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ATLAS OF HUMAN ANATOMY, SEVENTH EDITION Standard Edition: 978-0-323-39322-5

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9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Carlos A. G. Machado, MD Jennifer Brueckner-Collins, PhD
Chief Contributing Medical Illustrator Professor and Vice Chair of Educational Programs
Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology
John T. Hansen, PhD University of Louisville School of Medicine
Lead Editor Louisville, Kentucky
Professor of Neuroscience
Former Chair of Neurobiology and Anatomy and Todd M. Hoagland, PhD
Associate Dean for Admissions Professor
University of Rochester Medical Center Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy
Rochester, New York Medical College of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Brion Benninger, MD, MSc
Professor of Medical Innovation, Technology, & R. Shane Tubbs, MS, PA-C, PhD
Research; Professor of Clinical Anatomy Chief Scientific Officer, and Vice President
Executive Director, Chair, Medical Anatomy Center Seattle Science Foundation
Department of Medical Anatomical Sciences Seattle, Washington;
Faculty College of Dentistry Professor of Anatomy
Western University of Health Sciences Department of Anatomical Sciences
Lebanon Oregon; St. George’s University
Faculty, Sports Medicine Fellows, Orthopaedic and Grenada, West Indies;
General Surgery Residencies Centre of Anatomy and Human Identification
Samaritan Health Services, Corvallis, Oregon; Dundee University
Faculty, Surgery, Orthopedics & Rehabilitation, and Oral United Kingdom
Maxillofacial Surgery
Oregon Health & Science University
Portland, Oregon


First Edition Fifth Edition Sixth Edition
Sharon Colacino, PhD John T. Hansen, PhD John T. Hansen, PhD
Brion Benninger, MD, MS Brion Benninger, MD, MS
Second Edition Jennifer K. Brueckner, PhD Jennifer Brueckner-Collins, PhD
Arthur F. Dalley II, PhD Stephen W. Carmichael, PhD, DSc Todd M. Hoagland, PhD
Noelle A. Granger, PhD R. Shane Tubbs, MS, PA-C, PhD
Third Edition R. Shane Tubbs, MS, PA-C, PhD
John T. Hansen, PhD

Fourth Edition
John T. Hansen, PhD
Jennifer K. Brueckner, PhD
Stephen W. Carmichael, PhD, DSc
Thomas R. Gest, PhD
Noelle A. Granger, PhD
Anil H. Waljii, MD, PhD
Hassan Amiralli, MBBS, MS (Surg) Virginia T. Lyons, PhD Mark E. Sturgill, DO
Professor and Chair Associate Professor of Medical Pediatric and Neuroradiologist
Department of Anatomy Education Radiology Partners
American University of Antigua Associate Dean of Preclinical Hopkinsville, Kentucky
College of Medicine Year 1
Antigua, West Indies Geisel School of Medicine at William J. Swartz, PhD
Dartmouth Professor of Cell Biology and
Nihal Apaydın, MD, PhD Hanover, New Hampshire Anatomy
Professor, Department of Anatomy Louisiana State University
Faculty of Medicine Thazhumpal Chacko Mathew, PhD Health Sciences Center
Vice Director, Brain Research Center Professor and Vice Dean for New Orleans, Louisiana
Ankara University Research, Training, and
Ankara, Turkey Consultation Kimberly Topp, PT, PhD
Faculty of Allied Health Sciences Professor and Chair
Keith E. Baynes, MD Health Sciences Centre Department of Physical Therapy and
Section Chief, MSK and General Kuwait University Rehabilitation Science
Radiology Kuwait City, Kuwait Department of Anatomy
Associate Professor of Radiology University of California, San
Medical College of Wisconsin Paul E. Neumann, MD Francisco
Milwaukee, Wisconsin Professor, Department of Anatomy San Francisco, California
and Neurobiology
Francisco J. Caycedo, MD Faculty of Medicine Ivan Varga, PhD
Specialist in Foot and Ankle Surgery Dalhousie University Professor of Anatomy, Histology,
Sports Medicine and Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada and Embryology
Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Faculty of Medicine
OrthoSports Associates–St. Eduardo Cotecchia Ribeiro, PhD Comenius University
Vincent’s Birmingham Associate Professor of Descriptive Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Birmingham, Alabama and Topographic Anatomy
Department of Morphology and Peter J. Ward, PhD
William E. Cullinan, PhD Genetics Associate Professor of Anatomy
Professor, Department of School of Medicine West Virginia School of Osteopathic
Biomedical Sciences Federal University of São Paulo Medicine
Director, Integrative Neuroscience São Paulo, Brazil Lewisburg, West Virginia
Research Center
Dean, College of Health Sciences Danielle F. Royer, PhD Robert J. Ward, MD
Marquette University Associate Professor Chief, Musculoskeletal Imaging and
Milwaukee, Wisconsin Cell and Developmental Biology Intervention
University of Colorado, Anschutz Director, Bone Densitometry
Joe Iwanaga, DDS, PhD Medical Campus Department of Radiology
Assistant Professor Aurora, Colorado Tufts Medical Center
Division of Gross and Clinical Director, Undergraduate Radiology
Anatomy Jonathan Spratt, MB, BChir Education
Department of Anatomy Clinical Director of Radiology Assistant Professor of Radiology and
Kurume University School of Sunderland City Hospitals Orthopedics
Medicine Sunderland, United Kingdom Tufts University School of Medicine
Kurume, Japan Former Examiner in Anatomy Boston, Massachusetts
Royal College of Radiologists
Christopher R. Kelly, MD and Royal College of Surgeons of Kristy A. Weir, PhD
Clinical Fellow England School of Biomedical Sciences
Division of Cardiology Visiting Professor of Anatomy The University of Queensland
Columbia University Medical Center St. George’s University St Lucia, Queensland, Australia
New York, New York Grenada, West Indies

Robert Louis, MD Susan Standring, MBE, PhD, DSc

Director, Skull Base and Pituitary Professor Emeritus of Anatomy
Tumor Program Department of Anatomy
Minimally Invasive Brain and Spine King’s College London
Surgery London, United Kingdom
Hoag Neurosciences Institute
Newport Beach, California
With your copy of the Frank H. Netter, MD, Atlas of Human New Art Plates by Dr. Machado
Anatomy, you own a collection of some of the most well- For this edition alone, over 25 new illustrations have been
known depictions of human anatomy in medicine and painted by Dr. Machado. Suggestions for new plates of
healthcare. In addition to the famous work of Dr. Netter, additional anatomic views and concepts are submitted
with your copy of this 7th edition, you also have access to by students, faculty, anatomists, physicians, and others.
nearly 100 painted pieces by Carlos A. G. Machado, MD, Sometimes suggestions are solicited at major anatomy
one of the foremost medical illustrators working today. Dr. conferences with a “What Should Carlos Paint Next?” idea
Machado’s contributions to the Atlas highlight important box. Decisions around which new plates are prioritized
views of anatomy that have become more clinically relevant and given space in a new edition come from discussions
in recent years— anatomic views that have resulted from among consulting editors. The new plates for this edition are
improved dissection techniques and modern imaging. largely those that portray structures with clinical significance
In addition, you have access to more than 50 carefully (Fascial Columns of the Neck, Deep Veins of the Leg, Hip
selected radiologic images that help bridge the idealized Bursae, and Vasculature of the Prostate) or those that are
illustrated anatomy with living anatomy viewed in the difficult to visualize (Infratemporal Fossa)—and, of course,
clinic. the new additions created for the introductory section.
While numerous updates have been made to the
illustrated plates and tables to make them easier to learn Terminology Updates
from, the most significant changes to this edition include: The Atlas of Human Anatomy uses terminology accepted
(in Göttingen, Germany, on September 24, 2016) by the
Introductory Section Federative International Programme on Anatomical Termi-
To fulfill the requests from many students and fans of nologies and published as updates to the 1998 Terminologia
Netter’s Atlas, we have added a new opening section Anatomica. Numerous updates to terminology have been
containing several overview plates. These plates provide made, so in select cases, former terminology has been
the very first head-to-toe views in the Atlas of Human included within parentheses to assist with the transition.
New Radiologic Images
Clinical Tables Over 50 radiologic images—some completely new views
The Atlas of Human Anatomy is the only anatomy atlas and others replacing existing views using newer imaging
illustrated by physicians. Dr. Netter was a surgeon and tools—are included in this edition. Images have been
Dr. Machado is a cardiologist. The views of anatomy selected based on their utility to students studying gross
in this atlas have always reflected a clinical perspec- anatomy.
tive. In line with this clinical focus, and in congruence Your Atlas of Human Anatomy content has been updated,
with integrated curricula in health and medicine, tables created, and overseen by a team of dedicated and pas-
at the end of each regional section highlight the most sionate consulting editors, with the help of a stellar
commonly injured structures, as well as other structures international advisory board, and guided by the feedback
with high clinical significance and commonly covered of many students, educators, anatomists, and clinicians
in anatomy courses. The tables provide students with that love Netter’s Atlas. Please feel free to comment on
quick summaries, organized by body system, and note the Netter Images Facebook page or Twitter feeds or email
where to best view these key structures in the illustrated us directly with your thoughts, suggestions, or questions
plates. at
To my dear wife, Vera


I have often said that my career as a medical artist for revision of a number of them in order to make them more
almost 50 years has been a sort of “command performance” pertinent to today’s ever-expanding scope of medical and
in the sense that it has grown in response to the desires surgical practice. In addition, I found that there were gaps
and requests of the medical profession. Over these many in the portrayal of medical knowledge as pictorialized in
years, I have produced almost 4,000 illustrations, mostly the illustrations I had previously done, and this necessitated
for The CIBA (now Netter) Collection of Medical Illustrations my making a number of new pictures that are included in
but also for Clinical Symposia. These pictures have been this volume.
concerned with the varied subdivisions of medical knowl- In creating an atlas such as this, it is important to achieve a
edge such as gross anatomy, histology, embryology, happy medium between complexity and simplification. If the
physiology, pathology, diagnostic modalities, surgical and pictures are too complex, they may be difficult and confusing
therapeutic techniques, and clinical manifestations of a to read; if oversimplified, they may not be adequately defini-
multitude of diseases. As the years went by, however, tive or may even be misleading. I have therefore striven for
there were more and more requests from physicians and a middle course of realism without the clutter of confusing
students for me to produce an atlas purely of gross anatomy. minutiae. I hope that the students and members of the
Thus, this atlas has come about, not through any inspiration medical and allied professions will find the illustrations readily
on my part but rather, like most of my previous works, as understandable, yet instructive and useful.
a fulfillment of the desires of the medical profession. At one point, the publisher and I thought it might be
It involved going back over all the illustrations I had nice to include a foreword by a truly outstanding and
made over so many years, selecting those pertinent to renowned anatomist, but there are so many in that category
gross anatomy, classifying them and organizing them by that we could not make a choice. We did think of men
system and region, adapting them to page size and space, like Vesalius, Leonardo da Vinci, William Hunter, and Henry
and arranging them in logical sequence. Anatomy of course Gray, who of course are unfortunately unavailable, but I
does not change, but our understanding of anatomy and do wonder what their comments might have been about
its clinical significance does change, as do anatomical this atlas.
terminology and nomenclature. This therefore required Frank H. Netter, MD
much updating of many of the older pictures and even (1906–1991)

Frank H. Netter was born in New York City in 1906. He Dr. Netter’s works are among the finest examples of
studied art at the Art Students League and the National the use of illustration in the teaching of medical concepts.
Academy of Design before entering medical school at New The 13-book Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations, which
York University, where he received his Doctor of Medicine includes the greater part of the more than 20,000 paintings
degree in 1931. During his student years, Dr. Netter’s created by Dr. Netter, became and remains one of the
notebook sketches attracted the attention of the medical most famous medical works ever published. The Netter
faculty and other physicians, allowing him to augment his Atlas of Human Anatomy, first published in 1989, presents
income by illustrating articles and textbooks. He continued the anatomic paintings from the Netter Collection. Now
illustrating as a sideline after establishing a surgical practice translated into 16 languages, it is the anatomy atlas of
in 1933, but he ultimately opted to give up his practice in choice among medical and health professions students
favor of a full-time commitment to art. After service in the the world over.
United States Army during World War II, Dr. Netter began The Netter illustrations are appreciated not only for their
his long collaboration with the CIBA Pharmaceutical aesthetic qualities, but, more importantly, for their intel-
Company (now Novartis Pharmaceuticals). This 45-year lectual content. As Dr. Netter wrote in 1949 “clarification
partnership resulted in the production of the extraordinary of a subject is the aim and goal of illustration. No matter
collection of medical art so familiar to physicians and other how beautifully painted, how delicately and subtly rendered
medical professionals worldwide. a subject may be, it is of little value as a medical illustration
Icon Learning Systems acquired the Netter Collection if it does not serve to make clear some medical point.”
in July 2000 and continued to update Dr. Netter’s original Dr. Netter’s planning, conception, point of view, and
paintings and to add newly commissioned paintings by approach are what inform his paintings and what make
artists trained in the style of Dr. Netter. In 2005, Elsevier them so intellectually valuable.
Inc. purchased the Netter Collection and all publications
from Icon Learning Systems. There are now over 50 Frank H. Netter, MD, physician and artist, died in 1991.
publications featuring the art of Dr. Netter available through
Elsevier Inc.
Carlos A. G. Machado, MD colleagues at Rochester and to all my past and present
I struck luck when joining this golden team of consulting students who have provided generous and constructive
editors exceedingly knowledgeable in the fields of clini- feedback and have enriched my life. Finally, I am indebted
cal anatomy and medical education. It has been a great to my entire family for their continued support and especially
honor to work with and be under their guidance, as well to my wife, Paula. Their love and encouragement sustains
as under the highly competent coordination of Elyse me and is the source of all the happiness and joy I know.
O’Grady and Marybeth Thiel, Elsevier’s Executive Content
Strategist and Senior Content Development Specialist, Brion Benninger, MD, MSc
respectively. Every day I am thankful for my wife, Alison, and son,
This unique book would not exist without the genius Jack, for the laughs we have as a family, often from my
of its creator, Dr. Frank Netter, to whom I owe special follies, which is such a tonic. I thank Elsevier, especially
thanks, also in the name of generations of students and Marybeth Thiel, Elyse O’Grady, and Madelene Hyde for their
health professionals who, like myself, have learned so professionalism and guidance, enabling John Hansen, Carlos
much from his incommensurable body of work. Machado, and my fellow coeditors to work in a unique
I dedicate my work and express my most sincere thanks and dynamic environment. I thank those clinicians who
to my beloved parents, Carlos and Neide, who provided trained me, especially my early gifted surgeon/anatomist/
me with the foundation of my education; to my patient teacher mentors, Drs. Gerald Tressidor and Harold Ellis
wife, Adriana, and talented daughter, Beatriz, for their CBE (Cambridge & Guy’s Hospital); Dr. S. Standring, who
love and support; to the students, teachers, and health embodies professionalism and displays fortitude; Drs. P.
professionals who rely on my work to learn and teach; to Crone and J. Heatherington, and the University Board for
all the body donors and living friends that have respectively their stellar support; my past and future students and
been the subjects of my studies and models of most of the patients; and clinical colleagues from all corners of the
illustrations I have created for the Atlas; and to my teach- world who keep anatomy dynamic, fresh, and wanting
ers Eugênio Cavalcante, Mário Fortes, and Paulo Carneiro more. Special thanks to Jim Diegel and Erik Szeto, friends,
for taking my interest in human/clinical anatomy much mentors and fellow visionaries who also see “outside the
further. box,” challenging status quo. A heartfelt tribute to my late
mentors, friends, and sister, Jim McDaniel, Bill Bryan, and
John T. Hansen, PhD Gail Hendricks, all who represent what is good in teach-
At Elsevier I would like to thank Marybeth Thiel, Senior ing, caring, and healing. They made this world a wee bit
Content Development Specialist, Elyse O’Grady, Executive better. Lastly, I thank my mother for her love of education
Content Strategist, John Casey, Senior Project Manager, and equality and my father for his inquisitive and creative
Patricia Tannian, Publishing Services Manager, Julia mind.
Dummitt, Design Manager, Karen Giacomucci, Illustration
Buyer, and Madelene Hyde, Publishing Director, for their Jennifer Brueckner-Collins, PhD
continuous support and meticulous attention to detail during Many thanks to the Elsevier team, particularly Marybeth
the development of this seventh edition of the Atlas of Thiel and Elyse O’Grady, for their guidance and expertise
Human Anatomy. They, along with the entire editorial, during our preparation of the seventh edition. It is always
production, design, and marketing teams at Elsevier have an honor to work with Carlos Machado, whose passion
been a delight to work with and to know. I also wish to for and mastery of the art of clinical anatomy and medicine
thank my consulting editors for their insightful and construc- never cease to amaze me. I am forever indebted to Brian
tive suggestions as we strive to make every new edition MacPherson, who has served as a teacher, mentor, and
of the Atlas better. I am also indebted to Carlos Machado friend to me for more than 20 years….you showed me
for his superb artistic skill in producing and updating a what it means to be a true educator and I have been so
number of plates that appear in this latest edition of the fortunate to have the opportunity to build a career based
Atlas. His renderings of human anatomy are the perfect on those principles. To Kurt and Lincoln, you are my inspira-
complement to the Netter images. In addition to my fellow tion….my world…my life and I love you to the snow moon
editors, I wish to express my thanks to my faculty and back.
Todd M. Hoagland, PhD helping me become a competent clinical anatomist, and
It is a privilege to teach clinical human anatomy and I am to Rob Bouchie for his camaraderie. I am most grateful to
eternally grateful to all the body donors and their families my brother, Bill, for his unwavering optimism and gregarious
for enabling healthcare professionals to train in the dis- nature. I thank my mother, Liz, for her dedication and love
section laboratory. It is my honor to work with outstanding and for instilling a strong work ethic. Finally, I am humbled
medical students and colleagues at the Medical College by my two awesome children, Ella and Caleb, for helping
of Wisconsin. I am grateful to John Hansen and the profes- me redefine love, wonder, and joy.
sionals of the Elsevier team for the opportunity to be a
steward of the incomparable Netter’s Atlas. Marybeth Thiel R. Shane Tubbs, MS, PA-C, PhD
and Elyse O’Grady were especially helpful and a pleasure Elsevier and the Netter team have once again been a joy
to work with. It was an honor to collaborate with the to work with. I thank Elyse O’Grady, Marybeth Thiel, and
brilliant Carlos Machado and all the consulting editors. I John Casey for their tremendous work on this edition. In
thank Bill Swartz and Mark Moss for being outstanding addition, Carlos Machado has again added his expertise
mentors, and I thank all of the graduate students I’ve to bringing his anatomical images to life. As always, my
worked with, especially Rebecca Lufler. I am deeply work is inspired by my beautiful wife, Susan, and son,
appreciative of Stan Hillman and Jack O’Malley for inspiring Isaiah. Lastly, I am indebted to my parents, Richard and
me with masterful teaching and rigorous expectations. I Karon Tubbs, who supported me in my career to better
am indebted to Gary Kolesari and Richard Hoyt Jr. for understand the human body.
Introduction • Plates 1-7
1 Body Planes and Terms of Relationship
2 Surface Anatomy: Regions (Anterior View of Female)
3 Surface Anatomy: Regions (Posterior View of Male)
4 Major Arteries and Pulse Points
5 Major Systemic Veins of the Cardiovascular System
6 General Organization of the Nervous System
7 Overview of the Lymphatic System

Electronic Bonus Plates • Plates BP1-BP16

BP 1 Cross Section of Skin
BP 2 Pilosebaceous Unit
BP 3 Major Body Cavities
BP 4 Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeletons
BP 5 Types of Synovial Joints
BP 6 Joints: Connective Tissues and Articular Cartilage
BP 7 Architecture of Bone
BP 8 Muscular System
BP 9 Overview of the Gastrointestinal System
BP 10 Overview of the Endocrine System
BP 11 Neurons and Synapses
BP 12 Features of a Typical Peripheral Nerve
BP 13 Sites of Visceral Referred Pain
BP 14 General Organization of the Cardiovascular System
BP 15 Cardiovascular System: Composition of Blood
BP 16 Arterial Wall

SECTION 2 HEAD AND NECK • Plates 8-160

Surface Anatomy • Plate 8
8 Head and Neck: Surface Anatomy ///////

Superficial Head and Neck • Plates 9-10

9 Cutaneous Nerves of Head and Neck
10 Superficial Arteries and Veins of Face and Scalp
/////// facebook : Booksmedicos06
Bones and Ligaments • Plates 11-30
11 Skull: Anterior View
12 Skull: Radiographs
13 Skull: Lateral View
14 Skull: Lateral Radiograph
15 Skull: Midsagittal Section
16 Calvaria
17 Cranial Base: Inferior View
18 Cranial Base: Superior View
19 Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View
20 Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Superior View
21 Skull of Newborn
22 Bony Framework of Head and Neck
23 Pterygoid Fossae
24 Mandible
25 Temporomandibular Joint
26 Cervical Vertebrae: Atlas and Axis
27 Cervical Vertebrae (continued)
28 Cervical Vertebrae: Uncovertebral Joints
29 External Craniocervical Ligaments
30 Internal Craniocervical Ligaments

Neck • Plates 31-41

31 Muscles of Facial Expression: Lateral View
32 Muscles of Neck: Anterior View
33 Fascial Layers of Neck
34 Cervical Fasciae
35 Infrahyoid and Suprahyoid Muscles
36 Muscles of Neck: Lateral View
37 Anterior and Lateral Cervical Muscles
38 Superficial Veins and Cutaneous Nerves of Neck
39 Nerves and Vessels of Neck
40 Nerves and Vessels of Neck (continued)
41 Carotid Arteries

Nasal Region • Plates 42-64

42 Nose
43 Lateral Wall of Nasal Cavity
44 Lateral Wall of Nasal Cavity (continued)
45 Medial Wall of Nasal Cavity (Nasal Septum)
46 Nerves of Nasal Cavity
47 Arteries of Nasal Cavity: Bony Nasal Septum Turned Up
48 Nerves of Nasal Cavity: Bony Nasal Septum Turned Up
49 Nose and Maxillary Sinus: Transverse Section
50 Paranasal Sinuses: Coronal and Transverse Sections
51 Paranasal Sinuses: Parasagittal Views
52 Paranasal Sinuses: Changes with Age
53 Salivary Glands
54 Facial Nerve Branches and Parotid Gland
55 Muscles Involved in Mastication
56 Muscles Involved in Mastication (continued)
57 Maxillary Artery
58 Proximal Maxillary and Superficial Temporal Arteries
59 Mandibular Nerve (CN V3)
60 Superior View of Infratemporal Fossa
61 Ophthalmic (CN V1) and Maxillary (CN V2) Nerves
62 Autonomic Innervation of Nasal Cavity
63 Nerves and Arteries of the Deep Face
64 Orientation of Nerves and Vessels of the Cranial Base

Oral Region • Plates 65-74

65 Inspection of Oral Cavity
66 Afferent Innervation of Oral Cavity and Tongue
67 Roof of Oral Cavity
68 Tongue and Salivary Glands: Sections
69 Floor of Oral Cavity
70 Tongue
71 Tongue (continued)
72 Fauces
73 Teeth
74 Teeth (continued)

Pharynx • Plates 75-86

75 Muscles of Pharynx: Partially Opened Posterior View
76 Posterior View of Pharynx: Nerves and Vessels
77 Pharynx: Medial View
78 Muscles of Pharynx: Medial View
79 Pharynx: Opened Posterior View
80 Pharyngoesophageal Junction
81 Muscles of Pharynx: Lateral View
82 Nerves of Oral, Head, and Neck Regions
83 Arteries of Oral and Pharyngeal Regions
84 Veins of Face and Neck Regions
85 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Head and Neck
86 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Pharynx and Tongue

Thyroid Gland and Larynx • Plates 87-93

87 Thyroid Gland: Anterior View ///////

88 Thyroid Gland and Pharynx: Posterior View

89 Parathyroid Glands
90 Cartilages of Larynx
91 Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx
92 Nerves and Coronal Section of Larynx
93 Action of Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx
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Orbit and Contents • Plates 94-104
94 Eyelids
95 Lacrimal Apparatus
96 Extrinsic Eye Muscles
97 Nerves of Orbit
98 Superior and Anterior Views of Orbit
99 Arteries and Veins of Orbit and Eyelids
100 Eyeball: Transverse Section
101 Anterior and Posterior Chambers of Eyeball
102 Lens and Supporting Structures
103 Intrinsic Arteries and Veins of Eye
104 Vascular Supply of Eye

Ear • Plates 105-110

105 Ear and Course of Sound in Cochlea
106 External Ear and Tympanic Cavity
107 Tympanic Cavity
108 Bony and Membranous Labyrinths
109 Bony and Membranous Labyrinths (continued)
110 Orientation of Labyrinths in Skull

Meninges and Brain • Plates 111-126

111 Meninges and Diploic Veins
112 Meningeal Arteries
113 Meninges and Superficial Cerebral Veins
114 Dural Venous Sinuses: Sagittal Section
115 Dural Venous Sinuses (continued)
116 Brain: Lateral Views
117 Brain: Medial Views
118 Brain: Inferior View
119 Ventricles of Brain
120 Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid
121 Basal Nuclei (Ganglia)
122 Thalamus and Related Structures
123 Hippocampus and Fornix
124 Brain Stem
125 Ventricles and Cerebellum
126 Cerebellum

Cranial and Cervical Nerves • Plates 127-146

127 Cranial Nerve Nuclei in Brain Stem: Schema
128 Cranial Nerve Nuclei in Brain Stem: Schema (continued)
129 Cranial Nerves (Motor and Sensory Distribution): Schema
130 Olfactory Nerve (CN I): Schema
131 Optic Nerve (CN II) (Visual Pathway): Schema
132 Oculomotor (CN III), Trochlear (CN IV), and Abducens (CN VI)
Nerves: Schema
133 Trigeminal Nerve (CN V): Schema
134 Facial Nerve (CN VII): Schema
135 Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII): Schema
136 Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX): Schema
137 Vagus Nerve (CN X): Schema
138 Accessory Nerve (CN XI): Schema
139 Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII): Schema
140 Cervical Plexus: Schema
141 Autonomic Nerves in Neck
142 Autonomic Nerves in Head
143 Ciliary Ganglion: Schema
144 Pterygopalatine and Submandibular Ganglia: Schema
145 Otic Ganglion: Schema
146 Taste Pathways: Schema

Cerebral Vasculature • Plates 147-158

147 Arteries to Brain and Meninges
148 Internal Carotid Artery in Petrous Part of Temporal Bone
149 Arteries to Brain: Schema
150 Arteries of Brain: Inferior Views
151 Cerebral Arterial Circle (of Willis)
152 Arteries of Brain: Frontal View and Section
153 Arteries of Brain: Lateral and Medial Views
154 Arteries of Posterior Cranial Fossa
155 Veins of Posterior Cranial Fossa
156 Deep Veins of Brain
157 Subependymal Veins of Brain
158 Hypothalamus and Hypophysis

Regional Imaging • Plates 159-160

159 Cranial Imaging (MRA and MRV)
160 Cranial Imaging (MRI)

Structures with High Clinical Significance • Tables 2.1-2.3

Muscle Tables • Tables 2.4-2.9

Electronic Bonus Plates • Plates BP17-BP32 ///////

BP17 3D Skull Reconstruction CTs

BP18 Degenerative Changes in Cervical Vertebrae
BP19 Atlantooccipital Junction
BP20 Muscles of Facial Expression: Anterior View
BP21 Musculature of Face
BP22 Paranasal Sinuses
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BP23 Subclavian Artery
BP24 Opening of the Mandible
BP25 Afferent Innervation of Oral Cavity and Pharynx
BP26 Fasciae of Orbit and Eyeball
BP27 Tympanic Cavity
BP28 Anatomy of the Pediatric Ear
BP29 Auditory Tube (Eustachian)
BP30 Arteries and Veins of Hypothalamus and Hypophysis
BP31 Cranial Imaging (MRV and MRA)
BP32 Axial and Coronal MRIs of Brain


Surface Anatomy • Plate 161
161 Back: Surface Anatomy

Bones and Ligaments • Plates 162-168

162 Vertebral Column
163 Thoracic Vertebrae
164 Lumbar Vertebrae
165 Vertebrae: Radiograph and MRI
166 Sacrum and Coccyx
167 Vertebral Ligaments: Lumbosacral Region
168 Vertebral Ligaments: Lumbar Region

