all I'll f II ,. I

pre-painted parts with th rll,,,\l

the paintbrush.
102 103

uJ There was also a st P ilt till If) Yellow paint is notorious for poor
o join to be filled with plllty lIlt" I coverage. To ensure a vibrant finish,
o white undercoat was sprayed on the
painting. The wh I w II h.'~1 I
masked off with Tamly, I,ll' mid fuselage and lower wing tips, which
o were destined to receive yellow theatre
f- markings, The paint chosen was
« Tamiya's XF-2 Flat White,


f- For the RLM 04 Yellow colour, Tamiya
Z Tamiya AS-5 Light Blu (1 uhw,.Il. ).
representing RLM 65 LI ht BIlII', spray lacquer was once again decanted
0.. decanted from th a r I IIl/'W'.i1 into a glass jar for application with the
• into a glass bottle, th n pi ,lyte I " II Aztek airbrush. I used Tamiya TS-34
Camel Yellow for this colour. In
my Aztek airbrush ov r th I WI" .1/1"
a: side surfaces of the mod I. 1II I I", 'I common with most yellow paints,
f- paint provides a tough, In ofh coverage is thin but the Tamiya lacquer
e.. dries quickly and is resistant to damage
« basecoat that resists fin rplilll \ 1/1,1
:r wear. No primer was r qllir I Ihl111 once it has set.
U to the generally good fit , tIll kll .If

the excellent adhesion r '''''fly,,'

lacquer paint.

Once two coats of the yellow paint had

thoroughly dried, the yellow fuselage
band and lower wing tips were masked,
as were the inward-facing surfaces of
the fins.


The first stage of upp r lid., Additional mottling has been added in
0 camouflage was a pray, ppl RLM 71 Dark Green. This is only the first
2 Gunze acrylic H70 RLM 07 ",'y 11111 attempt at mottling though - more
z fuselage spine, the upp r w IIlI\ ,11 II layers of colour and touch ups will
0 planes. Demarcalion b tw I'll Ih,· III follow later. The striking contrast of the
f- 02 upper surfaces and RI M 11,11 yellow Eastern Front fuselage band is
> Blue lower was spray d wltll III III evident once the masking tape has
« of masks. The Gunz RI M fl.• III been removed.
\J thinned sufficiently 10 dl IIf,III"
overspray and spall r.


Z Gunze H64 RLM 71 Dark r \'11 W Eduard supplies self-adhesive masks for
« used for the disrupliv lIpp' \\111. the intricate glasshouse canopy. These
camouflage. The pall rn W,l\ \1".1 • masks fit perfectly, and save some hours
• freehand in a fairly light- dill d of tedious work. I am pleased to report

demarcation. Once a aln, the d,lI
green was mixed to a v ry til II
that, after painting, the masks were
peeled off the clear plastic without
f- consistency to permit thi ff h,,,"1 damaging any of the surrounding paint.
« demarcation. This view al \lluIN If
1: initial mottling in RLM 02 II lill
fuselage sides.

At this point, the camouflage on

applied to the fuselage sides. This RLM 71. The demarcation line of a useful sheen (or t11l' ,11'1'1, 1111 I
the fuselage sides was revised. The
was quickly followed by a disruptive the RLM 71 Dark Green was also of decals. The glasshou'l • 111"1 demarcation between the dark upper
pattern from Gunze H64, RLM 71 lowered down the fuselage. It is the Messerschmiu Br I I() II 11111 and lighter lower fuselage colours
Dark Green, and a further mottling was brought down the fuselage sides
quite normal for me to revise a a nightmare to mask If II 1\11
slightly. A section of the rear fuselage
of this darker colour on the camouflage finish several times for Eduard's die- UI, 'I'lf ,Idlt I deck just behind the canopy was also
fuselage sides and fins. before I am finally happy with it. It masks. The masks ,wn' 1.1 , II resprayed from its original RLM 02 Grey
I was not satisfied with the look is never too late to make a change! to RLM 71 Dark Green.
apply and con(Ol'l11l'd ,11111<1 I
of the fuselage sides in general, With the basic camouflage perfectly to the (ramI" Ilf 1111
and the mottling in particular. I finished, Polly Scale Gloss acrylic plastic canopy. Tlll' III'" 1'.11111
therefore revised the mottling, first was sprayed over the entire model. was RLM 02 rey n'l"l' • 111111'
with a random overspray of RLM This tough topcoat serves the dual the interior frame 1l11l1ll,1,,1I11
65 Light Blue, then with a selective purposes of preventing damage to by RLM 71 Dark (;n'l'lI fill
re-application of RLM 02 and the soft Gunze paint, and providing the exterior.
106 107

LEFT Similar modifi all n w.·,. I RIGHT After consulting reference
o to the camouflag I all 11\ Ull II photos and Eduard's box art, the
o starboard fuselag Id. mottling on the fuselage sides and
tail surfaces was made a little heavier.
z Weathering was then applied over a
f- coat of Polly Scale Flat acrylic. Panel
« MIDDLE LEFT Tamiya' ,,,.11'1. II lines were progressively built up with
> used for the thealr marklfllJ very subtle applications of a thinned
rich yellow - almosl r, n III hu. I black-brown mixture, and then
Z seems to be a reasonabl «lllIV,'" I I , emphasized with thinned semi-gloss
I the Luftwaffe colour, III M 04 V.'II. acrylic paint.
However, the yellow u d 1\ 1till." I
z decals was pale, almo I I II) II I BELOW The various smaller assemblies
decided that the con Ira I nNw""1l were painted and weathered separately
o these two colours was I ( I (· •• 1, I prior to finishing the model. All of these
« the identification I II r w, \ Ilt,hk. cl parts were painted with the Aztek
lJ with Tamiya tape. A470 airbrush.



with no curves, this was nOI ,1 dlllllllil
task. The decal was spray d wllh two
coats of Tamiya's Cam I V II w. Vc II.,
The aircraft letter mal h 1111' 1111 .tll.

MARKINGS AND repaint the yellow individual The decals behaved flawlessly
WEATHERING aircraft letter, 'H', in Camel Yellow. on application, even the complex,
When I compared rhe deep yellow The yellow decal letters were three-part Wespe decal over the
of the painted theatre markings to surrounded by Tamiya masking compound curves of the nose.
Eduard's decals, there was a marked tape and resprayed while they There was, however, a gap between
difference in colour. I decided to were still on their backing sheet. the top and bottom halves of the
108 109



1: Most exported German This was a commission build. J
Eduard's 1/48-scale Messerschmitt
Bf 110 E is a state of the art kit. Its crisp fighters of the period continued found myself with a very specific
surface detail will look even better after
to wear the RLM grey shades brief to build this Finnish Bf 109
a careful paint job.
even in their foreign service. G-2, in flight, and with a pilot
Finland received a total of 159 wearing goggles and his oxygen
PAINTING Messerschmitt Bf 109s starting mask on his shoulder. This model
LUFTWAFFE in 1943. Of these, 48 were was to wear the markings of
MID-WAR GREYS Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-2s. Some Finnish pilot Ilmari Juutilainen

Wespe along the gun cowl join (the As long as I was redecorating then weathering commcn . ,d. From the end of 1941 until the of these early G-2s were repainted (1914-99) who was reportedly
decal assumes that the gun cowl anyway, I thought I should repaint I only wanted a hilll t \ ",1111. 1111' end of 1944, most Luftwaffe in Finnish colours of green and never shot down in over 400
will be open, in which case this the head, body and the tail of the on the wings and tuscla "" ," day-fighters were finished in the black, but most retained their sorties while scoring at least

would not be a problem). I cut Wespe in a yellow that would panel lines were c;lrctlilly hlllil mid-war scheme of RLM 74 Grey Luftwaffe camouflage. Only the 93 victories, making him the

a circular mask the same size as match the theatre markings and up with very subtlc appli ,111"11 Green and RLM 75 Grey Violet German markings were over painted highest-scoring non-German ace
the white of the Wespe's eye, and the identification letter. A fine of a thinned black-bn wn 1111 1111 on the upper surfaces, and RLM with local paint stocks and of World War II.

sprayed Tamiya XF-l Flat White brush was used to cover the This same black-brown III I 1111 76 Light Blue on the lower replaced with Finnish livery. With the pilot installed and the

to hide the gap. While I had the old yellow with the new yellow, was sprayed along sci., II' I surfaces. The main exceptions were I built Hasegawa's 1/48-scale canopy dosed, very little of the
airbrush loaded, J also sprayed the and a Sharpie was once again structural featurcs. I ,111." 11111 fighters based in tropical climes, Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-2, cockpit would be visible. Adding

white of the wings to match. This used to repait the black outlines were then treated I ,1 dllll \ winter-camouflaged fighters and and finished the model in this extra detail here would be gilding

left a slight ovetspray on the black as required. of Tamiya X-18 'Cllll ,I" some local experimentation on interesting combination of the lily, so I simply painted the kit
outline, so J touched this up with Polly Scale Flat acrylic was Black paint. the Eastern Front, particularly Luftwaffe camouflage and patchy parts. I applied a slightly heavier
a fine black Sharpie. applied once the decals had set, within the ranks of JG 54. overpainting. than usual weathering technique
110 111

o Green. The camouflage pattern on XF-l Flat Black was sprayed along By 1941, the Luftwaffe had
o the wings was sprayed freehand. selected panel lines. Narrow streaks started to organize its night-fighter
I took care to emphasize the and spots were also sprayed onto arm, and its aircraft were given a
o 'overpainted' band on the rear the larger areas of the wings and coat of overall black. Although
« fuselage, and the dark spine. The the fuselage to represent subtle black may seem to be a logical
> heaviest mottling on the fuselage staining. A thin wash of Tamiya choice as a camouflage finish for
() seems to be directly in front of the Semi-Gloss Black acrylic paint was night-fighters, it was actually found
national markings, so a fairly heavy applied with a fine brush to to be unsuitable as the very dark
coverage of RLM 74 was applied selected panel lines. shade tended to silhouette the
here. In the photo, the entire tail The completed paintwork was aircraft against cloud or in a
o surfaces were a solid grey but this sealed with two thin coats of Polly moonlit sky.
z Scale Flat acrylic. Various experiments in
« appears to be the exception rather
() than the rule. Instead, I painted the The finishing touches were camouflage were tested during
tail in a more typical pattern, with now applied, including the pitot 1943, including combinations of
Z overpainted Hakenkreuz (swastika) tube (from fine wire), wing tip RLM 74, 75, 76 and 02 in solid
c.. and heavy, hard-edged mottling lights (painted using Tamiya and mottled applications. By early
• on the rudder. X-27 Clear Red and X-25 Clear 1943, though, the camouflage
just in case some of the cockpit was out of stock. Instead, I used a Germany's allies were suppll d Green), aerial wire from nylon colours had effectively standardized
w elements could be seen past the equipment during World Will II DECALS monofilament and resistors as RLM 76 Light Blue and RLM
I- Mr Color lacquer spray. The colour
0.. Finland purchased a numb r 01 formed using small blobs of 75 Grey Violet. The overall
« elbows of the pilot. A few cockpit was horribly pale, so I took to the The model received a coat of
I Luftwaffe fighter and bomb r ,1111' I
placard decals from Reheat car and went further afield to seek Polly Scale Gloss acrylic before the Krystal Kleer. The exhaust stain appearance of many night-fighters
U including the Messerschmitt 61 1U'I •
completed this simple task. out my trusty Tamiya Camel Yellow. The modification of the origlr1<\1 ,. II markings were applied. I find that was applied last of all. At my was a mottle of RLM 75 Grey
camouflage and markings mak lUI., the Polly Scale cleat finish can be client's request, the stain was a Violet over RLM 76 Light Blue,
A single coat was enough to make
unique subject.
CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING a decent match with the yellow on more easily controlled than Future little less prominent than seen in but the size and pattern of the
One of the prominent features the decal numbers. when spraying, does not run on the photograph. mottle varied wildly. Some
of Finnish Bf 109s is their yellow Once thoroughly dry, the yellow apparently overpainted (USC!.1 .,.
horizontal surfaces, yet still delivers camouflage patterns feature soft-
nose, fuselage band and wide under sections were masked using Tamiya band, a heavier applicali n of a hard, shiny finish ideal for decals. PAINTING edged random mottles, while others
wing markings. However, I often masking tape. colour on the spine (wilh qUill ••
I used Techmod decals from sheet LUFTWAFFE were hard edged and fairly regular.
have trouble getting yellow paint I based my painting on a photo clear demarcation), and SOil1\' 11 .111, number 48078. These were very NIGHT-FIGHTER In addition, there are a number of
to cover properly. I also find that of the starboard side of this heavy mottling around til(' (Ill ff ,II I thin and settled down beautifully CAMOUFLAGE clear examples of the mottle effect
acrylic yellows take a long time aircraft in Apali Oy's Finnish Fighter fuselage. The first cam Un.l 'I into panel lines. The only opacity Luftwaffe night-fighter camouflage being produced by a tight squiggle
to dry and are very prone to Aces. This series has recently been colour was Gunzc a I' y li I I issue that I encountered was with evolved significantly from 1939 of the lighter colour, RLM 76, over
fingerprints and damage even weeks made available again by Kari applied to the low r SUI 1.1 l' III I the lower wing national markings. to 1945. RLM 75 upper surfaces. This style
after application. Recently I have Stenman, and is a must for fans fuselage sides. Ncxl, JlIIl/I I I Although the white appeared Initially, in 1940 the of application was most frequently
managed to avoid these problems. I of Finnish World War II aviation. 75 was appJ ied l lhl Ill!, "I II perfectly opaque over the greys of Messerschmitt Bf 110 and a small seen on the Messerschmitt Bf 110
started with a coat of white primer The photo shows t11e starboard wings, tail plancs an I (u .1. the upper surfaces, the yellow and number of obsolescent Bf 109 and the Heinkel He 219.
on the nose, mid fuselage and lower fuselage side with an almost solid spine. A first-pas mOll I. "f I light blue were slightly noticeable day-fighters were simply pressed In early 1944, the bottom of
wingtips. I usually follow this with grey coverage further darkened 75 was also sprayc I 0111" II,. under the white of the decals on into service as night-fighters. the starboard wing was painted
a coat of Tamiya Spray TS-34 by a broad, murky exhaust stain. fuselage sidcs and III. I III the bottom of the wings. Not surprisingly, these expedient black on some night-fighters as
Camel Yellow, but my last can was Even so, some subtle features can For weathering, a very thin mix night-fighters retained their an identification aid for German
followed by a disrupllH "" I
empty and my local hobby shop be made out. These include an Gunze acrylic I LM 71 " of Tamiya XF-64 Red Brown and day-fighter camouflage. Flak and searchlight crews. By mid-
112 113

...J The wings and horizontal tail planes
o were painted next. Camouflage colours
o were taken from the Gunze aqueous
The basic blu acrylic range - H69 RLM 75 Grey Violet
z (the lighter of the two upper surface
o colours), and H68 RLM 74 Grey Green.
<l: The camouflage pattern was sprayed
> freehand, with the Grey-Green colour
thinned sufficiently to ensure a fairly
Z crisp demarcation between the colours.


f- The Finns overpainted the German
Z markings. Here, RLM 75 has been
<l: applied in a solid coverage of the
spine plus a mottle on the fuselage
• and rudder. The heavier applications
on the fuselage and fin represent the
areas where German national markings,
delivery numbers and a fuselage band
have been painted over.

