Sunteți pe pagina 1din 42

Chapter 1

Introduction to Control Systems

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 1


Chapter Contents

1. Introduction
2. Brief History of automatic control
3. Examples of control systems
4. Engineering design
5. Control system design
6. Mechatronic systems
7. Green engineering
8. The future evolution of control systems
9. Design examples
10. Sequential design example: disk drive read
system
11. Summary

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 2


1.1 Introduction

 Control system engineers are concerned with modeling and


controlling segments of their environment, often called systems,
to provide useful economic products of society.

 Modeling  Controlling
 Understand  Analyze
 Represent Hydraulic System  Design
 Able to predict  Implement
Pneumatic  Verify
System
Automotive
Computer Peripheral

 Control systems are Aerospace


Off-road Vehicle
everywhere Aircraft

 Man made
 Nature created
Weapon
Heavy  Many others
Industry

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 3


Control Engineering

 A multi-disciplinary course
 Feedback theory
 Linear system analysis
 Network theory
 Communication theory
 Applicable to aeronautical, chemical, mechanical, environmental,
civil, and electrical engineering.
 Role of control in EE curriculum
 Electronics
 Semiconductor
 CAD
 Communication
 Network
 Computer
 Power
 Instrumentation

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 4


Control System

 A control system is an interconnection of components forming a


system configuration that will provide a desired system response.
 A component or process to be controlled is represented by a
block.
 The input-output relationship represents the cause-and-effect
relationship of the process.

 Depending on the system configuration, there are two kinds of


control systems
 Open-loop control system
 Closed-loop control system

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 5


Open-Loop Control System

 An open-loop control system utilizes a controller or control


actuator to obtain the desired system response.
 An open-loop system is a system without feedback.

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 6


Closed-Loop Control System

 A closed-loop control system utilizes an additional measure of


the actual output to compare the actual output with the desired
output response.
 The measure of the output is called the feedback signal.
 A feedback control system is a control system that tends to
maintain a prescribed relationship of one system variable to
another by comparing functions of these variables and using the
difference as a means of control.

Feedback concept: foundation for control system analysis and design

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 7


Multivariable Control System

 A control system is multivariable if there are more than one input


or output variables to be controlled.

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 8


Advantages of Control Systems

 Power amplification (antenna)


 Remote control (robot)
 Convenience of input form (heater)
 Compensation for disturbances (compact disc)
 Sensitivity reduction (power converter)
 Linearization (microsensor)
 Performance enhancement (communication system)
 Stability augmentation (fighter aircraft)

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 9


1.2 Brief History of Control

 Float regulator mechanism


 The Greeks began engineering feedback systems around 300 BC
 Ktesibios: water clock
 Philon of Byzantium: oil lamp
 Heron of Alexandria: pneumatica

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 10


History of Control

 Steam pressure and temperature controls


 Denis Papin: safety valve for the regulation of steam pressure
 Cornelis Drebbel: temperature control system

alcohol

mercury

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 11


History of Control

 Speed control
 Edmund Lee: speed control of windmill
 James Watt: flyball speed governor

 At the set speed the governor


operates to let just the
appropriate amount of steam
to the engine. Should the
engine speed up, the weights
on the governor (driven by the
engine) would fly further
outward, cutting down the
steam. If the engine slows up,
the weight of the revolving
balls will cause the valve to
open further and restore
normal speed.

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 12


History of Control

 1769: Watt, steam engine and governor developed.


 1800: Whitney, concept of interchangeable parts manufacturing
 1868: Maxwell, ‘On governors’ formulates a differential equation
to model the governor control and hunting effect.
 1877: Routh, ‘Stability of motion’ Routh-Hurwitz criterion
 1892: Lyapunov, Stability theory
 1913: Ford, mechanized assembly machine introduced for
automobile production.
 1922: Sperry, gyro and automatic steering
 192x: Minorsky, PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control
 192x: Black, feedback amplifiers
 1927: Bode, Network analysis and feedback amplifier design
 1932: Nyquist, regeneration theory for stability analysis
 1942: Ziegler & Nichols, PID tuning

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 13


History of Automatic Control

 1948: Evans, root locus


 1952: MIT, Numerical control (NC) and servomechanism
 1954: Devol, first industrial robot
 1956: Pontryagin, optimal control
 1962: Bellman, dynamic programming
 1970s: state variables model, Kalman filtering, and optimal
control
 1980s: robust control, adaptive control, intelligent control

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 14


1.3 Examples of Control Systems

 Feedback amplifier
 Previous achievements: Armstrong and de Forest, positive
feedback amplifiers
 Harold S. Black in 1921, negative feedback amplifier
 Objective: Linearizing, stabilizing, and improving the
amplifiers
 Approach: Feeding systems output back to the input as a
method of system control thus helping to eliminate distortion
in telecommunications and to extend the frequency range of
the amplifier.