Spinal Cord • Plates 169-179

169 Spinal Cord and Anterior Rami
170 Relation of Spinal Nerve Roots to Vertebrae
171 Dermatomes
172 Sympathetic Nervous System: Schema
173 Parasympathetic Nervous System: Schema
174 Spinal Meninges and Nerve Roots
175 Spinal Nerve Origin: Cross Sections
176 Arteries of Spinal Cord: Schema
177 Arteries of Spinal Cord: Intrinsic Distribution
178 Veins of Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column
179 Veins of Vertebral Column: Vertebral Veins

Muscles and Nerves • Plates 180-184

180 Muscles of Back: Superficial Layer
181 Muscles of Back: Intermediate Layer
182 Muscles of Back: Deep Layer
183 Nerves of Back
184 Suboccipital Triangle
Cross-Sectional Anatomy • Plates 185-186
185 Lumbar Region of Back: Cross Section
186 Typical Thoracic Spinal Nerve: Cross Section

Structures with High Clinical Significance • Table 3.1

Muscle Tables • Tables 3.2-3.3

Electronic Bonus Plates • Plates BP33-BP43

BP33 Vertebral Ligaments
BP34 Cervical Spine: Radiographs
BP35 Cervical Spine: MRI and Radiograph
BP36 Thoracolumbar Spine: Lateral Radiograph
BP37 Lumbar Vertebrae: Radiographs
BP38 Lumbar Spine: MRIs
BP39 Sympathetic Nervous System: General Topography
BP40 Parasympathetic Nervous System: General Topography
BP41 Cholinergic and Adrenergic Synapses: Schema
BP42 Vertebral Veins: Detail Showing Venous Communications
BP43 Spinal Cord Cross Sections: Fiber Tracts

SECTION 4 THORAX • Plates 187-248

Surface Anatomy • Plate 187
187 Thorax: Surface Anatomy

Mammary Gland • Plates 188-191

188 Mammary Gland
189 Arteries of Mammary Gland
190 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Mammary Gland
191 Lymphatic Drainage of Breast

Body Wall • Plates 192-201

192 Bony Framework of Thorax
193 Ribs and Associated Joints
194 Anterior Thoracic Wall
195 Anterior Thoracic Wall (continued)
196 Anterior Thoracic Wall: Internal View ///////

197 Intercostal Nerves and Arteries

198 Veins of Internal Thoracic Wall
199 Phrenic Nerve
200 Respiratory Diaphragm: Thoracic Surface
201 Respiratory Diaphragm: Abdominal Surface
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Lungs • Plates 202-214
202 Topography of Lungs: Anterior View
203 Topography of Lungs: Posterior View
204 Lungs in Situ: Anterior View
205 Lungs: Medial Views
206 Bronchopulmonary Segments
207 Bronchopulmonary Segments (continued)
208 Trachea and Major Bronchi
209 Bronchi and Intrapulmonary Airways
210 Great Vessels of Superior Mediastinum
211 Bronchial Arteries and Veins
212 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Lung
213 Autonomic Nerves of Thorax
214 Innervation of Tracheobronchial Tree: Schema

Heart • Plates 215-233

215 Heart in Situ
216 Heart: Anterior Exposure
217 Heart: Radiographs and CT Angiogram; Auscultation of Heart
218 Heart: Base and Diaphragmatic Surface
219 Pericardial Sac
220 Mediastinum: Cross Section
221 Thorax: Coronal Section of Heart and Ascending Aorta
222 Coronary Arteries and Cardiac Veins
223 Coronary Arteries: Imaging
224 Right Atrium and Ventricle
225 Left Atrium and Ventricle
226 Valves and Fibrous Skeleton of Heart
227 Valves and Fibrous Skeleton of Heart (continued)
228 Atria, Ventricles, and Interventricular Septum
229 Conducting System of Heart
230 Nerves of Thorax
231 Innervation of Heart: Schema
232 Innervation of Blood Vessels: Schema
233 Prenatal and Postnatal Circulation

Mediastinum • Plates 234-243

234 Mediastinum: Right Lateral View
235 Mediastinum: Left Lateral View
236 Esophagus in Situ
237 Topography and Constrictions of Esophagus
238 Musculature of Esophagus
239 Esophagogastric Junction
240 Arteries of Esophagus
241 Veins of Esophagus
242 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Esophagus
243 Nerves of Esophagus
Regional Scans • Plate 244
244 Chest Scans: Axial CT Images

Cross-Sectional Anatomy • Plates 245-248

245 Cross Section of Thorax at T3 Level
246 Cross Section of Thorax at T3-4 Disc Level
247 Cross Section of Thorax at T4-5 Disc Level
248 Cross Section of Thorax at T7 Level

Structures with High Clinical Significance • Tables 4.1-4.2

Muscle Table • Table 4.3

Electronic Bonus Plates • Plates BP44-BP57

BP44 Respiratory System
BP45 Cervical Ribs and Related Anomalies
BP46 Muscle Attachments of Ribs
BP47 Muscles of Respiration
BP48 Intrapulmonary Airways: Schema
BP49 Intrapulmonary Blood Circulation: Schema
BP50 Gas Exchange
BP51 Anterior Aspect of Heart
BP52 Coronary Arteries: Right Anterior Oblique Views with
BP53 Coronary Arteries and Cardiac Veins: Variations
BP54 Intrinsic Nerves and Variations in Nerves of Esophagus
BP55 Arteries of Esophagus: Variations
BP56 Thorax: Coronal Section (Midaxillary Line, Tracheal
Bifurcation, Left Atrium)
BP57 Thorax: Coronal CTs

SECTION 5 ABDOMEN • Plates 249-332

Surface Anatomy • Plate 249
249 Abdomen: Surface Anatomy

Body Wall • Plates 250-269

250 Bony Framework of Abdomen ///////

251 Regions and Planes of Abdomen

252 Anterior Abdominal Wall: Superficial Dissection
253 Anterior Abdominal Wall: Intermediate Dissection
254 Anterior Abdominal Wall: Deep Dissection
255 Rectus Sheath: Cross Section
256 Anterior Abdominal Wall: Internal View
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257 Posterolateral Abdominal Wall
258 Arteries of Anterior Abdominal Wall
259 Veins of Anterior Abdominal Wall
260 Nerves of Anterior Abdominal Wall
261 Thoracoabdominal Nerves
262 Inguinal Region: Dissections
263 Inguinal Canal and Spermatic Cord
264 Femoral Sheath and Inguinal Canal
265 Posterior Abdominal Wall: Internal View
266 Arteries of Posterior Abdominal Wall
267 Veins of Posterior Abdominal Wall
268 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Posterior Abdominal Wall
269 Nerves of Posterior Abdominal Wall

Peritoneal Cavity • Plates 270-275

270 Greater Omentum and Abdominal Viscera
271 Mesenteric Relations of Intestines
272 Mesenteric Relations of Intestines (continued)
273 Omental Bursa: Stomach Reflected
274 Omental Bursa: Cross Section
275 Peritoneum of Posterior Abdominal Wall

Viscera (Gut) • Plates 276-283

276 Stomach in Situ
277 Mucosa of Stomach
278 Duodenum in Situ
279 Mucosa and Musculature of Small Intestine
280 Ileocecal Region
281 Ileocecal Region (continued)
282 (Vermiform) Appendix
283 Mucosa and Musculature of Large Intestine

Viscera (Accessory Organs) • Plates 284-289

284 Surfaces and Bed of Liver
285 Liver in Situ: Vascular and Duct Systems
286 Liver Structure: Schema
287 Gallbladder, Extrahepatic Bile Ducts, and Pancreatic Duct
288 Pancreas in Situ
289 Spleen

Visceral Vasculature • Plates 290-299

290 Arteries of Stomach, Liver, and Spleen
291 Arteries of Liver, Pancreas, Duodenum, and Spleen
292 Celiac Arteriogram and CT Angiogram
293 Arteries of Duodenum and Head of Pancreas
294 Arteries of Small Intestine
295 Arteries of Large Intestine
296 Veins of Stomach, Duodenum, Pancreas, and Spleen
297 Veins of Small Intestine
298 Veins of Large Intestine
299 Hepatic Portal Vein Tributaries: Portacaval Anastomoses

Innervation • Plates 300-310

300 Autonomic Nerves and Ganglia
301 Autonomic Innervation of Stomach and Duodenum
302 Autonomic Innervation of Stomach and Duodenum
303 Autonomic Innervation of Esophagus, Stomach, and
Duodenum: Schema
304 Autonomic Innervation of Small Intestine
305 Autonomic Innervation of Large Intestine
306 Autonomic Innervation of Intestines: Schema
307 Autonomic Reflex Pathways: Schema
308 Enteric Plexuses of Intestine
309 Autonomic Innervation of Liver: Schema
310 Autonomic Innervation of Pancreas: Schema

Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands • Plates 311-324

311 Kidneys in Situ: Anterior Views
312 Kidneys in Situ: Posterior Views
313 Renal Artery and Vein in Situ
314 Gross Structure of Kidney
315 Intrarenal Arteries and Renal Segments
316 Ureters in Abdomen and Pelvis
317 Arteries of Ureters and Urinary Bladder
318 Renal Fasciae
319 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Kidneys and Urinary Bladder
320 Autonomic Nerves of Kidneys, Ureters, and Urinary Bladder
321 Autonomic Innervation of Kidneys and Upper Ureters:
322 Autonomic Nerves of Suprarenal Glands: Dissection and
323 Arteries and Veins of Suprarenal Glands in Situ
324 Abdominal Wall and Viscera: Paramedian (Parasagittal)

Lymphatics • Plate 325

325 Abdominal and Pelvic Lymphatics: Schema ///////

Regional Scans • Plates 326-327

326 Abdominal Scans: Axial CT Images
327 Abdominal Scans: Axial CT Images (continued)
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Cross-Sectional Anatomy • Plates 328-332
328 Cross Section at T10, Esophagogastric Junction
329 Cross Section at T12, Inferior to Xiphoid
330 Cross Section at T12–L1, Intervertebral Disc
331 Cross Section at L1–2, Intervertebral Disc
332 Cross Section at L3–4

Structures with High Clinical Significance • Tables 5.1-5.2

Muscle Table • Table 5.3

Electronic Bonus Plates • Plates BP58-BP87

BP58 Inguinal and Femoral Regions
BP59 Indirect Inguinal Hernia
BP60 Variations in Position and Contour of Stomach in Relation to
Body Habitus
BP61 Layers of Duodenal Wall
BP62 CT and MRCP Showing Appendix, Gallbladder, and Ducts;
Nerve Branches of Hepatic Artery
BP63 Topography of Liver
BP64 Variations in Form of Liver
BP65 Sigmoid Colon: Variations in Position
BP66 Variations in Arterial Supply to Cecum and Posterior
Peritoneal Attachment of Cecum
BP67 Variations in Pancreatic Duct
BP68 Variations in Cystic, Hepatic, and Pancreatic Ducts
BP69 Variations in Cystic Arteries
BP70 Variations in Hepatic Arteries
BP71 Variations and Anomalies of Hepatic Portal Vein
BP72 Variations in Celiac Trunk
BP73 Variations in Colic Arteries
BP74 Variations in Colic Arteries (continued)
BP75 Variations in Renal Artery and Vein
BP76 Histology of Renal Corpuscle
BP77 Nephron and Collecting Tubule: Schema
BP78 Blood Vessels in Parenchyma of Kidney: Schema
BP79 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Stomach
BP80 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Pancreas
BP81 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Small Intestine
BP82 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Large Intestine
BP83 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Liver
BP84 Schematic Cross Section of Abdomen at Middle T12
BP85 Transverse Section of Abdomen: Level of L5, Near
Transtubercular Plane
BP86 Transverse Section of Abdomen: Level of S1, Anterior
Superior Iliac Spine
BP87 Axial CT Image of Upper Abdomen
Surface Anatomy • Plate 333
333 Pelvis and Perineum: Surface Anatomy

Bones and Ligaments • Plates 334-338

334 Bony Framework of Pelvis
335 Male and Female Pelvis: Radiographs
336 Sex Differences of Pelvis: Measurements
337 Bones and Ligaments of Pelvis
338 Bones and Ligaments of Pelvis (continued)

Pelvic Floor and Contents • Plates 339-349

339 Pelvic Diaphragm: Female
340 Pelvic Diaphragm: Female (continued)
341 Pelvic Diaphragm: Female (continued)
342 Pelvic Diaphragm: Male
343 Pelvic Diaphragm: Male (continued)
344 Pelvic Contents: Female
345 Pelvic Viscera and Perineum: Female
346 Pelvic Viscera: Female
347 Endopelvic Fascia and Potential Spaces
348 Pelvic Contents: Male
349 Pelvic Viscera and Perineum: Male

Urinary Bladder • Plates 350-352

350 Urinary Bladder: Orientation and Supports
351 Female Sphincters
352 Urinary Bladder: Female and Male

Uterus, Vagina, and Supporting Structures • Plates 353-357

353 Uterus, Vagina, and Supporting Structures
354 Uterus: Fascial Ligaments
355 Uterus and Adnexa
356 Female Pelvic Relationships
357 Pelvic Ligaments

Perineum and External Genitalia: Female • Plates 358-361

358 Female Perineum and External Genitalia (Pudendum or Vulva) ///////

359 Female Perineum (Superficial Dissection)

360 Female Perineum and Deep Perineum
361 Female Perineal Spaces
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Perineum and External Genitalia: Male • Plates 362-369
362 Male Perineum and External Genitalia (Superficial Dissection)
363 Male Perineum and External Genitalia (Deeper Dissection)
364 Penis
365 Male Perineal Spaces
366 Prostate Gland and Seminal Vesicles
367 Urethra
368 Descent of Testis
369 Scrotum and Contents

Homologues of Genitalia • Plates 370-371

370 Homologues of External Genitalia
371 Homologues of Internal Genitalia

Testis, Epididymis, and Ductus Deferens • Plate 372

372 Testis, Epididymis, and Ductus Deferens

Rectum • Plates 373-378

373 Rectum in Situ: Female and Male
374 Ischioanal Fossae
375 Rectum and Anal Canal
376 Anorectal Musculature
377 External Anal Sphincter Muscle: Perineal Views
378 Actual and Potential Perineopelvic Spaces

Regional Scan • Plate 379

379 Pelvic Scans: Sagittal T2-Weighted MRIs

Vasculature • Plates 380-390

380 Arteries of Rectum and Anal Canal: Male Posterior View
381 Veins of Rectum and Anal Canal: Female Anterior View
382 Arteries and Veins of Pelvic Organs: Female Anterior View
383 Arteries and Veins of Testis: Anterior View
384 Arteries of Pelvis: Female
385 Arteries and Veins of Pelvis: Male
386 Arteries and Veins of Perineum and Uterus
387 Arteries and Veins of Perineum: Male
388 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Pelvis and Genitalia: Female
389 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Perineum: Female
390 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Pelvis and Genitalia: Male

Innervation • Plates 391-399

391 Nerves of External Genitalia: Male
392 Nerves of Pelvic Viscera: Male
393 Nerves of Perineum: Male
394 Nerves of Pelvic Viscera: Female
395 Nerves of Perineum and External Genitalia: Female
396 Neuropathways in Parturition
397 Innervation of Female Reproductive Organs: Schema
398 Innervation of Male Reproductive Organs: Schema
399 Innervation of Urinary Bladder and Lower Ureter: Schema

Cross-Sectional Anatomy • Plates 400-401

400 Male Pelvis: Cross Section of Bladder–Prostate Gland
401 Female Pelvis: Cross Section of Vagina and Urethra

Structures with High Clinical Significance • Tables 6.1-6.2

Muscle Tables • Tables 6.3-6.4

Electronic Bonus Plates • Plates BP88-BP98

BP88 Fasciae of Male and Female Pelvis and Perineum
BP89 Male and Female Cystourethrograms
BP90 Female Urethra
BP91 Genetics of Reproduction
BP92 Menstrual Cycle
BP93 Testes
BP94 Uterine Development
BP95 Ovary, Ova, and Follicles
BP96 Variations in Hymen
BP97 Cross Section Through Prostate
BP98 Arteries and Veins of Pelvis: Male

SECTION 7 UPPER LIMB • Plates 402-470

Surface Anatomy • Plate 402
402 Upper Limb: Surface Anatomy

Cutaneous Anatomy • Plates 403-407

403 Dermatomes of Upper Limb and Segmental Nerve Function
404 Cutaneous Innervation of Upper Limb
405 Cutaneous Nerves and Superficial Veins of Proximal Upper
Limb ///////

406 Cutaneous Nerves and Superficial Veins of Forearm and Hand

407 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Upper Limb
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Shoulder and Axilla • Plate 408-420
408 Clavicle and Sternoclavicular Joint
409 Humerus and Scapula: Anterior Views
410 Humerus and Scapula: Posterior Views
411 Shoulder: Anteroposterior Radiograph
412 Shoulder with Details of Glenohumeral Joint
413 Muscles of Shoulder
414 Axilla: Posterior Wall
415 Muscles of Rotator (Compressor) Cuff
416 Pectoral, Clavipectoral, and Axillary Fasciae
417 Scapulothoracic and Shoulder Dissection
418 Axillary Artery and Anastomoses Around Scapula
419 Axilla: Anterior View
420 Brachial Plexus: Schema

Arm • Plates 421-425

421 Muscles of Arm: Anterior Views
422 Muscles of Arm: Posterior Views
423 Brachial Artery in Situ
424 Arteries of Arm and Proximal Forearm
425 Arm: Serial Cross Sections

Elbow and Forearm • Plates 426-441

426 Bones of Elbow
427 Elbow: Radiographs
428 Ligaments of Elbow
429 Bones of Forearm
430 Individual Muscles of Forearm: Rotators of Radius
431 Individual Muscles of Forearm: Extensors of Wrist and Digits
432 Individual Muscles of Forearm: Flexors of Wrist
433 Individual Muscles of Forearm: Flexors of Digits
434 Muscles of Forearm (Superficial Layer): Posterior View
435 Muscles of Forearm (Deeper Layer): Posterior View
436 Muscles of Forearm (Superficial Layer): Anterior View
437 Muscles of Forearm (Intermediate Layer): Anterior View
438 Muscles of Forearm (Deep Layer): Anterior View
439 Attachments of Muscles of Forearm: Anterior View
440 Attachments of Muscles of Forearm: Posterior View
441 Forearm: Serial Cross Sections, Anterior View

Wrist and Hand • Plates 442-461

442 Carpal Bones
443 Movements of Wrist
444 Ligaments of Wrist
445 Ligaments of Wrist (continued)
446 Bones of Wrist and Hand
447 Wrist and Hand: Radiographs
448 Metacarpophalangeal and Interphalangeal Ligaments
449 Wrist and Hand: Superficial Palmar Dissections
450 Wrist and Hand: Deeper Palmar Dissections
451 Lumbrical Muscles and Bursae, Spaces, and Sheaths:
452 Flexor Tendons, Arteries, and Nerves at Wrist
453 Bursae, Spaces, and Tendon Sheaths of Hand
454 Flexor and Extensor Tendons in Fingers
455 Intrinsic Muscles of Hand
456 Arteries and Nerves of Hand: Palmar Views
457 Wrist and Hand: Superficial Dissection
458 Wrist and Hand: Superficial Dorsal Dissection
459 Nerves and Arteries of Dorsal Hand and Wrist
460 Extensor Tendons at Wrist
461 Fingers

Neurovasculature • Plates 462-469

462 Cutaneous Innervation of Wrist and Hand
463 Arteries and Nerves of Upper Limb: Anterior View
464 Nerves of Upper Limb
465 Musculocutaneous Nerve: Anterior View
466 Median Nerve
467 Ulnar Nerve
468 Radial Nerve in Arm and Nerves of Posterior Shoulder:
Posterior View
469 Radial Nerve in Forearm and Hand

Regional Imaging • Plate 470

470 Shoulder MRI and CT Scan

Structures with High Clinical Significance • Tables 7.1-7.2

Muscle Tables • Tables 7.3-7.6

Electronic Bonus Plates • Plates BP99-BP106

BP99 Veins of Upper Limb
BP100 Arteries of Arm and Proximal Forearm
BP101 Arteries of Forearm and Hand
BP102 Ligaments of Wrist ///////

BP103 Flexor and Extensor Zones of Hand

BP104 Section Through Metacarpal and Distal Carpal Bones
BP105 Cross Section of Hand: Axial View
BP106 Cross Section of Hand: Axial View (continued)
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SECTION 8 LOWER LIMB • Plates 471-535
Surface Anatomy • Plate 471
471 Lower Limb: Surface Anatomy

Cutaneous Anatomy • Plates 472-475

472 Dermatomes of Lower Limb and Segmental Nerve Function
473 Superficial Nerves and Veins of Lower Limb: Anterior View
474 Superficial Nerves and Veins of Lower Limb: Posterior View
475 Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Lower Limb

Hip and Thigh • Plates 476-496

476 Coxal Bone
477 Hip Joint
478 Hip Joint: Anteroposterior Radiograph
479 Femur
480 Bony Attachments of Muscles of Hip and Thigh: Anterior
481 Bony Attachments of Muscles of Hip and Thigh: Posterior
482 Muscles of Thigh: Anterior Views
483 Muscles of Thigh: Anterior Views (continued)
484 Muscles of Hip and Thigh: Lateral View
485 Muscles of Hip and Thigh: Posterior Views
486 Psoas and Iliacus Muscles
487 Lumbosacral and Coccygeal Plexuses
488 Lumbar Plexus
489 Sacral and Coccygeal Plexuses
490 Arteries and Nerves of Thigh: Anterior Views
491 Arteries and Nerves of Thigh: Anterior Views (continued)
492 Arteries and Nerves of Thigh: Posterior View
493 Nerves of Hip and Buttock
494 Hip Bursae: Posterior and Anterolateral Views
495 Arteries of Femoral Head and Neck
496 Thigh: Serial Cross Sections

Knee • Plates 497-503

497 Knee: Medial and Lateral Views
498 Knee: Anterior Views
499 Knee: Interior Views
500 Knee: Cruciate and Collateral Ligaments
501 Knee: Anteroposterior Radiograph and Posterior View
502 Knee: Posterior and Sagittal Views
503 Arteries of Lower Limb: Schema
Leg • Plates 504-514
504 Tibia and Fibula
505 Tibia and Fibula (continued)
506 Attachments of Muscles of Leg
507 Muscles of Leg (Superficial Dissection): Posterior View
508 Muscles of Leg (Intermediate Dissection): Posterior View
509 Muscles of Leg (Deep Dissection): Posterior View
510 Muscles of Leg: Lateral View
511 Muscles of Leg (Superficial Dissection): Anterior View
512 Muscles of Leg (Deep Dissection): Anterior View
513 Venous Drainage of Leg
514 Leg: Cross Sections and Fascial Compartments

Ankle and Foot • Plates 515-528

515 Bones of Foot
516 Bones of Foot (continued)
517 Calcaneus
518 Ligaments and Tendons of Ankle
519 Ligaments and Tendons of Foot: Plantar View
520 Tendon Sheaths of Ankle
521 Muscles of Dorsum of Foot: Superficial Dissection
522 Dorsum of Foot: Deep Dissection
523 Plantar Region of Foot: Superficial Dissection
524 Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: First Layer
525 Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: Second Layer
526 Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: Third Layer
527 Interosseous Muscles and Deep Arteries of Foot
528 Interosseous Muscles of Foot

Neurovasculature • Plates 529-533

529 Femoral Nerve and Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve
530 Obturator Nerve
531 Sciatic Nerve and Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve
532 Tibial Nerve
533 Common Fibular Nerve

Regional Imaging • Plates 534-535

534 Hip MRI and 3D CT
535 Ankle: Radiographs ///////

Structures with High Clinical Significance • Tables 8.1-8.2

Muscle Tables • Tables 8.3-8.6

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Electronic Bonus Plates • Plates BP107-BP117
BP107 Veins of Lower Limb
BP108 Arteries of Thigh and Knee
BP109 Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Hip: Axial View
BP110 Arteries of Knee and Foot
BP111 Leg: Serial Cross Sections
BP112 Osteology of Knee
BP113 Knee Radiograph: Lateral View
BP114 Anatomy of Foot: Nerves and Arteries
BP115 Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Ankle and Foot
BP116 Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Ankle and Foot (continued)
BP117 Anatomy of Toenail ///////
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1 Introduction


BP 9 Overview of the BP 10 Overview of the BP 11 Neurons and BP 12 Features of a

Gastrointestinal System Endocrine System Synapses Typical Peripheral Nerve

BP 13 Sites of Visceral BP 14 General BP 15 Cardiovascular BP 16 Arterial Wall

Referred Pain Organization of the System: Composition of
Cardiovascular System Blood
Body Planes and Terms of Relationship 1
Coronal plane

plane Right Left


Medial Lateral

or dorsal

Caudal Distal

Anterior or ventral ///////


Introduction Plate 1
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Surface Anatomy: Regions (Anterior View of Female)

Anterior cervical
Lateral cervical

Pectoral Axillary

Mammary Presternal

Anterior brachial Posterior brachial

Lateral thoracic

Cubital Anterior elbow

Anterior antebrachial




Femoral triangle
Anterior femoral

Anterior knee

Anterior leg Posterior leg

Dorsum of
Heel the foot

Plate 2 Introduction
Surface Anatomy: Regions (Posterior View of Male) 1


Posterior cervical Sternocleidomastoid

Suprascapular Interscapular


Lateral pectoral

Posterior brachial

of elbow


Dorsum of
the hand

Gluteal Sacral

Posterior femoral

Posterior knee Popliteal fossa

Posterior leg ///////

Dorsum of
the foot

Introduction Plate 3
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Major Arteries and Pulse Points

Facial artery pulse

Carotid artery pulse Right and left

common carotid arteries
Aortic arch
Subclavian artery
Axillary artery

Descending thoracic aorta

Brachial artery pulse
Celiac trunk
Brachial artery
Renal artery

Superior mesenteric artery

Inferior mesenteric artery

Radial artery
Common iliac artery
Ulnar artery
Ulnar artery pulse
Internal iliac artery

Radial artery pulse

Palmar arches

iliac artery

Femoral artery pulse Deep femoral artery

Femoral artery

Popliteal artery Popliteal artery pulse

Locations for palpating arterial pulses Anterior tibial artery

(in bold)
Fibular artery

Posterior tibial artery

Posterior tibial artery pulse

Dorsalis pedis artery

Dorsalis pedis artery pulse

Plantar arch

Plate 4 Introduction
Major Systemic Veins of the Cardiovascular System 1

Major veins
Superficial vv.
Deep vv.