The starboard side received the same

treatment. The final mottle was
intended to be very heavy, but it is best
to start with less than you intend and
build up to the effect. This is especially
important while you are applying the
first mottled coat of the palest upper
surface camouflage colour.
114 115



ABOVE For weathering, a very thin mix of Tamiya XF-64 Red Brown and BELOW Finishing touches included the pitot
XF-1 Flat Black was sprayed along selected panel lines. Narrow streaks and tube (from fine wire), wing tip lights (painted
spots were also sprayed onto the larger areas of the wings and the fuselage using Tamiya Clear Red and Clear Green), aerial
to represent subtle staining. A thin wash of Tamiya Semi-Gloss Black acrylic wire from nylon monofilament and resistors
paint was applied with a fine brush to selected panel lines. The completed formed using small blobs of Krystal Kleer.
paintwork was sealed with two thin coats of Polly Scale Flat acrylic.

I used Techmod d
number 48078. 1h
and settled down b ' '11111111
lines. The only opa Ily \ II.

encountered wa with Ih.

national marking. i\llhllllll
appeared perf lIy P"II11t.
greys of the uPI' r wi .• ,.
and light blue w r 1IIIIhli I

under the whit of th,

bottom of the win
11 7

a 1944, the wat was going badly for filled with Milliput, and sanded The paint was thll1l1( I ,,1111 I I,
a hard, durable finish that will I was a bit concerned about how The same mix of flat black
o the Luftwaffe. Although aircraft smooth when the two-part epoxy of between 50 and 70 II"' ,I
~ protect the softer and more these old markings would behave. and red brown was used to
production continued almost putty had set. alcohol in order to (Jlll.1I1l I III
z vulnerable Gunze acrylic paints. In the end, I need not have worried highlight control-surface hinge
o unabated, fighters often remained I particularly like Milliput. It line without leaving '1',1111' 1\ I
f- Equally importantly, Future's high as they performed flawlessly over lines and selected panel lines.
<l: grounded due to lack of fuel or does take a little more time to mix overspray on the dMkn h,l ,
gloss offers a perfect surface for the glossy base. National markings Fine, chordwise streaks were also
> suitably trained crews. Allied the rwo-part putty prior to use, camouflage colour. I ,"\' I III
<l: decals. The unique markings for and stencils came from a Cutting applied to the wings and tail
\J fighter-bombers roamed the skies and it needs several hours to fully Testor Aztek airbn"h ,II
1111" I
Z Schnauffer's night-fighter were Edge decal sheet. planes, and some vertical stains
destroying more Luftwaffe aircraft cure. However, Milliput sets to the the fine, tan-colour'd llJlf.1I tI,
J: sourced from PO Decals 48-006, A coat of Polly Scale Flat blends were sprayed on the fuselage and
on the ground than in air-to-air approximate consistency of the delicate work.
z Messerschmitt Bf 110 G Part 1, the markings in to the surrounding engine nacelles. Heavily thinned
u. combat. With the introduction of surrounding styrene (which makes After the first
purchased nearly 20 years ago. paint job. Wartime photographs Tamiya X-18 Semi-Gloss Black
a the late-war Luftwaffe colours of sanding much easier); and it may be Light Blue, a furth r two 11,1 ,
of Messerschmitt Bf 110 night- was flowed into panel lines with
z 'feathered' at the edges, blending in were made over the ~anH'
<l: RLM 81 Brown Violet, RLM 82 ,II .1
fighters show many with filthy a fine brush. The smaller elements
with the plastic so the putty is not refining and modiryin lh. The earliest Luftwaffe night-fighters
\J Bright Green and RLM 83 Dark
Z were nothing more than day-fighters stains on the top of the wings of the model also need to be
f- Green around this time, Luftwaffe visible under thin layers of paint. camouflage pattern as I 1'1"111 \ III
expediently pressed into the nocturnal behind the bulky flame-dampening painted and weathered. The
Z night-fighter camouflage took its With this repaired damage, plus this complex styl ;lI\1Clllfl, role. These pioneers retained their day-
<l: exhausts. A very thin mix of Tamiya prominent radar array was masked
c.. final turn. These earthy and foliage the pilot's nose armour added from scheme, it is very rar I) ,H 111I ,. fighter camouflage. In the case of the
XF-l Flat Black and XF-64 Red and sprayed, including the red-
• shades were more suitable for sheet styrene, it was important to your desired result in jll\l UII,
Messerschmitt Bf 110 that meant a solid
splinter pattern of RLM 70 Black Green Brown was used for this task. Only white-red warning colours on the
concealing the night-fighters on the check that there were no lingering pass. It is almost alway' 111" II and RLM 71 Dark Green on the upper
cr: three of the exhausts were directed lower antennae. The radar and
w ground. Existing aircraft sometimes sink marks or evidence of other to res pray and tou h up 'UIII surfaces, and RLM 65 below. This Bf 109
f- over the top of the wings, so make undercarriage benefited from a
repairs. Tamiya Grey Primer was D night-fighter wears the contemporary
<l: received a squiggly coat of RLM first attempt. As I ng" 'HI II,
J: colours of RLM 02 Grey and RLM 71 sure you are paying attention when wash of thinned oil paint to add
U 81 Brown Violet, RLM 82 Bright applied straight from the aerosol spraying fine coalS, y U , III lit ,
Dark Green on the upper surfaces. painting the stains! some gnme.
Green and RLM 83 Dark Green, can for this task. A few small flaws risk a noticeable build lip uf I 11111

while new aircraft such as the were spotted and repaired after even if you have a hair ,I tI<l/11I

Heinkel He 219 and the the primer had dried. On many layers on top of th I 1.1\11
Messerchmitt Me 262 B-1 a night- Messerschmitt Bf 110 G night- Although I was r ason"hl
fighters were painted in these fighters, it is difficult to tell from satisfied with the amollfl,l "
colours during production. contemporary photos whether the pattern, I thought that tlw "'"I' I I
aircraft has a mottle of grey violet between the light bill ,11) I till 'I

PRoMoDELER'S 1/48- over light blue, or whether the was a bit too stark. I th'lI'ful
SCALE MESSERSCHMITT BF light blue has been sprayed over sprayed a very fine mi'llll' <loll III

110 G-4 NIGHT-FIGHTER the darker shade of grey violet. I RLM 76 Light r y (tllIllIl1 I."
I built ProModeler's 1/48-scale wanted to convey this ambiguity ratio of approximalcly !\O I ' I • III

Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 to in my paint job. paint to 20 per cent al 'uh,,) '"
demonstrate typical mid-war night- The first coat of paint was the entire upper Sll rr.l I", I III
fighter camouflage. This is an Gunze H69 RLM 75 Grey Violet, blended the mOld ing 10 ,I 1\ v. I
inexpensive and well-detailed kit, applied to the upper wings, the top that I found more plc.""1 '.
but it does suffer from a few of the tail planes, the rudders and The model re civcd ,I .loIl III

moulding flaws that must be dealt fuselage. Next, Gunze H417 RLM Future floor polish thlllllni \\ 1111
with prior to painting. The most 76 Light Blue was sprayed in a fine 10 per cent isopr I yll"H' ,,1< .. III I
obvious of these are several sink looping pattern, leaving areas of The coat of Futurc ~CI v 1\\11

marks on the spine. These were RLM 75 Grey Violet untouched. purposes. Firstly, FUlllII' ", It· III

...J TOP Several different camouflage
o patterns were proposed for the Ta 154,
o but this was most frequently seen on
2 operational machines. Large, irregular
z shapes of RLM 75 Grey Violet have been
o sprayed over RLM 76 Light Blue.
> MIDDLE A handful of Messerschmitt
Me 262 B-1 a/U1 night-fighters saw
z action in the last weeks of the war.
:c These advanced aircraft were originally
Vl delivered as trainers, so would have
z most likely worn the standard late-war
colours of RLM 81 Brown Violet and
o RLM 83 Dark Green. In this example,
« I have assumed that the day trainer
\) camouflage has simply been
z overs prayed with a late-war sky shade
f- to deliver an expedient night-fighter
BonOM The Ta 154 wal It pi' ,.1 camouflage.
0.. venture aircraft develop d lIy Ilnlo
• Kurt Tank of Focke-Wulf, 'hll II 1111 BonOM This is ProModeler's 1/48-
scale Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 kit
performance aircraft f aWl tl th. "
ex: colours in a different arrant) 1111'1\1 finished as night-fighter ace Heinz-
u.J Wolfgang Schnauffer's aircraft mid-
Cl. career in early 1944.

The model has now received a coat of
o grey Tamiya primer, straight from the
~ can. The value of the primer coat is that
z it offers a good base for the following
o paint, but it also highlights any lingering
I- imperfections. The infamous sink marks
on the spine needed a second round of
<t: filling, sanding and scribing. A sink line
lJ MIDDLE LEFT had also formed on the pilot's nose
Z armour due to excess glue.


Z With the final repairs complete, the upper
<t: surfaces were treated to a coat of Gunze-

Sangyo Aqueous H69 RLM 75 Grey
Violet. Gunze acrylic paints spray well and
are usually quite glossy straight from the
0:: bottle, but I find that they remain soft on
l- the surface of the model and are prone to
<t: show fingerprints if they are not quickly
protected with a topcoat.

Gunze H417 RLM 76 Light Blue was next

on the painting agenda, sprayed in a fine,
looping pattern starting with the wings.
It is essential to adequately thin the paint
for this step. The ratio will vary but you
can expect to use between 50 per cent
and 70 per cent thinners to permit fine
lines without overspray and spatter.

-' TOP The basic camouflage colours
o now receive an overcoat of Future
o floor polish applied via the Aztek A470
2 airbrush. I thinned the Future with
z around 10 per cent isopropylene
o alcohol, which helped speed the drying
« time of this relatively thick liquid. The
> hard, glossy coat of Future provides
« protection for the soft Gunze paints,
LJ and an ideal surface for decals.
VI MIDDLE Markings were sourced from
z PD Decals 48-006, Messerschmitt Bf 110
G Part 1. I bought these decals in 1989,
and held some concern about how these /
« old markings would work. In the end,
I need not have worried as they
Z performed flawlessly over the glossy
~ At this point the fin; h I base. National markings and stencils
Z 76 Light Blue over lh dtllkl" II came from a Cutting Edge decal sheet.
« shade. Our objecliv ; I (11.,1
mottled effect wh r Il \ till" III' BOTTOM LEFT A coat of Polly Scale
• determine wheth rill dtllk p,ll , Flat blends the markings in to the
light, or light painl ov I hI! I surrounding paint job. The large
u.J second round of ov r pI tlY I surfaces look a little bland though,
"- to commence. especially the wings. We will do
« something about that right now.
BOTTOM RIGHT Wartime photographs
of Messerschmitt Bf 110 night-fighters
show many with filthy stains on the top
of the wings behind the bulky flame-
dampening exhausts. A very thin mix of
Tamiya XF-1 Flat Black and XF-64 Red
Brown was used for this task. Only three
of the exhausts were directed over the
top of the wings, so make sure you
The Gunze RLM 76 Li hl IIhll I are paying attention when painting
applied more heavily all lh WII the stains!
fuselage and tail plan ,d,lIv"Il'
something closer lo lh In til, I
we are hoping for.


RIGHT The complex greenhouse

canopy has self-adhesive Fast Frames
applied. These are quite effective and,
as the name implies, much faster than
masking a complex structure such
as this. Note the subtle repeated
application of very thin, fine streaks to
build up the exhaust stains. The wing
walkway chipping may also be seen
from this angle. This is simply RLM 75
paint applied with a fine brush.

RIGHT Small details such as the

protruding 30mm cannon barrels,
various trailing antennae and the
top aerial mast were painted with a
combination of airbrush and fine

BELOW The large radar array dominates

the nose of the Messerschmitt Bf 110
G-4, creating the impression of a giant
menacing insect - not entirely
inappropriate considering its wartime
role. Night-fighter camouflage finish is
one of the most challenging painting
tasks, but can also be one of the most
impressive if done properly.

ABOVE The smaller el m n15 f lh,

model also need to b p Inl d ,til I
weathered. The prom In '11 ra Ii\( .111.,
was masked and spray d, In 11itlII!CI
the red-white-red warnin IQUI
on the lower antenna . I h r,ldlll
1 and undercarriage b n iiI d hll'l!
a wash of thinned oil paint I • hi
some grime.

