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PAPER

TRANSLATION PROCEDURES IN GOENAWAN MOHAMAD'S POETRY

Anita Basrah
English Applied Linguistic Study

Postgraduate Program

of Universitas Negeri Medan

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the study is to find out translation procedures are used by the

translator to translate Goenawan Mohamad's poetry. The data were analyzed through a

translation procedure by Vinay and Darbelnet’s (Zare-Behtash 2009: 1579), they were borrowing,

literal translation, transposition, modulation, adaptation, omission and addition . This research was

a qualitative research approach to describe the results of the analysis of translation procedure in

Goenawan Mohamad's poetry. The data were taken two Goenawan Mohamad's poetry entitled are Z;

and Senja Pun Kecil,Kota Pun Jadi Putih and Dingin Tak tercatat in book “Contemporary

Indonesian Poetry" published by university of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland, 1975” .

The result shows that there are 7 translation procedures applied by the translator in order to

translate the poetry. The translation procedures are Borrowing Translation which applied 1

times (5,56%), Literal Translation 7 times (38,89%) transposition 1 times (5,56%),

Modulation which applied 2 times (11,11%), Adaptation translation procedures which

applied 1 times (5,56%), Omission which applied 4 times (22,22%), and addition translation

procedure which applied 2 times (11,11%). it can be concluded that all translation

procedures are found, they are Borrowing, Literal Translation, Transposition, Modulation,

Adaptation, Omission, and Addition.

Key : Translation procedures, Goenawan Mohammad’s Poetry


CHAPTER I

INRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Language is the main topic of any discussion about translation. It is a way to able to do an

interaction with other people. The Oxford dictionary (2008:247) defines “language as a system of

communication in speech and writing used by people of a particular country”. It means that every

country has its own language. Since every country has its own language, translation is a very

important thing that is needed in interaction

Translation has an important role in communication. Translation is a medium to transfer the

knowledge or information. It can be a bridge which connects the people from the different

languages and cultures. By using translation, people can learn and understand each other’s

languages and cultures. Translation is not merely at changing words, but also transferring of

cultural equivalence with the culture of the original language and the recipient of that language as

well as possible. The better translation must be accepted by all people in logic and based on fact;

thus, the message which contained in the source language (SL) can satisfy the target language (TL)

reader with the information within

Nida and Taber (1982:12) state that translating consists of reproducing in the receptor

language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning

and secondly in terms of style. Meanwhile, as stated by Newmark (1988:5), translation is rendering

the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. By

language, the translation appears as the significant scope to overcome the language border, which

makes the process of communication becomes better.

Translating a text is not only in scientific field but also in non-scientific fields. One

of them is translating the poems. Nowadays there are many poems which are translated to

another language, of course in purposing to convey the messages of the poems and easier to

understand in target language, so not only the people who live in the same area with the

poets but also the people who live in different area, have different language and have

different culture can enjoy the beautifulness of the poems. In some ways reading poetry is

much like reading fiction: we observe details of action and language, make connections and

inferences, and draw conclusions.


English and Indonesian languages have different cultures which influence the

language used. Many English texts have been translated into Indonesian and vise versa.

From the differences described earlier, it requires the process of translation. Which

translation is a general term that refers to the removal of reflection ideas from the source

language (SL) and the target language (TL), which translation is the process of transferring

message or meaning from one language (SL) to others (TL), so a result of translation must

have correspondence relationship with the source text whether it is equal or not.

Newmark (1988; 163) states Poetry is the most personal and concentrated of the four

forms, no redundancy, no phatic language, where, as a unit, the word has greater importance

than in any other type of text. Poetry can be said as an extraordinary literary work. As one

of literary works, poetry has a special characteristic. Not like words in prose which have a

descriptive character, the words in poetry have very solid meaning. So denseness of word

mean it make a word in a poetry has many kinds of meaning or sense.

In translating Indonesian poems such as reduction changes, addition and modification

from the intrinsic element of the poems is often unavoidable. As a poetry source language

into target language dubbed, not all words can be changed just like that. To discover what

changes are made from Indonesian poems, we can do a comparison (analysis) from the

Indonesian poem version and English version.

On the other hand, it is different in translating literary works and non literary works.

The literary works are concerned with the world of the imagination and centered in human

being, sometimes reflected in their physical characteristics and theirs natural and climatic

background. The vocabulary can defines literary work as “imaginative or creative writing”,

it explains that literary work is the work of writer, anything expressed in letters, every

motion of the writers that can be imaginative according the writer wanted. There are many

kinds of literary works such as poetry novel, lyric, etc. Literary works translation can be

distinguished into literary a nonliterary works in a way that the first one is “symbolic or

allegorical”. While translating a literary piece of works the most attention is paid to

connotation and emotion in imaginative literature.