External jugular vein

Internal jugular vein
Brachiocephalic vein
Subclavian vein Superior vena cava

Axillary vein Azygos vein

Intercostal veins
Cephalic vein
Inferior vena cava
Brachial vein

Basilic vein
Renal vein

Common iliac vein

Radial vein
Internal iliac vein

External iliac vein

venous Deep
palmar femoral vein
arch Ulnar vein

Femoral vein
Palmar digital veins
Great saphenous vein

Popliteal vein

Posterior tibial vein

Anterior tibial vein ///////

Dorsal venous arch

Introduction Plate 5
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General Organization of the Nervous System

Central nervous


Spinal cord

Somatic sensory Visceral sensory

receptors: (monitor the receptors: (monitor
outside world and body internal conditions and
Peripheral position) organ systems)

Sensory signals within

afferent division

CNS processing

Motor commands within

efferent division

Somatic nervous Autonomic nervous

system system

Parasympathetic Sympathetic Enteric nervous

division division system

Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle Gastrointestinal
Skeletal muscle
Glands smooth muscle


Plate 6 Introduction
Overview of the Lymphatic System

of upper limb


Thoracic duct Cervical

lymph nodes
Right lymphatic duct

Thymus gland

Mediastinal lymph nodes

Axillary lymph
Thoracic duct nodes

Lymph vessels of
mammary gland
chyli Spleen

Lumbar lymph
Lymphoid nodes
nodules of
Iliac lymph

Inguinal lymph nodes

Bone marrow

Drainage Drainage of
of right thoracic
lymphatic duct

of lower limb ///////

Plate 7
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Cross Section of Skin

Meissner’s corpuscle
Free nerve endings Pore of sweat gland
Hair shaft Stratum corneum
Melanocyte Stratum lucidum
Arrector pili muscle

Sebaceous gland Stratum granulosum

Stratum spinosum
Internal sheath Stratum basale
Hair follicle

External sheath
Connective Dermal papilla
tissue layer (of papillary

Reticular layer
Hair cuticle

Sweat gland

Superficial fascia (hypodermis)

Hair matrix

Papilla of hair follicle

Pacinian corpuscle


Sensory nerves
Subcutaneous artery and vein
Elastic fibers

Skin ligaments (retinacula cutis)

Somatic nerve

Electronic Bonus Plates Plate BP 1

Pilosebaceous Unit


Hair shaft

Sebaceous gland and its duct

Arrector pili muscle

Hair cortex

Hair medulla
Hair cuticle

Huxley layer
Internal root sheath
Henle layer

External root sheath

Dermal papilla
Hair bulb ///////

Plate BP 2 Electronic Bonus Plates

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Major Body Cavities

Cranial cavity

Vertebral cavity

body Thoracic Pleural
cavity cavity cavity
cavity within
the mediastinum
Thoracic and
Respiratory diaphragm cavities
Abdominal cavity Abdomino-
Vertebral pelvic
cavity cavity

Pelvic cavity

Electronic Bonus Plates Plate BP 3

Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeletons

Appendicular skeleton (134) Axial skeleton (80)

Skull (22)
Cranium (8)
Skull and
Face (14)
Associated bones (29)
bones (7)
Pectoral Clavicle (2) ossicles (6)
girdle Hyoid (1)
(4) Scapula (2)

Sternum (1) Thoracic

cage (25)
Ribs (24)

Humerus (2)
Vertebrae (24)
Radius (2)
Sacrum (1) column
Ulna (2) (26)
Coccyx (1)
Upper Carpal
limbs bones (16)
bones (10)

distal) (28)

Sesamoid bones (4)

girdle Coxal bone (2)
Femur (2)

Patella (2)

Tibia (2)
limbs Fibula (2)
Tarsal bones (14)

Metatarsal bones (10) ///////

Phalanges (28)

Sesamoid bones (4)

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Types of Synovial Joints

Structure of synovial joints

Metaphyseal bone
Fibrous capsule
Articular cartilage



Axis of the
Ulna of
the elbow’s
pivot joint
hinge joint

A. Hinge B. Pivot
Metacarpal of the
thumb’s saddle joint Femur

Tibia of
the knee’s
Trapezium condyloid
bone joint
C. Saddle D. Condyloid
Acromioclavicular plane joint at the
shoulder: plane joint between the
Acetabulum acromion of the scapula and clavicle

Acromion Clavicle

Femur of the hip’s

ball-and-socket joint:
acetabulum of the
coxal bone forms the
“socket” of this joint
E. Ball-and-socket F. Plane

Electronic Bonus Plates Plate BP 5

Joints: Connective Tissues and Articular Cartilage

Amorphous matrix

Fibroblast Collagen fibers

Elastic fibers
Reticular fibers
Monocyte Capillary

Red blood
Mast cell Endothelial
Fat cells cell

Section of loose
connective tissue Eosinophil
Plasma cell
Articular cartilage
Longitudinal bundles
Subchondral of collagen and/or
bone elastic fibers

Tendon sectioned
longitudinally and transversely
Dense connective tissue Fibroblast nuclei Transverse fibers of
loose connective tissue

Articular cartilage

Synovial membrane
Joint capsule ///////

Joint with cartilage-covered

Architecture of articular cartilage articular surfaces
and subchondral bone
Hip joint and articular surface

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Architecture of Bone

Active osteoblasts
produce osteoid

Marrow spaces
Trabecular Trabeculae contain
bone hematopoietic
cells and fat
Trabecular (cancellous) bone

lamellae Endosteal


in haversian


Cortical (compact) bone

Electronic Bonus Plates Plate BP 7

Muscular System

Nuclei (ghosted through endomysium)

Satellite cell
Basement membrane

Tendon Muscle fiber

Muscle fascicles
Epimysium I
Z Myofibril



Z line Z line


Z line Z line

I band A band I band

H band

A band A band A band

I band I band Muscle relaxed
H band H band H band ///////

Muscle contracted

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Overview of the Gastrointestinal System

Pharyngeal muscles propel food into esophagus Oral cavity, teeth, tongue
Mechanical breakdown,
mixing with saliva

Secretion of bile (important for lipid digestion), Salivary glands (lingual,
storage of nutrients, production of cellular fuels, submandibular, parotid)
plasma proteins, clotting factors, Secretion of lubricating fluid
and detoxification and phagocytosis containing enzymes that
initiate digestion

Secretion of buffers Esophagus
and digestive Transport of food
enzymes by exocrine into the stomach
cells; secretion of
hormones by
endocrine cells
to regulate digestion

Gallbladder Chemical breakdown of
Concentration and storage of bile food by acid and enzymes;
mechanical breakdown
via muscular contractions;
absorption of water, alcohol,
Large intestine and some minerals
Dehydration and compaction
of indigestible materials for Small intestine
elimination; resorption of water Enzymatic digestion and
and electrolytes; host defense absorption of water,
organic substrates, vitamins,
and ions; host defense

Electronic Bonus Plates Plate BP 9

Overview of the Endocrine System

Production of ADH, oxytocin,
and somatostatin
Pineal gland
Pituitary gland
Anterior pituitary:
FSH, LH, and MSH

Posterior pituitary: Thyroid gland

Release of oxytocin and ADH Thyroxine (T4),
triiodothyronine (T3),
Parathyroid glands calcitonin
(on posterior surface
of thyroid gland)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Thymus
(undergoes atrophy
during adulthood)
Atrial natriuretic
peptide (ANP)
Digestive tract
Numerous hormones:
Suprarenal gastrin, secretin, CCK,
(adrenal) glands GIP, motilin
Each adrenal gland
is divided into:
Adrenal medulla:
epinephrine, Pancreatic islets
norepinephrine Insulin, glucagon,
(adrenaline, somatostatin

Adrenal cortex:
cortisol, Ovaries
androgens Estrogens, progestins, inhibin,

(EPO), calcitriol,

Leptin ///////

Androgens (especially
testosterone), inhibin

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Neurons and Synapses

Endings of preganglionic autonomic

neuron synapsing onto cell bodies Axons ending on gland or
of postganglionic neurons smooth (involuntary) muscle
or cardiac muscle cells

Satellite cells

Neurilemma surrounding
unmyelinated axons of two neurons

Two postganglionic autonomic neurons

of a sympathetic or parasympathetic ganglion


Axon hillock
Initial segment

Node Axon

Myelin sheath


Schematic of synaptic endings
Numerous boutons (synaptic knobs)
of presynaptic neurons terminating on Axon (axoplasm)
a motor neuron and its dendrites Axolemma
Glial process
Synaptic vesicles
Synaptic cleft

Presynaptic membrane
(densely staining)
Postsynaptic membrane
(densely staining)
Postsynaptic cell

Enlarged section of bouton

Electronic Bonus Plates Plate BP 11

Features of a Typical Peripheral Nerve

Longitudinal vessels

Outer epineurium Cell body of an oligodendrocyte

(neurilemmal cells play similar
role in peripheral nervous system)
Inner epineurium
Cell membrane of
Fascicle myelinated axon

Nerve fiber in cytoplasm of
bundles neuronal axon

Nerve fibers Fused layers of cell membrane of
Node of Ranvier
oligodendrocyte wrapped around
Minute masses of cytoplasm axon of a myelinated neuron of central
Endoneurium trapped between fused nervous system (the lipid of lipoprotein
layers of cell membrane constituting fused cell membrane is
of oligodendrocyte myelin, which gives myelinated axon
a white, glistening appearance) ///////

Plate BP 12 Electronic Bonus Plates

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Sites of Visceral Referred Pain

Liver, gallbladder, and

duodenum (irritation of
respiratory diaphragm)

head of Stomach

Gallbladder Spleen


Kidney and

Cecum and Sigmoid colon

ascending colon

Electronic Bonus Plates Plate BP 13

General Organization of the Cardiovascular System

Volume distribution Distribution of vascular resistance

Small arteries
Brain: and arterioles (47%)
Q = 13%
VO2 = 21%
Lungs (9%)

Veins (64%) Veins (7%)

Small arteries
and arterioles (8%) Capillaries (5%) Lungs Capillaries (27%) Large arteries (19%)
Heart in diastole (7%) Aortic pressure: 120/80 mm Hg
Large arteries (7%) (mean pressure 95 mm Hg)
Pulmonary arterial pressure: 25/10 mm Hg RA
(mean pressure 15 mm Hg) Coronary
LV circulation:
RV Q = 4%
VO2 = 11%
Liver and gastro-
intestinal tract:
Q = 24%
VO2 = 23%

Low-pressure system Skeletal High-pressure system

(reservoir function) muscle: (supply function)
Q = 21%
VO2 = 27%

Q = 20%
VO2 = 7%

Skin and other

Q = 18%
VO2 = 11%

Q = blood flow per minute

VO2= oxygen used per minute ///////

Plate BP 14 Electronic Bonus Plates

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Cardiovascular System: Composition of Blood

Plasma composition Plasma proteins

Water 92% Albumins 60%
Transports organic and Transport lipids, steroid hormones;
Centrifuged inorganic molecules, major contributors to osmotic
blood sample cells, platelets, and heat concentration of plasma

Plasma proteins 7% Globulins 35%

Transport ions, hormones, lipids;
Other solutes 1% immune function

Fibrinogen 4%
Plasma Essential component of clotting system
Regulatory proteins <1%
Enzymes, hormones, clotting proteins

Platelets Other solutes

Buffy coat
<1% Normal extracellular fluid ion compo-
Blood clot formation sition essential for vital cellular
and tissue repair activities (e.g., Na+, K+, Cl )

Organic nutrients
White blood cells Used for ATP production, growth, and
maintenance of cells (e.g., fatty acids,
glucose, amino acids)

Red blood Organic wastes

cells Carried to sites of breakdown or
~45% excretion (e.g., urea, bilirubin)
Neutrophils (50-70%)

Red blood cells

Eosinophils Lymphocytes Basophils

Monocytes (2-8%) (2-4%) (20-30%) (<1%)

Electronic Bonus Plates Plate BP 15

Arterial Wall


Basement membrane

Smooth muscle Tunica

Vascular cell (atherophil) intima
Fibroblast Lamina
Internal elastic
Smooth muscle
and elastic tissue Tunica
Reticular fibers media
External elastic


Vasa vasorum

Sympathetic nerve
Wall of an artery: (vasomotor)
cutaway view ///////


Healthy artery Healthy vein

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Surface Anatomy 8 Ear 105-110

sect outl 1 Superficial Head and Neck 9-10 Meninges and Brain 111-126
Bones and Ligaments 11-30 Cranial and Cervical Nerves 127-146
Neck 31-41 Cerebral Vasculature 147-158
Nasal Region 42-64 Regional Imaging 159-160
Oral Region 65-74 Structures with High Clinical
Pharynx 75-86 Significance Tables 2.1-2.3
Thyroid Gland and Larynx 87-93 Muscle Tables Tables 2.4-2.9
Orbit and Contents 94-104 Electronic Bonus Plates BP17-BP32


BP17 3D Skull BP18 Degenerative BP19 Atlantooccipital BP20 Muscles of Facial

Reconstruction CTs Changes in Cervical Junction Expression: Anterior View
Vertebrae ///////

BP21 Musculature of Face BP22 Paranasal Sinuses BP23 Subclavian Artery BP24 Opening of the
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2 Head and Neck

ELEC TR O N I C B O N U S P LA T E S — c ont’ d

BP25 Afferent Innervation BP26 Fasciae of Orbit and BP27 Tympanic Cavity BP28 Anatomy of
of Oral Cavity and Pharynx Eyeball the Pediatric Ear

BP29 Auditory Tube BP30 Arteries and Veins of BP31 Cranial Imaging (MRV BP32 Axial and
(Eustachian) Hypothalamus and and MRA) Coronal MRIs
Hypophysis of Brain
Head and Neck: Surface Anatomy 2
See also Plate 171

bone Infraorbital margin

Supraorbital Zygomatic bone


Glabella Tragus

Ala of nose
Anterior nares
(nostril) Lobule

Commissure of lips
Angle of mandible
sulcus Submandibular gland
Tubercle of
upper lip External jugular vein

Inferior belly of omohyoid muscle

Brachial plexus
protuberance Trapezius muscle

Thyroid cartilage

Jugular notch Clavicular head of

sternocleidomastoid muscle

Sternal head of ///////

sternocleidomastoid muscle

Surface Anatomy Plate 8

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Cutaneous Nerves of Head and Neck
See also Plates 39, 42, 61

From ophthalmic division Auricular branch

of trigeminal nerve (CN V1) of vagus nerve (CN X)

Supraorbital nerve
Supratrochlear nerve
Medial branches
Palpebral branch of of posterior rami
lacrimal nerve of cervical spinal
Infratrochlear nerve
Greater occipital
External nasal branch of
nerve (C2)
anterior ethmoidal nerve
3rd occipital
nerve (C3)

From maxillary division From 4th, 5th,

of trigeminal nerve (CN V2) 6th, and 7th

Infraorbital nerve

Zygomaticofacial nerve

Zygomaticotemporal nerve
Branches from
cervical plexus
Lesser occipital
From mandibular division of nerve (C2)
trigeminal nerve (CN V3) Great auricular
Mental nerve nerve (C2, 3)
Transverse cervical
Buccal nerve nerve (C2, 3)

Auriculotemporal nerve Supraclavicular

nerves (C3, 4)

Posterior rami of
Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) cervical spinal

Note: Auricular branch

of vagus nerve to
Trigeminal external acoustic
nerve (CN V) Maxillary nerve (CN V2) meatus and small
area on posteromedial
surface of auricle and
concha via facial nerve

Branches from
Mandibular nerve (CN V3) cervical plexus

Plate 9 Superficial Head and Neck

Superficial Arteries and Veins of Face and Scalp 2
See also Plates 57, 83, 84

Skin and
superficial fascia
Scalp Parietal emissary vein
Epicranial aponeurosis
(cut to reveal skull) Frontal Branches of
superficial temporal
Parietal artery and vein
Middle temporal artery and vein

Zygomaticoorbital artery

Transverse facial
artery and vein Anterior
Supraorbital arteries
artery and vein

artery and vein

Nasofrontal vein

External nasal
artery and vein

artery and vein

and vein

facial artery Mastoid emissary
and vein vein and meningeal
branch of occipital
Infraorbital artery
artery and vein
Occipital artery
and vein (cut)
Deep facial vein
Posterior auricular
artery and vein
Facial artery and vein
External jugular vein (cut)

Retromandibular vein
Common facial vein
Internal jugular vein

Internal carotid artery

External carotid artery

Common carotid artery ///////

Lingual artery and vein

Sources of arterial supply of face

Black: from internal carotid artery (via ophthalmic artery)
Red: from external carotid artery

Superficial Head and Neck Plate 10

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Skull: Anterior View
See also Plate 13

Frontal bone Coronal suture

Parietal bone
Supraorbital Nasion
notch (foramen)
Sphenoid bone
Orbital surface Lesser wing

Nasal bone Greater wing

Temporal bone
Lacrimal bone
Ethmoid bone

Zygomatic bone Orbital plate

Perpendicular plate
Frontal process

Orbital surface Middle nasal concha

Temporal process Inferior nasal concha

foramen Vomer

Maxillary bone Mandible

Zygomatic process Ramus

Orbital surface Body

Infraorbital foramen Mental foramen
Frontal process Mental tubercle
Alveolar process Mental protuberance

Anterior nasal spine

Right orbit: frontal view

Orbital surface of frontal bone Supraorbital notch

Orbital surface of lesser Posterior and

wing of sphenoid bone Anterior
ethmoidal foramina
Superior orbital fissure Orbital plate of
Optic canal (foramen) ethmoid bone
Orbital surface of greater Lacrimal bone
wing of sphenoid bone
Fossa for lacrimal sac
Orbital surface of
Orbital process of
zygomatic bone
palatine bone
Zygomaticofacial foramen Orbital surface
of maxillary bone
Inferior orbital fissure
Infraorbital foramen
Infraorbital groove

Plate 11 Bones and Ligaments

Skull: Radiographs 2
See also Plate 11

Posterior anterior view

Sagittal suture Coronal suture

Lambdoid suture

Lesser wing of sphenoid bone

Frontal sinus
Petrous part of temporal bone Superior orbital fissure

Foramen rotundum
Mastoid cells
Maxillary sinus

Nasal septum Inferior nasal concha

Lateral mass of atlas
Dens (C2)

Body of axis Ramus

Angle Mandible

Waters’ view

Frontal sinus

Supraorbital margin
Ethmoidal sinus
Zygomaticofrontal suture Nasal bone
Nasal septum
Zygomatic bone

Infraorbital foramen Zygomatic arch

Maxillary sinus condyle

Mastoid cells

Lateral mass of atlas Angle of mandible ///////


Bones and Ligaments Plate 12

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Skull: Lateral View
See also Plates 14, 15, 22

Sphenoid bone Parietal bone Temporal fossa Temporal bone

Greater wing Superior temporal line Squamous part

Frontal bone Inferior temporal line Zygomatic process

Coronal suture
Supraorbital Articular tubercle
notch (foramen) Pterion
Groove for posterior
Glabella deep temporal artery

Ethmoid bone Supramastoid crest

Orbital plate External acoustic
Lacrimal bone Mastoid process

Fossa for Lambdoid suture

lacrimal sac
Occipital bone
Nasal bone Sutural (wormian)
Maxillary bone
Frontal process occipital
Infraorbital protuberance
foramen (inion)
Anterior Asterion
nasal spine
Alveolar process Mandible
Head of condylar process
Zygomatic bone Mandibular notch
Zygomaticofacial Coronoid process
foramen Ramus
Temporal process Oblique line
Mental foramen
Zygomatic arch

Sphenoid bone

Infratemporal fossa exposed by Greater wing

removal of zygomatic arch and mandible* Infratemporal crest
Lateral plate of
Pterygomaxillary fissure pterygoid process
Pterygoid hamulus
Inferior orbital fissure (of medial plate of
pterygoid process)
Infratemporal surface of maxillary bone
Temporal bone
Posterior superior
alveolar foramina Foramen External acoustic
ovale meatus
Tuberosity of maxillary bone
Mandibular fossa
Articular tubercle
Pterygopalatine fossa
Styloid process
Sphenopalatine foramen

*Superficially, mastoid process forms posterior boundary.

Plate 13 Bones and Ligaments

Skull: Lateral Radiograph 2
See also Plate 15

Parietal bone
Auricle suture

Coronal suture

Frontal bone

Frontal sinus

Greater wing of
sphenoid bone

Anterior clinoid

Sella turcica

Sphenoidal sinus

Maxillary sinus

Palatine process
of maxilla

Coronoid process
of mandible


Anterior arch C1

Mastoid cells Occipital bone External ///////

Dens of
axis occipital

Bones and Ligaments Plate 14

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Skull: Midsagittal Section
See also Plates 44, 46

Sphenoid bone Temporal bone

Parietal bone
Greater wing Squamous part
Coronal Grooves for
Lesser wing suture branches of middle Petrous part
Anterior clinoid meningeal vessels Internal acoustic meatus
Groove for superior
Optic canal petrosal sinus
Sella turcica Opening of
Sphenoidal sinus vestibular aqueduct
Body Groove for
Medial and lateral sigmoid sinus
plates of

Lambdoid suture
Frontal bone
Frontal sinus
Ethmoid bone Occipital bone
Crista galli Groove for
Cribriform plate transverse sinus
plate External occipital
protuberance (inion)

Jugular foramen
Nasal bone
Groove for inferior
Inferior nasal petrosal sinus
Hypoglossal canal
Maxillary bone
Foramen magnum
nasal spine Occipital condyle
Palatine bone
Nasal surface
Vomer Basilar part
Incisive canal
Palatine process
Alveolar process

Frontal bone
Opening of sphenoidal sinus
Nasal bone

Ethmoid bone Sphenopalatine foramen

Cribriform plate
Superior nasal concha
Middle nasal concha

Sphenoid bone
Lacrimal bone
Inferior nasal concha Medial
Plates of pterygoid process
Maxillary bone Pterygoid hamulus
Nasal surface
Palatine process Palatine bone
Alveolar process Perpendicular plate
Horizontal plate

View of lateral nasal wall with nasal septum removed

Plate 15 Bones and Ligaments

Calvaria 2
See also Plates 111, 112

Superior view

Frontal bone

Coronal suture


Parietal bone

Sagittal suture

Parietal foramen (for emissary vein)


Lambdoid suture
Sutural (wormian)
Occipital bone

Inferior view
Frontal bone

Frontal crest

Groove for superior sagittal sinus

Coronal suture

Parietal bone

Granular foveolae
(for arachnoid granulations)


Grooves for branches of

middle meningeal vessels

Groove for superior sagittal sinus

Sagittal suture ///////

Lambdoid suture

Occipital bone

Bones and Ligaments Plate 16

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Cranial Base: Inferior View
See also Plate 19

Maxillary bone
Incisive fossa
Palatine process
Intermaxillary suture
Zygomatic process

Zygomatic bone

Frontal bone
Palatomaxillary suture
Sphenoid bone
Pterygoid process
Hamulus Palatine bone
Medial plate Horizontal plate
Pterygoid fossa Greater palatine foramen
Lateral plate Pyramidal process
Scaphoid fossa Lesser palatine foramina
Greater wing Posterior nasal spine
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Temporal bone
Zygomatic process Vomer
Articular tubercle Ala
Mandibular fossa
Styloid process
Groove for auditory
Petrotympanic fissure tube (eustachian)
Carotid canal (external opening)
Inferior tympanic canaliculus
External acoustic meatus Foramen lacerum
Mastoid canaliculus
Mastoid process
Stylomastoid foramen
Petrous part
Mastoid notch
Groove for occipital artery
Jugular fossa
(jugular foramen in its depth)
Mastoid foramen

Parietal bone

Occipital bone
Hypoglossal canal
Occipital condyle
Condylar canal and fossa
Basilar part
Pharyngeal tubercle
Foramen magnum
Inferior nuchal line
External occipital crest
Superior nuchal line
External occipital protuberance

Plate 17 Bones and Ligaments

Cranial Base: Superior View 2
See also Plates 20, 115

Frontal bone
Groove for superior sagittal sinus
Frontal crest
Groove for anterior meningeal vessels
Foramen cecum
Superior surface of orbital part

Ethmoid bone
Crista galli
Cribriform plate
Sphenoid bone cranial
Lesser wing fossa
Anterior clinoid process
Greater wing
Groove for middle meningeal
vessels (frontal branches)
Prechiasmatic groove
Tuberculum sellae cranial
Sella Hypophyseal fossa fossa
turcica Dorsum sellae
Posterior clinoid process
Carotid groove (for int. carotid a.)

Temporal bone
Squamous part
Petrous part
Groove for lesser petrosal nerve
Groove for greater petrosal nerve
Arcuate eminence
Trigeminal impression
Groove for superior petrosal sinus Posterior
Groove for sigmoid sinus fossa

Parietal bone
Groove for middle meningeal
vessels (parietal branches)
Mastoid angle

Occipital bone
Groove for inferior petrosal sinus
Basilar part
Groove for posterior meningeal vessels
Groove for transverse sinus ///////

Groove for occipital sinus

Internal occipital crest
Internal occipital protuberance
Groove for superior sagittal sinus

Bones and Ligaments Plate 18

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Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View
See also Plate 17

Nasopalatine nerve
Anastomosis of posterior septal branches of Incisive fossa
sphenopalatine artery and greater palatine artery

Greater palatine nerve and vessels Greater palatine foramen

Lesser palatine nerve and vessels Lesser palatine foramen
Greater petrosal nerve (passes over foramen) Foramen lacerum
Lesser petrosal nerve
Mandibular nerve (CN V3) Foramen ovale
Accessory meningeal artery

Middle meningeal vessels

Meningeal branch of mandibular nerve (CN V3) Foramen spinosum

Internal carotid artery

Internal carotid plexus Carotid canal

Chorda tympani of intermediate nerve (CN VII) Petrotympanic fissure

Tympanic branch of glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) Inferior tympanic
Auricular branch of vagus nerve (CN X) Mastoid canaliculus

Facial nerve (CN VII) Stylomastoid foramen

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

Vagus nerve (CN X)
Jugular fossa
Accessory nerve (CN XI)
Superior bulb and internal jugular vein

Mastoid emissary vein

Posterior meningeal artery Mastoid foramen

Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) Hypoglossal canal

Medulla oblongata
Vertebral arteries and venous plexus Foramen magnum
Spinal roots of accessory nerves (CN XI)

Plate 19 Bones and Ligaments

Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Superior View 2
See also Plates 18, 115

Foramen cecum Emissary vein to superior sagittal sinus

Nasal slit Anterior ethmoidal artery, vein,

Anterior ethmoidal foramen and nerve
Foramina of cribriform plate Olfactory nerves (CN I)
Posterior ethmoidal foramen Posterior ethmoidal artery, vein,
and nerve

Optic nerve (CN II)

Optic canal Ophthalmic artery

Oculomotor nerve (CN III)

Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Superior orbital fissure Lacrimal, frontal, and nasociliary
branches of ophthalmic nerve (CN V1)
Abducens nerve (CN VI)
Superior ophthalmic vein

Foramen rotundum Maxillary nerve (CN V2)

Mandibular nerve (CN V3)

Foramen ovale Accessory meningeal artery
Lesser petrosal nerve

Foramen spinosum Middle meningeal artery and vein

Meningeal branch of mandibular nerve

Sphenoidal emissary foramen (of Vesalius) (inconstant)

Foramen lacerum Greater petrosal nerve (passes over foramen)
Carotid canal Internal carotid artery
Internal carotid nerve plexus
Hiatus for Lesser petrosal nerve

Hiatus for Greater petrosal nerve

Facial nerve (CN VII)

Internal acoustic meatus Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
Labyrinthine artery
Opening of
vestibular aqueduct Endolymphatic duct

Mastoid foramen (inconstant) Emissary vein (and occasional

branch of occipital artery)

Inferior petrosal sinus

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Jugular foramen Vagus nerve (CN X)
Accessory nerve (CN XI)
Sigmoid sinus
Posterior meningeal artery

Condylar canal (inconstant) Emissary vein and meningeal branch

of ascending pharyngeal artery

Hypoglossal canal Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) ///////

Medulla oblongata
Vertebral arteries and venous plexus
Foramen magnum
Meningeal branches of vertebral
Spinal roots of accessory nerves

Bones and Ligaments Plate 20

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Skull of Newborn
See also Plates 13, 16

Lateral view Anterior fontanelle Parietal bone

Coronal suture Parietal eminence
Sphenoidal fontanelle
Frontal bone Squamous suture
Squamous part
Supraorbital notch (foramen) Posterior fontanelle

Ethmoid bone Lambdoid suture

Anterior ethmoidal
foramen Occipital bone
Orbital plate
Mastoid fontanelle
Lacrimal bone

Nasal bone

Temporal bone
Maxillary bone
Infraorbital foramen Squamous part

Petrosquamous fissure
Zygomatic bone
Sphenoid Petrous part
Zygomaticofacial foramen bone (mastoid process absent)
Greater wing
Palatine bone Lateral plate of Tympanic part (bony external
Pyramidal process pterygoid process acoustic meatus absent)
Hamulus of medial
plate of pterygoid Vestibular (oval) window
Cochlear (round) window

Styloid process
Superior view
Mandibular fossa
Metopic suture
Zygomatic process

Frontal bone

Anterior fontanelle

Coronal suture

Parietal bone
Sagittal suture

Posterior fontanelle

Occipital bone Lambdoid suture

Plate 21 Bones and Ligaments

Bony Framework of Head and Neck 2
See also Plates 13, 26

Temporal bone
Sphenoid bone
Temporal fossa
Zygomatic arch
Condylar process of mandible

Mandibular notch

Coronoid process of mandible

Lateral pterygoid plate (broken line)

Hamulus of medial pterygoid plate (broken line)

Pterygomandibular raphe (broken line)
acoustic meatus
Mandible Angle Atlas (C1)
Styloid process

Stylohyoid ligament Axis (C2)

Body ligament
Hyoid bone Lesser horn
Greater horn C3 vertebra
C7 vertebra
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage

Trachea T1 vertebra

1st rib ///////

Bones and Ligaments Plate 22

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Pterygoid Fossae
See also Plates 46, 47, 48

Posterior view

External occipital protuberance (inion) Superior nuchal line

External occipital crest
Nasal septum
Inferior nuchal line Choana
Foramen magnum
Inferior orbital fissure Mastoid foramen
Occipital condyle
Mastoid process
Styloid process Lateral pterygoid plate
Medial pterygoid plate
Pterygoid fossa
Zygomatic arch
Horizontal plate of palatine bone Pyramidal process of
palatine bone
Inferior concha
Pterygoid hamulus
Tuberosity of maxillary bone
Palatine process of maxillary bone Alveolar process of maxillary
Incisive fossa

Inferolateral view

Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Infratemporal fossa Spine of sphenoid bone

Tuberosity of maxillary bone

Sphenopalatine foramen
Alveolar process of maxillary bone Pterygopalatine fossa
Lateral plate
of pterygoid
Medial plate process
Pterygoid hamulus

Pyramidal process of palatine bone

Plate 23 Bones and Ligaments

Mandible 2
See also Plates 55, 56

Pterygoid fovea
Condylar process
Coronoid process
Mandibular notch
Mylohyoid groove
Retromolar fossa
Oblique line foramen
Submandibular fossa

Mylohyoid line
Sublingual fossa

Alveolar part (crest)

Mental foramen
Mental protuberance
Mental tubercle
Base of mandible

Coronoid process
Head Condylar process
Neck Lingula
Mandibular foramen
Mandibular notch
Mylohyoid groove
Pterygoid fovea

Mylohyoid line Ramus


Submandibular fossa
Sublingual fossa
Digastric fossa
Superior and inferior mental spines (genial tubercles) ///////

Mandible of aged
person (edentulous)

Bones and Ligaments Plate 24

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Temporomandibular Joint
See also Plate 56

Lateral view

Joint capsule
Lateral ligament of temporomandibular joint
Sphenomandibular ligament
Sphenomandibular ligament (phantom)
Styloid process
Stylomandibular ligament

Mandibular nerve
and otic ganglion

Joint capsule
Middle meningeal
Auriculotemporal nerve
Maxillary artery
Inferior alveolar nerve
Lingual nerve
Sphenomandibular ligament
Stylomandibular ligament
Mandibular fossa
Articular disc
Articular tubercle
Mylohyoid branch of
inferior alveolar artery Medial view
Joint capsule
and mylohyoid nerve

Jaws closed

Jaws slightly Jaws widely

opened opened
(hinge action (hinge and gliding
predominates) actions combined)

Plate 25 Bones and Ligaments

Cervical Vertebrae: Atlas and Axis 2
See also Plates 28, 30

Anterior tubercle
Anterior articular
Articular facet Dens facet (for anterior
Anterior arch for dens arch of atlas)
Transverse Lateral Pedicle
process mass
Superior articular
facet for atlas Interarticular
Tubercle for
ligament of
Transverse atlas
foramen Vertebral
Posterior arch
Superior articular surface
of lateral mass for Posterior tubercle Transverse
Inferior articular Body process
occipital condyle facet for C3
Groove for vertebral artery

Atlas (C1): superior view Axis (C2): anterior view

Posterior arch Dens

Posterior tubercle Posterior articular
facet (for transverse
Vertebral Superior articular ligament of atlas)
Transverse foramen facet for atlas
Interarticular Transverse
part process

foramen Articular facet
for dens Inferior
Inferior articular articular Spinous process
surface of lateral Anterior arch Anterior tubercle process
mass for axis
Atlas (C1): inferior view Axis (C2): posterosuperior view


Atlas (C1)
Superior articular
surface for occipital condyle

Axis (C2)

Posterior articular facet (for

transverse ligament of atlas)
C3 ///////


Upper cervical vertebrae, assembled: posterosuperior view

Bones and Ligaments Plate 26

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Cervical Vertebrae (continued)
See also Plates 28, 29

Inferior aspect of C3 and superior aspect of C4 showing the sites of the facet and uncovertebral articulations

C3 Bifid spinous process

Inferior aspect Lamina

Inferior articular process and facet Vertebral foramen

Transverse foramen
Posterior tubercle
Costal lamella Transverse process
Anterior tubercle

Area for articulation of left uncinate process of C4

Vertebral body

Left uncinate process Articular surface of right uncinate process

Superior articular process and facet

Groove for spinal nerve (C4)
C4 Inferior articular process
Superior aspect

4th cervical vertebra: anterior view 7th cervical vertebra: anterior view
Superior articular process Superior articular process
Spinous process Septated transverse foramen
Uncinate process Uncinate process
Costal lamella
Articular surface Articular surface
Inferior Bony spicule
articular dividing
facet transverse
Body tubercle
Anterior Transverse process Posterior tubercle
Transverse foramen tubercle Inferior articular facet for T1 Body Transverse
Anterior tubercle process

7th cervical vertebra (vertebra prominens): superior view

Body Articular surface of uncinate process
Uncinate process
Costal lamella Transverse foramen (septated)

Transverse foramen*
Groove for C7 spinal nerve
Inconspicuous anterior tubercle
(transverse process)
Transverse process (posterior tubercle)
Superior articular process and facet
Inferior articular process
Vertebral foramen

Spinous process

*The foramina transversaria of C7 transmit vertebral veins, but usually not the vertebral artery, and are asymmetrical in this specimen.