LEFT The detail parts hav hI I I!

added and the mod I i fln ••lly '1111111'
on its own undercarrla I • J' I III
camouflage effect on th lIPI 'f
wings is quite differ nt t Ih,1l I'
the fuselage - a fairly mm n " ,.11I,.
of these late-war night-Ii ht 'f
126 I

o may be applied straight from the eliminate seam lines, sink marks for decals. Markings were sourced
o can or decanted into a jar for and scratches. The smooth surface from Red Roo Models' 'Boring
z spraying through your airbrush. was now treated to two thin coats Old Silver' decal series, plus
o 2. Floquil Old Silver enamel paint. of Tamiya's AS-12 Airframe Silver, national markings and stencils
« Floquil also offers a colour decanted and applied with my from the Xtrakit decal sheet. The
« called Bright Silver, but this may Testor Aztek A470 airbrush. This markings all setrled down nicely
be a bit too shiny and metallic synthetic lacquer sprays beautifully, over the Tamiya silver paint with
J: for a painted silver finish. covers well and has an almost the assistance of Micro-Set and
Many British and invisible grain. Micro-Sol. Once the decals had
LL Commonwealth jet aircraft of British and Commonwealth set, the model received an overall
o the 1950s were painted in an silver aircraft of the 1950s and coat of Polly Scale Flat. This
« aluminium shade known as 1960s were generally well delivered a convincing depiction
high-speed silver. maintained, with relatively minor of the dull silver paint seen on
f- I recently built Xtrakit's 1/72- weathering. A thin mix of Tamiya's RAAF Meteors in action during
scale Gloster Meteor F Mk 8 in XF-1 Black and XF-64 Red Brown the Korean War.
the markings of No. 77 Squadron was sprayed sparingly along
• RAAF during the Korean War. control-surface hinge lines, plus
Interior surfaces (except the cockpit)
cr: A silver finish will highlight any selected panels around the nose
w were painted silver too. The wheel wells
f- surface imperfections, so the plastic and engine nacelles. The glossy and interiors of the engine intakes were
« was filled, sanded and polished to silver finish was sufficient as a base sprayed silver during assembly.
PAINTING SILVER powder offered additional This is Xtrakit's 1/72-scal
AND METALLIC protection for the fabric, and also Mk 8 wearing the colour
Squadron RMF during I
FINISHES reflected heat from the surface of
Korean War. Most British air r.1l uf
SILVER-PAINTED FINISH the aircraft. 1950s and 1960s wer n t b,lI. I
Some aircraft may appear to be When metal-skinned aircraft They were finished in sill' r p.lIl1\ t
offer some protection from til
bare metal at first glance, but closer came onto the scene, dope was
elements, yet providing a lillI" ,
examination will reveal even colour not required but the surface now low-drag coating.
and a low sheen. These are the needed protection from corrosion.
attributes of an aircraft that is Silver pigment was created from
painted silver. From the earliest aluminium powder and applied as Silver lacquer painl " 111101111

years of aviation, many fabric- a painted finish on the airframe. as a protective coat 01' 1.111 111I
covered aircraft were painted in Silver paint effectively protects the too. A good sele li n 01 ill. I
silver dope. Dope is a lacquer metal airframe from corrosion, model paints is avail.llll' <Ill II
applied to tighten the fabric, reflects light and is the most market, but mode lieI" ,hllllill
improve overall rigidity and protect efficient colour to help dissipate for silver paint Wilh ,I 1\'1 \ III
the aircraft. A colour was usually the heat of the metal. Another grain so that it will nOI "II II

added to the clear dope to ensure advantage of a silver finish is that 'sparkly' in small s , II',
even coverage. Silver dope it is aerodynamically slippery, My two suggesli n, ,'10'

contained aluminium powder as the generating minimal drag and 1. Tamiya AS-12 AlIf',lI'" .1
colouring agent. The aluminium therefore enhancing performance. in an aerosol can. I III I II t
128 129

...J A silver finish can b v 'y unl I II 11'/ II
Cl will highlight even mall II11Jl. tl, I
o on the underlying pia II \11 h .,
scratches left after andl119. t I I I
z flaws (sink marks, j t r Jl"\, ,... ) II
is therefore essential t (III ,III '1"1' .Il
~ sand the entire surla f 1111 1111 "
> a smooth base for th IIv (I .,Inl



I- In this instance. Tamiya A I) A ,tr·"
Silver was used for th oV ",II nit "
0.. This is synthetic lacqu r paint In., I

• can with excellent cov ra <111••11111

When sprayed direct Ir m thl .,n,
however, an orange p I If tIll.,
u.J result. This may b avoid d Ily
a. decanting the paint into a 111.,11""
J: then applying the paint with y lit
U airbrush.

BARE-METAL FINISH Preparation is the key. The Gloss or flat coats may impair the finish,
Metallic finishes are common on metallic finish will only be as good but the glossy silver finish may be
sufficient as a base for decals. That was
modern and World War II aircraft. as the surface over which it is
the case here. Markings were sourced
A bare metal finish has a unique sprayed. If the surface of the from Red Roo Models' 'Boring Old
appearance, quite different from plastic is less than completely Silver' decal series, plus national
markings and stencils from the Xtrakit
painted silver. The reflectivity of perfect, the metallic paint job
British silver aircraft 01 th I 0\" I decal sheet.
1960s were generally w II 1ll111ll.1II' I the surface may vary on the same will amplify any blemishes.
with relatively minor w ath (II" II airframe from very shiny in some For a long time I have been
mix of Tamiya's XF-1 Bla k .Itld "0 I
areas to very dull in others. looking for an excuse to build one Extra Thin Liquid Cement, and
Red Brown was spray d p. dll'lly
along control-surfa hln 1111", 1'111 Alloys used on different panels of the striking 'Blue Nose Birds almost no filler was required.
selected panels around th 11 \ .11 cl may be distinctly different shades. of Bodney' - a P-51 Mustang This perfect surface straight from
engine nacelles. Oxidization or staining may form of the 352nd Fighter Group. the box is a real advantage when
on unprotected surfaces. The result I built Tamiya's 1/48-scale planning a bare-metal finish. With
might be a patchwork of different P-51 B Mustang for this pl'Oject. assembly complete, the cockpit,
metallic effects on a single Although this model does have wheel wells and intakes were
airframe. This may be one of the some inaccuracies (mainly in the blocked off and the model was
most demanding and exacting cockpit), the fit is almost perfect. ready for paint.
finishes that a modeller will All the main join lines vanished The Alclad II range of metallic
ever attempt. under a thin application of Tamiya finishes is a high-tech option for
1 31
modellers. Adequate ventilation coat, which resulted in an opaque many small decals. The smooth With the decals set, the model received
o plus respiratory protection using bare metal effect. metallic finish required no further
an overall coat of Polly Scale Flat. This
~ created a convincing depiction of the
a facemask is essential whenever Alclad II offers dozens of preparation before the decals
z dull silver paint seen on RAAF Meteors
o using Alclad II primers and different metallic shades. In this were applied. After decaling was in action during the Korean War.
« finishes. The model was first given case, I used four - Aluminium complete, I carefully sprayed the
« two fine coats of Alclad 1I Grey Shades A, B, C and D. Various markings with Polly Scale Flat.
LJ Primer. The grey primer acts as panels were masked with Tamiya The bright blue nose and wing tips
a 'key' to provide grip for the tape in preparation for application received a high gloss coat of Future,
metallic coats to follow. of the different Alclad II shades. also sprayed through my Testor
The first coat of Alclad D's In some cases the distinction Aztek A470 airbrush. Combined
Cl Aluminium Shade A was so thinly between shades is very subtle, but with the varied panels and pleasing
« applied that it revealed the primer is nevertheless effective. With the sheen of the metallic surfaces, the
LJ coat beneath. It is important to metallic shades in place, I masked alternate gloss on the nose and flat
f- be patient when using Alclad II, the black and white invasion markings lent even more interest The finished model can be seen here
Z as a thick coat will deliver an with the undercarriage and canopy
stripes, and cut special contoured to this attractive scheme.
« fitted. The even, low-sheen silver-
c.. unconvincing result. The first masks for the distinctive blue nose.
painted finish has a significantly
• Alclad II coat was lightly polished Decals were sourced from Eagle
The markings all settled down nicely
different appearance to bare metal.
with Micro-Mesh 4,000- and Strike's 'Blue Nose Birds of Bodney' over the Tamiya silver paint with the
w 6,000-grit cloths before the second series. This marking option includes assistance of Micro-Set and Micro-Sol.

-- -
6 \

Natural metal finishes are quite

\~O different to painted silver aircraft. The level of sheen may vary from a chrome
sparkle to dull oxidization, sometimes both on different parts of the same aircraft.
Different types of metal also display different characteristics in terms of colour and
shading. Tamiya's 1/48-scale P-51 B Mustang will be our natural metal test case.

u.J The interior was sprayed a mixed green Although the curved cockpit floor is
o colour per Tamiya's instruction - two
o parts XF-3 Yellow and one part XF-5
In orrect for the P-51 Band C models
~ (It was first introduced in the P-51 D),
Green. The only non-standard addition
z to the cockpit was the harness. The
lh interior of Tamiya's kit is impressive.
o ar ful painting, largely with the
I- straps ere cut from lead foil, while the airbrush, will enhance and highlight the
buckles and restraints were cut from d tail moulded into the plastic parts.
> plastic sheet and fine wire.



Z The battery and radio box detail in the
~ The cockpit was treated to a wash with rear of the cockpit was masked with
c.. thinned oil paint before the fuselage amiya tape to ensure crisp demarcation
• halves were closed. This was a mix of between the different colours.
Winsor and Newton Raw Umber and
n: Lamp Black, reduced to the consistency
I- of water using odourless thinners.
~ Tamiya's instrument decals may be
seen in this image too.

Tamiya's thoughtful planning of parts

on the sprues and the location of sprue
Although it will be largely obscured
attachment points makes it possible to
inside the fuselage behind the access
paint many smaller parts while they are
door, the rear radiator face features
still on their plastic runners. This makes
fine finned detail. Once again, careful
handling much easier, especially for
painting will extract the most out of the
smaller parts.
realistic textures. The main face of the
radiator has been sprayed silver, with
the cooling grille highlighted using
an oil wash.
134 135

u.J Some models just seem to build 'h various intakes, the cockpit and
o themselves. Tamiya's 1/48-scale P-51 B th wheel well need to be plugged
o was effortless to assemble, with no
~ b lore painting to avoid the ingress of
gaps, steps or seams anywhere on the v rspray. The undercarriage covers will
o airframe. This is good news as it saves n d to be painted anyway, so they are
I- time on filling and sanding. bing temporarily secured into the closed
« position using balls of Blu-Tack. These
« will ellectively mask the wheel well.


« The Alclad II range of metallic finishes is
o a high-tech option for modellers. This
I- brand produces several primers, and a
In addition to the cockpit and radiator
Z wide selection of metallic shades and
areas, the wheel wells were also painted
« tints. Here, the model has already been
0.. prior to final assembly. The delicate racks
sprayed with two fine coats of Alclad II
• for the drop tanks were also installed at
this stage, but it is sometimes wiser to
Grey Primer. Adequate ventilation plus
respiratory protection using a facemask
e>: leave these details off the airframe until
u.J is essential whenever using Alclad II
after painting as they can easily be
e>. primers and finishes.
damaged or broken off.

A bare-metal finish requires a perfectly

smooth surface. The smallest scratch
or blemish, even those invisible to
the naked eye on bare plastic, will
be dazzlingly amplified by the shiny The grey primer acts as a 'key' to
metallic coat. Here, the model is being provide grip for the metallic coats
polished with Micro-Mesh cloths to to lollow. The first coat of Alclad II's
prepare the plastic for its primer coat. Aluminium Shade A has been applied.
Note that it is still translucent, revealing
the primer coat beneath. It is important
to be patient when using Alclad II, as a
thick coat will deliver an unconvincing
result. The first Alclad II coat is being
lightly polished with Micro-Mesh
4,000- and 6,000-grit cloths.

UJ The second coat of Alclad II Aluminium
o Shade II delivers solid metallic coverage.
o At this point, if there were any
scratches, seam lines, putty ridges or
o other surface imperfections, they would
I- be glaringly obvious. Fortunately, that
« is not the case here. The base shade is
« being buffed with a soft cloth.

I- I often get to this stage of painting and
think, 'It looks pretty good right now.
Cl. Maybe I should not risk adding more

• metallic shades.' Fortune favours the

brave, though, and most real-life bare-
0: metal aeroplanes display marked
I- contrast between different areas of
the airframe.

L RIGHT The white section of

Ih trip has been sprayed and
Alclad II offers dozens of different 1lI,I k d In pr paration for the black
metallic shades. In this case, I used four
- Aluminium Shades A, B, C and D.
Various panels were masked with
Tamiya tape in preparation for
application of the different Alclad II
shades. In some cases the distinction
between shades is very subtle, but is
nevertheless effective.
are must be taken to
IV I fJ 'llin while or black overspray
011 \h ar fully applied metallic
III' IInds. I did nol use pure black for
lilt" \\rIp s a I lhoughl it would be too
\.lfk In lhi cale. Inslead, I mixed 50
nl ft miya XF-l Flat Black with
p r nl XF-64 Red Brown.

hll III r major masking job remains.
o 1I\1,"'Cj f th US 352nd Fighter
~ , 'Il f Jtur d striking blue noses. The
z • ""II ,Ill n b tween the blue nose and
o 1/. II,.t,",,1 m tal fuselage is a complex
f- h." A painting template was cut
h"lll pup r and transferred onto
« 0. 1111 l"mlya masking tape.

z I If,'W th outline of the paper template
f- MIlo th ma king tape with a 2B pencil.
1111 If ·adhesive mask was then cut to
a. I"'pl' with a new blade in my hobby
• 11111' 1hi process was repeated for
1/ . rt Id .


I II' fl. d the tackiness of the tape

I ,hll I uring the masks to either side
'tlu fu lage. Additional protection
.1 pr ff r d to the fuselage and wings

.,h " n rous application of 4011'111'1

.1 kin tape.

01'1' IT TOP Before the boundary

I Il\k\ w r removed, the flat black and
hili' tripes were sprayed with Future
II, II P Ii h. This hard, glossy coat
f'rtllr t th acrylic paint, and also
"II,'t th best surface for decals.