There are many translation jobs can be chosen by a translator according to their own

interest. One kind of translation that can be chosen by a translator according to their own

interest. One kind of translation that can be found in literary works. Literary works have

many types and poetry is one of them. Poetry are included into literary works, so literary

translation is focused on this study.

Research conducted by Ayu and Indrawati (2018) showed that the dominant

translation strategy applied by the translator in translating Sapardi’s poem is literal

translation strategy. Rachmawati (2014) shows that the general translation strategy used in

the translation of Chairil Anwar Poetries are modulation translation, calque or literal

translation, descriptive equivalence translation, generic words translation, additional

translation and interpretation translation

The reason why the writer chose poetry written by Goenawan Mohamad is because

he is well known as a living legend and one of the best indonesian poet. His poetry has

drawn many praise and admiration from public. A number of his poems have become

highly popular after being set to music, while many of his works also widely distributed on

social media. One of the reasons why he is very famous is because his ability to uses simple

and endearing language in his work. He is one of indonesian talented writer which a lot of

his works has been translated into English.

This research was analyzed the translation of three Goenawan Mohamad's poetry translated

by Harry Aveling, they are Z; and Senja Pun Kecil,Kota Pun Jadi Putih and Dingin Tak tercatat.

The objectives of the study are to identify the types of translation procedures an of Goenawan

Mohamad's poetry

The aim of this research is to discover the translation procedures used the translation

procedure theory by Vinay and Darbelnet (Zare-Behtash 2009: 1579). The theory is divided

into 7 procedures, they are: borrowing, literal translation, transposition, modulation,

adaptation, omission, addition. Therefore the research will complete and give more

information about translating the literary work generally and translating poetry especially

for the writer herself and for the others who concern in translating the literary works.
From the explanation above, the writer wants to analyze further more about the

translation of Goenawan Mohamad's poetry. Especially about the procedures of translation,.

This research entitled "Translation Procedures in Goenawan Mohamad's Poetry"

1.2 Problem of the study

Based on the background of the study above, the problem discussed in this study is :

1. What translation procedures are used by the translator to translate Goenawan

Mohamad's poetry?

1.3 Objective of the study

In doing the analysis, there are some objectives found in this analysis:

1. To find out the translation methods are used in the English translation of Damono‟s

poems.

1.4 Scope of the study

The data for this study are in the and Senja Pun Kecil,Kota Pun Jadi Putih and

Dingin Tak tercatat of Goenawan Mohammad poetry translated by Harry Aveling

in “Contemporary Indonesian Poetry" book published by university of Queensland

Press, St Lucia, Queensland, 1975”

1.5 Significance of the study

The writer expects the significance of the study has benefits both theoretically and

practically. Theoretically, this paper aims to prove the theory of translation, especially

translation methods. Besides, this paper enriches the knowledge for the writers and the

readers in translating Bahasa Indonesia poems to English poems,


CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 The definition of translation

In general, translation was changing a text from one language into another without

changing the meaning or the idea that occur in the source language. The following

definitions of translation proposed by linguists around the world will be explained below.

According to Newmark (1988:5) translation is rendering the meaning of a text into

another language in the way that the author intended the text. Newmark gave more

explanation from his statement above that translation was not only translating the language

but also the translator should transfer the meaning of the text, so the reader knew about the

author intention.

From the definition of translation above, the researcher concluded that translation was

a process of changing the language (source language) to another language (target language)

by considering equivalence and language structures, so the information from the source

language still remained.

Massoud (1988) in Sadeghi (2010:3) argued that the requirement of good

translation is as follows;

a good translation is easily understood, fluent and smooth, idiomatic, translation


conveys to some extent, the literary subtleties of the original, distinguished between
the metaphorical and the literal, reconstructs the cultural or historical context of the
original, a good translation makes explicates what is implicit in abbreviations, and an
illusions to saying, songs and nursery rhymes, for last criteria that good translation
will convey, as much as possible, the meaning of the original text

Based on the opinion above the translator has to learn not only the way or technique of

translation but also the history of language and proper meaning of one word, phrase,

sentence and even more on the target language.

Catford (1965:20) said that translation was the replacement of textual material in one

language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language. This definition concerned

in two keywords in understanding translation. These are textual material (where text might

have been expected) and equivalent. The use of these terms concerned in idea that
translation transposed the Source language grammar (clauses and groups) into target

language equivalents and translated th

lexical units into proper and right sense in the context of the sentence.

Crystal (Khrisna Regmi, 2010:17) defined translation as a process where

“the meaning and expression in one language (source) is tuned with meaning of another

(target) whether the medium is spoken, written, or signed”. Torop (in Krishna Regmi, 2010:

18) has argued that translation, as a process of converting ideas expressed from one

language into another, was embedded in the sociocultural language of a particular context

and also described the translation process as basically a boundary-crossing between two

different language. Based on those idea, it was clear explanation that when translator

transfered the message or idea from source language into target language it also transfered

Sociocultural aspect from source language into target language.

