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First Station: Basic computer knowledge 5.

Microphone
Theme 1: Types of Equipment Input device that captures audio.
1. Desktop or desktop computer
A device that has separate parts, such as chassis, Output components
monitor, keyboard and a mouse. They are responsible for providing the user with data
2. Notebook or laptop from computer output (images, sounds, videos, text and
Portable equipment that can be used with a battery others).
or be plugged in. It is easy to handle and transport. 1. Monitor
3. Ultrabook Output external device that displays system information
An ultra-thin, lightweight laptop with great battery to the user.
autonomy that does not affect performance. 2. Printer
4. Tablet External device output whose function is to print text,
Portable mobile equipment operated mainly by a graphics and images. There are types of printers for
touch screen. every need, be it at home or for the company.
5. Smartphone 3. Speaker
A mobile phone that encompasses many of the key A box built around a speaker, which propagates the
technologies of communication and services (access sound and improves sound reproduction, either
to email, Internet and GPS) used in a computer or increasing or decreasing volume.
other devices.
Although different, the devices shown are all considered Processing components
computational systems. Within the processing components, data is processed and
information is generated that will be displayed on the
A computer system consists of a set of electronic output components.
components called ”hardware”, as well as programs or Processing units
applications (APPs), called ”software”. The main component is the CPU (central processing
unit) or processor.
Computational systems are composed of two parts: The CPU and other important computer components
hardware and software. fit onto the Motherboard, as shown in the figure on
The hardware is the physical piece. the side.
The software is the logical piece Functions of the Motherboard include performing
the instructions of a computer program,
The hardware part is the physical part, everything that implementation of basic arithmetic, logic, and input
we can hold in our hands. It corresponds to the set of and output of data, etc.
parts that make the computer run, like the mouse, the
keyboard, the printer and the monitor. Storage Components
The hardware can be divided into components for input, We need storage devices for information to be recorded.
output, processing and storage. A computer has devices that store information so that it
is not deleted when the computer is turned off. See the
Input components examples below:
These are used to enter data into a computer. DVD (digital versatile disc)
1. Keyboard A disk with the ability to record data in digital format.
A device that has a series of buttons with letters, As it is newer than the CD, it also has much higher data
numbers and symbols, used to enter data, information storage capacity.
and commands that are projected on computer screens,
tablets and smartphones. 1. Flash drive
2. Webcam A device composed of a flash memory, which can store
An input device that captures images and transfers them data for long periods of time without electrical power.
to a computer. These days, it’s commonly used for 2. Hard drive or hard disk (HD)
videoconferencing. A hardware component used to store data permanently,
3. Mouse and in great quantity. External hard drives are more
An external device that, along with the keyboard, allows practical because they can be loaded into backpacks and
data entry. Its function is to move the cursor around the briefcases.
monitor. 3. Online or cloud storage
4. Scanner The data is stored online, so that it can be accessed
An external device for scanning images, photos and text. anywhere, anytime and from different devices.
For example: Google Drive, DropBox, SkyDrive. Software is installed on storage devices. The most
Ports are used to connect the computer to external common storage drive is the hard drive (HD). The HD
devices. Look: should be set up to receive the operating system and
other software. You can create one or more partitions on
it. It must be formatted to receive a file system.

SystemPartitions
 Partitions can be defined as divisions of a hard drive,
i.e. technically speaking, logical or physical portions
of a hard drive.
 Partitions can store information.
 A disk must be partitioned to accommodate and
organize the data inside.
A tip for the use of partitions on a hard drive is to create
a. PS/2 port one partition for the Windows operating system, one for
Used to connect a mouse and a keyboard. Refer to the the Linux operating system, and another for data only
equipment manual to check the location of each (there can be more than one operating system on the
connection. same computer).
b. USB Port (universal serial bus) Therefore, if there is problem on a single partition, you
Designed to be universally compatible with a wide only need to reinstall that partition and its programs, as
variety of devices. the data on the other partitions are unaffected.
c. Parallel port
Used to connect an external device, such as a printer. Different types of printers.
d. Serial port 1. Dot matrix printer or impact printer
Remote control of equipment, such as routers, switches Works with tape, prints with carbon and makes noise
and mouse. when printing.
e. HDMI port 2. Inkjet printer
Used to connect the video monitor or multimedia Works with ink cartridges to print text, spreadsheets,
projector: HDMI and VGA. photos and graphics.
f. Game Port 3. Laser printer
Used to connect joysticks. Works with toner and consumes more electricity
g. Audio input and output than inkjet printers of the same size.