(I'll IT BOnOM The result is a nice

"t f bla k and white invasion stripes
1111 th lower fuselage of our Mustang.
140 141


<l: ABOVE LEFT The importance of
lJ pr cisely masked nose markings
Z ABOVE The colour of the nose was b omes obvious here. Eagle Strike
I- a fairly vibrant medium blue, roughly pr vides narrow border decals for the
Z equivalent to FS 2S 102. I mixed this blu nose. There is very little margin
0.. shade using the paint from two Tamiya f r rror. In fact, our nose-masking
'TS' series spray cans - TS-44 Brilliant
• Blue and TS-14 Black. These paints were
t mplate was based on these border
d cals. Fortunately, our careful masking
decanted into a plastic container and has paid off here - the decal perfectly
UJ mixed at proportions of approximately m tches the demarcation.
0- 80 per cent blue and 20 per cent black.
I ABOVE RIGHT Once again, Tamiya's
U TOP LEFT The aerosol paints were thoughtful sprue planning means that
allowed to settle for a few minutes. w can save some time. Here, we have
This permits the cold compressed liquid painted, added decals to and flat-coated
to warm to room temperature, and also all four propeller blades before even
allows the propellant to bleed from the r moving them from the sprue.
paint. Once stable, the paint was loaded
into my airbrush paint cup and sprayed MIDDLE I wanted to show contrast
onto the nose of the Mustang. b tween a high-gloss cowl, the low
m tallic sheen of the main airframe,
MIDDLE The same colour was also and the flat-painted invasion stripes.
present on the wing tips. These were 1 I h cowl was therefore selectively
masked and sprayed while the airbrush prayed with two coats of Future floor
was still loaded. The blue markings polish, thinned with 10 per cent
make an immediate impact on the opropylene alcohol. The invasion
airframe. tripes were finished with a thin
ov rage of Polly Scale Flat.
BonOM LEFT Decals were sourced
from Eagle Strike's series, 'Blue Nose B nOM RIGHT Detail parts were
Birds of Bodney'. This marking option p, Inted and weathered at this point.
includes many small decals. The smooth
metallic finish required no further
preparation before the decals were
142 143

-" TOP Note that even the main wheels
u.J led,
0 featured a unique unit marking, one half
of the hub being finished in medium
blue and the other half in red. The
0 wheels were masked and sprayed in
I- these colours. The canopy was also
masked using Tamiya tape. Some light
<{ weathering was applied to the landing
() gear and undercarriage doors.
I MIDDLE Although the wartime scheme
is undoubtedly striking, I did take
some liberties in the interests of this
demonstration. For a start, the wings
Z of the real Mustang would have been
puttied smooth and painted silver. It
() is also unlikely that the nose would be
z this glossy after any time in service.
<{ BonOM Nevertheless, the
c.. ~
combination of the bare-metal finish
• 5 with the blue nose and all those wild
\0 ~\\\I'll\n markings makes for a unique model.
144 145

uJ 11'111' the paintbrush.This section provides a tough base coat for the horizontal surfaces such as the
o PAINTING AND FINISHING 11l'ludes several illustrated case metal parts, minimising the risk of engine deck and turret roof, with
\111 lies demonstrating different paint chipping or flaking off and a thin mix of around 75 per cent
ARMOUR MODELS II hniques for single and multiple revealing bright brass or copper. RLM 82 and 25 per cent Flat
,1111 u nage colours, and the effects ext, the entire lower huLl and White. This just breaks up the
Most airbrushing techniques are common to aircraft and armour models, but weathering and other
01" bOlh black and dark brown running gear were sprayed with uniformity of the green prior to
details may differ. This chapter examines several armour model case studies, with particular reference
I'rc--hading coats. Tamiya XF-l Flat Black. The application of further weathering.
to supplementary weathering techniques.
insides of the turret hatches also I find that Gunze paints are
KV-85 received this treatment. The base great to spray, but they do tend to
1\ single colour camouflage scheme camouflage coat followed. I wanted be fairly fragile once they are on
o need not be boring. I built a Soviet to use a fairly light shade, as it will the model. Gunze paints seem
PAINTING especially acrylic paint - can easily angles. Areas that would fall under 1/48- cale KV-85 based on be darkened considerably by future to be especially susceptible to
lJ I.lIniya's KV-l and Gaso.Line's weathering, so I chose Gunze- fingerprints. I therefore sealed the
Z ARMOURED lift off during masking or even natural shadows receive only a
f- VEHICLES general handling without the translucent layer of the camouflage l'xcellenc multimedia conversion. Sangyo acrylic RLM 82 Light base camouflage coat with Polly
0<{ Although we have focused on 'tooth' offered by a primer coat. colour. Tracks and the rubber tyres \Vhen construction was complete, Green H422. This was sprayed on
c.. I prayed the entire model using the entire upper hull and turret, and
aircraft models so far, the same There are specific metal primers of road-wheels should be ignored. Tamiya's 1/48-scale KV-l has been
• airbrush techniques apply to available, but a generic grey primer Don't worry if they are affected by I;lmiya Grey Primer straight from generally on the wheels and lower upgraded to the more potent KV-85
Ihe can. This helps identify any hull, leaving the tracks basic black. with resin and photo-etched metal
~ armour and military vehicle models. should do the job too. overspray though, as we can easily
uJ conversion parts from Gaso.Line. The
f- There are a number of differences After my armour model is touch up the black areas when remaining gaps or surface problems I also added a few vertical
a. process of painting a 1/48-scale vehicle
worth mentioning though. primed, I like to start with a pre- camouflage painting is complete. before the camouflage and streaks on the hull and turret sides, is exactly the same as finishing one of
U More frequently than aircraft shading coat of flat black paint. As an alternative to a black weathering are applied. It also plus som~ random mottling on the its larger-scale equivalents.

kits, military models will include This makes painting the tracks pre-shading coat, dark brown
multimedia external parts. These and rubber tyres of the road wheels may also be used. This substitutes
might include brass wire grab easier, but more importantly the as an underlying layer of dirt and
rails, photo-etched engine grilles black paint will remain in natural dried mud. Depending on how
and turned-metal barrels. Resin shadow areas after the camouflage dirty the vehicle will be, there will
conversions or even full kits are colours and weathering has been be a greater or lesser amount of
quite commonly seen too. applied. For this reason, it camouflage colour applied on the
In these instances, a few is important to spray a very front, rear and sides of the hull.
additional preparation steps are thorough coat of flat black that Camouflage patterns are as varied
advisable. For resin kits and will penetrate all the nooks and on tanks and military vehicles as
conversions, all the parts should crannies of the suspension, the they are on aircraft. For soft-edged,
be washed and lightly scrubbed in lower hull, the deep detail of multi-colour camouflage schemes,
a container of warm, soapy water track links and the hidden recesses the disruptive colours should be
to completely remove any trace of the rack guards, upper hull thinned adequately to avoid
of mould release agent that might and turret. overs pray and spatter.
interfere with paint adhesion. We do not want to completely More so than aircraft models,
Kits with metal parts should cover this black pre-shading coat, our tanks and military vehicles will
always be primed to offer some so the basic camouflage colour probably be supplemented with
grip to the later layers of paint. should be applied in fine misting more techniques employing pencils,
Paint applied to bare metal - coats from one or two consistent pastel chalks, oil washes and effects
146 147

uJ The multimedia heritage of our 1/48- I 1 Ii w v ttl <11 tr ak on the hull and turret sides, plus some random mottling on the
a scale KV-85 can be appreciated in this IIf 1 1 I IU h as the engine deck and turret roof, with a thin mix of around 75 per cent RLM
o view. It is especially important to ensure pI I (('Ill l<1mlya XF·2 Flat White. This just breaks up the uniformity of the green prior to
that the exposed metal parts are , III tutlh I w athering.
::J properly prepared for paint.
MIDDLE LEFT The turret numbers were
z hand painted. First, I pencilled the
numbers onto the painted turret, using
a masking tape to align the top and
« bottom of the digits. It was then a
lJ matter of very carefully painting the
z numbers using a fine brush and Tamiya
z The paint job commenced with the X-2 Gloss White paint. There was much
« entire model, using Tamiya Grey Primer trial and error, with all of the digits
Q. corrected and repainted several times.
straight from the can. This helps identify
• any remaining gaps or surface problems
before the camouflage and weathering
cr are applied. It also provides a tough
f- basecoat for the metal parts, minimizing
« the risk of paint chipping or flaking off
and revealing bright brass or copper.

MI L· RIGHT Next, I painted rust

hp nd scratches onto the entire
Next, the entire lower hull and running
v hi I using a mix of Tamiya Dark
gear were sprayed Tamiya XF-l Flat
I 'y, Red Brown and Black. Once again,
Black (acrylic). The insides of the turret
my airbrusll was holstered and the
hatches also received this treatment.
w apon of choice was a fine paintbrush.
The base camouflage coat followed. I
I" hips and scratches were subdued
chose Gunze-Sangyo acrylic RLM 82
I y ubsequent weathering.
Light Green. This was sprayed on the
entire upper hull and turret, and RI liT Some of the details on the hull
generally on the wheels and lower hull,
w r painted now too, such as the
leaving the tracks basic black. (xh, usts on the engine deck and the
pM track links. The same familiar 5:5
mix of Tamiya XF-l Flat Black and XF-64
R d Brown was used for these features.
N t that the tracks retain their original
bla k basecoat, speeding the later
pro 5S of detail painting
t111d weathering.
In this image, an overall wash of
o .Ih lh mud and dirt now reduced
o lamp black mixed with raw umber in
I III t r a on able level, more detail
~ approximately equal portions has been
11l111l1C) .lnd final weathering was
ex: applied to the vehicle. The model was
:J 11111 t d. The inside of the headlight
placed in the sunshine to dry. The wash
o • 1",lnt d with Tamiya X-ll Silver.
~ pools in low areas, adding a generally
ex: 1,... "1 -, paint was used for its fine
grimy appearance to the paintwork
'1I,lln Jnd bright finish. The tow cables
and blending in chips and other
\J til I hJ kl s were painted with the
Z weathering measures.
hi•• klr d-brown mix and dirtied
V) III what.

I h airbrush finally received another
Z Pastel chalk in various ruddy and
,h rt workout when the black exhaust
c.. earthy tones were mixed with mineral 'Itlln were sprayed onto the edges of
turpentine and liberally applied to the
• tracks and wheels, lower hull and rear
lh ngine deck, outboard of the two
h ust pipes.
hull plate.

This was initially too heavy, resembling

large clumps of dried mud on the
tracks, so some was removed with a
small stiff brush. The same treatment
was applied to the wheels and the S ale Flar, an acrylic £lar coal' dur The second vehicle, '5215', also vehicle. First, I pencilled the
rear hull. is very durable. has a small dot after the number numbers onto the painted turret,
One of rhe rare phowgraphs on the real' of the turret. The using masking tape w align the wp
of this type shows a line of photo docs not show rhe side and borrom of the digits. It was
perational KV-85s of the 1452nd number, so I could not tell if it then a matter of very carefully
I leavy Self-Propelled Artillery was present in all three positions. I painting the numbers using a fine
I egiment. attached w the 512th do not know if this was a tactical brush and Tamiya Gloss White
I ndependent Tank Battalion, on the marking or just a local aberration. paint (1 started with Flat White
,treet of liberated Evpawria in After considering many different but it dried wo guickly)'
pril 1944. These vehicles feature ways of applying the numbers, I There was much trial and error,
1.1I·ge, four-digit numbers on the finally decided w bite the bullet with all of the digits corrected and
"des and rear of the turrets. and hand paint them onto the repainted several times. The digits
150 151

Ir. k w re painted with a 5:5 mix of
o I IIlUy,1 XF-1 Flat Black and XF-64 Red
o Drllwn, followed by a heavy, wet coat
III MI Productions' 'European Dust'
"111m ·nl. Once dry, the excess was
IlI\IIh d orf, and the track pads were
hllJhllght d with graphite powder.

Z Rtll1dom scratching was added to the
« p,llntwork using the ubiquitous mixture
f Tamiya Flat Black and Red Brown .
• ABOVE The finishing touches to A generous wash of raw umber KV-'
I inal weathering comprised a wet mix
Gaso.Line's , /4B-scale KV-B5 conversion of uropean Dust applied to various
and lamp black, rhinned wirh For most of World War II, Soviet til as with the excess once again
'"f-w included brush painting the machine-
odourless thinners, was applied with vehicles were finished in uniform brushed off.
gun barrels in gunmetal, and applying
« metal highlights to the track pads in a large soft brush over the entire camouflage of overall dark green,
U natural wear areas using the tip of
model. The wet model was allowed with only the occasional winter
a common 2B graphite pencil.
to dry overnight, after which the coat to liven things up. However,
dark wash remained only in rhe when Soviet vehicles fell Into
do not really correspond to the crevices and natural shadow areas of enemy hands, their new owners
exact style seen in the photo, but the model. Weathering was finished would often repaint them in
hopefully they look Soviet! Next, off with pastel chalks, scuffing of German colours and add oversized
I painted rust chips and scratches the track pads with a 2B pencil and markings to ensure that they were
onto the entire vehicle using a detail painting of pans not targeted by their own forces. unze acrylic German Dark Yellow was
mix ofTamiya Dark Grey, with the ubiquitous Andrew Judson finished u d as the base colour, followed by a
Red Brown and Black. black/red-brown mix. Trumpeter's 1/ 35-scale KV-l as quiggly application of Tamiya XF-64
R d Brown and XF-58 Olive Green.
Once again, the weapon a German war prize in front-line
fhe colours were softened and blended
of choice was a fine action. In addition to the intricate using Mig Productions' Standard
paint brush. three-colour camouflage pattern Tricolour German Filter. This is a liquid
w athering aid applied to the entire
applied with the Aztek airbrush,
amouflage surface of the model.

LEFT Andrew Judson finished

Trumpeter's' /35-scale KV-' Soviet tank
in a complex colour scheme applied by
the German Army after capture. All
paints were applied with the Aztek A470
double-action airbrush fitted with the
grey general-purpose nozzle.

o a number of supplementary Production kit. The first step was Using Tamiya's instruction ramiya's 1/35-scale Hetzer is a beautiful
o weathering methods were employed to spray the model in an overall
model straight from the box. It is easy
~ diagram as reference, the
and fast to build. In fact, it would be
ex: including filter washes, chipping coat of Tamil'a XF-1 Flat Black. camouflage pattern was now drawn th ideal candidate for a first-time
o with a fine paint brush, dusting I was careful to reach every nook onto the green surface with a tlrmour modeller or a convert from car
~ with pastel chalk and the addition r aircraft modelling. The kit was built
ex: and cranny, including the nether brown artist's pencil. This, in turn,
« Imost straight from the box.
of mud to the tracks and lower regions of the lower hull and the acted as a guide to a brush-painted
z hull surfaces. insides of the tracks. In addition outline in each of the additional (
I to helping identify imperfections
camouflage colours. At this stage
z PAINTING A HARD-EDGED before the camouflage colours are the paint job looks pretty bad, and
u.. GERMAN WORLD WAR II applied, this black coat will be a some serious self-discipline was
z good base for the track colour reCJuired to continue! Polly Scale
« I wanted to replicate the typically and for deep shadows. acrylic Panzer Green and Vallejo
z hard-edged camouflage of the Next came the base camouflage Panzer Red Brown were used
f- Hetzer ambush scheme in 1/35 The sole modification was extra texture
coloul:. Out of the three for these additional colours.
Z applied to the gun mantlet and the
« scale, but I did not want to camouflage colours, it is hard Skirts and smaller details were xhaust. Tamiya Surfacer was brushed
completely brush paint the to tell which colour might have painted separately. 1I1ickly onto these plastic parts and
• camouflage, nor to mask the been applied first. I took a punt allowed to partially dry for a few
seconds before stippling the surface
ex: pattern. I was concerned that brush and chose dark yellow and
One of the most challenging colour with the end of a stiff paintbrush.
f- painting would leave out-of-scale Gunze-Sangyo German Dark
schemes on any type of model is the This effect will be visible underneath
« brush marks, while a masked Yellow was used for this coat. I the final paint scheme.
I hard-edged late-war 'ambush' scheme
U pattern always looks, well, masked! I did not worry too much about used on selected German armoured
therefore decided on a middle route. vehicles. This is Tamiya's 1/35-scale
full coverage on the lower hull
Hetzer finished in such a scheme. My
My canvas for this project was and tracks, but the upper hull approach was hybrid use of airbrush,
Tamiya's 1/35-scale Hetzer Mid- was thoroughly covered. pencil and paintbrush.