Next, Sperber and Wilson in Hartono (2012) stated that translation was the

replacement of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in second

language. This definition means that by translating a text into another language, translator

should create the target text as the representation of the

equivalent source text.

2.2 Function of Translation

Translation is studying about the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication

situation and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to

determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using lexicon and

grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural

context (Larson, 1984: 3). It means that the function of translation as the bridge for

human‟s communication keep going on, especially in international communication. As

inter-lingual communicative activity, translation plays an important thing in developing

countries to get the information and the technology, especially for Indonesia. The

existence of translation as a subject in the university helps the students to grasp the
information about scientific things. Translation function as the medium across linguistic

and culture, berries in conveying the message from a SL to TL.

Without translation, the scientist will live behind and can‟t follow the scientific

development. That is why the translation is not only important for developing countries

but also for developed countries. The need of translating is not a sign that the country is

under develop. On the other hand, it is an activity to exist the changing of information

from one country to another country. Beside of grasping the scientific information and

technology, translation is also used for other multilingual notices which have at last

appeared increasingly conspicuously in public places; where it is too often produced from

the native into the „foreign‟ language by natives as a matter of national pride; for official

documents, such as treaties and contracts; for reports, papers, articles, correspondence,

textbooks to convey information, advice and recommendation for every branch of

knowledge.

Some people also use translated book for learning foreign language because they are

easier to understand than study foreign language by using the original books. Many

universities in the world include translation in their curriculum and show that translation is

very important activity in the process of teaching and learning.

Nida (1964: 2) states that the translation means communication because it has three

essential elements to form a process of communication. These are three essentials are

source, message, and receptor and these elements can be found in all communication

activities.

2.3 Poetry Translation

The researcher divides the section of the poetry translation thoery into three

parts, they are definitions of poetry translation, elements of poetry, and strategies in

poetry translation.

a. Definition of Poetry Translation

Poetry is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning,

sound, and rhythmic language choices so as to evoke an emotional response. Poetry is


defined as kind of a text that that its language use is totally different from what people

use in a daily conversation. Moreover, poetry is also different from a novel or drama.

The differences lay on its meticulous composition and its restrictive convention.

Therefore, it creates a narration that the translator is not allowed to create their own

language freely by using random simple words, the translator should be able to use the

language that express something much more than the word itself to create a meaningful

poetry sense (Siswantoro, 2010, p.23).

Poetry translation is a product of translation which delivers the author’s feeling

in the target language context associated with the target culture. Poetry translation is

making a new poem in the target language (Newmark,1988, p.58). Besides, Rodda

defines poetry translation as bellow:

The translation of any poem is necessarily a sort of cross-word puzzle because

of the necessity of attempting to reproduce the form, the meaning, and the feeling of a

work which was conceived in different form. When the poem has been set to music and

of making the right words come out on the right notes for the expressive values of the

poem is added to the problems of meter, rhyme, sense, and atmosphere, and the problem

becomes sort of three-dimensional cross-words puzzle (Rodda, 1981, p.150).

The definitions above prove that poetry translation is quite problematic

compared with other any kind of translations. Poetry has many different kinds and

various of figurative languages, and distinctive elements such as rhyme, stanza, meter, in

the text that need to be taken seriously due to its contribution in creating the meaning

and the sense of the poetry. Therefore, to get the most accurate and equal meaning of

literary works, especially poetry translation is really difficult. Moreover, the form and

the meaning in the poetry are relatively connect to each other, the form of literary works

also include meanings. And the translator need to work hand in hand with those both to

get a good translation. Thus, it can be concluded that poetry translation is not merely

translating a poem but creating a new poem using the target language context adjusted

with the target culture.


b. Elements of the Poetry

Elements of the poetry are form of lingusitic and language feature that are

usually found in the poem. It contains rhythm, meter, rhyme, alliteration, simile,

metphor, theme, and symbolism (Literary Devices Editors, 2013). The further

explanation is explained as follows:

i. Rhythm

Rhythm is a literary device that demonstrates the long and short patterns

through stressed and unstressed syllables, particularly in verse form.

ii. Meter

Meter is a stressed and unstressed syllabic pattern in a verse, or within

the lines of a poem that gives poetry a rhythmical and melodious sound.

iii. Alliteration

It is a stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first

consonant sound, occur close together in a series that creates sounds effects in the

poem.

iv. Simile

Simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing

similarities between two different things. Unlike a metaphor, a simile draws

resemblance with the help of the words “like” or “as.” Therefore, it is a direct

comparison.

v. Metaphor

Metaphor is a figure of speech that makes an implicit, implied, or

hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated, but which share some

common characteristics. In other words, a resemblance of two contradictory or

different objects is made based on a single or some common characteristics.

vi. Theme

Theme in poetry is an underlying message or main idea of a poem that


the author wants to convey. It can be a story, thought, sense, etc.

vii. Symbolism

Symbolism is the use of symbols to signify ideas and qualities. By giving

symbolic meanings that are different from their literal sense is the way the author

conveys the ideas that create certain effects rather than applying the literal sense.