Used to connect speakers and microphones. 4. Plotter
h. Video Port Used for large-scale and high quality prints, such as
Used to connect a video monitor or multimedia banners.
projector. 5. Multifunction
Integrates printing, copying and scanning functions
Programs installed on your computer are called into one machine.
Software. They can be divided into three groups: basic,
utilities and applications. See the different types of An operating system is a set of programs that manages,
software below. or controls the use of all the resources of the computer.
For example, it controls the processor, the memory, the
Basic software is essential to run the computer. input and output devices, and program implementation.
 Microsoft Windows, Linux, iOS and Android are
examples of operating systems. Later in this course, Now let’s learn more about some operating systems.
we will have an entire lesson dedicated to the MacOS
operating system. This is the operating system of Apple devices, like the
 Its main function is to ensure the proper functioning MacBook. It is proprietary software, meaning you need a
of the computer. Anti-virus software is an example license to use it.
of a utility that serves to protect your computer from Linux
virus attacks and intruders. It is an open source operating system, allowing people to
 Applications are software programs that serve the contribute to its ongoing development. It is a
user, such as a text editor, a web browser or a free software, i.e. it may be used, copied, studied,
spreadsheet editor modified and redistributed without restriction.
Windows
It is a widely used operating system, since it is The user's appointments can be managed
compatible with most computers in the market. It is by software, hardware upgrades refer to parts
proprietary software. replacement and threats to the system are counteracted
by anti-malware software.
An operating system is a set of
programs, (software) that are used to manage system There are different operating systems, and each has a
resources. Input and output components are processing primary feature.
elements, as well as hardware. The computer system is  Windows is a closed system, which requires a
formed by hardware and software working together. license, but it is widely used in devices from
different manufacturers.
Operating systems have a Control Panel, where the  Linux’s open operating system encourages
required configurations for the operating systems are set. collaboration and does not require a license.
We will use Windows as an example in this course, so
we'll show you how to use it. Here are some The mouse is a commonly-used device, separate to the
configurable items. computer, which serves to position the pointer on the
computer screen.
Windows is both a multi-tasking and a multi-user
operating system. The computer keyboard is a commonly-used device,
 This means it can be used by more than one user, separate from the computer, which allows data and
and each user can perform multiple tasks commands to be entered into the computer. It has keys
simultaneously, e.g. editing text and surfing the representing letters, numbers, and symbols, along with
Internet. other functions.
 A multi-tasking system allows the processor to
perform multiple tasks at the same time. A multi- Esc
user system allows multiple users to access the This cancels the current operation.
computer at the same time. Softkey
Device Manager F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, F10, F11 and F12.
 The Device Manager is a Control Panel item that These are keys that can be programmed for special
verifies the installed hardware. functions. Each program uses the function keys in a
 This item enables the installation and updating of different way.
device drivers on the hardware. Caps Lock
This is used to lock capital letters. When enabled, this
Programs and Features key causes the text to be typed in all caps. Check if the
 This section of the Control Panel is used to uninstall Caps Lock key light is illuminated on the keyboard.
or add/remove features of installed programs on the Depending on the keyboard, signaling that the key is
hardware. active varies, especially on notebooks.
Task Manager Shift
 The Task Manager monitors the computer's On its own, it does nothing. It is used in combination
performance and manages the programs and services with other keys. It is held down while another key is
running on the system. pressed. The most common function of the Shift key is
switching between uppercase and lowercase when
To take care of computer security, you need: editing text.
1. A firewall, which helps protect your computer by Delete or Del
preventing access by people or malicious programs. This deletes the character that is to the right of the text
2. An anti-virus program, which helps to protect your cursor. It is also used to delete files and objects selected
computer against viruses and other security threats. on the screen.
3. An antispyware program, which helps to protect Control or Ctrl
your computer against spyware and other unwanted On its own, it does nothing. It is used in combination
programs. with other keys. It is held down while another key is
4. An operating system that is configured to pressed.
automatically check for, and install, updates to your Windows
computer. You’ll find this on almost all current keyboards, and
serves as a shortcut in Windows. When just this button is
The operating system manages system resources, such pressed, it activates the Windows Start Menu, and when
as the use of RAM memory, CPU and file management. combined with other keys, you can open or perform
some specific tasks.