Now the painted outline was The shapes of these small flecks Some of these late-war Hetzers
'coloured in' with the airbrush. The vary greatly from spots, to were marked wi th a sim pI ified
camouflage colours were heavily triangles, to rectangles, to less black cross on the hull. I used the
lhinned and very carefully sprayed identifiable and random forms. kit decals as a guide, cutting the
inside the painted outlines. This A selection of small shapes was black section of the cross out of
Slarts to improve the untidy painted by hand on the vehicle the paper backing sheet and using
finish, but not much. At this using a fine brush. Dark yellow the reverse side of the sheet as a
slage I checked the pattern against flecks were applied to the green painting template. The first stage
Tamiya's instructions and made and brown areas, while the dark of weathering involved a selective
several corrections to the pattern. yellow camouflage sparred green oil wash. Lamp black and raw
One of the key features of flecks. Vallejo paints were mixed umber oil painrs were heavily
I he ambush scheme is the small to match the main camouflage thinned with odourless thinners,
flecks of contrasting colours on colours, thanks to their superior and then applied to rows of bolts,
I he large blocks of camouflage. brush-painting CJualities. weld beads and other structural

154 155

-' The first painting stage is a
uJ 'Il'll I' featured alternately coloured
o basecoat of Tamiya XF-l Flat Black. I ... dwh els. The green and red-brown
o This coat is applied thoroughly in
2 .If"ouflage used here comes from Polly
all the nooks and crannies of the "I ' armour colour range. The
:J kit, as these will be the natural I lour have been roughly sprayed on
o shadow areas retaining the dark thl wh els without regard to the black
2 paint after the camouflage colours
a: rllll for the tyres at this stage.
<l: have been applied. The armour
l) skirts and remote machine gun
assembly also receive this black
Vl coat.

I h first stage of tackling this complex
Z (h m is marking the outline using a
<l: A real cocktail of different paint cfMk brown artist's pencil. The
brands was employed for this lllv,l"tage of this pencil is that any
• project. The basic camouflage lllllrll nded residue will blend with the

colour, German dark yellow, was 11I1I\h d camouflage scheme.

uJ sourced from Gunze Sangyo's
e>. Aqueous acrylic range. This colour
<l: was only applied to the upper hull
U and its fixtures.



Note that all the tools, spare •.ltlln's. Some subtle vereical Firsr, rhe ryres and rracks were and rear hull plare using a
tracks, tow cables and other I' .Ik,ng was also brushed onto couched up wirh flar black as slurry of pasrel chalk mixed
fittings have been installed prior to III hull. The wash was rhen Iefr required. Nexr, the machinc gun, wirh odourless rhinners (mineral
painting. I feel that this method
I II')' overnight. spare rracks, cools and exhausr rurpenrine would do rhe same
helps blend the smaller parts with
the whole vehicle, although some \ 'I h the wash rhoroughly dry, wcre painted with a Fine brush. rrick). This mixture, once dry,
modellers prefer to leave these ".Iyed the enrire model wirh I did nor wanr to obscure rhe wo"r rub off wirh handling. You
details off the model until painting
I' .II}' "i all' Flat. j wan red a dead camouflage wirh wearhering, bur I can also mix different-coloured
is complete.
1.1 '"mh bUl rhis coar lefr a very did want co convey rhe imprcssion pastcl chalks co obrain varicry
'I ·111 sheen, so j applied a second of a vehicle rhar had seen some in the Finish. Do keep in mind,
lt \\11 h the same result. A rhird use. Pasrel chalk was used co give a rhough, thar rhe slurry is much
II ll.lI. lhis rime using Gunze slighdy oxidized appearance co rhe darker when wcr rhan ir is
lilt ( 1,,,11'. flnished rhe job nicely. gun barrel and rhe spare rrack links. when ir has dried, so some
.Iil lhe basic painr job finished Dire and mud were added co experimentarion on scrap marerial
I \ 1\ l,me lO arrend CO rhe derails. rhe wheels, rracks, lower hull is advisable.
156 157

....J n of the key features of the ambush
u.J I decided to paint the green pattern
o first. Polly Scale Green was thinned with \ h me is the small flecks of contrasting
o water and carefully painted along the I ur on the large blocks of
pencilled border using a fine brush. ctlInouflage. The shapes of these
:J Take care to paint on the right side of "'Mil fI cks vary greatly from spots,
o the line! The paint job looks pretty I triangles, to rectangles, to less
L awful at this point, and a significant leI I,Ufiable and random forms.
<l: effort of will and faith is required
\J to continue.

Z The untidy lines are now joined by
<l: carefully spraying green into the
0.. A \ I ction of small shapes was painted
appropriate spaces. We are effectively hy h nd on the vehicle using a fine
• 'colouring in' the blanks with the hIll h. Dark yellow flecks were applied
airbrush. to th green and brown areas, while
th dark yellow camouflage sported
e.. '1' n flecks. Vallejo paints were mixed
I I match the main camouflage colours,
U Ih Inks to their superior brush-painting
'Illdllti s.

The whole process is repeated for )111 of these late-war Hetzers were
the red-brown colour. Pencil lines are IIlMk d with a simplified black cross on
marked on the green camouflage, th,' hull. I used the kit decals as a guide,
and the outline is brushed on. The ullin the black section of the cross
red-brown colour is then carefully filled It of the paper backing sheet and
in between the brown borders. I lilt) th reverse side of the sheet as
I 11I.ll1llng template.
158 159

The result was a black cross with a n ,h. v ry thin wash left only
o slightly soft edge, as if it had been nil t dry. Mor noticeable
o hastily sprayed in the field. I thought lnu h up to th black areas -
this presented an interesting contrast I' I k , "'d hin gun and tool
compared to the hard-edged I IIlCJ th usual flat black and
camouflage. mix. Thl was applied very
(Ih IUlI't1 with water) and allowed
Iltn pl., Mound raised kit
, .11111'

z Despite my earlier apprehension, the
« scheme was now starting to look like
something closer to what I was
• expecting.


The entire vehicle was given a wash of

Winsor and Newton oil paints heavily
reduced with odourless thinners. The
colour was a 5:5 mix of lamp black and
raw umber. The model was set aside to
dry overnight. III I L( RI liT The sludgy mix was
UI'PI( d n to the wheels, the tracks
IIIllh I w r hull with an old brush.
11 w brush, as this
I v ry harsh on fine bristles.

1\ J' M RIGHT The brown artist's

I lit II WdS brought out again, this time
In I ttl \ m horizontal scratches to the
hull. Wilh Ih wealhering of Ihe wheels
nlllpi 'I ,Ih armour side skirls have
hl"'11 \ llr d wilh superglue too.
160 161

W A common 2B graphite pencil is handy " h. '\Nil 'lUll' P I I colour is
o for adding scratches and highlights to ... 1/11 Illuffl r 10 r presenl
o model armoured vehicles. Here, the
pencil is being grazed along the edge of
::> the forward armour plate, representing
o wear in this highly exposed area.




Z Tamiya offers a range of 'Weathering II,' ,'ml 'ull i quite effective with
~ Master' pastels in a convenient package lilly,. minimum of effort. Note the
which looks suspiciously like a make-up IIIh', 'lit h d s of mud and dust on
• container. II, Itlw r ~nd rear hull sections.


Ilil W xcess 'mud' was rubbed off

III r adwheels.

Even the supplied applicator looks just

as appropriate for applying eyeliner
as rust and soot. Regardless of their
origins, however, the pastels and the
applicator are very effective.
162 163



« ABOVE The track pads were BELOW Our ambush scheme takes Tiny spots and stteaks were ABOVE This is Chris Wauchop's 1/35 BELOW A single colour camouflage
U highlighted with the 2B pencil at high advantage of the best attributes of the drawn onto the surface of the scale AFV Club Centurion Mk 5/1, kit finish need not be monotonous.
points where they would have come airbrush, the paintbrush and even the number AF-351 00. The model represents Careful application of weathering over
vehicle using a brown artist's pencil.
into contact with the hard road surface. humble 2B pencil. a vehicle from the Royal Australia the base coat of airbrushed colour
J tried this as J thought that my Armoured Corps in Vietnam, in service will lend variety and interest to the
previous use of a lead pencil looked with C Squadron, 1 Armoured Regiment. overall colour.

underdone in low light and overdone orps In

in bright light. I was pleased with III n\'1 e wilh
the results using the brown-coloured \II11011red Regiment.
pencil. especially the horizontal IlIh'lI,llIOIl (somewhat
streaks on the hull sides and the II 111I<ll<lIl' and lricky fit of

skirts representing scuffing against Ilu .1 elii'll' lenglhy build

branches and other obstacles. II till' ll',ull were worth
I still used some 2B lead pencil
though, for the edges of the major
structural surfaces and handles.
Lead pencil was also used for the II u"l.dl o1mounage green is
shiny track shoes. At last, after .1 ''1u,d po1rlS Tamiya XF-62
more than a few anxious moments, 1'1 Ih•. '1' 58 live Green
the camouflage was starting to I I" ", plus a dash
come together. A final thin coat IIll. "'.Ill'}'o I 1312 Green
of Gunze Flat Clear was applied 7, I hI' Illller whe I rims
to seal the pencil weathering. III Ilu till' villyl lyres were
164 165

The overall camouflage colour here is
".unled green using a fine brush. effect overall. This meehod of Firse, a coae of overall green was
o a mix of equal parts of Tamiya acrylic
o XF-62 Olive Drab, XF-58 Olive Green
Wooden rool handles were painted application if also very robust and applied. This was a 5:5 mix of
and XF-49 Khaki, plus a dash of 'I:. 9 Desert Yellow. A coat of can withseand handling without Gunze Sangyo H303 Green and
:::l Gunze-Sangyo H312 Green FS 34227. I.uniya X-22 Gloss Clear was rubbing off the pas eel. Tamiya XF-2 Flat White. Next,
2 ''',",lyed over chis base colour to paine 'scratches' were applied using
« "I"( tecl the paint job from the T-34/76 a 5:5 mix of Tamiya XF-64 Red
\J 'libsequene wash. This wash was Chris Wauchop buile Dragon's Brown and XF-24 Dark Grey, plus
:r .j mix of Tamiya enamel X-18 1/35-scale T-34/76 Model 1942 a dash of XF-l Flat Black. Now
-;,'mi loss Black and XF-64 kie number 6205. The model was the model was given a thin coat
u.. I "d Brown in equal parts, heavily built by Chris on commission and of Future. When this was dry,
o thinned wieh mineral curpencine. his client wanted the model to look the model received a seleceive
« The eneire model was then like Marcus Nicholls' striking T-34 application 'mud' m'lde from
\J <l vel'ed with Vietnam red dust. that appeared in Tamiya Model various colours of pastel chalk
f- I his was a heavy coating of Magazine Internalionall 06. mixed with Mineral Turpentine.
Z A protective coat of Tamiya X-22 Gloss
v,ll'ious pastel chalk colours, All camouflage colours are
« Clear was sprayed over the base colour
to protect the paint job from the lround down and mixed with water-based acrylics thinned with
This is Chris Wauchop's 1/35 scale
• subsequent wash. The wash was a mix Ilirp ntine then painced onto isopropyl alcohol and applied wieh Dragon T-34/76 Model 1941, kit
of Tamiya enamel X-18 Semi-Gloss Black number 6205. Chris wanted to finish
Ihe model. When dry, the dust ehe Testor Aztek A470 aiebrush
..,cr: and XF-64 Red Brown in equal parts, this single-colour model similar to
f- thinned with mineral turpentine. This W.l' scrubbed off with a soft fitted with the fine tan tip. Chris's
e>. Marcus Nicholls' striking T-34 that
« mineral wash did not damage the 1\)00hbrush. The resule is dust in technique for producing a Marcus appeared in Tamiya Model Magazine
acrylic paint beneath. International 106.
U I he crevices, wieh a fine reddish Nicholls-like finish was as follows:

The entire model was then covered

with Vietnam red dust. This was a
heavy coating of various pastel chalk
colours, ground down and mixed
with turpentine then painted onto the
model.When dry, the dust was scrubbed
off with a soft toothbrush. The result
is dust in the crevices, with a fine
reddish effect overall. This method of
application if also very robust and can
withstand handling without rubbing
off the pastel.
166 167

All camouflage colours are water based 11,111 III model received a selective
o acrylics thinned with isopropyl alcohol 'PI" ,Ill n of 'mud' over the coat of
o and applied with the Testor Aztek A470 lultll " made from various colours of
2 I .wd r d paslel chalk mixed with
airbrush fitted with the fine tan tip.
::J First, a coat of overall green was 1111 ,til rurpentine into a damp slurry.
o applied. This was a 5:5 mix of Gunze Ihl\ mud Iy mix was applied with
2 til I Itt palnlbrush. The tracks and
cr: Sangyo H303 Green and Tamiya XF-2
« Flat White. wht'( I rived a heavier coat of this
\J <,II mud.

