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Chapter 1

Introduction to Control Systems

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Chapter Contents

1. Introduction
2. Brief History of automatic control
3. Examples of control systems
4. Engineering design
5. Control system design
6. Mechatronic systems
7. Green engineering
8. The future evolution of control systems
9. Design examples
10. Sequential design example: disk drive read
11. Summary

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1.1 Introduction

 Control system engineers are concerned with modeling and

controlling segments of their environment, often called systems,
to provide useful economic products of society.

 Modeling  Controlling
 Understand  Analyze
 Represent Hydraulic System  Design
 Able to predict  Implement
Pneumatic  Verify
Computer Peripheral

 Control systems are Aerospace

Off-road Vehicle
everywhere Aircraft

 Man made
 Nature created
Heavy  Many others

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Control Engineering

 A multi-disciplinary course
 Feedback theory
 Linear system analysis
 Network theory
 Communication theory
 Applicable to aeronautical, chemical, mechanical, environmental,
civil, and electrical engineering.
 Role of control in EE curriculum
 Electronics
 Semiconductor
 Communication
 Network
 Computer
 Power
 Instrumentation

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Control System

 A control system is an interconnection of components forming a

system configuration that will provide a desired system response.
 A component or process to be controlled is represented by a
 The input-output relationship represents the cause-and-effect
relationship of the process.

 Depending on the system configuration, there are two kinds of

control systems
 Open-loop control system
 Closed-loop control system

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Open-Loop Control System

 An open-loop control system utilizes a controller or control

actuator to obtain the desired system response.
 An open-loop system is a system without feedback.

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Closed-Loop Control System

 A closed-loop control system utilizes an additional measure of

the actual output to compare the actual output with the desired
output response.
 The measure of the output is called the feedback signal.
 A feedback control system is a control system that tends to
maintain a prescribed relationship of one system variable to
another by comparing functions of these variables and using the
difference as a means of control.

Feedback concept: foundation for control system analysis and design

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Multivariable Control System

 A control system is multivariable if there are more than one input

or output variables to be controlled.

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Advantages of Control Systems

 Power amplification (antenna)

 Remote control (robot)
 Convenience of input form (heater)
 Compensation for disturbances (compact disc)
 Sensitivity reduction (power converter)
 Linearization (microsensor)
 Performance enhancement (communication system)
 Stability augmentation (fighter aircraft)

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1.2 Brief History of Control

 Float regulator mechanism

 The Greeks began engineering feedback systems around 300 BC
 Ktesibios: water clock
 Philon of Byzantium: oil lamp
 Heron of Alexandria: pneumatica

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History of Control

 Steam pressure and temperature controls

 Denis Papin: safety valve for the regulation of steam pressure
 Cornelis Drebbel: temperature control system



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History of Control

 Speed control
 Edmund Lee: speed control of windmill
 James Watt: flyball speed governor

 At the set speed the governor

operates to let just the
appropriate amount of steam
to the engine. Should the
engine speed up, the weights
on the governor (driven by the
engine) would fly further
outward, cutting down the
steam. If the engine slows up,
the weight of the revolving
balls will cause the valve to
open further and restore
normal speed.

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History of Control

 1769: Watt, steam engine and governor developed.

 1800: Whitney, concept of interchangeable parts manufacturing
 1868: Maxwell, ‘On governors’ formulates a differential equation
to model the governor control and hunting effect.
 1877: Routh, ‘Stability of motion’ Routh-Hurwitz criterion
 1892: Lyapunov, Stability theory
 1913: Ford, mechanized assembly machine introduced for
automobile production.
 1922: Sperry, gyro and automatic steering
 192x: Minorsky, PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control
 192x: Black, feedback amplifiers
 1927: Bode, Network analysis and feedback amplifier design
 1932: Nyquist, regeneration theory for stability analysis
 1942: Ziegler & Nichols, PID tuning

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History of Automatic Control

 1948: Evans, root locus

 1952: MIT, Numerical control (NC) and servomechanism
 1954: Devol, first industrial robot
 1956: Pontryagin, optimal control
 1962: Bellman, dynamic programming
 1970s: state variables model, Kalman filtering, and optimal
 1980s: robust control, adaptive control, intelligent control

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1.3 Examples of Control Systems

 Feedback amplifier
 Previous achievements: Armstrong and de Forest, positive
feedback amplifiers
 Harold S. Black in 1921, negative feedback amplifier
 Objective: Linearizing, stabilizing, and improving the
 Approach: Feeding systems output back to the input as a
method of system control thus helping to eliminate distortion
in telecommunications and to extend the frequency range of
the amplifier.