Plate 27 Bones and Ligaments

Cervical Vertebrae: Uncovertebral Joints 2
See also Plate 29

Cervical vertebrae: anterior view

Dens of axis
Anterior tubercle of atlas
Anterior arch of atlas

Atlas (C1) Transverse foramen

Intervertebral foramen (for C3 spinal nerve)
Intervertebral disc
Axis (C2) Vertebral body
Inferior articular process (C3)
Superior articular process (C4)

C3 Groove for spinal nerve

Anterior tubercle
Transverse process
Posterior tubercle
Articular cartilage on dens for median
Carotid tubercle (of atlantoaxial joint
Lateral atlantoaxial joint
Uncinate processes Facet (zygapophysial)
C6 joint between C2 and C3
1st rib

C7 Atlas (C1)


Axis (C2)

Transverse foramen
Uncinate processes

Anulus fibrosus

Uncovertebral joints (clefts of Luschka)

Nucleus pulposus

Transverse process

Intervertebral foramen (for C7 spinal nerve)

Vertebral body (C7)
The uncovertebral joints of the cervical spine: anterior view
(C3 to C7 have been sectioned coronally to expose the joints) ///////


Bones and Ligaments Plate 28

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External Craniocervical Ligaments

Anterior view

Basilar part of occipital bone

Pharyngeal tubercle
Anterior atlantooccipital membrane
Capsule of atlantooccipital joint

Atlas (C1) Posterior atlantooccipital membrane

Lateral atlantoaxial joint (exposed)
Capsule of lateral Anterior longitudinal ligament
atlantoaxial joint

Posterior atlantooccipital membrane

Posterior view
Axis (C2)

Capsule of bone
joint (C3–4)
Capsule of
Anterior atlantooccipital membrane Transverse
of atlas (C1)
Capsule of Capsule of lateral
atlantooccipital atlantoaxial joint
Axis (C2)

Posterior Ligamenta flava

Atlas (C1)
atlantooccipital Vertebral
artery Suboccipital nerve (posterior
membrane ramus of C1 spinal nerve)

Ligamenta flava
Body of axis (C2)
Nuchal ligament
Intervertebral discs (C2–3 and C3–4)

Zygapophysial joints (C4–5 and C5–6)

Anterior tubercle of C6 vertebra (carotid tubercle of Chassaignac)

Spinous process
of C7 vertebra Vertebral artery
(vertebra prominens)
T1 vertebra


Right lateral view

Plate 29 Bones and Ligaments

Internal Craniocervical Ligaments 2
See also Plate 26

Clivus Upper part of vertebral canal with spinous processes

and parts of vertebral arches removed to expose ligaments
on posterior vertebral bodies: posterior view

Tectorial membrane
Capsule of
atlantooccipital Deeper (accessory) part of tectorial membrane (atlantoaxial ligament)
Atlas (C1) Posterior longitudinal ligament
Capsule of lateral
atlantoaxial joint
Axis (C2) Alar ligaments

Capsule of

Atlas (C1)

Superior longitudinal band

ligament Transverse ligament of atlas
Inferior longitudinal band Axis (C2)
Deeper (accessory) part of tectorial membrane (atlantoaxial ligament)

Principal part of tectorial membrane removed

to expose deeper ligaments: posterior view
Apical ligament of dens

Anterior atlantooccipital ligament

Alar ligament
Atlas (C1) Posterior articular facet of dens (for transverse
ligament of atlas)
Anterior tubercle of atlas
Alar ligament Synovial cavities
Axis (C2)

Cruciate ligament removed to show
deeper ligaments: posterior view
Transverse ligament ///////

of atlas

Median atlantoaxial joint: superior view

Bones and Ligaments Plate 30

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Muscles of Facial Expression: Lateral View
See also Plates 34, 55, 56

Epicranial aponeurosis Auricularis anterior muscle
Temporal fascia Auricularis superior muscle
Orbital part
Orbicularis oculi muscle Palpebral part Auricularis posterior muscle
Occipital belly
Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis muscle of occipitofrontalis

Corrugator supercilii muscle (frontalis

and orbicularis oculi, partially cut away)

Procerus muscle

Levator labii superioris muscle

Levator labii superioris

alaeque nasi muscle
(partially cut away)

Nasalis Transverse part

muscle Alar part Parotid

Depressor septi
nasi muscle Masseteric fascia

Orbicularis oris muscle

Zygomaticus minor muscle Superficial layer of

deep cervical fascia
Zygomaticus major muscle

Orbicularis oris muscle

Mentalis muscle
Modiolus (circled region)
Depressor labii inferioris muscle

Depressor anguli oris muscle

Buccinator muscle

Risorius muscle

Platysma muscle



Plate 31 Neck
Muscles of Neck: Anterior View 2
See also Plates 33, 35, 38

Digastric muscle (anterior belly)

Mylohyoid muscle
Parotid gland
Submandibular gland

Platysma muscle Fibrous loop for

(cut away) intermediate
digastric tendon

Mastoid process Stylohyoid muscle

Digastric muscle
Hyoid bone (posterior belly)

External carotid artery

Carotid sheath
Internal jugular vein
Fascia of infrahyoid
muscles (pretracheal Thyrohyoid muscle
layer) and cut edge
Omohyoid muscle
Thyroid cartilage (superior belly)

Sternohyoid muscle
Superficial layer of deep
cervical fascia and cut edge Sternothyroid muscle
Scalenus medius
Cricoid and scalenus
cartilage posterior muscles

Trapezius muscle
Deltoid muscle


Omohyoid muscle
(inferior belly)

Pretracheal layer of Pectoralis major muscle

deep cervical fascia over
thyroid gland and trachea
Clavicular head Sternocleidomastoid
Sternal head muscle
Suprasternal space (of Burns)

Manubrium of sternum Jugular notch ///////

Neck Plate 32
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Fascial Layers of Neck
See also Plate 32

Cross section
Superficial layer of deep cervical fascia Platysma muscle
Skin Sternohyoid muscle
Infrahyoid fascia Trachea
Sternothyroid muscle
Pretracheal (visceral) fascia Thyroid gland
(thyroid capsule)
Buccopharyngeal Omohyoid muscle
fascia Sternocleidomastoid
Carotid sheath Recurrent laryngeal
Superficial fascia
Common carotid artery
Internal jugular vein
Superficial layer of deep Vagus nerve (CN X)
cervical fascia Phrenic nerve
Scalenus anterior muscle
Sympathetic trunk
Spinal nerve
Scalenus medius and
scalenus posterior muscles
Longus colli muscle
Prevertebral fascia
Levator scapulae muscle
Trapezius muscle
Alar fascia Deep cervical muscles
Retropharyngeal Cervical vertebra (C7)

Midsagittal section

Geniohyoid muscle
Superficial layer of
Retropharyngeal deep cervical fascia
Fascia of infrahyoid muscles
Alar fascia
Pretracheal fascia
Prevertebral fascia
Thyroid gland
Superficial fascia
Suprasternal space (of Burns)
Manubrium of sternum
Aortic arch

Plate 33 Neck
Cervical Fasciae 2
See also Plates 32, 33, 38

Superficial layer of deep cervical fascia (SLDCF)

Pretracheal fascia over intrahyoid muscles Coronoid process with mandible,
masseter, and temporalis muscles
Pretracheal fascia (all cut to show splitting of SLDCF)
Buccopharyngeal fascia
Carotid sheath
Prevertebral fascia

Temporalis muscle fascia and tendon

Superior and inferior heads of lateral
pterygoid muscle (cut to show
buccopharyngeal fascia)

Buccopharyngeal fascia
on superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle Inferior head of
lateral pterygoid
Parotid gland and ramus of muscle
mandible (both cut to show Medial pterygoid
buccopharyngeal fascia) muscle and SLDCF
Sternocleidomastoid Buccinator muscle
muscle (cut) and (deep to bucco-
SLDCF pharyngeal fascia)
Trapezius muscle gland (cut)
Hyoglossus muscle Anterior belly of
digastric muscle

Alar fascia Mylohyoid muscle

SLDCF (cut and
Retropharyngeal space reflected)
Posterior and lateral right Right sternohyoid, omohyoid, and
cricoarytenoid muscles thyrohyoid muscles (cut to expose
Cricopharyngeal pretracheal fascia)
part of inferior pharyngeal Left thyrohyoid, omohyoid,
constrictor muscle sternohyoid , and
sternocleidomastoid muscles
Straight and (pretracheal fascia between
oblique parts of muscles and the viewer)
right cricothy-
roid muscle SLDCF (cut and
and trachea Thyroid gland and
pretracheal fascia
Right recurrent (both cut)
laryngeal nerve
Sternothyroid and sternohyoid
muscles (cut) and pretracheal
Carotid sheath fascia
enveloping internal
jugular vein, common
carotid artery, and Manubrium
vagus nerve SLDCF (cut) ///////

Second rib
space (of Burns)
Clavicle (cut)

SLDCF: Superficial layer of deep cervical fascia

Neck Plate 34
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Infrahyoid and Suprahyoid Muscles
See also Plates 32, 36, 69

Hyoid bone
Digastric muscle (anterior belly)
Mylohyoid muscle
Thyrohyoid membrane
Hyoglossus muscle
External carotid artery
Stylohyoid muscle

Internal jugular vein Digastric muscle

(posterior belly)
Thyrohyoid muscle
Fibrous loop for
Thyroid cartilage intermediate
digastric tendon
Omohyoid muscle
(superior belly) Sternohyoid
and omohyoid
muscles (cut)
Sternohyoid muscle
Thyrohyoid muscle
Median cricothyroid
Oblique line of
Cricoid cartilage thyroid cartilage

Scalenus Cricothyroid muscle

Sternothyroid muscle

belly) (cut)
Thyroid gland
Omohyoid muscle
(inferior belly) Sternohyoid muscle (cut)
Trachea Clavicle

Plate 35 Neck
Muscles of Neck: Lateral View 2
See also Plates 32, 35, 38

Parotid gland (cut) Masseter muscle

Ramus of mandible Submandibular gland

Hyoglossus muscle

Mylohyoid muscle

Mastoid process

Styloid process

Stylohyoid muscle

Digastric muscle Body of

(posterior belly) mandible

Middle pharyngeal
constrictor muscle
Longus capitis muscle (anterior
Splenius capitis muscle

Sternocleidomastoid muscle Hyoid bone

Levator scapulae muscle Thyrohyoid muscle

Omohyoid muscle
Scalenus muscles Medius (superior belly)
Sternohyoid muscle
Brachial plexus
Inferior pharyngeal
Trapezius muscle constrictor muscle

Acromion Sternothyroid
Deltoid muscle

Omohyoid muscle (inferior belly) Manubrium of sternum

Clavicle Sternal head ///////

Sternocleidomastoid muscle
Clavicular head
Pectoralis major muscle

Neck Plate 36
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Anterior and Lateral Cervical Muscles

Basilar part of
Longus capitis muscle (cut)
occipital bone

Occipital condyle
Jugular process of Rectus capitis
occipital bone anterior muscle

Rectus capitis
Mastoid process lateralis muscle

Styloid process
Transverse process of atlas (C1)

Longus capitis muscle

Anterior Tubercles of transverse
Posterior process of C3 vertebra
Posterior tubercle of
transverse process of axis (C2)

Slips of origin of scalenus

Longus colli muscle
anterior muscle (cut)

Slips of origin of scalenus

posterior muscle
Scalenus Medius Scalenus
muscles Medius
Posterior muscles

Scalenus anterior
muscle (cut)
Phrenic nerve

Trunks of
brachial plexus

1st rib
Subclavian artery
Common carotid artery
Subclavian vein Posterior tubercle of transverse
process of C7 vertebra
Internal jugular vein

Plate 37 Neck
Superficial Veins and Cutaneous Nerves of Neck 2
For deep veins of neck see Plate 84

Submental vein
Platysma muscle (cut)
Facial artery and vein
Digastric muscle
(anterior belly)
Marginal mandibular
branch of facial nerve Submandibular gland
Mylohyoid muscle
Hyoid bone
Parotid gland
Retromandibular vein
Omohyoid muscle (cut)
Internal jugular vein External carotid artery
Thyrohyoid muscle
External jugular vein
Sternocleidomastoid muscle (cut)
Anterior jugular vein
Superior thyroid artery and vein
Communicating vein Internal jugular vein
Common carotid artery
Great auricular nerve
Sternohyoid muscle
Thyroid cartilage Sternothyroid muscle
Ansa cervicalis
Transverse cervical nerves Middle thyroid vein
Omohyoid muscle
Thyroid gland
(superior belly) (cut)
Phrenic nerve

Brachial plexus

Trapezius muscle Scalenus anterior

Platysma muscle (cut)
Pectoralis major muscle
Supraclavicular nerves
Sternocleidomastoid muscle
Sternocleidomastoid muscle (cut) ///////

Inferior thyroid vein

Sternothyroid muscle

Neck Plate 38
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Nerves and Vessels of Neck
See also Plates 138, 139, 140

Anterior branch retromandibular vein Retromandibular vein

Posterior branch retromandibular vein

Posterior auricular vein

Lesser occipital nerve

Greater occipital nerve

Great auricular nerve

Facial vein
Common facial vein External jugular vein
Transverse cervical nerve

Accessory nerve (CN XI)

Supraclavicular nerves

Great auricular nerve

Lesser occipital nerve

Sternocleidomastoid muscle
(cut, reflected superiorly)
Nerve to C2 anterior ramus
muscle Accessory nerve (CN XI)
C3 anterior ramus
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Levator scapulae muscle

Scalenus medius muscle

Scalenus anterior muscle

Ansa cervicalis Superior root
Inferior root C5 anterior ramus

Transverse cervical artery

Vagus nerve (CN X)
Phrenic nerve
Omohyoid muscle
Vertebral artery (inferior belly) (cut)

Thyrocervical trunk
Brachial plexus

Dorsal scapular artery

Subclavian artery and vein Suprascapular artery

Plate 39 Neck
Nerves and Vessels of Neck (continued) 2
See also Plate 140

Accessory nerve (CN XI)

Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) Great auricular nerve
Cervical plexus: schema
(S = gray ramus communicans Lesser occipital nerve
from superior cervical ganglion)
To rectus capitis lateralis,
S longus capitis, and rectus
To geniohyoid muscle C2 capitis anterior muscles
To thyrohyoid muscle

Transverse cervical nerve
To omohyoid muscle (superior belly)
S To longus capitis and
C4 longus colli muscles
Superior root
Ansa cervicalis
Inferior root

To sternothyroid muscle
To sternohyoid muscle
To omohyoid muscle (inferior belly)
To scalenus and levator
Supraclavicular nerves scapulae muscles
Phrenic nerve

Right anterior view

Thyroid gland (retracted)
Internal jugular vein

Common carotid artery

Middle cervical ganglion
Ascending cervical artery

Phrenic nerve Vagus nerve (CN X)

Scalenus anterior
muscle Vertebral artery
Inferior thyroid artery
Transverse cervical artery Common carotid artery
Brachial plexus
Suprascapular artery Recurrent laryngeal nerve

Dorsal scapular artery

Brachiocephalic trunk
Costocervical trunk

Thyrocervical trunk Internal jugular vein (cut) ///////

Subclavian artery and vein

Neck Plate 40
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Carotid Arteries
See also Plates 147, 149

Parotid space Superficial temporal artery

(bed): right lateral
view Transverse facial artery

Maxillary artery

External carotid artery

Styloid process Posterior auricular artery
Facial nerve (CN VII) (cut) Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Sternocleidomastoid muscle (cut) Stylohyoid muscle
Digastric muscle (posterior belly) (cut) Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Occipital artery and Facial artery
sternocleidomastoid branch
Lingual artery
Accessory nerve (CN XI)
Superior root Mylohyoid muscle
Ansa cervicalis
Inferior root Hyoglossus muscle
Vagus nerve (CN X) Digastric muscle
(anterior belly)
Ascending pharyngeal artery
Hyoid bone
Carotid sinus nerve [from glossopharyngeal
nerve (CN IX)] and carotid body
Branch to thyrohyoid
Internal carotid artery muscle

Internal jugular vein

Superior laryngeal artery

Superior thyroid artery

External carotid artery

Superficial temporal artery
Transverse facial artery Common carotid artery
Digastric muscle Maxillary artery
Posterior auricular artery
Occipital artery Facial artery
Descending branch
Sternocleidomastoid branch Lingual artery
Ascending pharyngeal artery
Internal carotid artery
Superior thyroid artery and
External carotid artery superior laryngeal branch
Omohyoid muscle (phantom)
Common carotid artery

Inferior thyroid artery

Right external carotid artery branches: schema

Thyrocervical trunk
Vertebral artery

Plate 41 Neck
Nose 2
See also Plate 45

Anterolateral view Inferior view

Frontal bone Major alar cartilage

Nasal bones
Lateral Medial
Frontal process of maxillary bone crus crus

Lateral process of
septal nasal cartilages
Septal nasal cartilage
Minor alar cartilage
Accessory nasal cartilage

Lateral crus
Major alar cartilage
Medial crus
Alar Anterior
Septal nasal cartilage fibrofatty nasal spine
tissue of maxillary
Anterior nasal spine of maxillary bone bone
Septal nasal
Alar fibrofatty tissue cartilage Intermaxillary
Infraorbital foramen
Superficial temporal artery

Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis muscle

Supraorbital artery and nerve
Supratrochlear artery and nerve

Procerus muscle

Corrugator supercilii muscle

External nasal artery

Infratrochlear nerve

Angular artery
External nasal artery and nerve
Nasalis muscle (transverse part)

Infraorbital artery and nerve

Lateral nasal artery
Transverse facial artery
Nasalis muscle (alar part)

Depressor septi nasi muscle ///////

Orbicularis oris muscle

Facial artery

Superior and inferior labial arteries

Nasal Region Plate 42

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Lateral Wall of Nasal Cavity

Frontal sinus Sphenoethmoidal recess

Opening of
Superior nasal concha sphenoidal sinus
Superior nasal meatus Hypophysis
(pituitary gland)
Middle nasal concha in sella turcica
Agger nasi Sphenoidal sinus
Atrium of middle nasal meatus Pharyngeal tonsil
Middle nasal meatus (adenoid if enlarged)
Inferior nasal concha Basilar part of
(turbinate) occipital bone
Pharyngeal raphe
Vomeronasal organ
Limen nasi
Torus tubarius
Nasal vestibule
Opening of
Inferior nasal meatus auditory tube
Palatine process of
maxillary bone
Incisive canal Pharyngeal recess
Horizontal plate of
palatine bone
Soft palate
Middle nasal concha
Middle nasal meatus
Bulging septum
To nasopharynx
Inferior nasal concha
Inferior nasal meatus

Inferior view with speculum in place

Frontal sinus Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
Probe passing from semilunar Probe in opening of sphenoidal sinus
hiatus into frontal sinus via
frontonasal duct Sphenoidal sinus
Superior nasal meatus
Middle nasal concha (cut surface) with opening of posterior
ethmoidal cells
Ethmoidal bulla
Openings of middle ethmoidal cells Basilar part
of occipital bone
Semilunar hiatus (osteomeatal unit)
with opening of anterior Torus tubarius
ethmoidal cells Opening of
Uncinate process auditory tube
Vomeronasal organ
Inferior nasal concha
(cut surface)
Opening of nasolacrimal duct Opening of
Inferior nasal meatus maxillary sinus

Plate 43 Nasal Region

Lateral Wall of Nasal Cavity (continued) 2
See also Plates 43, 45

Lacrimal bone
Frontal bone Ethmoid bone
Squamous part Cribriform plate
Frontal sinus
Middle nasal concha
Nasal spine
Uncinate process
Superior nasal concha
Nasal bone Highest nasal concha

Sphenoethmoidal recess
Agger nasi
Sphenopalatine foramen
Basilar part of
Lateral process of occipital bone
nasal septal cartilage

Major alar cartilage

Alar fibrofatty tissue

Sphenoid bone
Maxillary bone Sphenoidal sinus
Frontal process Medial and
Lateral plates of
Anterior nasal spine pterygoid process
Pterygoid hamulus
Incisive canal Palatine bone

Palatine process Sphenoidal process

Inferior Orbital process
Alveolar process nasal concha
Posterior nasal spine
Perpendicular plate
Horizontal plate

Ethmoidal bulla

Frontal sinus Opening of middle ethmoidal cells

Superior nasal concha (cut away)

Opening of frontonasal canal
Openings of posterior ethmoidal cells
Middle nasal concha (cut away)
Opening of sphenoidal sinus
Infundibulum leading to
frontonasal recess Openings into maxillary sinus

Semilunar hiatus (osteomeatal unit) Sphenopalatine foramen

with opening of anterior
ethmoidal cells

Uncinate process

Ethmoidal process of ///////

Inferior nasal concha (cut away) inferior nasal concha

Lesser palatine foramen
Opening of nasolacrimal canal
Greater palatine foramen

Nasal Region Plate 44

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Medial Wall of Nasal Cavity (Nasal Septum)
See also Plate 15

Frontal crest Falx cerebri

Frontal sinus Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
Dura mater
Sphenoidal sinus
Sella turcica
Nasal septum


Lateral process of nasal septal cartilage

Major tonsil
alar cartilage
Torus tubarius

Nasal vestibule
Anterior nasal spine Soft palate
Incisive canal

Oral cavity



Frontal bone
Squamous part
Frontal sinus Ethmoid bone
Nasal spine
Crista galli
Cribriform plate Sphenoid bone
Nasal bone
Perpendicular plate Crest
Vomer Body
Sphenoidal sinus
Groove for Medial,
nasopalatine Lateral plates of
nerve and vessels pterygoid process
Septal cartilage
Basilar part of
Major alar occipital bone
cartilage (medial crus)
Maxillary bone Palatine bone

Anterior nasal spine Perpendicular plate

Nasal crest
Nasal crest Posterior nasal spine
Horizontal plate
Incisive canal Lesser palatine foramen
Palatine process Greater palatine foramen

Plate 45 Nasal Region

Nerves of Nasal Cavity 2
See also Plates 63, 73, 130

Distribution of olfactory
mucosa (shaded blue)
Lateral wall
of nasal cavity

External nasal branch of anterior ethmoidal nerve (CN V1)

Lateral internal nasal branch of anterior ethmoidal nerve (CN V1)
Olfactory bulb
Cribriform plate
Olfactory tract
Posterior superior lateral nasal branches
from pterygopalatine ganglion
Maxillary nerve (CN V2) (sphenopalatine
foramen dissected away)
Pterygopalatine ganglion
Greater petrosal nerve
Deep petrosal nerve
Nerve (vidian) of pterygoid canal
Pharyngeal branch of pterygopalatine ganglion
Nasopalatine nerve (CN V2) passing to nasal septum (cut)
Posterior inferior lateral nasal branch
from greater palatine nerve (CN V2)
wall of
nasal Olfactory bulb
cavity Cribriform plate
Olfactory tract

Olfactory nerves (CN I)

Palatine nerves (CN V2)

Medial internal nasal branch

of anterior ethmoidal nerve (CN V1)

Olfactory nerves (CN I) ///////

Nasopalatine nerve (CN V2)

Incisive canal

Nasal septum

Nasal Region Plate 46

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Arteries of Nasal Cavity: Bony Nasal Septum Turned Up
See also Plates 57, 63

Nasal septal branch of superior labial branch

(from facial artery)

Nasal septum (turned up)

Anastomosis between posterior
septal branch of sphenopalatine
artery and greater palatine artery
in incisive canal
Schematic hinge

Septal and lateral nasal

branches of posterior
ethmoidal artery
Anterior septal branch,
Anterior lateral nasal branch,
External nasal branch Posterior septal
of anterior branch of
ethmoidal sphenopalatine
artery artery


Alar branches of
lateral nasal
(of facial artery)

lateral nasal
branches of
Anastomosis between alveolar artery
posterior septal branch of External carotid
sphenopalatine artery artery
and greater palatine
artery in incisive canal
Lesser palatine foramen and artery
Greater palatine artery
Greater palatine foramen and artery

Lateral wall of nasal cavity

Plate 47 Nasal Region

Nerves of Nasal Cavity: Bony Nasal Septum Turned Up 2
See also Plate 62

Olfactory nerves (CN I)

Nasal septum (turned up)

Incisive canal
Schematic hinge

Medial internal nasal, Nasopalatine nerve (CN V2)

Lateral internal nasal,
External nasal
branches of
nerve (CN V1)

Sphenopalatine foramen
(dissected away)

Internal nasal Pterygopalatine

branches of ganglion
nerve (CN V2) Nerve (vidian)
of pterygoid canal

Posterior superior lateral

nasal branch of maxillary
nerve (CN V2)