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 15


Examples of Control Systems

 Automobile steering control system

Feedback is essential
莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 16
Examples of Control Systems

 Intelligent vehicle and intelligent transportation


 Intelligent infrastructure + intelligent vehicles

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 17


Examples of Control Systems

 Robots, robots, robots


 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EzjkBwZtxp4
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b2bExqhhWRI
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2STTNYNF4lk
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3C5sc8b3xM
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vwZ5FQEUFg
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8bziuSFvW4

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 18


Control System Examples

 Float level regulation


 Temperature control (refrigerator, air-conditioner, heater)
 Household appliances
 Automation and robots
 Home automation
 Automobile control and intelligent transportation system (ITS)
 Semiconductor manufacturing industry
 Entertainment
 Computer peripherals
 Power industry
 Metallurgical industry
 Automatic warehousing and inventory control
 Biomedical and biological control
 Social, economic, and political
 … many many others
莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 19
National Income System

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 20


Economics and Control

 The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic


Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1999
was awarded to Prof. Robert A. Mundell.
 "for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy
under different exchange rate regimes and
his analysis of optimum currency areas“
 Economical policy exchange rates and capital
mobility
 The Effects of Stabilization Policy
 Optimum Currency Areas

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 21


Invention of the Transistor

 In 1956 John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and William


Bradford Shockley were honored with the Nobel Prize in Physics
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the
transistor effect".
 The key: understanding of the process of the electron
mobility in a semiconductor. It was realized that if there
was some way to control the flow of the electrons from
the emitter to the collector of this newly discovered
diode, one could build an amplifier. For instance, if you
placed contacts on either side of a single type of crystal
the current would not flow through it. However if a third
contact could then "inject" electrons or holes into the
material, the current would flow.
 Their understanding solved the problem of needing a very small control
area to some degree. Instead of needing two separate semiconductors
connected by a common, but tiny, region, a single larger surface would
serve. The emitter and collector leads would both be placed very close
together on the top, with the control lead placed on the base of the crystal.
When current was applied to the "base" lead, the electrons or holes would
be pushed out, across the block of semiconductor, and collect on the far
surface. As long as the emitter and collector were very close together, this
should allow enough electrons or holes between them to allow conduction
to start.
莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall22
Cell Control

 Cell control
 A cell consists of millions of intracellular molecules, which serve as
building blocks for its structure and functions. These interactions
among these building blocks display the property of self
organization which intrinsically serves as the foundation of the
networks of signaling and regulatory pathways.
 It is through these intrinsically inter-connected networks that a cell,
the basic unit of life, senses, responses and adapts its environment.
These three characteristics (large number of building blocks, self-
organization due to interactions and adaptation) are commonly
observed in all complex systems.

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 23


Cell Control

 The Center for Cell Control of US is


working on an unprecedented
approach to first utilize systems
control, with therapeutic intent, to
determine the parameters for
guiding the cell to a directed
phenotype/genotype which will then
be followed by in depth study, using
nanoscale modalities, of the path by
which this desired state is achieved.
This approach will enable
engineering systems that can be
applied towards the regulation of a
spectrum of cellular functions, such
as cancer eradication, controlling
viral infection onset, and stem cell
differentiation.
莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 24
1.4 Engineering Design

 Engineering design is a complex process in which both creativity


and analysis play major roles.
 Design is a process of conceiving or inventing the forms, parts,
and details of a system to achieve a specific purpose.
 The design steps are
1. Determine a need arising from the values of various groups,
covering the spectrum from public policy makers to consumer
2. Specify in detail what the solution to that need must be and to
embody the value
3. Develop and evaluate various alternative solutions to meet these
specifications
4. Decide which one is to be designed in detail and fabricated

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 25


Engineering Design

 Engineering design must also consider the constraint of time.