Z Next, paint 'scratches' were applied
« using a 5:5 mix of Tamiya XF-64 Red
Brown and XF-24 Dark Grey, plus a dash IIll W Once the mud had dried, the
• of XF-l Flat Black. ul ur was significantly lighter. The mud
W,I\ I clively and carefully scraped
UJ "' I rubbed off in areas until Chris was
o.. h.l' py wllh the result.

This was followed by an overall coat

of Future, also applied with the Testor
Aztek airbrush. This resulted in a slight
overall sheen prior to the next step.
168 169

uJ liT A two-colour camouflage
o When this was dty, a fait bit of no. 35-393 - 88mm turned on the gun breech that is now
pr nts different challenges to
o careful removal and application aluminium barrel & cast impossible to see! olour finish. In this case, the
took place until he was happy muzzle brake. • Gun-cleaning rods hollowed 1 ur is a 5:5 mix of Tamiya
::> ,yli ark Yellow and Desert Yellow,
o with the result. After a lot of • Modelkasten SK-2 - Early out at one end and pin inserted.
Ihtt" d lightly with Flat White.
~ fiddling around, adding extra Tiger I tracks. This was not easy as the rods are
« much, scratches and stains, aver)' In addition to these commercial moulded to the plastic tow cables. • III I lr RIGHT The disruptive Dark
lJ I "11 ha b en applied freehand with
Z satisfactory result was achieved. accessories, Chris also made the The model was painted using
" , tor Aztek A470 airbrush. The
I following additions: the Testor Aztek A470 airbrush
V') paint was thinned with up to
I "1\

z TIGER I All hatch handles replaced with and the kit markings were used ,1\ propylene alcohol. This thin
Chris Wauchop built Tamiya's copper WilT to depict Tiger J '533' of the 2nd ,. h -Ips minimize spatter and
o 1/35-scale Tiger I early version, • Wiring for smoke launchers and 55-Panzer Division 'Das Reich'
IIpray at the boundary between
z Ih.· ,lin unage colours.
« kit number 35216. The model has lights added using fine wire and at Kursk in 1943. The marking
Z been finished with the assistance fine solder on the hull sides and front is a «) I I M LEFT The basic camouflage
f-- of the following accessories: • Thinned, separated and buckled Chinese symbol of luck, applied ,,11111, have been blended and
Z , 'Ih r d with an oil wash. When dry,
« Royal Model No. 158 'Fruhe plastic kit side skirrs upside down!
I,,,, and large areas were 'chipped'
Production' photo-etched set • Radio antenna added using .lh Ih tip of a 2B pencil.
• • Model Point set 3551-1 - tapered brass wire
Chris Wauchop built Tamiya's 1/35-scale
Tiger I Early Version, finished as 533 of () II M RIGHT The tracks were
a:: Smoke grenade launchers • Jack block from balsa wood 2nd 55-Panzer Division 'Das Reich' at
uJ ',ly d with a mix of Tamiya acrylic XF-
f-- • Elefant Model Accessories • Lots of chipping and painting Kursk in 1943. Ilt I Brown and XF-1 Flast Black. This
« I'll' b,l oat was supplemented with
U " JII P neil run over the top of the
II ,k pad. representing wear and tear
Ir 1\ hMd road surfaces.
170 1 71

uJ hrl Wauchop chose to paint Tamiya's
o PANTHER G model. All camouflage colours were The wooden handles of the
o 11 . cale late-version Panther
This is Tamlya's 1/35-scale applied with the Testor Aztek tools were painted XF-59 Desert
~ Ill' hand. This can be a challenging
cr: Panther Ausf G kit finished as A470 airbrush. The following Yellow. h I due to the hard-edged
::J t1l'marcation between the three colours.
o a machine from either the 2nd Tamiya paints were used: Mud was added using
Ih 1 stor Aztek airbrush offers a
(according to Concord) or 9th • XF-64 Red Brown Faber-Castell Pastel Chalk
cr: numb r of different tips for specific
« (according to the kit instructions) • XF-59 Desert Yellow mixed with (9286-179), powdered and mixed 1",lnting tasks. The tan-coloured tip was
Panzer Divisions. XF-60 Dark Yellow 5:5 with Mineral Turpentine and u\ d here, which offers the finest line -
I~\ than 1mm in skilled hands.
I Chris Wauchop added a number • XF-61 Dark Green plus 30 per painted onto the tracks and the

z of aftermarket accessories to this cent XF-65 Field Grey wheels.

z The techniques available to an armour
modeler for complex three colour
Z camouflage are essentially the same as
f- aircraft methods. For a late-war German
Z 'ambush' scheme, the modeler may I tail parts such as two cables, track
« choose to mask the demarcation I 11k and the heads of tools were
between the colours, or carefully \prayed with a 5:5 mix of Tamiya
• spray a tight freehand finish. I 64 Red Brown and XF-l Flat Black.
Ih e parts were selectively buffed with
uJ ,I fin rtip. Other areas were 'rusted'
"- with a combination of pastel chalks
« ,II1d painting effects.

In addition to the large areas of German

dark yellow, dark green and red brown,
the 'ambush' scheme also featured
small spots in contrasting colours. Ih rubber rims of the road wheels
w r painted with the same red brown
Iblack mix, applied with a fine paint
hr u h. The wheels and tracks were also
w athered with pastel chalks and paints.
172 173

a Civilian vehicle models require a perfect, high gloss finish. The airbrush is essential equipment to deliver
this unforgiving surface. We will discuss a number of ways to achieve such a finish. The airbrush is also
I the most useful tool when painting your maritime models. We will take a look at some heavily weathered

z marine models in this chapter too.


f- PAINTING OTHER PAINTING A HIGH-GLOSS so, once again, thorough
z MODELS CAR FINISH preparation is required prior
Cl. Whether we are painting aircraft, Painting a high-gloss finish on to painting.
• armour or cars, the same basic a car model presents many of
00 Most car models require a smooth,
airbrushing techniques will apply. the same challenges as a bare-metal
a: high-gloss finish. This can be one of the
w finish on a model aircraft. Any
The same is true of other types
a. more challenging finishes to obtain, and
« of models such as ships, science high-gloss finish will expose the airbrush is an essential tool. This is
fiction creations and even figures. the slightest flaw in the plastic Tamiya's 1/24-scale Renault Alpine kit.

,Ill I h upper and lower body

II Ilu all the other detail parts were
I" 'V" I with two thin coats of Alclad II
/I'Y 'lrlm r. I stuck the large body parts
1111 III handle of a hammer using
II I" k. This made handling much
.1\ "I whll spraying the model, and

,I minimized the risk of fingerprints

hll' th primer coat was drying.

...J I applied the primer too thickly in one
o area, resulting in an unsightly run on
a the rear pillar. This would be very
L obvious under the glossy blue top coat,
UJ so I sanded the primer back, feathering
I the edges with progressively finer
a Micro-Mesh cloths to reduce the chance
\J of ugly visible steps where the primer
z was repaired.



<{ The balance of the grey primer coat .,"" angyo Mr. Rubbing Compound
CL was sanded, polished and buffed with I p. te that helps polish out tiny
• Micro-Mesh cloths. 3,600 grit was used I II h s and other imperfections.
00 first, followed by 4,0000, 6,000 and 11 full sized cars, similar products are
cr: 12,000. This step eliminates any fine IlI11 tImes called cutting compounds.
f- orange peel effect, ensuring a smooth A IIny blob of Mr. Rubbing Compound
a. .Ipplied to the painted parts with a
<{ base for the final colour coats. The I
I repaired section of primer was also 'lI1cI nip.
U re-primed and polished.

Tamiya offers a match for the colour I h paste is allowed to dry to a white,
used on this Renault Alpine rally car - 11iIlky texture on the surface of the
TS-54 Light Metallic Blue. This is a spray , I d I. Once dry, the rubbing
paint in an aerosol can. The paint was C ClInpound is buffed off with a clean
decanted into a small container before Illl n cloth in small circular motions.
being poured into the airbrush paint I h( urface should be smoother than it
cup and sprayed onto the outside and .1\ when the original coat of blue paint
inside surfaces of the model parts. W,I\ ilpplied.
Two thin coats were applied.
176 177

o There are a number of choices accessory shops. These paints colour depending on the angle I h" " I he same paint used best quallty paint choice for car sequence may be different though.
a for model car paint. Generally have been carefuLly matched to from which they are viewed. The flu most full-sizcd cars. modellers, it is very expensive With a military subject, the model
cr: speaking, the best result for a high- fuLl-sized car colours, so accuracy prismatic paints are sprayed over 1',1 'urcthanc paints may be and is only available from will be assembled then painted.
I gloss finish will be delivered by will be assured. The main a polished gloss black primer U\lllm mixcd, and are available professional paint outlets. With a car model, most of
a enamel or lacquer paints. These shortcoming with automotive base. The colours on offer are: In III hcl' spray cans or tins. Polyurethane paints are also the main external parts will
\J have a harder, smoother surface touch-up paints is metallic Scarabeus - blue-to-green Unllkc aCl'osol touch-up paints, highly toxic, so appropriate probably be painted before major
than acrylic paints when dry. In colours, as the full-size metallic Maple - copper red-to-green II,,· ,i/o f the flakes in metallic ventilation and a professional components are assembled.
addition to regular model paints, flakes will appear far too Jade - green-to-gold I .11111 an be made to order, respirator are required. That was the sequence I
car modellers might also want to prominent on your scale model. Sapphire - deep blue-to- Ind will therefore deliver a Regardless of your choice used with Tamiya's 1/24-scale
o consider another three options: 2. Alclad II offers a range of ultraviolet/ purple Hnvin ing scale appearance. of paint, the general airbrush Renault Alpine kit. This model is
« 1. Automotive touch-up paint is prismatic finishes. These 3. Industrial polyurethane paint \/th ugh industrial techniques are the same as for moulded in a colour that closely
\J available in spray cans from car metallic paints appear to change is high gloss and hard wearing. Illlyur thane is certainly the aircraft or military models. The approximates the metallic blue
« Close examination of the bodywork I ht, w I coat has delivered a pleasing
revealed several raised seam lines on the 1"'1"1, bUI it was still not as glossy as
• plastic that I had not dealt with before I h,. t hop d for. All the exterior parts
<Xl painting. I sanded these off as gently VI'r(' th refore treated to two coats of
cr: as I could manage, trying to do as little '"llr floor polish. The first coat was
f- damage to the paintwork as possible. 'lull lhln, while the second applications
« Even so, bare plastic was exposed under w,,, " lhicker 'wet coat'. Some caution
the primer in several spots. ,I vi ble when spraying a wet coat of
'"llr , as the thick liquid tends to run,
lI1,1(rlng lhe otherwise glossy surface.

A final topcoat of colour was sprayed Ih R nault Alpine featured trim in

onto the polished and repaired body. hi 1 k nd chrome. 1Omm Tamiya
This coat was thicker than the first two. 1I1,,,kln9 tape was used to isolate
This is termed a 'wet coat'. The thicker 1111' Il. rrow trim strips on the bonnet
coat bonds with the fine basecoats, and Iud lh 'rubber' sealant around the
dries more slowly to a smooth surface. wind reen. These strips were carefully
Even though lacquer finishes cure PlOy d with Tamiya X-18 Semi-Gloss
quickly, additional time must be allowed 1111 k.
for the wet coat to dry completely.
178 179

W When the masking tape was removed
o ..f IIII' 1t'.11 ar. The finish To avoid fingerprints and Mesh cloths. I used 3,600-grit
from the windscreen and the bonnet,
o the black surrounds to the headlights 11I.11 '11Ilt e nice but, to my other damage during the painting first, followed by 4,0000, 6,000

~-~. ~.,
and the driving lights were also painted I 1.1'1 i always looks process, I attached the body shell and 12,000. This step eliminates
w black. This method of painting trim may
I pl.hli to the wooden handle of a hammer any fine orange peel effect,
I- seem tedious, but it does deliver a
o precise result. 1111 f II ~I l. sk was therefore with a large blob of Blu-Tack. ensuring a smooth base for the
lJ 11I.1-. 'lire Ihat the kit parts The body shell is the most critical final colour coats. The repaired

~~ ,:'
I .1I11plelcly free of dust, dirt aspect of the paint job, so this section of primer was also
I h,III" II might be advisable measure makes handling easier re-primed and polished.
z .'
• h I he pa,'ts in soapy water, and safer while spraying. Tami)'a offers a match for the
o II I h,l\'(' never encountered The plastic parts were prepared colour used on these Renault
~. ~ (l~' I
'Ir,h" or mould release a with two thin coats of Alclad II Alpine rally cars in their aerosol
lJ --_-.--1./ III un I he surface of Tamiya's Grey Primer. Despite being careful, can range - TS-54 Light Metallic
I- II Ill. I I here fore skipped this the primer pooled and ran near the Blue. The paint was decanted to
I. I did, h wever, go over the rear pillar. When it was completely the airbrush and applied in two
<l: The same method was used to mask the
c.. II IIU" ~lIr(aces of the larger dry, I had to sand the primer back
silver trim around the side windows and
• on the side of the body. A generous III WII h a tack cloth. This is a in this area, feathering the edges
Tamiya supplies decals for two racing
amount of masking tape was laid down I•• 1111, sli ky, anti-static, open- with Micro-Mesh cloths to hide
c:.: Renaults. These are printed beautifully
w to avoid any chance of overspray.
.1\',' I th that will pick up any any visible steps when the colour by Cartograf of Italy, and fit the model
ll. perfectly despite some challenging
<l: 1111) p.lni les, ensuring that the coats were applied. The balance of
I compound curves. Our earlier gloss
U 11.1 II' pans are totally clean prior the grey primer coat was sanded, coat of Future was a perfect base for
I 'p.lIOling. polished and buffed with Micro- these markings.