Nasal branch of Greater and lesser

anterior superior palatine nerves (CN V2)
alveolar branch of
maxillary nerve (CN V2) Posterior inferior lateral nasal
branch of greater palatine
nerve (CN V2)
Lesser palatine nerves (CN V2)

Communication between
greater palatine and nasopalatine Greater palatine nerve (CN V2)
nerves at incisive canal

Lateral wall of nasal cavity ///////

Nasal Region Plate 48

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Nose and Maxillary Sinus: Transverse Section

Major alar
Nasal vestibule
Nasal septal cartilage Inferior nasal concha
Facial artery
Facial vein
Maxillary bone
Maxillary sinus
Sphenoid bone
Masseter muscle
process of Medial pterygoid
mandible muscle

Lateral Lateral pterygoid

pterygoid plate
Levator veli
Cartilage of palatini muscle
auditory tube
(eustachian) Pharyngeal recess

Neck of Longus capitis

mandible muscle

gland Rectus capitis
vein Superficial
nerve Sympathetic
(CN IX) trunk

process Styloglossus

Medulla oblongata
Internal carotid
Mastoid cells artery

Internal Vagus nerve (CN X)

jugular vein
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)

nerve (CN XI)

Plate 49 Nasal Region

Paranasal Sinuses: Coronal and Transverse Sections 2
Coronal section

Falx cerebri
Olfactory bulbs
Frontal sinus

Nasal septum

Middle nasal Ethmoidal cells

Lacrimal gland
Middle nasal
Opening of
maxillary sinus
Maxillary sinus
Inferior nasal Recesses of
concha Zygomatic maxillary
Alveolar and sinus
Inferior nasal membrane
Alveolar process of maxillary bone
Palatine process of Buccinator muscle
maxillary bone
Body of tongue
Oral cavity Sublingual gland
Mandible (body)
Genioglossus muscle
Anterior belly of digastric muscle
Mylohyoid muscle

Geniohyoid muscle
Nasal bone
Nasal septum
Lacrimal bone
Ethmoidal cells
Transverse section Eyeball
Medial wall of orbit

Zygomatic Medial rectus

bone muscle
Retrobulbar fat
Sphenoidal sinuses
Optic nerve
Optic chiasm (CN II)
Temporal lobe Temporalis
Infundibular recess of ///////

3rd ventricle
Optic tract
Mammillary bodies

Cerebral peduncle

Cerebral aqueduct Interpeduncular fossa


Nasal Region Plate 50

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Paranasal Sinuses: Parasagittal Views
See also Plate 43

Ethmoidal cells

Frontal sinus
Opening of
sphenoidal sinus
Opening of frontonasal duct

Sphenoidal sinus

Semilunar hiatus

Uncinate process Middle nasal

concha (cut away)

Opening of
maxillary sinus

Inferior nasal

Frontal sinus

Opening into middle nasal meatus

Orbit Pterygopalatine fossa

Maxillary sinus

Roots of teeth

Plate 51 Nasal Region

Paranasal Sinuses: Changes with Age 2

Bones of nasal cavity Sinus represents one or more anterior ethmoidal cells
and paranasal sinuses opening into semilunar hiatus of middle nasal meatus
at birth

Sinus represents one or more middle ethmoidal cells

opening into middle nasal meatus

Part of nasolacrimal duct Sinuses represent two or more posterior ethmoidal cells
that formed in depths of opening into superior nasal meatus
nasooptic furrow
Sphenoidal sinus within bony shell (sphenoidal concha)
located anterior and lateral to body of sphenoid bone
Nasal bone (broken line indicates sinus lateral to sphenoid body)
Body of sphenoid bone
Lacrimal bone
Hypophyseal fossa

Vestigial remnant
of Rathke’s pouch

Medial plate of
Part of nasolacrimal pterygoid process
duct within nasal
cavity with slit-like Lower border of highest nasal concha
opening in inferior
nasal meatus Lower border of superior nasal concha

Palatine Superior nasal meatus

Maxillary bone
Middle nasal concha (cut edge) (inferior
Uncinate process of ethmoid bone nasal concha completely removed)
Pterygoid hamulus

Semilunar hiatus Maxillary sinus with opening into semilunar hiatus (striped
area represents membrane forming most of medial wall of sinus)

Growth of frontal and maxillary

sinuses throughout life

Frontal sinus
within frontal bone
Birth Left orbit
Middle nasal concha
1 year

4 years Nasal septum

Maxillary sinus
7 years within maxillary
Nasal cavity
12 years

Adult Inferior nasal concha ///////

Molar tooth
Old age

Nasal Region Plate 52

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Salivary Glands
See also Plates 54, 144, 145

Superficial temporal artery and vein

and auriculotemporal nerve
Temporalis tendon
Branches of facial nerve (CN VII)
Transverse facial artery

Accessory parotid gland

Parotid duct

Buccinator muscle (cut)

Masseter muscle

Lingual nerve

Submandibular ganglion


Frenulum of tongue
Sublingual fold with openings
of sublingual ducts (of Rivinus)
Parotid gland
Sublingual caruncle with opening Retromandibular
of submandibular duct vein (anterior and
posterior divisions)
Sublingual gland
Digastric muscle
Submandibular duct (posterior belly)
Stylohyoid muscle
Sublingual artery and vein External jugular vein
Mylohyoid muscle (cut) Sternocleidomastoid muscle
Common facial vein
Digastric muscle (anterior belly)
Submandibular gland Hyoid bone
(deep and superficial lobes)
Internal jugular vein
Facial artery and vein
External carotid artery

Plate 53 Nasal Region

Facial Nerve Branches and Parotid Gland 2
See also Plates 53, 134




Facial nerve
emerging from Parotid
stylomastoid duct (of
foramen Stensen)


Digastric and
stylohyoid Marginal
branches mandibular

Cervical branch

Temporofacial division Temporal branch

Posterior auricular nerve

Zygomatic branches
Facial nerve proper

Digastric and stylohyoid Buccal branches


Cervicofacial division ///////

Marginal mandibular branch

Cervical branch

Nasal Region Plate 54

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Muscles Involved in Mastication
For facial muscles see Plate 31

Temporalis muscle

Temporal fascia
Superficial layer
Deep layer
Levator labii
alaeque nasi Zygomatic arch

Levator labii Articular disc of

superioris temporomandibular joint

Zygomaticus Deep part Masseter

minor muscle Superficial part muscle

Zygomaticus Parotid duct (of Stensen)

major muscle

Levator Buccinator muscle


oris muscle


Depressor labii
inferioris muscle Depressor anguli
oris muscle

Temporalis muscle
Insertion of temporalis muscle
to coronoid process and
ramus of mandible

Parotid duct (of Stensen)

Buccinator muscle

Orbicularis oris muscle Lateral pterygoid

Masseteric nerve
and artery
Maxillary artery
Insertion of
masseter muscle

Plate 55 Nasal Region

Muscles Involved in Mastication (continued) 2
See also Plates 55, 59

Lateral view
Articular disc of
temporomandibular joint

Articular tubercle

Lateral pterygoid muscle

(superior and inferior heads)
Sphenomandibular ligament

Medial pterygoid muscle

Parotid duct (of Stensen)

Buccinator muscle

Pterygomandibular raphe

Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

Posterior view
Otic ganglion
Sphenomandibular ligament Cartilaginous part of auditory tube (eustachian)
Internal carotid artery
Masseteric nerve Foramen ovale
Lateral pterygoid plate
Middle meningeal artery

Auriculotemporal nerve Temporomandibular joint

Masseteric artery Lateral pterygoid muscle

(superior and inferior heads)

Medial pterygoid nerve

Medial pterygoid muscle
Maxillary artery

Inferior alveolar nerve

Lingual nerve

Medial pterygoid muscle

Medial pterygoid plate Tensor veli palatini muscle (cut)

Pterygoid hamulus Levator veli palatini muscle (cut) ///////

Nerve to mylohyoid muscle

Pterygoid hamulus

Nasal Region Plate 56

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Maxillary Artery
See also Plates 63, 83

Anterior Deep temporal arteries and nerves

Lateral pterygoid artery and muscle Posterior
Masseteric artery and nerve
Supraorbital artery
Supratrochlear artery Middle meningeal artery
Ophthalmic artery Auriculotemporal nerve
External nasal artery Maxillary artery
Angular artery Superficial temporal artery
Infraorbital artery
Posterior auricular artery
Superior Posterior
alveolar Facial nerve (CN VII)
arteries Inferior alveolar
artery and nerve
Buccal artery and nerve Sphenomandibular ligament
Medial pterygoid Mylohyoid nerve and artery
artery and muscle
Digastric muscle (posterior belly)
Pterygomandibular raphe
Stylohyoid muscle
Lingual nerve
Facial artery External carotid artery

Mental branch of Facial artery

inferior alveolar artery
Lingual artery
Submental artery
Mylohyoid artery and nerve

Anterior Deep temporal

Sphenopalatine artery Artery of pterygoid canal
Posterior arteries and nerves
Pharyngeal artery Accessory meningeal artery
Posterior lateral nasal branch
Sphenopalatine foramen Middle meningeal artery
Infraorbital artery Anterior tympanic artery
Deep auricular artery
Posterior superior
alveolar artery Auriculo-
Sphenopalatine artery nerve

Posterior septal branches

Greater (descending)
palatine artery

Buccal artery

Anastomosis in Superficial
incisive canal temporal artery
Ascending pharyngeal
Left and right artery
greater palatine arteries Ascending palatine artery
Left and right Tonsillar branches
lesser palatine arteries Tonsillar artery
Pterygoid arteries External carotid artery
Facial artery
Masseteric artery
Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Inferior alveolar artery
Styloglossus muscle

Plate 57 Nasal Region

Proximal Maxillary and Superficial Temporal Arteries 2
See also Plates 57, 59, 63

Lateral view
Zygomatic process Deep temporal arteries
of temporal bone

Joint capsule

Temporomandibular Lateral ligament

joint capsule

Superficial temporal

Transverse facial
Left and right external
carotid arteries
Maxillary artery
Facial artery

Lingual artery
Masseteric artery

Medial view Middle meningeal artery

Joint capsule

Zygomatic process of temporal bone

Deep temporal artery

Transverse facial artery Anterior tympanic


Maxillary artery

Masseteric artery

Lateral pterygoid
muscle (cut)

Superficial temporal
Deep auricular
Facial artery ///////

Maxillary artery

Lingual artery Inferior alveolar artery

Right external carotid

Nasal Region Plate 58

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Mandibular Nerve (CN V3)
See also Plates 82, 133

Anterior division Temporal fascia

and temporalis muscle Posterior
Lateral view Posterior division Deep temporal nerves
Foramen ovale
Masseteric nerve
Meningeal branch
Lateral pterygoid
Foramen spinosum muscle and nerve
to lateral ptyergoid
Middle muscle
meningeal artery


auricular nerve

Facial nerve (CN VII)

Buccal nerve
Chorda tympani and buccinator
muscle (cut)
Lingual nerve

Inferior alveolar nerve (cut) Submandibular

Nerve to mylohyoid muscle
Medial pterygoid muscle (cut) gland

Digastric muscle (posterior belly) Mylohyoid

muscle (cut)
Stylohyoid muscle

Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) Mental nerve

Submandibular gland
Inferior alveolar nerve (cut)

Medial view Digastric muscle (anterior belly)

Motor root
Trigeminal (semilunar) Sensory root
Geniculate ganglion
Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) Tympanic membrane
Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Chorda tympani
Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Posterior division
Anterior division Tensor tympani muscle
Tensor veli palatini muscle and nerve to tensor
and nerve to tensor veli tympani muscle
palatini muscle
Lesser petrosal nerve
Otic ganglion Auriculotemporal nerve
Chorda tympani Middle meningeal artery
Medial pterygoid muscle
(cut) and nerve to medial Maxillary artery
pterygoid muscle
Nerve to mylohyoid muscle
Pterygoid hamulus
Inferior alveolar nerve entering
Lingual nerve mandibular foramen

Plate 59 Nasal Region

Superior View of Infratemporal Fossa 2
See also Plates 57-59, 63, 64, 115

Infraorbital and posterior superior alveolar arteries and nerves

Mandibular nerve (CN V3) (cut and reflected anterolaterally) Inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle
Pterygoid (venous) plexus Buccal nerve
Maxillary artery
Otic ganglion and lesser petrosal nerve
Roots of auriculotemporal nerve
Nerves to tensor veli palatini
and medial pterygoid muscles Anterior deep temporal nerve and artery

Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) Coronoid process

Maxillary nerve Superior head of lateral

(CN V2) pterygoid muscle (cut)

Posterior deep temporal

nerve and artery
Foramen ovale
Masseteric artery
and nerve

Internal Masseter muscle

artery Temporomandibular
joint capsule

Oculomotor muscle
nerve (CN III)
Articular disc
nerve (CN VI)
Trochlear temporal
nerve (CN IV) artery and vein

Parotid gland
nerve (CN V)
carotid artery

Accessory meningeal artery

Middle meningeal artery

and meningeal branch of
mandibular nerve (CN V3) Posterior auricular artery
Facial nerve (CN VII) and Facial nerve (CN VII)
vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) Auriculotemporal nerve

Inferior alveolar nerve Maxillary artery

Malleus (head) and incus
Sphenomandibular ligament
Chorda tympani (reflected medially) and
Lesser petrosal nerve and superior tympanic artery anterior tympanic artery

Geniculate ganglion ///////

Greater petrosal nerve

Stylomandibular ligament

Nasal Region Plate 60

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Ophthalmic (CN V1) and Maxillary (CN V2) Nerves
See also Plates 63, 66

Anterior ethmoidal nerve

Communicating branch
Supraorbital nerve
Posterior ethmoidal nerve
Supratrochlear nerve
Long and short ciliary nerves
Infratrochlear nerve
Ciliary ganglion (from nasociliary nerve)

Palpebral branch of
Lacrimal nerve lacrimal nerve

Nasociliary nerve Zygomaticotemporal

Frontal nerve
Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1)
Trigeminal nasal
(semilunar) ganglion branch of
Trigeminal nerve
(CN V)

rotundum Infraorbital
Anterior superior
alveolar branch
Middle superior
alveolar branch

Maxillary nerve (CN V2)

Zygomatic nerve

Infraorbital nerve entering

Nerve (vidian) of pterygoid canal infraorbital canal

Pterygopalatine ganglion
Posterior superior alveolar branches

Branches to pterygopalatine ganglion

Plate 61 Nasal Region

Autonomic Innervation of Nasal Cavity 2
See also Plates 133, 142, 144

Superior salivatory nucleus (parasympathetic)

Facial nerve (CN VII)
Geniculate ganglion
Greater petrosal nerve (parasympathetic)
Deep petrosal nerve (sympathetic)
Nerve (vidian) of pterygoid canal
Maxillary nerve (CN V2) entering foramen rotundum

Pterygopalatine ganglion
Lateral and medial posterior
superior nasal branches
Infraorbital nerve

Tympanic cavity

Internal carotid
Internal and lesser
carotid palatine Posterior Nasopalatine
Spinal artery nerves superior Maxillary nerve
cord alveolar sinus
Superior branches
cervical ganglion
trunk Postsynaptic fibers to
vessels (sympathetic) and
T1 glands (parasympathetic) of
nasal cavity, maxillary sinus,
and palate
Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers
Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers ///////

Preganglionic sympathetic fibers

Preganglionic sympathetic cell Postganglionic sympathetic fibers

bodies in intermediolateral nucleus
(lateral horn) (T1--5)

Nasal Region Plate 62

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Nerves and Arteries of the Deep Face
See also Plates 46, 48, 61

Nerve of pterygoid canal Posterior superior Nasopalatine nerve Posterior lateral nasal branches of
and inferior lateral sphenopalatine artery
nasal branches
Maxillary nerve (CN V2) Pharyngeal artery

Pterygopalatine ganglion
Artery of pterygoid canal
Lacrimal nerve
Sphenopalatine artery

temporal Infraorbital
nerve artery

Zygomatico- superior
facial alveolar
nerve artery
Infraorbital palatine
nerve artery
Middle Maxillary
superior artery
Posterior temporal
wall of right artery
sinus (cut)
Posterior External
superior carotid artery
Anterior and middle
Greater superior alveolar
and lesser arteries
nerves Dental branches
of superior
Dental and gingival branches alveolar artery
(of superior alveolar nerves)
Lesser and greater palatine arteries
Communication between greater palatine and
nasopalatine nerves, and anastomosis between
posterior septal branch of sphenopalatine artery
and greater palatine artery in incisive canal

Anterior perspective of pterygopalatine fossa and

nasal cavity with lower facial skeleton removed

Plate 63 Nasal Region

Orientation of Nerves and Vessels of the Cranial Base 2
See also Plates 115, 142, 147

Internal carotid artery (cerebral part)

Internal carotid artery (cavernous part) Abducens nerve (CN VI)
Trochlear nerve (CN IV) Artery and nerve of pterygoid canal
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Superior petrosal sinus
Sphenoidal sinus
Trigeminal nerve (CN V) Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Greater petrosal nerve Pterygopalatine ganglion
Internal carotid artery Ciliary ganglion
(petrosal part) and venous plexus
Ophthalmic artery
Infraorbital nerve
Anterior semicircular canal Optic nerve (CN II)
Opening of maxillary sinus
Inferior tympanic artery
and tympanic nerve

Facial nerve (CN VII)


Mastoid cells

Internal carotid plexus

Inferior ganglion of Maxillary sinus

glossopharyngeal nerve
Right medial
Accessory nerve (CN XI) pterygoid plate
palatine artery
Inferior ganglion
of vagus nerve
Greater and lesser palatine arteries and nerves
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Ascending pharyngeal artery

Internal jugular vein Superior cervical ganglion

Vagus nerve (CN X) ///////

External carotid artery

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Common carotid artery Internal carotid artery

Nasal Region Plate 64

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Inspection of Oral Cavity

Soft palate
Palatopharyngeal arch
Uvula of the palate
Palatoglossal arch
Palatine tonsil
Posterior wall of oral pharynx

Frenulum of upper lip

Lingual minor salivary gland
Deep lingual artery and veins
and lingual nerve
Fimbriated fold
Submandibular duct
Sublingual gland
Frenulum of tongue
Sublingual fold with openings
of sublingual ducts
Sublingual caruncle with opening of
submandibular duct (of Wharton)
Frenulum of lower lip

Tubercle of upper lip

Papilla of parotid
duct (of Stensen)

Plate 65 Oral Region

Afferent Innervation of Oral Cavity and Tongue 2
See also Plates 144, 146

Midde superior
alveolar branch

Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) Anterior superior

alveolar branch
Trigeminal nerve (CN V)

Trigeminal (semilunar) ganglion

Maxillary nerve (CN V2) nerve
Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Buccal nerve

Posterior superior alveolar branch

Lingual nerve

Inferior alveolar nerve

Anterior superior
alveolar branch
Nasopalatine nerve
Infraorbital nerve nerve
Middle superior
alveolar nerve Middle superior
alveolar branch
Posterior superior Inferior alveolar nerve Incisive branch
alveolar branch and
buccal nerves

Greater palatine Posterior superior

nerve alveolar branch
Lesser palatine Buccal nerve

Lingual nerve and alveolar
nerve to mylohyoid nerve
Mental nerve Incisive branch
(branch of inferior
alveolar nerve)

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

Lingual nerve

Vagus nerve (CN X)

Taste and general sensation
via superior laryngeal nerve Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Taste plus general sensation
via lingual branches ///////

Facial nerve (CN VII)

Intermediate nerve of (Wrisberg) Trigeminal nerve (CN V)
via chorda tympani (taste) (mandibular nerve V3)
via lingual nerve
(general sensation)

Oral Region Plate 66

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Roof of Oral Cavity
See also Plate 48

Incisive papilla
Incisive fossa
Transverse palatine
folds Greater palatine artery and nerve

Palatine raphe Greater palatine foramen

Palatine process Lesser palatine foramen

of maxillary bone
Lesser palatine artery and nerves
Palatine glands
Tendon of tensor veli
Horizontal plate palatini muscle
of palatine bone
Pterygoid hamulus
aponeurosis Interdigitating fibers of
(from tensor levator veli palatini muscle
veli palatini
muscle) Buccinator muscle

Musculus uvulae Pterygomandibular raphe

Molar minor Superior pharyngeal

salivary glands constrictor muscle

Palatopharyngeus Palatoglossus muscle


Palatine tonsil

Basilar part of
Anterior view occipital bone

Cartilaginous part
of auditory tube

Levator veli palatini muscle (cut) Pharyngobasilar

Tensor veli palatini muscle and tendon
Levator veli palatini muscle
Medial pterygoid muscle (cut)
Medial pterygoid plate
Pterygoid hamulus
Pterygoid hamulus

Tendon of tensor veli palatini muscle Superior pharyngeal

constrictor muscle (cut)
Levator veli palatini muscle (cut)
Palatopharyngeus muscle
Palatopharyngeus muscle (cut)

Musculus uvulae

Posterior view

Plate 67 Oral Region

Tongue and Salivary Glands: Sections 2

Horizontal section Orbicularis oris muscle

below lingula of Buccinator muscle
mandible (superior view)
demonstrating bed Buccopharyngeal fascia
of parotid gland Facial artery and vein
Palatoglossus muscle in palatoglossal arch
Palatine tonsil
Pterygomandibular raphe
Lingual nerve and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Buccal nerve and branches
Masseter muscle
Palatopharyngeus muscle in palatopharyngeal arch
Ramus of mandible
Inferior alveolar artery, vein, and nerve to mylohyoid muscle
Medial pterygoid muscle
Styloglossus muscle
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Retromandibular vein
External carotid artery
Parotid gland
Stylopharyngeus muscle
Stylohyoid muscle
Axis (C2)
Sternocleidomastoid muscle
Digastric muscle (posterior belly)
Internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery, Longus capitis muscle
and nerves CN IX, CN X, and CN XII in carotid sheath
Prevertebral fascia
Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion Buccopharyngeal fascia
and retropharyngeal space

Superior longitudinal lingual muscle

Verticalis and transversus linguae muscles of tongue
Inferior longitudinal lingual muscle
Styloglossus muscle
Buccinator muscle

Hyoglossus muscle
Genioglossus muscle
Sublingual salivary gland
Submandibular duct
Submandibular salivary gland
Mandibular canal, inferior alveolar artery, vein, and nerve
Lingual nerve
Nerve to mylohyoid muscle
Vena comitans of hypoglossal nerve (to lingual vein)
Lingual artery
Facial artery Coronal section
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) posterior to 1st ///////

Submandibular salivary gland molar tooth

Submandibular lymph node (anterior view)
Mylohyoid muscle demonstrating
Facial vein sublingual and
Intermediate digastric tendon submandibular
Hyoid bone glands

Oral Region Plate 68

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Floor of Oral Cavity
See also Plate 35

Lateral, slightly inferior view

Hyoglossus muscle
Mylohyoid muscle
Fibrous loop for intermediate digastric tendon
Digastric muscle (anterior belly)
Median raphe between mylohyoid muscles Mastoid
Styloid process
Digastric muscle
Anteroinferior (posterior belly)
Stylohyoid muscle
Greater horn
Lesser horn Hyoid bone
Thyrohyoid muscle
Omohyoid muscle
Sternohyoid muscle

Median raphe between mylohyoid muscles

Digastric muscle (anterior belly)
Mylohyoid muscle
Stylohyoid muscle
Hyoglossus Digastric muscle (posterior belly)
Fibrous loop for intermediate digastric tendon

Sublingual fold with openings Sublingual gland and submandibular duct open to show the
Mandibular nerve (CN V3) of sublingual ducts sublingual ducts of the sublingual gland draining into it

Inferior alveolar nerve

Sublingual caruncles with Sublingual artery
opening of submandibular and lingual nerve Chorda tympani
duct (of Wharton)
Maxillary and inferior
Frenulum of tongue alveolar arteries
Genioglossus muscles Superficial temporal
Inferior alveolar
nerve and artery Mylohyoid branch of
inferior alveolar artery and
nerve to mylohyoid muscle
Facial artery
Facial artery
Angle of mandible Submandibular
Mylohyoid muscle Submandibular gland
Deep lingual artery (cut) External carotid
Lingual artery artery
Geniohyoid muscles Lingual artery

Body Dorsal lingual artery (cut)

Hyoid bone Lesser horn
Greater horn Hyoglossus muscle

Plate 69 Oral Region

Tongue 2
See also Plates 69, 139

Palatopharyngeus muscle
Palatoglossus muscle
Inferior longitudinal lingual muscle

Mastoid process
Digastric muscle (posterior
belly) (cut)
Styloid process
Pharyngobasilar fascia
Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Stylohyoid ligament
Styloglossus muscle
Glossopharyngeal part of superior
pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Stylopharyngeus muscle
Stylohyoid muscle
Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Digastric muscle (posterior belly) (cut)
Hyoglossus muscle
Genioglossus muscle Intermediate tendon of digastric muscle (cut)
Mylohyoid muscle (cut) Fibrous loop for intermediate digastric tendon
Hyoid bone
Geniohyoid muscle

Lateral view (left side of mandible removed)

Lingual nerve Superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle
Submandibular ganglion Styloglossus muscle
Palatoglossus muscle (cut)
Deep lingual artery
and vein Stylohyoid ligament
Stylopharyngeus muscle
Hyoglossus muscle (cut)
Lingual artery
External carotid artery
Internal jugular vein
Submandibular duct Retromandibular vein
(of Wharton) Facial vein
Common trunk for facial,
retromandibular, and
lingual veins (common
facial vein)
Genioglossus muscle Lingual vein ///////

Suprahyoid artery
Sublingual artery and vein
Geniohyoid muscle Hyoid bone Dorsal lingual artery and vein

Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) Vena comitans of hypoglossal nerve

Oral Region Plate 70

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Tongue (continued)

Median glossoepiglottic fold
Lateral glossoepiglottic fold
Palatopharyngeal arch and muscle (cut)
Palatine tonsil (cut)
Lingual tonsil
Palatoglossal arch and muscle (cut)
Foramen cecum
Terminal sulcus
Vallate papillae

Foliate papillae

Filiform papillae


Fungiform papilla
Midline groove

Dorsum of tongue

Lingual tonsil

Filiform papillae

Fungiform papilla
Keratinized tip
of papilla

Intrinsic muscle

Duct of gland
Schematic stereogram: window area Lymph follicles
indicated above
Mucous glands
Vallate papilla
Taste buds
Lingual glands (serous glands of von Ebner)

Plate 71 Oral Region

Fauces 2

Medial view
sagittal section
Sphenoidal sinus
Pharyngeal tonsil
Torus tubarius
Pharyngeal raphe
Pharyngeal tubercle (basilar part of occipital bone)
Pharyngeal opening of auditory tube
Hard palate
Pharyngeal recess
Salpingopharyngeal fold
Soft palate
Palatine glands
Musculus uvulae
Semilunar fold
Supratonsillar fossa
Palatine tonsil
Palatopharyngeal arch
Palatoglossal arch
Triangular fold
Tongue (drawn anteriorly and inferiorly)
Lingual tonsil

Pharyngeal mucosa removed

Pharyngeal tonsil
Cartilaginous part of auditory tube (eustachian)
Medial pterygoid plate
Tensor veli palatini muscle and tendon
Levator veli palatini muscle
Ascending palatine artery
Pharyngeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
Lesser palatine artery
Salpingopharyngeus muscle
Pterygoid hamulus
Pterygomandibular raphe
Tonsillar branch of lesser palatine artery
Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Tonsillar branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
Palatoglossus muscle
Palatopharyngeus muscle
Tonsillar branch of ascending palatine artery ///////

Tonsillar branch of facial artery

Tonsillar branch of dorsal lingual artery
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and tonsillar branch
Stylohyoid ligament
Hyoglossus muscle
Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Stylopharyngeus muscle

Oral Region Plate 72

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See also Plate 67

Deciduous Permanent
(primary) (colored blue)
Usual age of Usual age of
eruption eruption

Central incisor (7th year)

Central incisor
(8–10 months) Lateral incisor (8th year)
Lateral incisor Canine (cuspid) (11th–12th year)
(8–10 months)
1st premolar (9th year)
Canine (cuspid)
(16–20 months) 2nd premolar (10th year)
1st molar 1st molar (6th year)
(15–21 months) 2nd molar (12th–13th year)
2nd molar
(20–24 months)
3rd molars (17th–25th year)

2nd molar
(20–24 months)
2nd molar (12th–13th year)
1st molar
(15–21 months) 1st molar (6th year)
Canine (cuspid) 2nd premolar (10th year)
(16–20 months)
1st premolar (9th year)
Lateral incisor
(15–21 months) Canine (cuspid) (11th–12th year)