Alt  .bmp - image file
On its own, it does nothing. It is used in combination
with other keys. It is held down while another key is  .dll - library file
pressed.
Alt Gr  .doc or .docx - Word text file
This accesses the third character of the key. In the
absence of Alt Gr, you can use Ctrl+Alt.  .exe - executable file
Fn  .gif - image file
This activates certain functions, which vary according to
computer model.
 .jpg - image file
Backspace
This deletes the character that is to the left of the text
cursor.  .mdb or .mdbx - Access Database file
Enter
This confirms commands, and also creates new lines in  .mp3 - audio file
the text editor.
Num Lock or NumLk  .pdf - Electronic document file of Adobe
This enables the numeric keypad. Check if the Num Acrobat Reader
Lock key light is illuminated on the keyboard.
 .ppt - PowerPoint presentation file
Second Station: Directories and files
 .rar - compressed file
Welcome to the second station. Here, you can explore
folders (directories) and files.  .txt - text file
 Folders, files and programs
 Editing of documents  .wav - audio file

File” is the name given to a set of recorded information.  .xls or .xlsx - Excel spreadsheet file
 When we type text, for example, the text editing
program lets you save the information, transforming
it into a file that can be placed on any storage Use File Manager to access folders and files. This is
device, such as the hard drive. a Windows application that is also used to create
“Folder” is the name given to the place where files that folders and subfolders.
can be stored on the hard drive, and flash drives, etc. are
stored. Third Station: All about the Internet
 Other folders can also be saved within folders. Welcome to the third station. Here, you can explore the
Folders can also be called “directories”. Internet.
 We can therefore conclude that folders can be
compared to drawers, and files can be compared to  Computer networks
documents.
 Both files and folders must have a name. Actually, a  Internet
name and a "surname".
 Internet browsing
A file consists of a name and an extension, separated by
a dot.
 ISPs and connection types
 The extension is like a "surname", which tells
Windows what to do when the file is executed.
 Search
 For example, if the file is a document, the
extension will be associated with the program
 Email
that will be used to view or modify the
document.
The Internet is the connection of many computer
Examples of file extensions networks.
 .avi - video file LAN – local area network
 A local computer network that covers a relatively  On the Internet, the network breaks an email
small area. Most LANs are confined to a single message, for example, into parts that are called
building or group of buildings. “packets”. Each of these packets receives a source IP
WAN - Wide Area Network address and a destination, and it is then sent over the
 A wide area network that allows transmission of data network.
over greater geographical distances. A WAN is  Each of these packages can be compared to a letter
slower than a LAN. An Internet connection is an that has the both the recipient's and the sender’s
example of a WAN. addresses, and it is sent by the Post Office, which is
Domestic and corporate networks. responsible for transporting it to its destination.
Home Network  In networks, routers play the role of the Post Office,
 A small LAN that normally has only one router to and are responsible for forwarding packets through
connect to the Internet. the network until they reach their destination.
Business Network
 A larger LAN that can have multiple routers to The router is a device used to connect different
connect to different networks. computer networks to each other, enabling the routing of
packets.
Protocols  It directs which path the traffic of information
In a network, computers communicate through should follow, which facilitates communication
protocols, which are sets of predefined rules that between networks.
describe how things should be, the order in which they
should happen, and what to do in case of errors.
 Just as a house has a street number (unique and non-
transferable), on the Internet and in networks,
IP (Internet Protocol) is the protocol used to give
computers an address.
 A computer has a numerical address called “IP
address”.
 An IP address consists of four numbers separated by Firewall
dots, each of which may vary from 0 to 255.  An application or piece of equipment, which is
For example, 23.37.224.170. usually between the LAN and the WAN.
 It checks and filters the data stream, controlling
 The IP address we just saw is actually a set of bits. communications passing over the network,
Bit either allowing or blocking them.
 It means binary digit, which is the smallest unit of Home router
information that can be stored or transmitted.  It bridges the gap between a home network and
 The computer communicates through a binary the Internet, and provides connectivity, usually
system, which will be explained further below. to computers, TVs and mobile devices, such as
A bit can only have two values, 0 or 1. tablets and smartphones.