The black and silver trim adds interest

to the car body.
180 181

o I. III U,llS. Wilh the base colour to make sure that this topcoat is printed beautifully by Cartograf
o t III 1'1.1 e, all the external not too thick though, otherwise of Italy, and fit the model
0:: III rI I' were wet-sanded with a runs and orange peel effect may perfectly despite some challenging
I 1111 hun ri- rit sanding stick. result. Even though the Tamiya compound curves. Our earlier gloss
o 1111 11'.1' r, 1I0wed by robust nitro-cellulose paint dries fairly coat of Future was a perfect base
LJ .1. 111111 using unze Mr. CJuickly, the heavier coat reCJuires for these markings.
111,11111 , mpound (and yes, this more time. I placed the drying A final coat of Future was
1111 I'm lu l'S real name). At this body shell and other large parts sprayed over the top of the decals
I I 1.lle I round several raised under an ice CrealTI container to and trim colours to blend them
o 1111 lillI'S lhat 1 did not fully ensure that they did not attract with the sheen of the metallic blue
<l: 1'"IIII.Hl' l erore painting. These dust or other tiny particles while paintwork. With all the smaller
LJ .. III f.1irly prominent areas, the paint was still wet. parts masked and sprayed. the
I- I h.ld lillie choice other than Although the gloss was fairly model was assembled - a minor
I I .111 I hem. The seams were good. it was not the mirror shine I task compared to the preceding
CI.. I' I. "lIlded and polished. was hoping for. I therefore treated painting!
• 1111 !Ill' layer of colour was the large parts to two coats of
BELOW The silver border of the windscreen looked quite
II \ I .IS a 'wet coat'. This is a Future floor polish, with the top
0:: ABOVE The window frames were masked inside and out,
w Tamiya's Renault Alpine is a very
l- and sprayed flat black. The anti glare strip at the top of the effective over the black rubber sealant painted directly on III llallhan the two misting layer being a 'wet coat'. Black, silver
e.. attractive model. The availability of a
<l: windscreen was masked on the inside, and sprayed with a the body earlier. All the remaining detail parts were secured I "l'l'lied previously. The wet and chrome trim was masked with
I to the model at this stage, including the wheels, headlights, fine-grain metallic paint that matches
very fine coat of black. The result was a dark, translucent I \\ ill seltle to a smooth, glossy Tamiya tape and sprayed before the
U driving lights, bumper bars, mirrors and door handles. the colour of the original car is a
strip at the top of the windscreen. The outside edge of the
I h I I reme care must be taken kit decals were applied. These are real bonus.
windscreen was masked and sprayed silver.

(liv drab is now sprayed on the upper
I ty, with a soft, irregular demarcation
a .- hl'tw n the camouflage colour and
:2 1111 pr -shading coat around a third of
0:: III way up the side. This weathering
I /II 'th d is an alternative to pastel
f- «1I,.lks, and will be very durable when
loll ~h d.

\I. aks and stains are now added using
0.. ,. thinned red-brown mix. These are
• \pray d in the most likely areas - below
00 fIll n points and along structural
0:: \wla es - using a very fine setting
11\ th airbrush nozzle.

ABOVE Tamiya's recently released and rapidly expanding BELOW The assembled model received a pre-shading coat
range of 1/48-scaJe military vehicles presents some of Tamiya XF-64 Red Brown. This earthy colour will be
interesting diorama potential. Gaso.Line offers a resin retained in the areas likely to be affected by dust and mud.
aircraft fuel tanker conversion for Tamiya's 1/48-scale It is important to make sure that the pre-shading coat
GMC 2V,-ton truck. penetrates all the nooks and crannies of the modeJ,
especially around the lower chassis and running gear.

III upper surfaces are sprayed with

I I Illwr floor polish in preparation for
til dais. These are supplied with
This is another result of a III aso.Line conversion, and they
Tamiya kit - their 1/48-scale IIi" r rmed perfectly. Once the decals
GMC 'Deuce and a Half' - IIMt t, a thin oil wash was brush
p,l nl d along edges and on key
mated with a Gaso.Line
\llIla features.
multimedia conversion. The I I
resulting fuel tanker will be equally
applicable to a military scene or
an aircraft diorama in the popular
aviation scale of 1/48 scale. This
time. the dusty chassis and lower
body have been depicted using
the airbrush.

UJ Two thin coats of Polly Scale Flat Clear
o finished the basic paint job, but a few
a more stains were sprayed over the stark
white decals to blend them in more
UJ naturally with the grimy truck.
a III ( I hris painted the vessel using
lJ f 90 per cent Gunze H-338 Light
("I 'y ,lIld 10 per cent Tamiya XF-66
Vl l"lhl r y as Schnellbootweiss; and
z I "'Uy,l XF·64 Dark Grey for the
u. I III ntal surfaces. The lower hull was
o , .1I1t d Tamiya XF-9 Dull Red for a
<l: "I,,\h of variety, and the plimsoll line
,1\ mask d and sprayed Flat Black.
Z "I,\Ilkl" and woodwork were painted
I- IIIIliya XF·59 Desert Yellow.
<l: The fuel truck makes an ideal airfield
c.. 1111 W L FT Deck guns were given
companion to 1/48-scale aircraft
dt of gun metal paint. The metal
• models.
• I

IIl11m barrel required a coat of Tamiya

"1I1ll r to improve the adhesion of the
UJ '1111111 tal paint. Torpedoes were
"'lIll d using Gunze H76 Burnt Iron
I Ie II11W d by heavy weathering.
1111 W RIGHT The black panther
W,I\ d tiled with red and white
,Mint t pplied with a fine brush. For
w,',1l1l ring, the airbrush cup was
I ,I I d with a very thin mix of Tamiya
I I,ll Bla k and Red Brown. This was then
pI 'y d into natural shadow areas and
III dirty streaks, representing a battle-
",Iry boat at war's end.
5CHNELLBOOT 5-100 dodgers were glued into place they 10 per cent Tamiya XF-66 Light
CLASS could be gently pressed to reveal an Grey as 5chnellbootweiss; and
Chris Wauchop built the Revell impression of the railings' outline. Tamiya XF-64 Dark Grey for the
lin-scale 5chnellboot 5-100 The 5-100 Class was finished horizontal surfaces. The lower hull
Class. This large model offers some in a simple scheme of was painted Tamiya XF-9 Dull Red
tempting painting and weathering 5chnellbootweiss (an off-white for a splash of variety, and the
opportunities. colour) on vertical surfaces and pJimsoliline was masked and
Although the model is largely Blaugrau (blue grey) on decks. sprayed Flat Black. These colour
built trom kit parts and without Below the water line was usually coats were applied using the Testor
the aid of after-market sets, Chris painted dark grey, but several colour Aztek airbrush fitted with the fine
made a number of additions and photos suggest that some may have tip. Planking and woodwork were
modifications. The canvas dodgers been painted dull red. Chris painted painted Tamiya XF-59 Desert
for the railings were cut from the vessel using a mix of 90 per Yellow. Deck guns were given a coat
paper-backed lead foil. Once the cent Gunze H-338 Light Grey and of gunmetal. The metal 37mm
o barrel required a coat of Tamiya fine brush. Overall weathering was TYPE XXIII U-BOAT
,. IIII,I~ model because the big
o Primer to improve the adhesion applied with the Aztek airbrush Chris Wauchop applied the same
~ '1111 "'t1ws were warped in almost
ct: of the gunmetal paint. Propellers using Chris's usual method. The set of airbrushing and weathering
uJ II II'I'nions. This problem was
I were painted Tamiya enamel X-31 airbrush cup was loaded with a very techniques to his 1/72-scale
I- ., ". Il'd by gluing the hull in
o Titanium Gold. Torpedoes were thin mix of Tamiya Flat Black and Special Navy Type XXIII U-boar.
IlllIh, starting from the bow and
lJ painted using Gunze H76 Burnt Red Brown. This was then sprayed This is a limited-run offering from
Z JI • '1 '"ively moving back as each
Iron followed by heavy weathering. into natural shadow areas and in the Czech Republic. Although
IIllIl "·jed. Twisting, clamping
The black panther was detailed with dirty streaks, representing a battle- there are not many plastic parts,
z II. I p','my of superglue resulted
red and white paint applied with a weary boat at war's end. basic construction was not easy
III .11l ,I eptable outcome.
z Il ',' these challenges have been
-< This is Chris Wauchop's 1172-scale Type 11'I'''cd, however, the big model
XXIII German U-Boat from Special Navy I , ,'lilli'S a blank canvass for painting
I- of the Czech Republic.
I/hl wl',lIhering. The U-boat was
-< I ,llllll'd with the Aztek metal-body
11/ hi ,,,h fitted with the fine, tan tip.
• lilt' IIpper hull received a coat of
ct: 1.11Il1)/.1 XF-54 Dark Sea Grey. The
I- '''\1\'1 IIull was painted using a 6:4
-< 1111 ()("'I":lmiya XF-54 and XF-24
U I .lIk .rey. All woodwork was
I I" ',,'nled using Llmiya XF-59 BELOW The bricks, stonework and the ABOVE This is a self-contained
I', 1"11 Yellow, The white band and rubble were all coated with various 1135-scale vignette from Warriors,
earthy shades of Tamiya acrylics applied built and painted by Andrew Judson,
lill'" on the conning tower, and with the Aztek A470 airbrush, then depicting two soldiers hunkered behind
"1/ hl.1 k plimsollline, were masked lightly dry-brushed with Testor's Model the ruins of a building, engaged in
11 1/1' I Dmm Tamiya tape. Master enamel paints. heavy fighting.
The upper hull received a coat of I ,Ilhcring was achieved with
Tamiya XF-54 Dark Sea Grey. The lower \,1 Red Brown and XF-l Flat
hull was painted using a 6:4 mix of
11/ I k, ,1Ild by using a combination
Tamiya XF-54 and XF-24 Dark Grey. The
black band on the hull and the white ,f hlllh. Even tile plastic stand
band around the conning tower were • I h,',wily weathered to represent
masked. The white band was chipped
III ling relic.
and damaged by Chris in line with
wartime reference photos.
I ,Il 'mall-scale figures and
I '"lldw rk will benefit from
I I ,lIrbrush techniques, Andrew
'II I lin buill. a 1/35-scale vignette
I/Il \ .Irriors, and applied the
J I I p.lint coats for the bricks,
h'"l'l\l()rk and rubble using the
I I I /.tek airbrush.


Airbrushes and painring supplies are available from hobby and art shops. Some of the more specialized
accessories may only be available at specific airbrush supply companies. A number of online hobby shops
Darnier Do 17 Z 40--42
Fairey Gannet ASW 46--48
camall Rage schemes 51
and specialist airbrush retailers are listed below. I have also noted some useful websites with tips and hints Gloster Meteor F Mk 8: 126--131 Cenrurion Mk 5/1 tank 163-165
for the airbrush, and a number of sites with great examples of the airbwsh art as applied to models. LaGG-3 aircraft 65-68 German World War 11 ambush scheme
t>. Lancaster bomber 49-56. 57-59 152-162
I Macchi MB.326: 4 hard-edged demarcation 71-81
U Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-2: 109-116 KV-85 tank 145-150
Messerschmitt Hf 110 E 96--'108. 109 Luftwaffe day-fighter camouAage
Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4: 44. finishes 96--108
REFERENCE BOOKS SOURCES 116--125 Luftwaffe mid-war greys 110-111
Bordes, JoAnn, How to Master Airbrush Pailltillg Techlliqlles Squadron, USA P-47D Thunderbolt 143 Luftwaffe night-fighter eamouAage
(Motorbooks. 2007) P-51B Mustang 129-143 111-125
Sea Fury 62-63 masking 34--40
Klaus, David H., IPMS C%r Cross-Reference Cuide Great Models Webstore. USA Spitfire Mk 1 38-39 Messersehmitt Bf 110 G-4 night-fighter
(Self-published, 1988) Spitfire Mk Vb 84-85 116--125
Spitfire Mk VII 61 Panther Ausf. G tank 170-171
Merrick, K. A. LllftwaJte Call1Olif/age alld Markillgs Hannanrs. United Kingdom Aki Products: Blackburn Firebrand TF T-34/76 tank 165
1933-1945 Vo/Hllle Glle (Classic Publications, 2004) http:// Mk 5: 34-38 Tiger 1 tank 168-169
Alclad II weathered olive drab finish 93
Shanreau, Pamela. The Ultilllate Airbrush Halldbook Cammett Limited, United Kingdom
Magnesium 35, 36 winter camouAage 64-68. 69-70
(Watson-Guptill, 2002) metallic paints 44. 45. 45. 46. Canberra 13(1).8 aitplane 7
129-130.135,136,137,176 Canberra T17 airplane 63-64
Vero, Radu, Airbrush: The COlllp/ete Studio Halldbook Lucky Model, Hong Kong
Microfiller and Primer 22. 23. 25. canopies, painting 40--44
(Watson-Guptill, 1997)
173,174,179 cars. painting and finishing 172-181
Wigman. Nick J., Daryl Keenan and Alan Bottoms, Hobbylink Japan, Japan American Federal Standard 595. colour categorizing colour 14-18
16.16-17.19 cellulose thinners 26
The Car Modeller's Halldbook (Crowood, 2007)
armour models see tanks Centurion Mk 5/1 tank 163-165
Dixie Art & Airbrush Website, New Orleans, automorive touch-up paints 25. 176 chromaticity, colour 14
ONLINE RESOURCES Louisiana, USA aviation models see airplanes chrome finishes 45
Aviprint decals 81 Classic Airframes
The Airbrush Museum
Aztec aitbrush 6,9,73, 107,127, 150 CanberraT17: 63-64
Graphic Air Online. United Kingdom Dorniet Do 17 Z 40--42
Aircraft Resource Cenrer
B Fairey Gannet ASW 46--48
cleaning airbrushes 22.28-29. 29
Advanced Airbrush, Australia B-25] Mitchell 86--95
CO 2 tanks 13 Badger 10-12
Armorama colour 21,23-25
bare-metal finishes 129-142
availability of paints 19
Cybermodeler basecoats 32-33
black and white 48-60
HyperScale Imp:// black and white paints 48-60
MANUFACTURERS categorizing colour 14-18
Black Magie 44
clements of 14
Inrernet Modeler Testor, Blackburn Firebrand TF Mk 5: 34-38
key coat and building layers 32-33
Blackburn Skua Mk II 71-81
IPMS Stockholm (excellenr colour reference section) Iwata, lifted paint and repairs 46--48
Blu-T.,ck 32, 33. 35, 39, 40. 179
http:// metallic finishing techniques 44--46
body. airbrushes 12
Paasche Airbrush Company, paint packaging 23-25
bottles. paint in 24
Missing-Lynx perception considerations 18-19
brightness. colour 14
silver and metallic finishes 126--143
Modeling Madness Badger, British Standard 381. colour 17. 19
thinning paint 23. 25-26. 28-29,
Burdick, Chades L. 10
190 191