Central incisor Lateral incisor (8th year)

(6–9 months) Central incisor (7th year)

Central incisors
Incisive fossa Lateral incisors

Palatine process
of maxillary bone
1st premolars

Horizontal 2nd premolars

plate of
palatine 1st molars
2nd molars

3rd molars

Greater and lesser

palatine foramina
Upper permanent teeth Lower permanent teeth

Plate 73 Oral Region

Teeth (continued) 2


Dentine and dentinal tubules

Crown Interglobular spaces

Odontoblast layer
Interproximal spaces
Dental pulp containing vessels
and nerves
Neck Gingival epithelium (stratified)
Gingival groove
Lamina propria of gingiva
(mandibular or maxillary periosteum)

Interdental papilla
Root canals containing vessels
and nerves
Apical foramina

Left upper

Left lower
view ///////

Central Lateral 1 2 1 2 3

Incisors Canines Premolars Molars

Oral Region Plate 74

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Muscles of Pharynx: Partially Opened Posterior View
See also Plates 76, 81

Basilar part of occipital bone Pharyngeal tubercle

Cartilaginous part
Styloid of auditory tube
process (eustachian)
muscle Pharyngobasilar
(posterior fascia
muscle Levator veli
palatini muscle
muscle Superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle
Accessory muscle
bundle from Salpingopharyngeus
petrous part of muscle
temporal bone Musculus uvulae
muscle) Palatopharyngeus muscle

Medial Middle pharyngeal

pterygoid muscle constrictor muscle
Pharyngobasilar fascia Root of tongue
Stylopharyngeus muscle
Pharyngeal raphe
Superior pharyngeal Pharyngoepiglottic fold
constrictor muscle
Aryepiglottic fold
Hyoid bone (tip of greater horn)
Inferior pharyngeal
Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle constrictor muscle (cut edge)
Longitudinal pharyngeal muscles
Superior horn of
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle thyroid cartilage
Cuneiform tubercle Thyrohyoid membrane

Corniculate tubercle Internal branch of

superior laryngeal nerve
(Transverse and oblique)
arytenoid muscles

Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle Cricopharyngeal part of

inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Cricopharyngeus muscle (part of Posterior border of thyroid cartilage lamina
inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle)
Cricoid attachment of longitudinal
Longitudinal esophageal muscle esophageal muscle
Circular esophageal muscle

Plate 75 Pharynx
Posterior View of Pharynx: Nerves and Vessels 2
See also Plates 75, 79, 82, 83

Facial and vestibulocochlear nerves (CN VII, CN VIII) Superior and inferior ganglia of vagus nerve (CN X)

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) Facial nerve (CN VII) and stylomastoid artery

Hypoglossal sinus
nerve (CN XII)
nerve (CN XI)

muscle Ascending pharyngeal
nerve (CN IX) Superficial temporal
Vagus nerve (CN X) (cut)
Internal carotid artery
Superior cervical ganglion
External carotid artery

Superior laryngeal nerve Facial artery

Superior thyroid
Angle of the mandible artery

venous plexus
branch of vagus nerve

Internal carotid artery Internal jugular vein

Pharyngeal nervous plexus Common carotid artery

Superior cervical cardiac nerve Inferior thyroid artery

Sympathetic trunk Thyrocervical trunk

Thyroid and parathyroid glands
Vertebral artery
Middle cervical ganglion
Subclavian artery
Common carotid artery
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Esophagus ///////

Superior view of the skull base

showing line of cut and the
removed part

Pharynx Plate 76
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Pharynx: Medial View

Sella turcica Pharyngeal opening of auditory tube

Frontal sinus
Sphenoidal sinus Sphenooccipital synchondrosis
Nasal septum Pharyngeal tonsil
Nasopharynx Pharyngeal tubercle of occipital bone
Soft palate Pharyngeal raphe
Anterior longitudinal ligament
Palatine glands
Anterior atlantooccipital membrane
Hard palate
Apical ligament of dens
Oral cavity
Incisive canal Anterior
arch of
Palatine tonsil atlas (C1
Body of tongue
Dens of
Oropharynx axis (C2
Foramen cecum C1 C1
Lingual tonsil constrictor
Genioglossus muscles
muscle C2
Root of tongue pharyngeal
Epiglottis C3 Retro-
Geniohyoid muscle pharyngeal
Mylohyoid muscle C4 fascia and
Hyoid bone anterior
Hyoepiglottic ligament ligament
Thyrohyoid membrane
Thyroid cartilage
Vocal fold
Transverse arytenoid muscle

Cricoid cartilage
Trachea T1
Esophageal muscles
Thyroid gland
Superficial layer of deep cervical fascia
Pretracheal fascia
Suprasternal space (of Burns)
Manubrium of sternum

Plate 77 Pharynx
Muscles of Pharynx: Medial View 2
See also Plate 72

Medial pterygoid plate

Cartilaginous part of auditory tube (eustachian)
Tensor veli palatini muscle
Pharyngobasilar fascia
Levator veli palatini muscle
Palatine aponeurosis and tendon of
tensor veli palatini muscle
Pharyngeal tubercle (basilar part of occipital bone)
Pharyngeal raphe
Anterior longitudinal ligament
Anterior atlantooccipital membrane
Apical ligament of dens
C1 Salpingopharyngeus muscle
Muscles of soft palate
Palatopharyngeal ridge (Passavant’s ridge)
C2 Pterygoid hamulus
Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Pterygomandibular raphe
Palatopharyngeus muscle
Buccinator muscle
Glossopharyngeal part of
C3 superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Stylopharyngeus muscle
Stylohyoid ligament
Styloglossus muscle
Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
C4 Fibers to pharyngoepiglottic fold
Buccopharyngeal fascia and
retropharyngeal space
Hyoglossus Prevertebral fascia and anterior
muscle longitudinal ligament
Geniohyoid Internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve
C5 Longitudinal pharyngeal muscles
muscle Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Hyoid bone
Thyrohyoid C6 Cricopharyngeal muscle
membrane (part of inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle)
Thyroid cartilage
cricothyroid ligament
Circular esophageal muscle
Corniculate and
arytenoid cartilages C7 Longitudinal esophageal muscle
Cricoid cartilage ///////


Pharynx Plate 78
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Pharynx: Opened Posterior View

Choanae Basilar part of occipital bone

Pharyngeal tonsil

Styloid process
Nasal septum
Torus tubarius
Pharyngeal opening
of auditory tube
Pharyngeal recess
Parotid gland
Torus levatorius (fold
caused by levator
veli palatini muscle)
Inferior nasal concha
Salpingopharyngeal fold
Soft palate
Angle of mandible
Submandibular gland
Oropharynx Uvula of the palate
Palatine tonsil
Root of tongue
Palatopharyngeal arch
Prominence caused by greater horn
of hyoid bone
Laryngeal inlet
Prominence caused by superior horn
Laryngopharynx of thyroid cartilage
Aryepiglottic fold
Piriform recess
Cuneiform tubercle
Fold over internal branch
of superior laryngeal nerve
Corniculate tubercle
Interarytenoid notch
Prominence over lamina
Esophagus of cricoid cartilage


Plate 79 Pharynx
Pharyngoesophageal Junction 2

Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

Root of tongue
Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Palatopharyngeus muscle Longitudinal
Stylopharyngeus muscle muscles
Pharyngoepiglottic fold
Laryngeal inlet
Thyroid cartilage (superior horn)
Thyrohyoid membrane
Internal branch of superior laryngeal
nerve and superior laryngeal artery
and vein
Oblique arytenoid muscle
Transverse arytenoid muscle
Thyroid cartilage
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
(thyropharyngeus muscle)
Pharyngeal aponeurosis (cut away)
Zone of sparse muscle fibers
Cricopharyngeal part of inferior
pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Cricoid cartilage (lamina)
Cricoesophageal tendon

Posterior view with

pharynx opened and
mucosa removed Esophageal mucosa and submucosa
Circular muscle in V-shaped area (of Laimer)
Right recurrent laryngeal nerve

Longitudinal esophageal muscle ///////

Window cut in longitudinal muscle

exposes circular muscle layer

Pharynx Plate 80
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Muscles of Pharynx: Lateral View
See also Plate 75

Pharyngobasilar fascia

Tensor veli palatini muscle

Levator veli palatini muscle

Lateral pterygoid plate

Pterygoid hamulus

Buccinator muscle (cut)

Pterygomandibular raphe
Digastric muscle
(posterior belly) (cut)
Styloid process
Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Styloglossus muscle
Oblique line
of mandible Stylohyoid ligament
Stylopharyngeus muscle
Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Hyoglossus muscle
Greater horn of hyoid bone
Digastric muscle (anterior belly) Superior horn of thyroid cartilage
Mylohyoid muscle Thyrohyoid membrane
Hyoid bone Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Tendinous arch
Stylohyoid muscle (cut)

Thyroid cartilage
Cricopharyngeal part of
Median cricothyroid ligament inferior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle
Cricothyroid muscle
Cricoid cartilage Esophagus
Tracheoesophageal groove

Plate 81 Pharynx
Nerves of Oral, Head, and Neck Regions 2
See also Plates 59, 133, 136

Zygomaticotemporal branch
of zygomatic nerve (CN V2)
Deep temporal nerves (CN V3)
Masseteric nerve (CN V3)
Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Nerve to medial pterygoid
muscle and tensor veli
palatini muscles (CN V3) (cut)
Zygomaticofacial branch of
zygomatic nerve (CN V2)
Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Infraorbital nerve (CN V2)
Pterygopalatine ganglion
Greater and lesser
palatine nerves (CN V2)
Anterior, middle, and nerve (CN V3)
posterior superior
alveolar branches (CN V2) Middle meningeal artery
Nerve to lateral pterygoid Superficial temporal
muscle (CN V3) (cut) artery (cut)
Buccal nerve (CN V3) Facial nerve (CN VII) (cut)
Chorda tympani (CN VII) Maxillary artery
Lingual nerve (CN V3) Accessory nerve (CN XI) (cut)
Medial pterygoid muscle C1 spinal nerve
(cut) (lateral pterygoid (anterior ramus) (cut)
removed) C2 spinal nerve
Mental nerve (CN V3) (anterior ramus) (cut)
Inferior alveolar Pharyngeal plexus composed of
nerve (CN V3) branches from glossopharyngeal
(CN IX), vagus (CN X), and
Nerve to mylohyoid muscle (CN V3) sympathetic trunk and superior
Submandibular ganglion cervical ganglion
Internal carotid artery
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and tonsillar branch
External carotid artery
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Vagus nerve (CN X) and
Carotid sinus nerve (of Hering) (CN IX) and carotid body superior cervical cardiac branch
Nerve to thyrohyoid muscle (C1, 2 via CN XII) C4 spinal nerve
Internal and external branches (anterior ramus) (cut)
of superior laryngeal nerve (CN X) Phrenic nerve
(anterior rami C3, 4, 5)
Superior root
Ansa cervicalis (C1, 2, 3) Ascending cervical artery
Inferior root
Scalenus medius muscle
Muscular branches of ansa cervicalis Scalenus anterior muscle
Recurrent laryngeal nerve (CN X) Brachial plexus (cut)
(superior, middle,
Sympathetic trunk and middle cervical ganglion inferior trunks)
Common carotid artery
Vertebral artery Thyrocervical trunk

Subclavian artery ///////

Pharynx Plate 82
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Arteries of Oral and Pharyngeal Regions
See also Plates 41, 57

From Supraorbital artery

artery Supratrochlear artery

Middle meningeal artery

Deep temporal arteries
External nasal artery
Masseteric artery
Angular artery
Infraorbital artery artery
Sphenopalatine artery Auriculo-
Descending palatine artery temporal
Posterior superior Transverse facial
alveolar artery artery (cut)
Superior labial artery Superficial
Buccal artery temporal artery

Buccinator muscle Deep auricular and

and parotid duct (cut) anterior tympanic arteries
Maxillary artery
Inferior labial artery
Posterior auricular artery
Superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle Ascending pharyngeal artery
Mental branch of Occipital artery and
inferior alveolar artery sternocleidomastoid branch
Inferior alveolar artery Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
and lingual branch Ascending palatine artery
Facial artery Tonsillar artery
Submental artery Facial artery
Mylohyoid branch of Lingual artery
inferior alveolar artery Ascending pharyngeal artery
Submandibular gland Internal carotid artery
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) Vagus nerve (CN X)

Suprahyoid artery Superior cervical

cardiac nerve
External carotid artery Sympathetic trunk
Superior laryngeal artery Scalenus anterior muscle
Superior thyroid artery Phrenic nerve
Scalenus medius muscle
Cricothyroid artery
Ascending cervical artery
Common carotid artery
Subclavian artery
Thyrocervical trunk

Plate 83 Pharynx
Veins of Face and Neck Regions 2
See also Plate 85

Supratrochlear vein
Supraorbital vein
Nasofrontal vein
Superior ophthalmic vein
Angular vein
External nasal vein
Emissary vein (of Vesalius)
communicating with
cavernous sinus
Infraorbital vein
Occipital vein
Posterior superior and artery
alveolar veins
Superficial temporal
Palatine vein vein and artery
Pterygoid plexus Transverse facial vein (cut)
Superior labial vein
Posterior auricular vein
Deep facial vein
Retromandibular vein
Maxillary veins (anterior and
posterior branches)
Inferior labial vein
External jugular vein (cut)
Mental vein
Facial vein and artery Inferior alveolar vein and artery

External palatine vein Occipital vein and artery

Submental vein Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)

Submandibular gland Common facial vein
Vena comitans of
hypoglossal nerve
Dorsal lingual vein coursing External carotid artery
medial to hyoglossus muscle
Internal jugular vein
Lingual vein
Communication to anterior jugular vein (cut) Common carotid artery

Superior laryngeal vein Vagus nerve (CN X) and

sympathetic trunk
Superior thyroid vein
Middle scalene muscle
Thyroid gland
Anterior scalene muscle
Middle thyroid vein
External jugular vein (cut)
Inferior thyroid veins
Termination of anterior jugular vein (cut) Subclavian artery

Left brachiocephalic vein Subclavian vein ///////

Pharynx Plate 84
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Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Head and Neck
See also Plate 242

Superficial parotid nodes

(deep parotid nodes
deep to and within
parotid gland)

Facial nodes
Buccinator Occipital nodes
Mastoid nodes

Superficial lateral
Submandibular cervical node

Accessory nerve
Submental Jugulodigastric node
Accessory nodes

Superior deep lateral

cervical nodes

Thyroid nodes Inferior deep

lateral cervical
Juguloomohyoid node
Thoracic duct

Pretracheal and thyroid nodes

(deep to infrahyoid muscles)

Anterior cervical nodes

Jugular trunk

Supraclavicular nodes*

*The supraclavicular group of nodes,

especially on the left, are also sometimes
referred to as the signal or sentinel lymph
nodes of Virchow or Troisier, especially when
sufficiently enlarged and palpable. These
nodes (or a single node) are so termed because
they may be the first recognized presumptive
evidence of malignant disease in the viscera.

Plate 85 Pharynx
Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Pharynx and Tongue 2
Accessory nerve (CN XI)
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Rectus capitis anterior muscle (cut)
Pharyngobasilar fascia

Retropharyngeal nodes

Internal jugular vein

Digastric muscle (posterior belly)

Sternocleidomastoid muscle

Jugulodigastric node

Superior deep lateral

cervical nodes

Juguloomohyoid node

Lymphatic drainage of pharynx:

posterior view

Submental node

Submandibular node

Jugulodigastric node

Superior deep lateral

cervical nodes ///////

Juguloomohyoid node

Lymphatic drainage of tongue

Pharynx Plate 86
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Thyroid Gland: Anterior View

External carotid artery Hyoid bone

Internal carotid artery Superior laryngeal nerve
Infrahyoid artery Internal branch
External branch
Superior thyroid artery and vein
Thyroid cartilage (lamina)
Superior laryngeal artery
Thyrohyoid membrane Median cricothyroid
Ansa Superior root
Inferior root Cricothyroid muscles
Common carotid artery Cricoid cartilage
Cricothyroid artery
Pyramidal lobe
Internal jugular vein (often absent
or small) Thyroid
Phrenic nerve
Right lobe gland
Middle thyroid vein Left lobe
Inferior thyroid veins Isthmus
Ascending cervical artery
Pretracheal lymph nodes
Inferior thyroid artery
Phrenic nerve
Superficial branch
Anterior scalene muscle
Suprascapular artery
Vagus nerve (CN X)
Thyrocervical trunk
External jugular vein
artery and vein Anterior jugular vein

Vagus nerve (CN X) 1st rib (cut)

Right recurrent Left recurrent laryngeal nerve

laryngeal nerve

Brachiocephalic trunk

Brachiocephalic veins

Superior vena cava

Aortic arch

Thyroid cartilage
Median cricothyroid ligament
Common carotid artery

Cricothyroid muscle
Cricoid cartilage
Thyroid gland
Cervical pleura

Plate 87 Thyroid Gland and Larynx

Thyroid Gland and Pharynx: Posterior View 2
See also Plate 89

Superior pharyngeal
External carotid artery
constrictor muscle

Middle pharyngeal Internal carotid artery

constrictor muscle
Facial artery
Tip of greater horn
of hyoid bone Lingual artery

Inferior pharyngeal Superior laryngeal nerve

constrictor muscle Internal branch
External branch
Pharyngeal raphe
Superior thyroid artery
Zone of sparse
muscle fibers Superior laryngeal artery

Cricopharyngeus Common carotid artery

muscle (part of inferior
pharyngeal constrictor Vagus nerve (CN X)
Circular esophageal Internal jugular vein
muscle in V-shaped
area of sparse
longitudinal muscle Thyroid gland
fibers (right lobe)

Longitudinal Superior parathyroid gland

esophageal muscle
Ascending cervical artery
Inferior thyroid vein
Inferior parathyroid gland
Inferior thyroid artery
Inferior bulb of
internal jugular vein Right recurrent laryngeal nerve

Vertebral artery Superficial branch

Left subclavian Suprascapular artery

artery and vein
Thyrocervical trunk

Internal thoracic Right subclavian

artery and vein artery and vein

Left brachiocephalic vein Right brachiocephalic vein

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve Brachiocephalic trunk

Arch of aorta Right vagus nerve (CN X)

Left vagus nerve (CN X) Superior vena cava ///////

Thyroid Gland and Larynx Plate 88

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Parathyroid Glands
See also Plates 80, 88, 92

Thyrohyoid membrane External carotid artery

Posterior view
Hyoid bone Internal carotid artery
Superior laryngeal nerve
Internal branch Superior thyroid artery
External branch
Superior laryngeal artery
Vagus nerve (CN X)
Inferior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle (cut)
Common carotid artery
Superior thyroid artery
Fibrous capsule of
thyroid gland (cut)
Common carotid artery
Cricopharyngeus muscle (part of
inferior pharyngeal constrictor
Fibrous capsule of muscle)
thyroid gland (cut)
Superior parathyroid gland
Superior parathyroid gland
Right lobe of thyroid gland
Left lobe of thyroid gland
Inferior parathyroid gland
(may be more caudally located,
Ascending cervical artery even within mediastinum)
Inferior thyroid artery
Inferior parathyroid gland
Right recurrent laryngeal nerve

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve Transverse cervical artery

Suprascapular artery
Thyrocervical trunk
Subclavian artery Vertebral artery

Subclavian artery
Brachiocephalic trunk

Right lateral view Internal branch of

superior laryngeal nerve
External carotid artery
Superior thyroid vein External branch of
superior laryngeal nerve
Superior laryngeal artery
Superior thyroid artery (cut) Superior parathyroid gland

Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Thyroid gland (right lobe)

(retracted anteriorly)
Common carotid artery
Internal jugular vein
Middle thyroid vein
Inferior thyroid artery Inferior parathyroid gland

Right recurrent laryngeal nerve

Esophagus Inferior thyroid vein

Plate 89 Thyroid Gland and Larynx

Cartilages of Larynx 2
See also Plates 91, 92, 93

Hyoid bone
Thyrohyoid membrane
Superior horn of thyroid cartilage
Corniculate cartilage
Arytenoid cartilage
Superior thyroid notch
Thyroid cartilage lamina
Vocal ligament
Median cricothyroid ligament
Inferior horn of thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage

Anterior view Posterior view

Arytenoid Corniculate cartilage

articular surface
Cricoid Muscular process Arytenoid
cartilage Lamina Vocal process cartilage

Anterosuperior view

Hyoepiglottic ligament
Hyoid bone
Triticeal cartilage
Thyrohyoid membrane
Thyroid cartilage lamina
Oblique line
Laryngeal prominence
Corniculate cartilage
Arytenoid cartilage
Muscular process
Lateral Vocal process
Vocal ligament
Thyroepiglottic ligament ///////

Cricothyroid ligament
Cricoid cartilage
Cricothyroid joint
Right lateral view Medial view, median
Trachea (sagittal) section

Thyroid Gland and Larynx Plate 90

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Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx
See also Plates 90, 92, 93

Epiglottis Foramen for superior

laryngeal vessels and
Aryepiglottic fold internal branch of
superior laryngeal nerve
Cuneiform tubercle

Corniculate tubercle Oblique and transverse

arytenoid muscles
Aryepiglottic part of
oblique arytenoid muscle Posterior cricoarytenoid
arytenoid muscle
Transverse Straight
arytenoid muscle part Cricothyroid
Posterior Oblique muscle
cricoarytenoid part
Cricoid cartilage

Posterior Right lateral view

Aryepiglottic part of
oblique arytenoid muscle
Thyroepiglottic part of
thyroarytenoid muscle
Oblique and transverse
arytenoid muscles Arytenoid Muscular process
Thyroarytenoid muscle cartilage Vocal process
Lateral cricoarytenoid
muscle Lamina of
cricoid cartilage
Posterior cricoarytenoid
muscle Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle

Conus elasticus Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle

Thyroid articular surface

muscle (cut away) Transverse and oblique
Lateral view arytenoid muscles
Conus elasticus
Root of tongue (lingual tonsil)
Median Cricothyroid muscle
glossoepiglottic Epiglottis
ligament Thyroarytenoid muscle

Ventricular folds Lamina of

Vocal fold Vocalis muscle thyroid
(false cords)
(true cords) Vocal ligament cartilage

Superior view
Aryepiglottic fold

Piriform recess
Cuneiform tubercle

Corniculate tubercle

Normal larynx: inspiration

Plate 91 Thyroid Gland and Larynx

Nerves and Coronal Section of Larynx 2
See also Plates 90, 91, 93

Internal branch of
superior laryngeal nerve
Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Superior laryngeal nerve Aryepiglottic part of oblique
Internal branch arytenoid muscle
External branch Thyroepiglottic part of
thyroarytenoid muscle
Thyrohyoid membrane
Transverse and oblique
arytenoid muscles
Inferior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle Thyroarytenoid muscle
Vocalis muscle
Cricothyroid muscle Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
part of inferior Thyroid articular surface
pharyngeal constrictor
Right recurrent
laryngeal nerve Right recurrent laryngeal nerve

Right lateral view:

thyroid cartilage lamina removed

Coronal section through larynx


Superior thyroid veins Hyoid bone

Internal laryngeal nerve
Superior laryngeal artery Vestibule

Thyrohyoid muscle
Aryepiglottic part of oblique
arytenoid muscle
Vestibular fold
Thyroid cartilage
Vocal fold
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
Cricothyroid muscle
Vocalis muscle
Inferior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle
Sternothyroid muscle Superior thyroid veins
Cricoid cartilage
Conus elasticus ///////

Thyroid gland Infraglottic cavity

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

Inferior laryngeal artery

Thyroid Gland and Larynx Plate 92

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Action of Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx
See also Plates 90, 91, 92

Action of cricothyroid muscles

Cricothyroid joint
(pivot point) Lengthening (increasing tension)
of vocal ligaments

Action of posterior cricoarytenoid muscles Action of lateral cricoarytenoid muscles

Abduction of vocal ligaments Adduction of vocal ligaments

Action of transverse and oblique arytenoid muscles Action of vocalis and thyroarytenoid muscles
Adduction of vocal ligaments Shortening (relaxation) of vocal ligaments

Plate 93 Thyroid Gland and Larynx

Eyelids 2
Superior palpebral conjunctiva:
tarsal (meibomian) glands Superior lacrimal papilla and punctum
shining through
Plica semilunaris
Seen through Pupil
cornea Iris
Lacrimal caruncle in
lacrimal lake (lacus lacrimalis)
Corneoscleral junction
(corneal limbus)
Inferior lacrimal papilla and punctum
Bulbar conjunctiva
over sclera

Inferior conjunctival fornix

Inferior palpebral conjunctiva:

tarsal glands shining through

Levator palpebrae superioris muscle

Orbital septum
Superior tarsal (Müller’s) muscle (smooth) Sclera
Superior conjunctival fornix Bulbar conjunctiva
Orbicularis oculi muscle (palpebral part) Palpebral conjunctiva
Superior tarsus Cornea
Tarsal (meibomian) glands
Sebaceous glands
Anterior chamber
Eyelashes (cilia)
Openings of tarsal glands
Inferior tarsus Posterior chamber

Orbicularis oculi muscle (palpebral part)

Inferior conjunctival fornix
Orbital septum

Frontal bone

Insertion of levator palpebrae

superioris muscle

Orbital septum
Supraorbital artery and nerve
Superior tarsus Supratrochlear artery and nerve
External nasal artery
Lateral palpebral ligament and infratrochlear nerve

Inferior tarsus Lacrimal sac

Medial palpebral ligament
Orbital septum
Maxillary bone (frontal process) ///////

Zygomatic bone
Infraorbital artery and nerve

Orbit and Contents Plate 94

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Lacrimal Apparatus
See also Plate 144

Superior lacrimal papilla and punctum

Orbital part of
lacrimal gland
Lacrimal canaliculi

Palpebral part of
lacrimal gland Lacrimal sac

Excretory ducts of
lacrimal gland Nasolacrimal duct

Plica semilunaris
Opening of
nasolacrimal duct
Lacrimal caruncle

Inferior lacrimal papilla and punctum

Superior lacrimal papilla and punctum

Frontal bone (cut away)

Lacrimal canaliculi
Orbital part of
lacrimal gland

Lacrimal sac
Palpebral part of
lacrimal gland
Nasolacrimal duct
Excretory ducts of
lacrimal gland
Middle nasal
Plica semilunaris
and lacrimal lake

Nasal cavity
Lacrimal caruncle

Inferior nasal
Inferior lacrimal papilla and punctum concha (cut)

Opening of nasolacrimal duct Inferior nasal meatus

Plate 95 Orbit and Contents

Extrinsic Eye Muscles 2
See also Plate 97

Right lateral view Superior oblique muscle

Levator palpebrae superioris muscle

Trochlea (pulley)
Superior rectus muscle
Optic nerve (CN II)
Medial rectus muscle (within meningeal sheath)

Common tendinous Lateral rectus muscle (cut)

ring (of Zinn)

Lateral rectus muscle (cut)

Inferior oblique muscle
Inferior rectus muscle

Maxillary sinus

Superior tarsus
Superior view
Levator palpebrae
Trochlea superioris muscle (cut)

Superior oblique muscle

Superior rectus muscle (cut)

Medial rectus muscle

Lateral rectus muscle

Inferior rectus muscle

Optic nerve (CN II) (within
meningeal sheath)
Common tendinous
ring (of Zinn) Superior rectus muscle (cut)

Levator palpebrae superioris muscle (cut)

Innervation of extrinsic eye muscles: Trochlear

anterior view Superior oblique muscle
Trochlea nerve (CN IV)

Levator palpebrae
superioris muscle

Superior rectus muscle Abducens

Oculomotor Lateral rectus muscle
nerve (CN VI)
nerve (CN III) Medial rectus muscle ///////

Inferior rectus muscle

Inferior oblique muscle

Orbit and Contents Plate 96

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Nerves of Orbit
See also Plates 61, 132, 133

Superior view Medial branch Supraorbital nerve

Lateral branch

Supratrochlear nerve Levator palpebrae superioris muscle

Medial rectus muscle Superior rectus muscle

Lacrimal gland
Superior oblique muscle
Lacrimal nerve
Infratrochlear nerve
Lateral rectus muscle
Nasociliary nerve
Frontal nerve
Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Common tendinous ring (of Zinn) Meningeal branch
of maxillary nerve
Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1)
Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Optic nerve (CN II)
Lesser petrosal nerve
Internal carotid artery
and nerve plexus Meningeal branch
of mandibular nerve
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Greater petrosal nerve
Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Trigeminal (semilunar) ganglion
Abducens nerve (CN VI) Tentorial (recurrent meningeal)
branch of ophthalmic nerve
Tentorium cerebelli