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Examples of Control Systems

 Automobile steering control system

Feedback is essential
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Examples of Control Systems

 Intelligent vehicle and intelligent transportation

 Intelligent infrastructure + intelligent vehicles

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Examples of Control Systems

 Robots, robots, robots


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Control System Examples

 Float level regulation

 Temperature control (refrigerator, air-conditioner, heater)
 Household appliances
 Automation and robots
 Home automation
 Automobile control and intelligent transportation system (ITS)
 Semiconductor manufacturing industry
 Entertainment
 Computer peripherals
 Power industry
 Metallurgical industry
 Automatic warehousing and inventory control
 Biomedical and biological control
 Social, economic, and political
 … many many others
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National Income System

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Economics and Control

 The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic

Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1999
was awarded to Prof. Robert A. Mundell.
 "for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy
under different exchange rate regimes and
his analysis of optimum currency areas“
 Economical policy exchange rates and capital
 The Effects of Stabilization Policy
 Optimum Currency Areas

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Invention of the Transistor

 In 1956 John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and William

Bradford Shockley were honored with the Nobel Prize in Physics
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the
transistor effect".
 The key: understanding of the process of the electron
mobility in a semiconductor. It was realized that if there
was some way to control the flow of the electrons from
the emitter to the collector of this newly discovered
diode, one could build an amplifier. For instance, if you
placed contacts on either side of a single type of crystal
the current would not flow through it. However if a third
contact could then "inject" electrons or holes into the
material, the current would flow.
 Their understanding solved the problem of needing a very small control
area to some degree. Instead of needing two separate semiconductors
connected by a common, but tiny, region, a single larger surface would
serve. The emitter and collector leads would both be placed very close
together on the top, with the control lead placed on the base of the crystal.
When current was applied to the "base" lead, the electrons or holes would
be pushed out, across the block of semiconductor, and collect on the far
surface. As long as the emitter and collector were very close together, this
should allow enough electrons or holes between them to allow conduction
to start.
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Cell Control

 Cell control
 A cell consists of millions of intracellular molecules, which serve as
building blocks for its structure and functions. These interactions
among these building blocks display the property of self
organization which intrinsically serves as the foundation of the
networks of signaling and regulatory pathways.
 It is through these intrinsically inter-connected networks that a cell,
the basic unit of life, senses, responses and adapts its environment.
These three characteristics (large number of building blocks, self-
organization due to interactions and adaptation) are commonly
observed in all complex systems.

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Cell Control

 The Center for Cell Control of US is

working on an unprecedented
approach to first utilize systems
control, with therapeutic intent, to
determine the parameters for
guiding the cell to a directed
phenotype/genotype which will then
be followed by in depth study, using
nanoscale modalities, of the path by
which this desired state is achieved.
This approach will enable
engineering systems that can be
applied towards the regulation of a
spectrum of cellular functions, such
as cancer eradication, controlling
viral infection onset, and stem cell
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1.4 Engineering Design

 Engineering design is a complex process in which both creativity

and analysis play major roles.
 Design is a process of conceiving or inventing the forms, parts,
and details of a system to achieve a specific purpose.
 The design steps are
1. Determine a need arising from the values of various groups,
covering the spectrum from public policy makers to consumer
2. Specify in detail what the solution to that need must be and to
embody the value
3. Develop and evaluate various alternative solutions to meet these
4. Decide which one is to be designed in detail and fabricated

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Engineering Design

 Engineering design must also consider the constraint of time.