colour cups, oirbrushcs 12,26-27 hord-edged demorcotion 71-81 .11 I,.flr IlIglll-r,ghter comoufloge Milliput White epoxy putty 30, 88, 93, Blackburn Skua Mk II 78, 79, 81
Z compressors 12, 13
F Hosegowa: Messcrschmitt Bf 109 G-2: III 125 116, 120 Gloster Meteor 10 Mk 8: 127
Foircy Gonnet ASW 46--48 109-116 111111 f, c.:ulour 14
Siloir silent comprcssors 10, 13 mineral rurpclltinc 26 GMC fuel tanker 184
Fost Fromes 42,43,44,44 Heczer [onk 152--162
cordite stains 69 moisture traps, airbrushes 27 Heczer tank 152, ISS, 155, 156
Federol Stondord colour 16, 16-17, 19 high gloss cor finishes 172-181
croft knil'es 43 Monogrom: B-25J Mitchell 86-95 LaGG-3 oircraft 66, 68
figures, pbstic 50, 112 hobby knil'es 43
custom-made markings 62 Momex Mask 44 L:lI1casrcr bomber 54
fillers 30,30-31 111 111.326 oirplane 4
Czech Moster: Spitfirc Mk VII 6'1 Hobbycroft: Sco Fury 62-63 stencils 62 Messerschmitt Bf '109 G-2: 111, 114
filters II holding ronks, comprcssors 13 1~1It '
Mr Color paints 21, 23 Messerschmitt Bf 110 E 104, 106, 108
floor polish, as I'ornish 22,41, 70--71, hoscs, airbrushcs 12--13,27 " .It' "I, Messerschmitt Bf '110 G-4 night-fighter
D 116-117,141,177,181
HP-C Plus oirbrush II
III. kl>", 11 Firebrand TF Mk 5: 37 117
decols 60--61 Floquil poinrs: Gloster Meteor 10 Mk 8: hues, colour 14 Ill.•• l.l>llIn Skuo Mk II 71-81 N P-51B Mustong 141
13-25J Mitchell 93 126-127 II tum m.lde 62 needles, airbrushes 12, 29
Humbrol Spitfire Mk I 39
Block burn Firebrond TF Mk 5: 37 (o:nll sanders 31 1111111"'1 1)0 17 Z 4'1 Nicholls, Marcus 165
points 23 topcoots 70
Block burn Skua Mk II. 81 freehond sproying 31-32 (,111 II" Me,eor F Mk 8: 127, 129 nozzles, oirbrushes 9, 12, 29
topcoots 71 polyurethone point 176-177
custom-made 62 frisket, for nusking 33 Huntley, Ian 18-19 I,. It 'uellonker 183
Post-it notes, for masking 32, 33, 76
Dornier Do 17 Z 41
Gloster Meteor F Mk 8: 127, 129
Future floor polish, as varnish 22, 41,
hygiene, airbrushcs 28-29
Hyperscale 'Plane T.1lking' Intcrnet
"-II I ",Iged demarcation 71-81
1111/1'1' l.lnk 157, 158
oil paints 23
post-shading 68
pounce wheels 90
GMC fuel tonker 183 ~ \ 1\5 I"nk 149-150
disclission forums 25, 86 pre-shad ing 68
I ,.n ',1<11'1' bomber 54, 57 origins of the oirbrush 8-12
Herzer tonk 157,158
Loncoster bomber 54,57 G , I",,,',,c!,mill I3r 109 G-2 111, 114
primers, paint 22, 32,36,58,60,144,
Messerschmitt I3f 109 G-2: 111, 114
gas containers 13
Gaso.Linc multimedia conversion parts
I h",,',chmill Bf 110 E 106, p ProModeler: Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4:
Messerschmin Bf 110 E 106, internal-mix airbrushes 13 107 108 44,116-125
P-47D Thunderbolt airpbne 143
145,182 IPM5 Color Cross-RefcrCll(( Cllide (Kious)
107-108 h '" ,hl1l1l1 13r 110 G-4 night-fighter
P-51B Mustang airplane 129-143 protectil'e coots 70--71
German RLM (Reich Luft Ministcrium) 16,17 117, 123
Mcsserschmitt I3f 110 G-4 nighr-fighter
Paosche Airbrush Compony 10
colours 17,19,41,96-106,109-111, isopropylene o!cohol 26, 169
117,123 I' 171 rhunderbolt: 143
P-47D Thunderbolt 143
146, 147
]wata I' 11\ Mll>'ong 130, 131,140,141
Type VL airbrush 5, 8
pai nt booths 20
P-51B Mustong 130,131,140,141 airbrushes II, 28 1~'ll.1ult Alpine 179 reciprocating air compressors 13
painting conopies 40--44
Glosrer Mereor 10 Mk 8 oirpbne filters 11 1111> d"wn morkings 61-62
Remult Alpine 179 reconditioning models 82-85
paints 21,23-25
Spirfire Mk J 38 I'"r,,,. Mk I 38 Red Roo Models 127,129
al'ailobility 19
GMC fuel tanker '182-184 l,n..,I,62
Spitfire Mk Vb 85
deconting point 23, 24, 25
grol'ity-fed oirbrushes 13
Gunze Songyo points 19,21,26,43
Judson, Andrew 150, 187
1.,1'1 1l.lI1k 168
black and white 48-60
categorizing colour 14-18
Renault Alpine 172--181
repairs 46--48
die-clit cOITImcrci;:d masks 33.42,43, In kll1' 111.1lcri:,ds and techniques resin kits :md conversions 144
Juutilainen, Jlmari 109 elements of colour 14
44,44,79,80,89,93 13-25J Mitchell 93 7,.u,JJ Rel'ell
key coat and building layers 32--33
Centurion Mk 5/1 tonk 163,164 hl."k ,lml while points and
diffusion 69 Lancaster bomber 57-59
lifted paint and repairs 46--48
dope 126
Dornier Do 17 Z oirplone 40--42
Heczer tonk 152, 154, 155
KV-l tonk 151
K 19, 2,53
"Il1I1Unoge schemes 34--40
pockaging 23-25
ScilIlellboot S-100 Class submorine
Kious, Dal'id H. 17 perception considerations 18-19
KV-85 tonk 145, 146
DrogonT-34/76 tonk 165-168
KV-l tank 150--152 """1'''-' 42, 42--44, 43, 44 sill'er and metallic finishes 44--46,
RLM colours sec German RLM (Reich
LaGG-3 oim'oft 66
dual-action airbrushes 12 "" I "dged demorcotion 75, 76 Luft Ministerium) colours
KV-85 rank 145-150 126-143
Loncoster bombcr 50
111'" ,I"" cor finishes 178, 180 rub-down markings 61-62
thinning 23, 25-26, 28-29, 32--33
Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-2: 112,113
1111\""g mosks 46--48, 47
Panther Aus( G tonk 170--171

E-Z Mosk 44
Eagle Strike Productions 143
Messerschmitt Bf 110 E 98, 99,
104, 104
Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 night-fighter
lacquer paints 23,26, 176
I "" k,

room sanders 31, 84, 93
Pamone Matching System 14
paper, for masking 33
sanding 30-31,31,47,48,84,89,93,
LaGG-3 aircroft 65-68 " ,hlll'" Br 109 G-2: 109-116 pastels 69, 148,150, 159, 160
Eduord 44, 79,89,93 116,121 I .11111111 Br '110 E 96-108, 109
Lancoster bomber 49-56, 57-59
Peeler, Abner 8, 10
Messerschmitt Bf 110 E 96-108, Remult Alpine 175 I .. .11111111 Br 110 G-4: 44, saturation, colour 14
layering 32-33
pipettes 24, 24,27
109 Schnell boot S-1 00 Closs submorine
lifted paint and repairs 46--48 Ilf 125 5(O/e Airmifl Modellil(g magazine 18-19
planes see airplanes
emmel points 23, 26, 176 184, 185 scale effect, colou[ 18-19
lighting, workspoces 20 II 1.11" r,""hing lechniques 44--46,
plastic figures 50, 112
topcoots 71 Spitfire Mk Vb, 85 Schnauffer, Wolfgang 119
loading airbrushes 26-27 1 h 143
plasticine, for masking 33
environment, for airbrushing 20 T-34/76 tonk 165, 166 I•• 11 Mr,h c10lhs 30--31, 31,45,47, Schnellboot S-l 00 Closs submarine
L'iflWaffe CamOliflage alld Mark;'(gs (Merrick) polishing 30--31, 45, 174, 175
epoxy putty 0, 88, 116, 120 topcoots 70 I \ 1,174,179 184-186
Polly Scale paints 19, 21, 23
Esci models: Macchi MB,326: 4 Luftwaffe day-fighter camouflage finishes lr 111 S... ,ll1d Micro-Sol decal setting Sea Fury 62--63
B-25J Mitchell 91,93
scam lines, visible 36
exhaust and cordite stains 69
external mix airbrushes 13
H 96-108
Luftwaffe mid-war greys, painting 109-111
.1111 11m, 37, 81, 93,130
lr· I'lIlduclions 151
Blackburn Firebrond TF Mk 5: 37
shodes, colour '14
hondling airbrushes 27-28

shading 68
Silair silent compl:cssors 10, 13
KV-85 tank 145, 146, 147, 149
LaGG-3 airplane 65, 67, 68
varnishes 70-71
silver finishes 126-143 Lancaster bomber 53, 58, 59
sec also Future floor polish, as varnish
silvering 61 Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-2: 111,
ventilation, works paces 20
single-action airbrushes 12 112, 115
Venturi 12, 13
siphon-fed airbrushes 12-13 Messerschmitt Bf 110 E 03, 98, 99,
South Ftont: LaGG-3 aircraft 65-68 102,108
Special Hobby: 1~lackburn Skua Mk ]]
Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 night-fighter
117, 121, 124
Walkup, Liberty and Charles 10
Special Navy: Type XX] II U-boat P-51B Mustang 132,137,140 warriors vignette 187
186-187 Renault Alpine 174, 175, 177, washes 69
Spitfire Mk I 38-39 179-181 water traps, airbrushes 13
Spitfire Mk Vb 84-85 Schnell boot S-100 Class submarine waterslide decals 60-61
Spitfire Mk Vil 61 184, 185,186 Wauchop, Chris 6, 85, 163, 165, 168,
Squadton 44, 47, 181 Sea Fury 63 171,184,185,186
stencils 62 T-34/76 tank 165, 166 weathering 19, 68-70
submarines Type XXlIl U-boar 186, 187 B-25J Mitchell 86-95
Schnellboot S-100 Class submarine Tank, Professor Kurt 118 Canberra B(1).8 aircraft 7
184-186 tankers: GMC fuel tanker 182-184 Canberra T17 aircraft 64
Type xxm U-boat 186-187 tanks Centurion Mk 5/1 tank 163,165
supetglue 41 Achilles tank destroyer 5 GMC fuel tanker 183
surf:,ces, prepari ng 30-31 Centurion Mk 5/1 tank 163-165 Hetzer tank 159, 160, 161,162, 162
Hetzer tank 152-162 KV-l tank 151,152
KV-l tank 150-152
T KV-85 tank 145-150
KV-85 tank 147, 148,150
LaGG-3 aircraft 65-68
T-34/76 tank 165-168 painting armoured vehicles Lancaster bombers 59
Tally Hoi Decals 54 144-171 Messerschmitr Bf 109 G-2: 111, 115
T:ll11iya models Panther Ausf. G tank 170-171 Messerschmitt Bf 110 E 107-108
GMC fuel tanker 182-184 T-34/76 tank 165-168 Panther Ausf. G tank 170-171
Hetzer tank 152-162 Tiger I tank 168-169 Schnellboot S-100 Class submarine
KV-85 tank 145-150 Techmod decals 111, 114 185, 186
Ml0 tank 5 techniques, airbrushing 30-33 Sea Fury 62-63
P-47D Thunderbolt 143
Testar Spitfire Mk I 37, 38, 39
P-51B Mustang 129-143 Aztec airbrushes 6, 9, 73, 107, T·34/76 tank 167
Panrher Ausf. G tank 170-171
127, ISO Tiger I tank 169
primers 22, 60 Clear Parts Cement 95 Type XXll! U-boat 186,187
Renault Alpine 172-181 paints 23, 79,81, 187 White Ensign 23
Spitfire Mk 1 39
topcoats 71 white paints 48-60
Tiger I rank 168-169
Thayer & Chandler 10 Windex glass cleaner 22,26
Tamiya paints 23, 25, 26, 34, 35, 36 thinning, paint 23, 25-26, 28-29, Windsor and Newton paints
B-25J Mirchell 86, 87, 90, 91, 92, 32-33,69 Hetzer tank 158
93-95 Tiger I tank 168-169 Messerschmitt Bf 110 E 101
Blackburn Skua Mk 11 72, 76,78, tins, paint in 23-24 P-51 B Mustang 132
80-81 tints, colour 14 winter camouflage 64-68, 69-70
Centurion Mk 5/1 tank 163, 164,
tips, airbrushes 9 workspaces 20
165 tones, colour 14
Dornier Do 17 Z 41
Fairey Gannet ASW 47
Gloster Meteor 10 Mk 8: 126-127,
triggers, airbrushes 12
Trumpeter: KV-l tank 150-152 x
Xtracrylix paints 19,21,23,36,37,47
Type XXlil U-boat 186-187
128 Blackburn Skua Mk II 75
GMC fuel tanker 182, 183
Hetzer tank 154
KV-l tank 151
ultrasonic cleaners 29
Lancaster bomber 50, 57, 58
topcoats 70, 71
Xtrakit: Gloster Meteor 10 Mk 8: 126-131
Airbrushing and Finishing Scale Models
provides a detailed guide to creating
a convincing paint finish for any model,
be it military or civilian, aircraft, vehicle,
figures or even background items such
as groundwork or buildings.

Brett Green explores the world of the

airbrush and how to use it, starting with
the basics of colour and paint fundamentals,
before moving on to deal with airbrush
hardware and essential supplies, and then
specific airbrushing techniques such as
freehand and masking.

Most importantly, this book thoroughly

and practically demonstrates the techniques
needed to obtain a realistic finish across
a broad range of models, from heavily
weathered military aircraft through to
pristine, high-gloss motor vehicles.

US $39.95 I CAN $45.00

IS BN 978-1-84603-199-1

9 7818.1 031991 53f95 PUBLISHING