Corporate router
 A more sophisticated, and therefore more
 1 byte = 8 bits
expensive, piece of equipment dedicated to
forwarding packets and finding the best path
 1 kilobyte (KB or Kbyte) = 1024 bytes
between networks (networks that are larger than
domestic networks), located both within and
 1 megabyte (MB or Mbytes) = 1024 kilobytes outside of the company.
Switch
 1 gigabyte (GB or Gbyte) = 1024 megabytes  A piece of equipment that connects computers
within the same network.
 1 terabyte (TB or Tbytes) = 1024 gigabytes  In order to reduce costs and popularize the
technology, home routers have a switch module
The amount of bytes defines the size of the data built in.
traveling on the network.  On the other hand, corporate models use
equipment dedicated to the function of the
 Typically, the information to be transmitted has
switch.
several bytes, and therefore must be divided into
Some terms used on the WWW (or Web)
what we call “packets”.
Connection Types
1. Dial-up connection –
- Also known as dial-up connection.
Hypertext
- With this type of Internet access, a person uses a
- An electronic document that contains hyperlinks. modem and a standard telephone line.
- Hypertext is organized to promote non-linear
2. DSL connection
navigation, where the users create their own reading - This type of access is provided through the
choices, unlike a book, where it's usually necessary
conventional telephone network, but it is different
to read the first chapter in order to understand from dial-up, since even if the user is logged on and
chapter 2, and so on.
surfing the Internet, the phone line will be released
Website and may be used anytime for voice calls.
- Also known as a site, this is a set of web pages.
- This is a type of broadband connection, offering
Homepage speeds faster than dial-up.
- The homepage of a site.
3. Cable connection
URL - A cable connection uses the same infrastructure as
- A web address. For example, http://www.cisco.com.
cable TV service, where both the TV service and the
Hyperlink Internet data pass through the same connection at the
- A hyperlink is a location in the hypertext, which the
same time.
user clicks to open another page. Typically, - This is also a type of broadband connection.
hyperlinks are underlined.
4. Other connection types
Some of the most important services on the Internet are: Other ways to connect to the Internet:
a. Browsing the World Wide Web – WWW
1. Satellite connection
b. Email (or electronic mail) 2. Radio connection
3. Connection via mobile phone (3G, 4G)
Navigating the World Wide Web and email are
called services
- In order to be transmitted through a physical
medium, information must be encrypted.
- When we speak, our message is encoded into sound
waves by the sender, and decoded by the recipient's
ear.
- A computer encodes the information into electrical
signals that it puts on the cable network.
Through these and other services, you can access:

Coding examples
To access these services, the user establishes a
Encryption: A set of rules that put information into
client-server type Internet connection, where the user's
code so that only the sender and the receiver are able to
computer is the client and the services are installed on
understand it.
servers.
That’s why you can access the services from Morse Code: a binary representation of numbers,
anywhere in the world. letters, and graphical signals, which uses short and long
sounds, and dots and dashes to communicate messages.
It was developed in 1835 by the painter and inventor, - Its area of coverage is global, since the satellites are
Samuel Finley Breese Morse. in space and have an extended reach.
Optical fiber
You connect to the Internet through an ISP, which is - An extremely thin fiber optic cable, comparable to
an Internet Service Provider. the thickness of a hair.
- Normally, you get that connection by paying a fee, - Unlike twisted pair cable, optical fiber does not
just like utility companies that provide water and conduct electricity, instead transmitting the data
light. through light. Optical fiber reaches great distances,
- The most common way to connect to an ISP is using even overseas.
a broadband connection. 3G and 4G
- Many ISPs offer services, such as email accounts, - 3G technology is very common today with regard to
exclusive content, personal website hosting, etc. mobile phones and Internet. It is an acronym that
represents the third generation of mobile phone
Diagram of a home network with an Internet standards and technology, replacing 2G.
connection: - With this technology, voice transmission and data is
enhanced, offering greater connection speeds,
among other features, such as broadcast television
signals, voice calls, three-dimensional games, and
Lan: faster downloading of music and videos, etc.
For example: - 4G technology is represented by technologies that
Bluetooth provide Internet connections with very high speeds.
WiFi Therefore, 4G mobile networks achieve speeds close
ethernet cable to those of cable or DSL modem connections.
Information on some types of LAN and WAN - 4G allows access to multimedia content, such as HD
connections. videos much faster, as well as video-conferencing
WiFi and music directly from the Internet, etc.