 The design of technical systems aims to achieve appropriate
design specifications and rests on four characteristics:
 Complexity
 Trade-off
 Design gaps
 Risk
 Tasks in an engineering design may involve
 Analysis
 Synthesis
 Optimization

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 26


1.5 Control System Design

 The design of control


systems is a specific
example of
engineering design.
 The goal of control
system engineering is
to obtain the
configuration,
specifications, and
identification of the key
parameters of a
proposed system to
meet an actual need.
 The design process is
iterative.
 Computer-aided tools
are often used to
speed up the design.
莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 27
1.6 Mechatronic Systems

 Mechatronics: the synergistic integration of mechanical,


electrical, and computer systems.

Physical system modeling

Sensors and actuators Signals and systems

Mechatronics

Software and data acquisition Computers and logic systems

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 28


Mechatronics

 Applications of mechatronics to engineering systems


 Hybrid fuel vehicles
 Wind power
 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)
 BioMEMS
 Embedded computer

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 29


MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical System)

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 30


1.7 Green Engineering

 Green engineering: to design products that will minimize pollution,


reduce the risk to human health, and improve the environment.
 Engineer processes and products holistically, use system analysis, and
integrate environmental impact assessment tools
 Conserve and improve natural ecosystems while protecting human health and
well-being.
 Use life-cycle thinking in all engineering activities
 Ensure that all material and energy inputs and outputs are as inherently safe
and benign as possible
 Minimize depletion of natural resources
 Strive to prevent waste
 Develop and apply engineering solutions, while being cognizant of local
geography, aspirations, and cultures
 Create engineering solutions beyond current or dominant technologies;
improve, innovate, and invent technologies to achieve sustainability
 Actively engage communities and stakeholders in development of engineering
solutions
 Green engineering applications: environmental monitoring, energy
storage system, power quality monitoring, solar energy, and wind
energy.
莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 31
1.8 The Future Evolution of Control Systems

 Goal of control systems: provides extensive flexibility and a high


level of autonomy.

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 32


1.9 Design Examples

 Smart grid control systems

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 33


Rotating Disc Speed Control Design Example

 Applications of rotating disk speed control: CD/DVD, hard


disc, …
 Goal of turntable speed control: ensure that the actual speed of
rotation is within a specified percentage of the desired speed.
 Open-loop scheme (without feedback)
 Turntable
 DC motor
 Amplifier
 Battery
 Closed-loop scheme
 Turntable (process)
 DC motor (actuator)
 Amplifier (control device)
 Tachometer (sensor)
 Battery (power supply)

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 34


Open-Loop Turntable Speed Control

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 35


Closed-Loop Turntable Speed Control

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 36


Design Examples:
Insulin Delivery Control System

 Control systems have been utilized in the biomedical field to create


implanted automatic drug-delivery systems to patients.
 Automatic systems can be used to regulate blood pressure, blood
sugar level, and heart rate.
 Open-loop drug delivery system
 Based on the mathematical model
of the dose-effect relationship
 As miniaturized glucose sensors
are not available, the best
solutions rely on individually
programmable, pocket-sized
insulin pumps that can deliver
insulin according to a preset time
history.

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 37


Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery Control System

1. Establish control goals: design a system to regulate the blood


sugar concentration of a diabetics.
2. Identify the variables to control: blood glucose concentration.
3. Write the specifications for the variables: provide a blood
glucose level for the diabetic that closely approximates the
glucose level of a healthy person.
4. Establish the system configuration and identify the actuator: use
a sensor to measure the actual glucose level and compare that
level with the desired level, thus turning the motor pump on
when it is required.

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 38


1.9 Sequential Design Example:
Disk Drive Read System

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 39


Disk Drive Read System

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 40


Disk Drive Control

1. Establish control goals: position the reader head in order to read


the data stored on a track on the disk.
2. Identify the variables to control: position of the reader head.
3. Write the specifications for the variables: the position accuracy
is 1 mm and the time for the reader head to move is 50 ms.
4. Establish the system configuration and identify the actuator: use
of sensor, actuator, control processor, and feedback.

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 41


Summary

 A control system
 Consisting of interconnected components
 Designed to achieve a desired purpose
 Control systems can be open-loop or closed-loop.
 The use of feedback (conceptually and pragmatically) is
important.
 Control system design is essentially an iterative process.
 Knowledge of feedback and control is essential in many
engineering disciplines.

莊智清 控制工程 Chapter 1 2011 Fall 42