Long ciliary nerves

Superior view:
levator palpebrae superioris, Short ciliary nerves
superior rectus, and superior Lacrimal nerve
oblique muscles partially
cut away Ciliary ganglion
Parasympathetic root of ciliary
Supratrochlear nerve (cut) ganglion (from inferior branch
of oculomotor nerve)
Supraorbital nerve branches (cut)
Sympathetic root of ciliary
Infratrochlear nerve ganglion (from internal
carotid plexus)
Anterior ethmoidal nerve
Sensory root of ciliary ganglion
Meningeal sheath of (from nasociliary nerve)
optic nerve (CN II)
Branches to inferior
Posterior ethmoidal nerve and medial rectus muscles
Superior branch of Abducens nerve (CN VI)
oculomotor nerve (CN III) (cut)
Inferior branch of
Nasociliary nerve oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Internal carotid plexus Lacrimal nerve
Trochlear nerve (CN IV) (cut) Meningeal branch (CN V2)
Frontal nerve (cut)
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Ophthalmic nerve CN V1)
Abducens nerve (CN VI) Meningeal branch (CN V3)

Plate 97 Orbit and Contents

Superior and Anterior Views of Orbit 2
See also Plates 96, 97

Superior view of right orbit Abducens nerve (CN VI) Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Trigeminal ganglion Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) Optic nerve (CN II)
Maxillary nerve (CN V2) Sphenoidal sinus
Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Anterior clinoid process
Frontal nerve
Posterior ethmoidal nerve
Abducens nerve and lateral rectus muscle
Long ciliary nerve
Ciliary ganglion Inferior rectus muscle
Nasociliary nerve
Short ciliary nerves
Infraorbital nerve Skin
Right and
Medial rectus muscle left anterior ethmoidal nerves

Superior rectus muscle Frontal belly of

Lacrimal gland muscle
Supratrochlear nerve Left supraorbital nerve
(lateral and medial
Levator palpebrae superioris muscle branches)
Supraorbital nerve: Supratrochlear nerve
Medial branch
Lateral branch Right and left infratrochlear nerves
Superior oblique muscle
and tendon Right and
Tendon of inferior oblique muscle left external nasal branches of anterior
Anterior ethmoidal cells ethmoidal nerves of respective sides
Medial and lateral internal nasal branches Medial internal nasal branch of anterior
(of anterior ethmoidal nerve) ethmoidal nerve
Anterior view of right orbit Anterior
(eyeball transparent) Lateral and medial branches
Posterior and anterior ethmoidal nerves of supraorbital nerve Superior oblique
muscle and trochlea
Levator palpebrae superioris muscle
Supratrochlear nerve
Superior rectus muscle

Nasociliary nerve

Zygomaticotemporal nerve Trochlear nerve

Lacrimal nerve
Communicating branch Infratrochlear nerve
to the lacrimal gland
Lateral rectus muscle Optic nerve (CN III)
and abducens nerve
Ciliary ganglion Long ciliary nerve
and short ciliary nerves

Zygomaticotemporal nerve Oculomotor nerve (CN II)

Zygomaticofacial nerve Medial rectus muscle (cut) ///////

Zygomatic nerve
Inferior rectus muscle and
inferior branch of oculomotor
Infraorbital nerve
nerve (CN III)

Inferior oblique
Lateral muscle

Orbit and Contents Plate 98

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Arteries and Veins of Orbit and Eyelids
See also Plates 10, 84

Superior view Medial palpebral artery

Lateral palpebral artery

Supratrochlear artery
Lacrimal gland
External (dorsal) nasal artery
Supraorbital artery
Anterior meningeal artery
Zygomatic branches
Anterior ethmoidal artery
Posterior ciliary arteries
Posterior ethmoidal artery
Muscular branch

Lacrimal artery

Muscular branch Central retinal artery

Ophthalmic artery

Internal carotid artery

Supraorbital artery

X Supratrochlear artery

External nasal artery

Anterior view X
Superior medial
Frontal branch of palpebral artery
superficial temporal artery
Angular artery
Superior lateral palpebral artery X
Inferior medial
Zygomaticoorbital artery palpebral artery
Inferior lateral palpebral artery X
Superior and inferior
Zygomaticofacial artery palpebral arterial arches

Facial artery
Transverse facial artery

Infraorbital artery (X = anastomosis of vessels from

external and internal carotid arteries)

Supratrochlear vein
Lateral view Supraorbital vein Nasofrontal vein

Superior ophthalmic vein Angular vein

Cavernous sinus Vorticose veins

Facial vein

Inferior ophthalmic vein

Pterygoid plexus
Maxillary vein

Retromandibular vein Deep facial vein

Plate 99 Orbit and Contents

Eyeball: Transverse Section 2

Zonular fibers Capsule of lens Anterior chamber
(suspensory ligament of lens)
Lens Posterior chamber
Scleral venous sinus
(canal of Schlemm) Iris Iridocorneal angle
Scleral spur
Ciliary processes
Ciliary body and ciliary muscle
Bulbar conjunctiva
Ciliary part of retina
Ora serrata
Tendon of
lateral rectus
muscle Tendon of
medial rectus

Optic (visual)
part of retina
Vitreous body

Perichoroidal space Hyaloid canal

Lamina cribrosa of sclera
Bulbar sheath
(Tenon’s capsule) Optic nerve (CN II) ///////

Episcleral space
Central retinal
Fovea centralis in macula artery and vein

Meningeal sheath of optic nerve (CN II)

Subarachnoid space

Orbit and Contents Plate 100

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Anterior and Posterior Chambers of Eyeball

Linea translucens (Schwalbe’s line) Posterior limiting lamina

(Descemet’s membrane)
Trabecular meshwork and spaces
of iridocorneal angle (of Fontana) Posterior epithelium
Scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm) Cornea
Scleral spur
Iridocorneal angle
Pectinate ligament
Major arterial
circle of iris
Anterior ciliary vein
conjunctiva Anterior chamber
Folds of iris
Minor arterial
circle of iris


Posterior chamber

Ciliary Meridional Circular
part of fibers fibers Dilator pupillae
retina muscle
Ciliary muscle
Pigment Nucleus of lens
Zonular fibers epithelium
Ciliary body (suspensory (iridial part of Capsule of lens
ligament retina)
of lens)
Perichoroidal space Sphincter pupillae muscle

Note: For clarity, only single plane of zonular fibers shown;

actually, fibers surround entire circumference of lens.

Plate 101 Orbit and Contents

Lens and Supporting Structures 2



Optic part of retina

Ora serrata
Orbiculus ciliaris of Lens
ciliary body covered Nucleus
by ciliary part of retina Capsule

Ciliary processes Cortex

Zonular fibers
Anterior chamber

Posterior chamber

Ciliary body
Eyeball sectioned in coronal plane:
anterior segment viewed from behind Ciliary process

Zonular fibers Equatoria l

Orbiculus ciliaris of ciliary body

Horizontal section
Ora serrata

Optic part of retina

Ora serrata
Orbiculus ciliaris of
Optic part ciliary body covered Zonular fibers fanning out
of retina by ciliary part of retina and blending into lens capsule
Ciliary processes Zonular fibers
Iris Lens ///////

Enlargement of segment outlined in top illustration (semischematic)

Orbit and Contents Plate 102

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Intrinsic Arteries and Veins of Eye
See also Plate 104

Cornea Minor arterial circle of iris

Anterior chamber
Major arterial circle of iris
Scleral venous sinus
(canal of Schlemm)
Blood vessels of ciliary body

Bulbar conjunctiva and

conjunctival vessels
Anterior ciliary artery and vein

Iridocorneal Iris Lens
Ora serrata
Posterior chamber Muscular artery and vein
Zonular fibers
Extrinsic eye muscle
Vitreous chamber
Long posterior ciliary artery


Vorticose (choroid) vein

Episcleral artery and vein

Retinal artery and vein

Long posterior ciliary artery

Short posterior ciliary arteries

Superior macular
Central retinal artery and vein arteriole and venule

Superior nasal
Superior temporal retinal arteriole
retinal arteriole and venule
and venule
Optic nerve (CN II)

Macula Optic disc

Fovea centralis

Inferior temporal Inferior nasal

retinal arteriole retinal arteriole
and venule and venule

Inferior macular
Right retinal vessels: funduscopic view arteriole and venule

Plate 103 Orbit and Contents

Vascular Supply of Eye 2

Vascular arrangements within the choroid (vascular tunic) of the eyeball

Anterior tributaries of vorticose vein

Anterior ciliary arteries
Episcleral vein*
Tendon of superior rectus muscle
Junctions of suprachoroidal
Sclera tributaries forming vorticose vein

Posterior conjunctival Superior ophthalmic vein

artery and vein
Bulb of vorticose vein

Anterior ciliary veins Vorticose vein

Long posterior ciliary artery

Major arterial circle of iris
Short posterior
Minor arterial ciliary arteries
circle of iris

Meningeal sheath of
optic nerve
and cornea

Short posterior
ciliary arteries

Central retinal
Arteries and artery and vein
veins of iris

Scleral venous sinus

(canal of Schlemm) Vessels of internal
sheath of optic nerve
Veins draining scleral venous
sinus (into anterior ciliary veins)
Short posterior ciliary arteries
Anterior ciliary veins
Nonpigmented and pigmented Segment of episcleral vein*
regions of the retina ///////

Muscular artery Inferior ophthalmic vein

Recurrent branch of anterior ciliary artery Posterior tributaries of a vorticose vein

*The episcleral veins are shown here anastomosing with the vorticose veins,
which they do; however, they also drain into the anterior ciliary veins.

Orbit and Contents Plate 104

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Ear and Course of Sound in Cochlea

Frontal section Facial nerve (CN VII) (cut)

Base of stapes in vestibular (oval) window

Limbs of stapes
Semicircular ducts, ampullae, utricle, and saccule
Prominence of lateral semicircular canal
Arcuate Facial nerve (CN VII) (cut)
Tegmen tympani Incus eminence Vestibular nerve
Malleus (head) Cochlear nerve

Epitympanic recess Internal acoustic


Auricle nerve (CN VIII)

External Nasopharynx
acoustic meatus

Tympanic membrane
Parotid gland Helicotrema
Tympanic cavity Scala vestibuli
Promontory Auditory tube (eustachian) Cochlear duct
Cochlear (round) window containing
spiral organ
Internal jugular vein (of Corti)
Scala tympani



Auditory tube
Auditory tube (eustachian) is shorter
(eustachian) and more horizontal

Plate 105 Ear

External Ear and Tympanic Cavity 2
See also Plate 107

Right auricle (pinna) Otoscopic view of right tympanic membrane

Triangular fossa Crux of helix
Helix External acoustic meatus
Pars flaccida
Lateral process of malleus
Scaphoid fossa Posterior mallear fold

Crura of antihelix Anterior mallear

Auricular tubercle (of Darwin) Long limb of incus

Antihelix Tragus Handle of malleus

Concha of auricle Intertragic notch Umbo

Lobule of auricle Cone of light

Pars tensa

Coronal oblique section of external acoustic meatus and middle ear (tympanic cavity)
Tegmen tympani
Epitympanic recess
Dura mater
Superior ligament of malleus Head of malleus

Short limb of incus Long limb of incus

Footplate of stapes

Handle of malleus
Chorda tympani (cut)
Tympanic plexus on promontory
Anterior ligment of malleus (cut) Tensor tympani muscle

Tympanic membrane

External acoustic meatus Tensor veli palatini muscle

Tympanic cavity
Auditory tube (eustachian)

Right tympanic cavity after removal of tympanic membrane (lateral view)

Chorda tympani Lateral process of malleus
Tendon of tensor tympani muscle
Long limb of incus

Prominence of facial canal Ossicles articulated: medial view

Malleus Incus
Pyramidal eminence and tendon
of stapedius muscle Handle of malleus ///////

Lenticular process
of incus
Fossa of cochlear window Stapes
Lesser petrosal nerve
Tympanic nerve
Tympanic plexus on promontory

Ear Plate 106

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Tympanic Cavity
See also Plates 59, 146
Pyramidal eminence (cut) Mastoid antrum Medial view
Chorda tympani

Anterior tympanic artery

Tensor tympani muscle

and tendon (cut) Stapedial branch
of stylomastoid artery
Arteries of mallear stria

Handle of malleus

Tubal artery
Mastoid cells

Auditory tube

Marginal arterial rete

Facial nerve (CN VII)
Tympanic membrane

Inferior tympanic artery

Deep auricular artery Lateral view

Posterior tympanic
branch of stylomastoid artery Stylomastoid artery
Styloid process

Tensor tympani Geniculate Lesser petrosal nerve Labyrinthine artery

muscle ganglion and superior tympanic
artery Superficial petrosal
artery and greater
petrosal nerve
Facial nerve and
intermediate nerve

Artery and
Stapedial nerve of
branch of pterygoid
stylomastoid canal
Otic ganglion
Chorda tympani

Posterior tympanic Lesser petrosal nerve

artery and superior tympanic
Facial nerve (CN VII) Accessory branch of
middle meningeal artery
Deep auricular
Middle meningeal
Anterior tympanic artery
Tympanic plexus
Stylomastoid artery Maxillary artery
Superficial Caroticotympanic
temporal artery artery and nerve
Posterior artery (cut)
auricular artery Internal carotid artery
Ascending and carotid plexus
Internal jugular External carotid pharyngeal
vein artery artery Inferior tympanic artery and nerve

Plate 107 Ear

Bony and Membranous Labyrinths 2
See also Plate 135

Right bony labyrinth (otic capsule), anterolateral view: Dissected right bony labyrinth (otic capsule):
surrounding cancellous bone removed membranous labyrinth removed

Posterior Posterior
Lateral Semicircular canals Lateral Semicircular canals
Anterior Anterior

Common bony limb Elliptical recess

Cochlear recess Vestibule
Ampullae Spherical recess (note
Vestibule perforations
for nerve
Cochlea fibers)


of spiral
Internal opening of Scala vestibuli
Oval (vestibular) Cochlear vestibular aqueduct
window cupula (for endolymphatic Osseous spiral
duct) lamina
Cochlear (round) window
Cochlear (round) window Scala tympani

Right membranous labyrinth with nerves: medial view

Anterior semicircular duct
Superior part of vestibular nerve
(from utricle and anterior and Anterior ampulla
lateral ampullae) Utricle Lateral ampulla
membranous limb
Cochlear duct (basal turn)

Cochlear nerve Lateral


Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) Posterior

Vestibular nerve
Posterior ampulla ///////

Vestibular ganglion
(of Scarpa)
Endolymphatic duct
Inferior part of vestibular nerve (from
saccule and posterior ampulla)

Ear Plate 108

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Bony and Membranous Labyrinths (continued)

Bony and membranous labyrinths: schema

Anterior semicircular canal and duct
Dura mater
Posterior semicircular
canal and duct
Endolymphatic sac
Common bony and
membranous limbs Endolymphatic duct
in vestibular aqueduct
Lateral semicircular
canal and duct Utricle

Otic capsule Saccule

Stapes in oval Helicotrema of cochlea

(vestibular) window
Ductus reuniens
Scala vestibuli
Cochlear duct
Tympanic cavity
Scala tympani
External acoustic meatus
Tympanic membrane
Cochlear aqueduct
Cochlear (round) window Otic capsule
(closed by secondary Vestibule
tympanic membrane)
Auditory tube (eustachian)

Section through turn of cochlea

Scala vestibuli
spiral lamina Vestibular (Reissner’s)

Cochlear duct
Nerve fibers
Spiral ligament

Modiolus of cochlea Tectorial membrane

Spiral organ (of Corti)

Spiral ganglion
(of Corti)
Basilar membrane

Osseous cochlea
Scala tympani
Outer hair cells

Cochlear nerve Pillar (rod) cells

Inner hair cell

Plate 109 Ear

Orientation of Labyrinths in Skull 2

Superior projection of
right bony labyrinth Groove for greater petrosal nerve
on floor of skull
Geniculate ganglion
Plane of anterior
semicircular canal
Cochlear nerve

Facial nerve (CN VII)

Internal acoustic

nerve (CN VIII) Lateral semicircular
Vestibular nerve

Petrous part
of temporal bone

Opening of
vestibular aqueduct Plane of posterior
(for endolymphatic duct) semicircular canal

Lateral projection of right membranous labyrinth

Geniculate ganglion Auricle (retracted Cochlear duct

Cochlear nerve

Trigeminal nerve (CN V)

Superior part of
vestibular nerve

nerve (CN VIII) Internal jugular vein

Inferior part of
Anterior vestibular nerve
semicircular duct

Lateral semicircular duct

Posterior semicircular duct
petrosal sinus ///////

Straight sinus
Sigmoid sinus
of sinuses
Transverse sinus

Ear Plate 110

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Meninges and Diploic Veins
See also Plate 10

Coronal Diploic veins Arachnoid granulation

view Cerebral vein (bridging vein) penetrates subdural space to enter sinus
Superior sagittal sinus
Dura mater (periosteal and meningeal layers)
Emissary vein

Arachnoid mater
Superficial temporal vein
Subarachnoid space

Superficial temporal artery Pia mater

Middle meningeal
Granular foveola artery and vein
(indentation of skull by
arachnoid granulation) Deep,
middle, and
Lateral lacuna superficial
(of Trolard) temporal
Superior cerebral vein arteries
and veins

Superior thalamostriate and

choroidal veins, internal cerebral
veins, and choroid plexus of
lateral ventricle Deep and superficial middle
cerebral veins

Diploic and emissary

veins of skull
Parietal emissary vein

Posterior temporal
Frontal diploic vein diploic vein

Anterior temporal Occipital emissary vein

diploic vein
Occipital diploic vein

Mastoid emissary vein

Plate 111 Meninges and Brain

Meningeal Arteries 2
See also Plate 147

Frontal (anterior) and parietal Arachnoid granulations

(posterior) branches of
middle meningeal artery Opening of superior cerebral vein

Middle Lateral (venous) lacuna

meningeal artery (of Trolard)

Superior sagittal sinus

branch of Dura mater

Mastoid branch of
occipital artery

Internal carotid artery

(cavernous segment) Meningeal branches of
ascending pharyngeal artery

Mastoid branch of
occipital artery
Middle meningeal artery
Recurrent meningeal branch of
lacrimal artery
Accessory meningeal artery
Anterior meningeal branch of
anterior ethmoidal artery
Posterior ethmoidal artery
Internal carotid artery and its
meningohypophyseal trunk (phantom)
Middle meningeal artery
Accessory meningeal artery
temporal artery
Maxillary artery ///////

Anterior and posterior

Posterior auricular artery meningeal branches of
Occipital artery vertebral artery
Tentorial, inferior, cavernous, and dorsal
External carotid artery meningeal branches of meningohypophyseal

Meninges and Brain Plate 112

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Meninges and Superficial Cerebral Veins
For deep veins of brain see Plate 156

Connective tissue

Epicranial aponeurosis
Granular foveola
Loose areolar tissue Superior sagittal sinus
Emissary vein
Pericranium Arachnoid granulation
Tributary of superficial temporal vein
Calvaria Diploic vein

Dura mater
Subdural space
cerebral Arachnoid mater
vein Subarachnoid space
Pia mater
Cerebral artery
Superior cerebral vein
Falx cerebri
Cerebral hemisphere

Branches of middle meningeal artery

Superior cerebral veins
Superior sagittal sinus (bridging veins) (penetrating
arachnoid and dura mater to
enter superior sagittal sinus)

Dura mater
(meningeal layer)

Superior cerebral veins

(beneath arachnoid)

Superior anastomotic
vein (of Trolard)

Inferior anastomotic
vein (of Labbé)

Superficial middle
cerebral vein

Middle meningeal
artery and veins
Inferior cerebral veins
Dura mater (beneath arachnoid)
Temporalis muscle (endostial layer)

Plate 113 Meninges and Brain

Dural Venous Sinuses: Sagittal Section 2
See also Plates 111, 117

Great cerebral vein (of Galen)

Tentorium cerebelli
Superior cerebral veins

Superior sagittal sinus

Falx cerebri Superior sagittal sinus

Inferior sagittal sinus

Sphenoparietal sinus

Straight sinus
Anterior and posterior
intercavernous sinuses

petrosal sinus

venous plexus

Confluence of sinuses
petrosal sinus

To jugular Falx cerebelli


Occipital sinus

Vertebral venous plexus (of Batson) Transverse sinus

Sigmoid sinus ///////

Meninges and Brain Plate 114

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Dural Venous Sinuses (continued)
See also Plates 64, 97

Skull sectioned horizontally:

superior view Hypophysis (pituitary gland)

Superior sagittal sinus (cut) Optic nerve (CN II)

Falx cerebri (cut) Internal carotid artery (cavernous segment)
Superior ophthalmic vein Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Anterior and posterior Sphenoparietal sinus
sinuses Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Superficial middle Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1)
cerebral vein (cut)
Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Cavernous sinus
Trigeminal ganglion
Basilar (semilunar)
venous plexus
Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Superior Middle meningeal artery
petrosal sinus
Abducens nerve (CN VI)
petrosal sinus Petrosal vein
Tentorial Facial nerve (CN VII),
artery intermediate nerve (of
Tentorium Wrisberg), and
cerebelli vestibulocochlear
nerve (CN VIII)
Inferior Glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
cerebral vein and vagus (CN X) nerves
Jugular foramen
Transverse sinus
Sigmoid sinus (continuation
Inferior sagittal of transverse sinus)
sinus (cut)
Transverse sinus
Straight sinus
Accessory nerve (CN XI)
Falx cerebri (cut)
Confluence of sinuses Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Great cerebral vein (of Galen)
Superior sagittal sinus (cut)

Cavernous sinus Optic chiasm

Oculomotor nerve (CN III) Posterior

communicating artery
Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Internal carotid
Abducens nerve (CN VI) artery (cavernous
Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) Hypophysis
(pituitary gland)
Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Sphenoidal sinus

Coronal section Nasopharynx

through cavernous sinus:
posterior view

Plate 115 Meninges and Brain

Brain: Lateral Views 2

Central sulcus (of Rolando) Postcentral gyrus

Precentral gyrus Postcentral sulcus

Precentral sulcus
Superior parietal lobule
Superior frontal gyrus
Intraparietal sulcus
Superior frontal sulcus
Inferior parietal lobule
Middle frontal gyrus
Supramarginal gyrus
Inferior frontal sulcus Angular gyrus

Inferior frontal gyrus Parieto-

Opercular part occipital
Triangular part sulcus
Orbital part

pole Occipital
Lunate sulcus
Lateral sulcus Anterior ramus (inconstant)
(of Sylvius) Ascending ramus
Posterior ramus Transverse
occipital sulcus
Superior temporal gyrus Preoccipital notch
Temporal pole
Superior temporal sulcus Inferior temporal gyrus
Middle temporal gyrus
Inferior temporal sulcus
Frontal lobe

Parietal lobe

Temporal lobe

Occipital lobe Parietal operculum

Frontal operculum ///////

Short gyri
Insula Central sulcus
(island Limen
of Reil) Long gyrus
Circular sulcus
Temporal operculum

Meninges and Brain Plate 116

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Brain: Medial Views
See also Plate 158

Sagittal section of Cingulate gyrus Paracentral sulcus

brain in situ Cingulate sulcus Central sulcus (of Rolando)
Paracentral lobule
Medial frontal gyrus
Marginal sulcus
Sulcus of corpus callosum
Corpus callosum
Septum pellucidum Superior sagittal sinus
Interventricular Choroid plexus
foramen (of Monro) of 3rd ventricle
Interthalamic Stria medullaris
adhesion of thalamus
Thalamus and Parietooccipital
3rd ventricle sulcus
area Habenular
commissure Pineal gland
Subcallosal Calcarine
gyrus sulcus
Hypothalamic Straight sinus
Great cerebral
Lamina vein (of Galen)
Supra- commissure
recess Superior colliculus
Optic chiasm Inferior colliculus
Tectal plate
Tuber cinereum
Hypophysis (pituitary gland)
Superior medullary velum
Mammillary body
4th ventricle and choroid plexus
Cerebral peduncle Inferior medullary velum
Pons Cerebral aqueduct Medulla oblongata
(of Sylvius)

Medial surface of cerebral Genu

hemisphere: brain stem excised Rostrum of
Trunk corpus callosum
Cingulate gyrus
Isthmus of cingulate gyrus
fasciculus Parietooccipital sulcus
Mammillary body
Calcarine sulcus
Optic nerve (CN II)
Lingual gyrus
Olfactory tract
Collateral sulcus Crus
Body of fornix
Rhinal sulcus Column
Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Fimbria of hippocampus
Occipitotemporal sulcus Dentate gyrus
Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus Parahippocampal gyrus

Plate 117 Meninges and Brain

Brain: Inferior View 2
See also Plate 117

Sectioned brain stem Frontal pole of cerebrum Longitudinal cerebral fissure

Straight gyrus Genu of corpus callosum

Olfactory sulcus Lamina terminalis

Orbital sulci Olfactory bulb

Orbital gyri Olfactory tract

Temporal pole of cerebrum Optic chiasm

Optic nerve (CN II) (cut)

Lateral sulcus (of Sylvius)
Inferior temporal sulcus (pituitary gland)
Inferior temporal gyrus Anterior
perforated substance

Optic tract

Tuber cinereum

Inferior (infero- Mammillary body

lateral) margin
of cerebrum Posterior perforated
substance (in
Rhinal sulcus fossa)

Cerebral crus
Lateral geniculate
temporal gyrus Substantia nigra

Medial geniculate
Occipitotemporal body
Red nucleus
Lateral occipito-
temporal gyrus Pulvinar

Superior colliculus
Collateral sulcus
Cerebral aqueduct
Parahippocampal gyrus
Splenium of corpus callosum
Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Cuneus

Calcarine sulcus Occipital pole of cerebrum

Longitudinal cerebral fissure ///////

Isthmus of cingulate gyrus

Meninges and Brain Plate 118

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Ventricles of Brain

Left lateral phantom view Frontal (anterior) horn

Central part Left
Right lateral ventricle lateral
Temporal (inferior) horn ventricle
Occipital (posterior) horn

Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)

4th ventricle

Left lateral aperture

(foramen of Luschka)

Left interventricular Left lateral recess

foramen (of Monro)
3rd ventricle Median aperture
(foramen of Magendie)
Supraoptic recess
Interthalamic adhesion
Infundibular recess
Pineal recess
Suprapineal recess
Corpus callosum
Septum pellucidum
Lateral ventricle
Body of caudate nucleus
Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle
Stria terminalis
Superior thalamostriate vein
Body of fornix
Internal cerebral vein
Tela choroidea of 3rd ventricle
Choroid plexus of 3rd ventricle
Lentiform nucleus
Globus pallidus
Internal capsule
3rd ventricle and interthalamic adhesion
Tail of caudate nucleus
Optic tract
Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle
Temporal (inferior) horn of lateral ventricle
White arrow in left Fimbria of hippocampus
foramen (of Monro) Hippocampus
Ependyma Dentate gyrus
Pia mater Mammillary body
Parahippocampal gyrus

Coronal section of brain: posterior view

Plate 119 Meninges and Brain

Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid 2
See also Plates 119, 157

Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle (phantom)

Superior cerebral veins Superior sagittal sinus

Subarachnoid space

Dura mater Arachnoid granulations

Arachnoid mater


foramen (of Monro) Straight sinus

Chiasmatic cistern

Choroid plexus of 3rd ventricle

Interpeduncular cistern

Prepontine cistern
Quadrigeminal cistern
Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) (with great cerebral vein)
(of Galen)
Lateral aperture (foramen of Luschka) cerebellomedullary cistern

Choroid plexus of 4th ventricle Median aperture

(foramen of Magendie)
Dura mater

Arachnoid mater

Subarachnoid space

Central canal of spinal cord ///////

Meninges and Brain Plate 120

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Basal Nuclei (Ganglia)

Horizontal sections
through cerebrum A B

Genu of corpus callosum

Head of caudate nucleus

Lateral ventricle Anterior limb

of internal
Genu capsule
Septum pellucidum
Posterior limb
Column of fornix Extreme capsule
Putamen Lentiform
Insula nucleus
(island of Reil) Globus pallidus

3rd ventricle
adhesion External capsule

Thalamus Claustrum

Crus of fornix Retrolenticular part

of internal capsule
Choroid plexus
of lateral ventricle Tail of caudate nucleus

Splenium of Fimbria of hippocampus

corpus callosum
Occipital (posterior) horn
of lateral ventricle

Organization of
basal nuclei (ganglia) A Pineal gland

Caudate Putamen Globus

nucleus pallidus
Cleft for internal capsule

Striatum nucleus
Caudate Body
nucleus Head Thalamus
striatum Levels of A A
above B B
Basal nuclei
Lentiform nucleus Medial geniculate body
(globus pallidus medial
to putamen) Lateral geniculate body
Amygdaloid body Tail of caudate nucleus