- The term, ”WiFi”, loosely translated, means DSL
wireless, or a connection to transmit information - An always-on service, which does not require you to
without the use of wires or cables. dial each time you need to connect to the Internet.
- WiFi is a wireless technology used to connect - It uses existing copper phone lines to provide digital
devices on a local network. communication of high speed data between end
Bluetooth users and telephone companies.
- This is the name given to a piece of wireless - Voice signals and data are transmitted on different
technology for wireless communication, which frequencies through copper telephone wires.
enables the transmission of data quickly and Cable
securely via mobile devices, notebooks, keyboards, - An Internet connection though cable that does not
mice and headphones. use phone lines.
- A cable connection uses coaxial cable lines,
- The range of Bluetooth is only a few meters.
originally developed for transporting television
Ethernet cable images via cable.
- Ethernet cables use twisted pairs of copper wires and - A cable modem connects your computer to the ISP,
connectors, similar to telephones. and as a DSL network, cable offers high speeds and
- They are commonly used for connecting networked an always available service, which means that even
computers in businesses. when the connection is not in use, the Internet
Wan: connection is still available.
For example:
To connect equipment to the Internet securely, install
optical fiber
a firewall and pay attention to the event logs it generates.
DSL
cable Additionally, you must install and maintain a good
3G and 4G anti-virus program!
Satellite
Electronic mail, or ”email”, is a service through which
Satellite Internet people exchange messages over the Internet.
- This is used in places where conventional Internet is - This can be done via the Web (Web mail), or by
not available. using specific software called ”email clients”.
 Avoid long messages, as this makes for tiring
reading. If a longer message is needed, leave a blank
line between some text phrases, dividing it into
paragraphs. This way, the text will be more
organized and easier to read.

See what’s cool, and what you should therefore


POP and IMAP: Communication protocols that retrieve always do!
messages from an email server and pass them to an  Sources of papers used as references should be cited.
email client. If you wish to make the full text available, please
SMTP: Communication protocol to send messages from indicate the website or the bibliography, in the case
the email client to the email server. It is also a of printed books and chapters.
communication protocol between email servers.  The text should always be clear and consistent.
Structure of Email Address  When replying to a message, put the recipient's
1. Switch name at the beginning of the sentence.
User Name  Attention to language rules is essential, so use
This is the login name chosen by the user when spellcheck. Reading text without punctuation,
creating an email account. particularly when it is long, is awkward, and more
For example, my username is Switch. importantly, the chances of it being misinterpreted
2. at [@] (@) are increased.
This is the symbol that separates the user name from  Try to express yourself clearly, and try to maintain
the domain. the context of the discussion.
3. Domain  Give respect in order to be respected, and treat
This is the name registered by the company that others as you wish to be treated.
offers the email service.
For example, gmail.com. Spam - This refers to unsolicited emails, which are
The mailbox, where emails are stored, consists of the usually sent to a large number of people.
following items:
Inbox: stores messages that are received Phishing - This is a form of electronic fraud,
Outbox: stores messages that have not been sent characterized by attempts to acquire personal data of
Sent Emails: stores messages that were sent various kinds, e.g. passwords, financial data, etc.
Draft: stores messages that you have not - The consists of a scammer impersonating a person
finished writing or trusted company by sending official electronic
Trash: stores deleted messages communication. This occurs in several ways, mainly
Netiquette is a set of manners that are part of general by email, instant message, SMS, etc.
agreements for full communication in virtual
environments (emails, chats and forums), which means Virus - This is a program or part of a computer program,
etiquette in the virtual network. usually malicious, that spreads by inserting copies of
itself, and becoming part of other programs and files.
- The virus depends on the execution of the host
See what is not cool! program or file so it can become active and continue
 Avoid writing EXCLUSIVELY WITH CAPITAL the infection process.
LETTERS, and with exaggerated emphasis. Besides
being extremely tiresome to read, it means that the Check the table for some file extensions that may
author is "screaming", which may offend the indicate danger. In these cases, you should not click
recipient. (run) the files that are included as an attachment in a
 Do not resend advertisements, chain letters, or other message.
similar messages.
 When asking a question, never be arrogant or rude.
 Do not avoid a subject, even when it is unpleasant.
In cases like this, the conversation should be
completed to show that the message was read.
 Where offense is caused, do not retaliate.
 Avoid abbreviations of words, e.g. “y”, “u”, “2”,
“lt8r”, etc.