 The design of technical systems aims to achieve appropriate
design specifications and rests on four characteristics:
 Complexity
 Trade-off
 Design gaps
 Risk
 Tasks in an engineering design may involve
 Analysis
 Synthesis
 Optimization

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1.5 Control System Design

 The design of control

systems is a specific
example of
engineering design.
 The goal of control
system engineering is
to obtain the
specifications, and
identification of the key
parameters of a
proposed system to
meet an actual need.
 The design process is
 Computer-aided tools
are often used to
speed up the design.
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1.6 Mechatronic Systems

 Mechatronics: the synergistic integration of mechanical,

electrical, and computer systems.

Physical system modeling

Sensors and actuators Signals and systems


Software and data acquisition Computers and logic systems

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 Applications of mechatronics to engineering systems

 Hybrid fuel vehicles
 Wind power
 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)
 Embedded computer

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MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical System)

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1.7 Green Engineering

 Green engineering: to design products that will minimize pollution,

reduce the risk to human health, and improve the environment.
 Engineer processes and products holistically, use system analysis, and
integrate environmental impact assessment tools
 Conserve and improve natural ecosystems while protecting human health and
 Use life-cycle thinking in all engineering activities
 Ensure that all material and energy inputs and outputs are as inherently safe
and benign as possible
 Minimize depletion of natural resources
 Strive to prevent waste
 Develop and apply engineering solutions, while being cognizant of local
geography, aspirations, and cultures
 Create engineering solutions beyond current or dominant technologies;
improve, innovate, and invent technologies to achieve sustainability
 Actively engage communities and stakeholders in development of engineering
 Green engineering applications: environmental monitoring, energy
storage system, power quality monitoring, solar energy, and wind
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1.8 The Future Evolution of Control Systems

 Goal of control systems: provides extensive flexibility and a high

level of autonomy.

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1.9 Design Examples

 Smart grid control systems

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Rotating Disc Speed Control Design Example

 Applications of rotating disk speed control: CD/DVD, hard

disc, …
 Goal of turntable speed control: ensure that the actual speed of
rotation is within a specified percentage of the desired speed.
 Open-loop scheme (without feedback)
 Turntable
 DC motor
 Amplifier
 Battery
 Closed-loop scheme
 Turntable (process)
 DC motor (actuator)
 Amplifier (control device)
 Tachometer (sensor)
 Battery (power supply)

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Open-Loop Turntable Speed Control

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Closed-Loop Turntable Speed Control

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Design Examples:
Insulin Delivery Control System

 Control systems have been utilized in the biomedical field to create

implanted automatic drug-delivery systems to patients.
 Automatic systems can be used to regulate blood pressure, blood
sugar level, and heart rate.
 Open-loop drug delivery system
 Based on the mathematical model
of the dose-effect relationship
 As miniaturized glucose sensors
are not available, the best
solutions rely on individually
programmable, pocket-sized
insulin pumps that can deliver
insulin according to a preset time

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Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery Control System

1. Establish control goals: design a system to regulate the blood

sugar concentration of a diabetics.
2. Identify the variables to control: blood glucose concentration.
3. Write the specifications for the variables: provide a blood
glucose level for the diabetic that closely approximates the
glucose level of a healthy person.
4. Establish the system configuration and identify the actuator: use
a sensor to measure the actual glucose level and compare that
level with the desired level, thus turning the motor pump on
when it is required.

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1.9 Sequential Design Example:
Disk Drive Read System

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Disk Drive Read System

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Disk Drive Control

1. Establish control goals: position the reader head in order to read

the data stored on a track on the disk.
2. Identify the variables to control: position of the reader head.
3. Write the specifications for the variables: the position accuracy
is 1 mm and the time for the reader head to move is 50 ms.
4. Establish the system configuration and identify the actuator: use
of sensor, actuator, control processor, and feedback.

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 A control system
 Consisting of interconnected components
 Designed to achieve a desired purpose
 Control systems can be open-loop or closed-loop.
 The use of feedback (conceptually and pragmatically) is
 Control system design is essentially an iterative process.
 Knowledge of feedback and control is essential in many
engineering disciplines.

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