Interrelationship of thalamus, lentiform nucleus, caudate

nucleus, and amygdaloid body (schema): left lateral view

Plate 121 Meninges and Brain

Thalamus and Related Structures 2

Corpus callosum (cut)

Interventricular foramen (of Monro)
Tela choroidea (cut edge) Head of caudate nucleus
of 3rd ventricle
Septum pellucidum
3rd ventricle
Columns of fornix
Choroid plexus
Anterior tubercle
Superior thalamostriate vein
Stria terminalis
Pes of hippocampus
Temporal (inferior) horn Interthalamic adhesion
of lateral ventricle
Lamina affixa
Internal cerebral vein Stria medullaris of thalamus
Dentate gyrus
Habenular trigone
Collateral eminence
Pulvinar (retracted)
Lateral geniculate body
Fimbria of hippocampus
Posterior commissure Medial geniculate body

Habenular commissure Brachium of superior colliculus

Pineal gland Brachium of inferior colliculus
Collateral trigone Superior colliculus
Calcar avis Inferior colliculus
Occipital (posterior) horn
of lateral ventricle
Calcarine sulcus

Internal 3rd ventricle

medullary Interthalamic
lamina adhesion
Pulvinar ior
n ter
e dia An
M ia l
d ina
MD Intralaminar Me lary lam
u l VA
LP nuclei
l m
ed LD
In t e L P VL
M 3rd ventricle
CM Reticular nuclei M


Thalamic nuclei Pulvinar

External Lateral geniculate body
medullary CM Centromedian
lamina Medial geniculate body
LD Lateral dorsal
LP Lateral posterior
Median nuclei Schematic representation of thalamus
M Medial group
MD Medial dorsal (external medullary lamina and
Schematic section VA Ventral anterior reticular nuclei removed) ///////

through thalamus VI Ventral intermedial

(at level of broken VL Ventral lateral
line shown in figure Lateral cell mass
at right) VP Ventral posterior (ventrodorsal)
Medial and median cell mass
VPL Ventral posterolateral
VPM Ventral posteromedial Anterior cell mass

Meninges and Brain Plate 122

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Hippocampus and Fornix

Superior view Genu of corpus callosum (cut)

Septum pellucidum with cavum

Head of caudate nucleus

Columns of fornix

Stria terminalis

Body of fornix

Pes of hippocampus


Crura of fornix

Dentate gyrus

Fimbria of hippocampus


Commissure of fornix

Splenium of corpus callosum (cut)

Lateral ventricle

Calcar avis

Occipital (posterior) horn

of lateral ventricle

Tail of caudate nucleus

Choroid plexus
Body of fornix Fimbria of hippocampus
Columns Optic tract
of fornix Commissure
of fornix

Crura of fornix



Alveus of
Mammillary bodies hippocampus
Fimbria of hippocampus
Temporal (inferior) horn
Amygdaloid bodies Hippocampus of lateral ventricle

Fornix: schema Coronal section: posterior view

Plate 123 Meninges and Brain

Brain Stem 2

Posterolateral view Thalamus (cut surface)

Lateral geniculate body

Pulvinars Optic tract

Pineal gland Medial geniculate body
Superior colliculi Brachia of superior and inferior colliculi
Inferior colliculi Cerebral crus
Trochlear nerve (CN IV) Pons
Superior medullary velum
Trigeminal nerve (CN V)
Superior cerebellar peduncle
Middle cerebellar peduncle
Rhomboid fossa of
4th ventricle Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and Facial nerve (CN VII)

vagus (CN X) nerves
Inferior cerebellar peduncle
Cuneate tubercle
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Gracile tubercle
Accessory nerve (CN XI)
Posterior rootlets of
1st spinal nerve (C1)
Cuneate fasciculus
Gracile fasciculus

Olfactory tract

Anterior view Anterior perforated substance

Optic chiasm Mammillary bodies
Temporal lobe (cut surface)
Optic tract
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Tuber cinereum Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Trigeminal nerve (CN V)
Cerebral crus (sensory and motor roots)

Lateral geniculate body Abducens nerve (CN VI)

Facial nerve (CN VII) and
Posterior perforated substance intermediate nerve
(of Wrisberg)
Pons Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
Flocculus of cerebellum
Middle cerebellar peduncle
Choroid plexus of 4th
ventricle extending out
Olive of lateral aperture
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) ///////

Pyramids Vagus nerve (CN X)

Anterior rootlets of 1st spinal nerve (C1) Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Accessory nerve (CN XI)
Decussation of pyramids

Meninges and Brain Plate 124

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Ventricles and Cerebellum

Posterior view Habenular trigone

Medial Geniculate bodies
3rd ventricle Lateral
Pulvinar Posterior median sulcus
Pineal gland Superior cerebellar peduncle
Superior colliculus Locus coeruleus
Inferior colliculus Medial eminence
Trochlear nerve (CN IV) Facial colliculus

Superior medullary velum Vestibular area

Superior Dentate nucleus

Cerebellar peduncles Middle
Inferior Striae medullares
Lateral recess Taenia of 4th ventricle
Superior fovea Cuneate tubercle
Sulcus limitans Gracile tubercle
Inferior fovea Posterior median sulcus
Trigeminal tubercle Lateral funiculus
Hypoglossal trigone Cuneate fasciculus
Vagal trigone Gracile fasciculus

Choroid plexus
Median sagittal section Interthalamic adhesion

Body of fornix Posterior commissure

Thalamus (in Habenular commissure

3rd ventricle)
Pineal gland
foramen (of Monro) Splenium of corpus callosum
Anterior commissure Great cerebral vein (of Galen)
Lamina terminalis
Lingula (I)
Hypothalamic sulcus Central lobule (II and III)
Vermis of
Cerebral peduncle Culmen (IV and V) cerebellum
Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) Declive (VI)
Superior colliculus Folium (VIIA)
Tectal plate
Superior medullary velum
Inferior colliculus
Pons Inferior medullary velum
Medial longitudinal fasciculus
Tuber (VIIB)
4th ventricle
Pyramid (VIII) Vermis of
Choroid plexus of 4th ventricle cerebellum
Uvula (IX)
Medulla oblongata
Nodulus (X)
Median aperture (foramen of Magendie)
Decussation of pyramids Choroid plexus of 4th ventricle
Central canal of spinal cord Tonsil

Plate 125 Meninges and Brain

Cerebellum 2
See also Plate 125

Superior surface
Anterior cerebellar notch Anterior lobe
Quadrangular lobule (H IV and V)
Central lobule (II and III) Primary fissure
Horizontal fissure
Culmen (IV and V) Simple lobule (H VI)
Declive (VI) Posterior lobe
Postlunate fissure
Folium (VIIA) Superior semilunar
(anseriform) lobule (H VIIA)
Horizontal fissure
Inferior semilunar
Posterior cerebellar notch (caudal) lobule (H VIIB)

Central lobule Anterior lobe

Inferior surface
Superior vermis Wing of central lobule
Lingula (I)
Superior medullary velum Middle Cerebellar peduncles
Flocculus (H X)
Flocculonodular lobe
4th ventricle
Posterolateral (dorsolateral)
Inferior medullary velum fissure
Nodule (X) Retrotonsillar fissure

Uvula (IX) Posterior lobe

vermis Tonsil
Pyramid (VIII)
Biventer lobule (H VIII)
Tuber (VIIB) Secondary (postpyramidal)
Posterior cerebellar notch
Horizontal fissure
Inferior semilunar
(caudal) lobule (H VIIB)

Cerebral crus
Decussation of
superior cerebellar peduncles
Medial longitudinal fasciculus
4th ventricle

Superior medullary velum Superior cerebellar


Globose Lingula (I)

nuclei ///////


Section in plane of superior cerebellar peduncle

Meninges and Brain Plate 126

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Cranial Nerve Nuclei in Brain Stem: Schema

Oculomotor nerve (CN III)

Red nucleus
Superior colliculus

Oculomotor nucleus

Accessory oculomotor
Lateral geniculate body (Edinger-Westphal) nucleus

Mesencephalic nucleus Trochlear nucleus

of trigeminal nerve
Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
sensory nucleus of Motor nucleus of
trigeminal nerve trigeminal nerve
Trigeminal nerve
(CN V) and ganglion Trigeminal
(semilunar) nerve (CN V)
and ganglion
Facial nerve (CN VII)
and geniculate
ganglion Abducens nucleus
Facial nucleus
nerve (CN VIII)

Geniculate ganglion
of facial nerve

Anterior and inferior
Cochlear salivatory
nuclei Posterior nuclei

nuclei Glosso-
nerve (CN IX)
nerve (CN IX)
Vagus nerve (CN X)

Vagus nerve (CN X)

Accessory nerve (CN XI)

Spinal tract and spinal Nucleus ambiguus

nucleus of trigeminal nerve
Dorsal nucleus
Nuclei of solitary tract of vagus nerve (CN X)

Nucleus of hypoglossal nerve

Accessory nucleus
Efferent fibers
Afferent fibers
Mixed fibers

Plate 127 Cranial and Cervical Nerves

Cranial Nerve Nuclei in Brain Stem: Schema (continued) 2

Accessory oculomotor
Substantia nigra (Edinger-Westphal) nucleus

Red nucleus Oculomotor nucleus

Trochlear nucleus
Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Cerebral aqueduct

Mesencephalic nucleus Trochlear nerve (CN IV)

of trigeminal nerve

Trigeminal Abducens nucleus

nerve (CN V)
and ganglion
(gasserian) Genu of facial nerve

sensory nucleus of Facial nucleus
trigeminal nerve

Vestibular nuclei
Motor nucleus of
trigeminal nerve
Anterior and posterior
cochlear nuclei
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Superior and
Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) inferior salivatory

Abducens nerve (CN VI) Nuclei of solitary tract

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

Posterior (dorsal) nucleus
of vagus nerve (CN X)
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) Median aperture (foramen
of Magendie)

Vagus nerve (CN X) Nucleus of hypoglossal nerve

Nucleus ambiguus
Accessory nerve (CN XI) Accessory nucleus

Inferior olivary complex Central canal

Efferent fibers
Spinal tract and spinal
nucleus of trigeminal nerve Afferent fibers
Mixed fibers ///////

Cranial and Cervical Nerves Plate 128

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Cranial Nerves (Motor and Sensory Distribution): Schema

Spinal nerve fibers

Efferent (motor) fibers
Afferent (sensory) fibers

Ciliary muscle, sphincter
CN I CN II pupillae, and all external eye lm
Olfactory Optic muscles except those below hth
Eye Op
Nasal cavity
CN IV ry
Trochlear illa
Superior oblique muscle M
CN V lar Motor—muscles of
Trigeminal Ma
nd mastication: tensor
CN VI Sensory—face, tympani, tensor
Abducens sinuses, teeth, orbit veli palatini,
Lateral rectus and oral cavities, mylohyoid,
muscle dura mater anterior belly
of digastric

CN VII Intermediate nerve

Facial Motor—submandibular,
Muscles of face, sublingual, lacrimal glands
stapedius, posterior Taste—anterior 2⁄3 of
belly of digastric, tongue, sensory soft palate
stylohyoid, occipitalis,
auricularis muscles

Cochlear Vestibular

Taste—posterior 1⁄3 of tongue
Sensory—tonsil, pharynx, middle ear
parotid gland

Motor—heart, lungs, palate, pharynx,
larynx, trachea, bronchi, GI tract
CN XI Sensory—heart, lungs, trachea,
CN XII Accessory bronchi, larynx, pharynx,
Hypoglossal Sternocleidomastoid, GI tract, external ear
Tongue trapezius muscles

(C1, 2, 3

Plate 129 Cranial and Cervical Nerves

Olfactory Nerve (CN I): Schema 2
See also Plate 46

Subcallosal area

Septal area and nuclei

Olfactory bulb cells: schema
Fibers from Contralateral
Efferent fibers to Fibers to olfactory bulb
olfactory bulb
Afferent fibers from bulb Anterior commissure
to central connections
and contralateral bulb Medial
olfactory stria
Granule cell (excited by
and inhibiting to mitral
and tufted cells)
Mitral cell
Recurrent process
Tufted cell
nerve fibers


Olfactory cells Olfactory tract

Olfactory mucosa Olfactory trigone

and olfactory tubercle
Olfactory nerves (CN I)
Lateral olfactory stria Uncus
Olfactory bulb
Lateral olfactory tract nucleus
Fimbria of
Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone hippocampus
Anterior perforated substance
Anterior olfactory nucleus
Amygdaloid body (phantom) Dentate gyrus ///////

Piriform cortex Parahippocampal gyrus

Cranial and Cervical Nerves Plate 130

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Optic Nerve (CN II) (Visual Pathway): Schema

G Central darker
G circle represents
macular zone
Overlapping Lighter shades
A visual fields represent
monocular fields
Each quadrant
H H a different color

Projection on
R RC C Projection on
right retina
left retina

P P Optic nerves
Choroid Choroid (CN II)
Optic chiasm
Periphery Macula

Structure of retina: schema Projection on right

Projection on left
A Amacrine cells dorsal lateral dorsal lateral
B Bipolar cells geniculate nucleus geniculate nucleus
C Cones Optic tracts
G Ganglion cells
H Horizontal cells
P Pigment cells Lateral
R Rods geniculate

Optic radiation Optic radiation



Projection on left
Projection on right
occipital lobe
occipital lobe

Plate 131 Cranial and Cervical Nerves

Oculomotor (CN III), Trochlear (CN IV), and Abducens (CN VI) Nerves: Schema 2
See also Plates 97, 143

Long ciliary nerve Ciliary ganglion

Short ciliary nerves Posterior ethmoidal nerve Abducens nucleus

Anterior ethmoidal nerve Branch to ciliary ganglion
Trochlear nucleus
Superior oblique muscle
Sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion
Levator palpebrae Oculomotor nucleus
superioris muscle Superior division of
oculomotor nerve
Superior Accessory oculomotor
rectus muscle Frontal nerve (cut) (Edinger-Westphal)
nucleus (parasympathetic)
Lacrimal nerve (cut)

Nasociliary nerve Trochlear nerve (CN IV)

Oculomotor nerve (CN III)

Ophthalmic nerve
(CN V1)

Infraorbital nerve Abducens

Maxillary nerve (CN VI)
Zygomatic nerve (cut) nerve (CN V2)
Pterygopalatine Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Inferior oblique muscle ganglion
Internal carotid artery
Ciliary muscle Inferior division of and internal carotid plexus
oculomotor nerve
Dilator pupillae muscle Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Sphincter pupillae muscle Medial rectus muscle
Lateral rectus muscle and ///////

Inferior rectus muscle abducens nerve (turned back)

Efferent fibers
Afferent fibers Cavernous plexus
Parasympathetic root
Sympathetic fibers of ciliary ganglion
Common tendinous ring (of Zinn)
Parasympathetic fibers

Cranial and Cervical Nerves Plate 132

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Trigeminal Nerve (CN V): Schema
See also Plates 9, 59, 61

Trigeminal nerve (CN V) ganglion

Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) Motor nucleus
Efferent fibers Mesencephalic nucleus
Afferent fibers Tentorial branch Principal sensory nucleus
Proprioceptive fibers Nasociliary nerve Spinal tract and nucleus
Parasympathetic fibers Lacrimal nerve
Sympathetic fibers Branch to
ciliary ganglion
Frontal nerve
Ciliary ganglion
Posterior ethmoidal nerve
Long ciliary nerve
Short ciliary nerves
Anterior ethmoidal nerve
Supraorbital nerve
Supratrochlear nerve
Infratrochlear nerve
Internal nasal branches
External nasal branches
of anterior ethmoidal nerve
Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Meningeal branch
Zygomatic nerve
Infraorbital nerve
branches of
infraorbital nerve
Nasal branches
(posterior superior Facial nerve
lateral, nasopalatine, (CN VII)
and posterior
superior medial) Chorda
Nerve (vidian) of tympani
pterygoid canal
(from facial nerve [CN VII]
and carotid plexus)
Pharyngeal branch
Greater and lesser
palatine nerves

Deep temporal nerves

Nerve to lateral pterygoid temporal branches
muscle and masseteric nerve
Articular and anterior
Nerves to tensor veli auricular branches
palatini and medial
pterygoid muscles Submandibular Auriculotemporal nerve
Buccal nerve ganglion Inferior Parotid branches
Nerve to mylohyoid muscle alveolar nerve
Mental nerve Meningeal branch
Inferior dental plexus Mandibular nerve (CN V3) Otic ganglion
Lesser petrosal nerve (from
Lingual nerve Nerve to tensor tympani muscle glossopharyngeal nerve [CN IX])

Plate 133 Cranial and Cervical Nerves

Facial Nerve (CN VII): Schema 2
See also Plate 54

Greater petrosal nerve from intermediate nerve Facial nerve (CN VII) Internal acoustic meatus
Deep petrosal nerve (from internal carotid plexus) Geniculate ganglion Intermediate nerve
Lesser petrosal nerve Internal carotid plexus Motor nucleus of facial nerve
(on internal carotid artery)
Nerve (vidian) of pterygoid canal Superior salivatory nucleus
Otic ganglion Nuclei of solitary tract
Pterygopalatine ganglion

Facial muscles
Frontal belly
of occipitofrontalis
Orbicularis oculi
Corrugator supercilii
Zygomaticus major
Zygomaticus minor
Temporal bran

Levator labii
Levator labii

alaeque nasi

anguli oris

Zygomatic bra
nc hes
anterior ⁄3
2 Occipital
septi nasi Taste: belly of
of tongue Buccal
Orbicularis branches occipitofrontalis
oris muscle
Depressor branch of

anguli oris posterior

al br

Depressor labii nerve

Cer vic

Auricular branch of posterior
Mentalis auricular nerve
(Risorius) Posterior auricular nerve
(not shown) Margin ular Nerve to stapedius muscle
man d ib
Buccinator branch Stylomastoid foramen
Platysma Tympanic plexus
Tympanic nerve (of Jacobson)
Sublingual gland (from glossopharyngeal nerve) ///////

Submandibular gland Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

Efferent fibers
Submandibular ganglion Digastric muscle (posterior belly)
Afferent fibers
Parasympathetic fibers Lingual nerve (from trigeminal nerve) Stylohyoid muscle
Sympathetic fibers Chorda tympani Caroticotympanic nerve (from internal carotid plexus)
from intermediate nerve

Cranial and Cervical Nerves Plate 134

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Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII): Schema

Afferent fibers Facial canal

Tympanic cavity
ganglion (CN VII) Chorda tympani

Head of malleus
Greater petrosal nerve
Cochlear (spiral) ganglion Incus

Vestibular nerve

Cochlear nerve*

Motor root of facial nerve

and intermediate nerve

nerve (CN VIII)

Medulla oblongata
(cross section)

Ampulla of lateral
semicircular duct
Medial acoustic Ampulla of superior
meatus semicircular duct
Vestibular Superior
nuclei Anterior Utricle
(diagrammatic) Inferior nuclei
Ampulla of posterior
Lateral semicircular duct
Inferior cerebellar
peduncle Saccule

Superior division
Vestibular ganglion of vestibular nerve
Inferior division

*Note: The cochlear nerve also contains efferent fibers to the sensory epithelium.
These fibers are derived from the vestibular nerve while in the internal acoustic meatus.

Plate 135 Cranial and Cervical Nerves

Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX): Schema 2

Efferent fibers Spinal tract and spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve

Afferent fibers Nuclei of solitary tract
Parasympathetic fibers Tympanic nerve (of Jacobson) Nucleus ambiguus
Tympanic cavity and plexus Inferior salivatory nucleus
Stylomastoid foramen Geniculate
Caroticotympanic nerves (from internal carotid plexus)
Greater petrosal nerve
Deep petrosal nerve
Nerve (vidian) of pterygoid canal
Lesser petrosal nerve
Pterygopalatine ganglion
Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Otic ganglion
Auriculotemporal nerve
Parotid gland
Tubal branch of tympanic plexus
Auditory tube (eustachian)
and pharyngeal opening
Stylopharyngeus muscle Glossopharyngeal
and stylopharyngeal branch nerve (CN IX)
Jugular foramen

Communicating branch with

auricular branch of vagus nerve

Superior and
Inferior ganglia

Communication to facial
nerve (CN VII)
Taste and
somatic Vagus nerve (CN X)
posterior Superior cervical
1⁄3 of tongue

Sympathetic trunk

Carotid sinus nerve

(of Hering)

Pharyngeal plexus* Internal carotid artery

Carotid sinus
Pharyngeal, tonsillar, and lingual branches
Carotid body
*Pharyngeal plexus ///////

is composed of Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve

afferent fibers (CN IX), Common carotid artery
efferent fibers (CN X),
and sympathetic fibers External carotid artery

Cranial and Cervical Nerves Plate 136

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Vagus Nerve (CN X): Schema

Dorsal nucleus of vagus

nerve (parasympathetic
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and visceral afferent)

Meningeal branch of vagus nerve Nuclei of solitary tract (visceral

afferents including taste)
Auricular branch of vagus nerve
Spinal tract and spinal
Auditory tube (eustachian) nucleus of trigeminal nerve
(somatic afferent)
Levator veli
palatini muscle Nucleus ambiguus
(motor to pharyngeal
Salpingopharyngeus and laryngeal muscles)

Palatoglossus muscle Cranial root (CN XI)

Palatopharyngeus Vagus nerve (CN X)

Jugular foramen
Superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle Superior ganglion of vagus nerve

Stylopharyngeus muscle Inferior ganglion of vagus nerve

Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (motor to muscles of
palate and pharynx; sensory to lower pharynx)
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Communicating branch of vagus nerve to
Cricothyroid muscle carotid sinus nerve (CN IX)

Trachea Pharyngeal plexus

Esophagus Superior laryngeal nerve:

Internal branch (sensory and parasympathetic)
Right subclavian artery External branch (motor to cricothyroid muscle and
inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle)
Right recurrent laryngeal nerve Superior cervical cardiac branch of vagus nerve
Heart Inferior cervical cardiac branch of vagus nerve

Hepatic branch of anterior Thoracic cardiac branch of vagus nerve

vagal trunk (in lesser omentum)
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve (motor to muscles of larynx
Celiac branches from anterior except cricothyroid; sensory and parasympathetic to
and posterior vagal trunks larynx below vocal folds; parasympathetic and
to celiac plexus afferent to upper esophagus and trachea)
Celiac and superior mesenteric Pulmonary plexus
ganglia and celiac plexus
Cardiac plexus
Hepatic plexus
Esophageal plexus
and bile ducts Anterior vagal trunk
Liver Gastric branches of anterior vagal trunk
(branches from posterior trunk behind stomach)
Pyloric branch
from hepatic plexus Vagal fibers (parasympathetic and afferent
fibers) accompany superior mesenteric artery
Pancreas and its branches usually as far as left colic
(splenic) flexure
Small intestine
Ascending colon
Efferent fibers
Afferent fibers
Appendix Parasympathetic fibers

Plate 137 Cranial and Cervical Nerves

Accessory Nerve (CN XI): Schema 2
See also Plate 39

Nucleus ambiguus

Vagus nerve (CN X) Cranial root of accessory nerve (CN XI)

Spinal root of
accessory nerve (CN XI) Jugular foramen
magnum Superior ganglion of
vagus nerve (CN X)

Accessory nerve (CN XI)

Inferior ganglion of
vagus nerve (CN X)

C1 spinal nerve

C2 spinal nerve

Accessory nerve
(to sternocleidomastoid
and trapezius muscles)

Sternocleidomastoid muscle (cut)

C3 spinal nerve

C4 spinal nerve

Trapezius muscle ///////

Efferent fibers
Sensory fibers

Cranial and Cervical Nerves Plate 138

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Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII): Schema
See also Plate 39

Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) Meningeal branch

(in hypoglossal canal)

Nucleus of hypoglossal nerve

muscles Transverse
of tongue and vertical
Inferior muscle

Occipital condyle

Spinal ganglion

Inferior ganglion of
vagus nerve

Anterior rami of
C1, 2, 3 form
ansa cervicalis
of cervical plexus

Superior cervical

Superior root of
Genioglossus ansa cervicalis

Internal carotid artery

Geniohyoid muscle
(C1) Inferior root of ansa cervicalis
Hyoglossus muscle
Ansa cervicalis

Thyrohyoid muscle
(C1) Middle cervical ganglion

Omohyoid muscle
(superior belly) Internal jugular vein

Sternohyoid muscle Common carotid artery

Sternothyroid muscle

Omohyoid muscle (inferior belly) Efferent fibers

Afferent fibers

Plate 139 Cranial and Cervical Nerves

Cervical Plexus: Schema 2
See also Plates 39, 40

Sternocleidomastoid muscle (cut) Great auricular nerve

Accessory nerve (CN XI)

Lesser occipital nerve
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Greater occipital nerve
Geniohyoid muscle (from posterior ramus of C2)


C2 Nerves to anterior and lateral

rectus capitis and longus
capitis and colli muscles

Nerve to Nerves to longus capitis and

thyrohyoid muscle colli and levator scapulae muscles
Thyrohyoid muscle Trapezius muscle
Superior root Nerves to longus capitis and
of ansa cervicalis colli, levator scapulae, and
C4 middle scalene muscles
Inferior root
of ansa cervicalis Contribution to
brachial plexus
C5 (i.e., pre-fixed plexus)
Transverse cervical nerve
Phrenic nerve
Omohyoid muscle
(superior belly)

Sternothyroid muscle

Sternohyoid muscle Supraclavicular nerves (medial,

intermediate, and lateral)
Ansa cervicalis ///////

Sternocleidomastoid muscle (cut)

Omohyoid muscle (inferior belly) Efferent fibers
Afferent fibers

Cranial and Cervical Nerves Plate 140

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Autonomic Nerves in Neck
See also Plate 136

carotid nerve

nerve (CN IX)

Jugular nerve

branch of vagus nerve C1

Vagus nerve
(CN X) (cut)

Superior cervical


Pharyngeal branch
C4 of vagus nerve
External carotid artery and external
carotid plexus
Gray rami
communicantes Superior laryngeal nerve
Internal carotid artery and carotid
sinus nerve (of Hering) (CN IX)
Carotid body
C5 Carotid sinus
Superior cervical cardiac branch
C6 of vagus nerve
Superior cervical
cardiac nerve
Phrenic nerve (cut)
C7 Middle cervical ganglion
Common carotid artery and plexus
Middle cervical cardiac nerve
C8 Vertebral ganglion
T1 Vertebral artery and vertebral plexus
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Cervicothoracic (stellate) ganglion
Ansa subclavia
Vagus nerve (CN X) (cut)
Inferior cervical
cardiac nerve
Thoracic cardiac branches
(sympathetic and vagus nerves)
Subclavian artery Gray and white rami communicantes

Plate 141 Cranial and Cervical Nerves

Autonomic Nerves in Head 2
See also Plates 62, 133, 144

Greater petrosal nerve Deep petrosal nerve Nasociliary nerve

Nerve (vidian) of pterygoid canal
Sensory root Sensory Roots of
Trigeminal nerve (CN V) Motor root Oculomotor nerve (CN III) Sympathetic ciliary
Parasympathetic ganglion
Ganglion Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Ophthalmic nerve
Internal carotid artery and plexus (CN V1)
Ciliary ganglion
Frontal and
Geniculate ganglion of facial nerve
nerves (cut) Long ciliary nerves
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Short ciliary nerves
Intermediate nerve
(of Wrisberg)
Posterior and superior
Vestibulocochlear lateral nasal branches
nerve (CN VIII) of pterygopalatine
nerve (CN IX)

Vagus nerve (CN X)

nerve (CN V3)

carotid nerve Posterior inferior
nasal branch of greater
Chorda tympani palatine nerve
Pharyngeal branch
of vagus nerve (CN X)
Superior laryngeal Greater
nerve (cut) and lesser
palatine nerves
Superior cervical
Lingual nerve
Internal carotid
artery and internal
carotid plexus Inferior
alveolar nerve
Carotid sinus
nerve (CN IX) Submandibular
plexus ganglion

Maxillary artery Middle meningeal artery

Sympathetic trunk
External carotid Facial artery
artery and external ///////

carotid plexus
Superior cervical
cardiac branch of Common carotid artery and plexus
vagus nerve (CN X)
Superior cervical sympathetic cardiac nerve

Cranial and Cervical Nerves Plate 142

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Ciliary Ganglion: Schema
See also Plate 62

Sphincter pupillae muscle Oculomotor Accessory oculomotor

Short ciliary nerves (parasympathetic) (Edinger-Westphal)
Dilator pupillae muscle root of ciliary ganglion nucleus (parasympathetic)
Ciliary muscle ganglion

Superior colliculus

geniculate body

Optic nerve (CN II)

Ophthalmic Tympanic
Nasociliary nerve nerve (CN V1) plexus

Long ciliary nerve

ganglion Tectospinal trac