3 Procedures of Translation

According to Vinay and Darbelnet’s procedures (Zare-Behtash 2009: 1579), In

translating the texts there are many procedures that can be used by the translators as

described below:

a) Borrowing.

Borrowing is to adopt SL text when the TL has no equivalent for the SL text. It is a

case where a word or an expression is taken from the SL and used in the TL., that is,

it is made to conform to the rules of grammar or pronounciation of the TL, it occurs

when there is no changing meaning from SL into TL. For example the word formula

is translated into formula too in Bahasa Indonesia

b) Literal translation.

Literal translation is a direct transfer of a SL text into a grammatically and

idiomatically appropriate to TL text. Principally, literal translation is a unique

solution in which is reversible and complete in itself. For examples, “black market”

in English is translated to be pasar gelap in Bahasa Indonesia. Honey moon is

translated to be bulan madu.

c) Transposition.

Transposition involves replacing one word class with another without changing the

meaning of the message. The method also involves a change in the grammatical

change that occurs in translation from SL to TL (singular to plural, position of

adjective, changing the word class or part of speech). For instance, a compound

“keyword” in English is translated as Kata kunci (Phrase) in Bahasa Indonesia.


d) Modulation .
Modulation is a change in point of view that allows us to express the same

phenomenon in a different way. Modulation as a procedure of translation occurs when

there is a change of perspective accompanied with a lexical change in the TL. There

are two types of modulation, i.e. Free or Optional Modulation and Fixed or Obligatory

Modulation. For instance, “He was killed in the war” in English is translated as Dia

gugur dalam perang in Bahasa Indonesia. ‘Negated contrary’, which is a procedure

that relies on changing the value of the ST in translation from negative to positive or

vice versa, is also considered as fixed modulation. For example, “It isn’t expensive” is

translated to be It’s cheap.

e). Adaptation.

It is used in those cased where the type of situation being referred to by SL message

is unknown in the TL culture. For example, Dear Sir is translated into dengan

hormat

f). Omission.

This means that there is no translation in SL word to TL word. For example, Awas

anjing galak is translated into Beware of the dog

g). Addition.

Addition is normally cultural (accounting for difference between SL and TL

culture), technical (relating to the topics) or linguistic (explaining wayward use of

words), and is dependent on to the requirement of his, as opposed to the original,

readership. For example, mengusir; tapi kita tetap saja is translated into driving us

away, yet we stay ( to add personal pronoun us)


CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research method is a kind of systemic work plan in order to make its

main purpose easier to achieve. This research method is arranged based on the

problem analyzed and the main purpose of the research. The research method

in this study covers research design, sources of data, data collecting method,

data analysis method.

3.1 Research Design

This research was designed as a descriptive research. Marshall and Rossman

(1999:111) define that qualitative data analysis is a search for general statements

about relationships between categories of data. In this study, the qualitative

method will be used because the data which is analyzed is explained

descriptively. The data to be analyzed are in the form of words, phrase, and

clause.

This research described the translation of poetry and marked the data.

Then, the writer collected and classified the data, and found what methods of

translation in the translation of Goenawan Moehammad’s poetry into English

by Harry Aveling. The last one, the writer found and classified procedures of

translation used in that translation

3.2 Data and Data Source

The data were taken from the poetry in bilingual version, Indonesian version

and English Translation. Indonesian version poetry is as source language (SL) and

English version poetry is a target language (TL). The source data used in this

research are three poetry in book Contemporary Indonesian Poetry to be analyzed.

The poetry is written by Goenawan Mohamad entitled Z; and Senja Pun Kecil Kota

Pun Jadi Putih and Dingin Tak Tercatat . they are translated into English by Harry G

Aveling. The data were taken from " Contemporary Indonesian Poetry" published

by university of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland, 1975. The sample of


data will use simple random sampling by Prof. Sugiyono. He said taking the

sample from population doing randomly without mind the level in population

doing randomly without mind the level in population.

3.3 Technique for Collecting Data

The data were collected through five steps,

1. The first step was to collect the data from book and then the researcher chose

three from eleven Goenawan Mohammad poetry.

2. Reading the script of poetry

3. Making a table of comparison from the Source Text and the Target Text to

gather the raw data

4. Collecting all the resources in the poetry from both versions

5. Reducing resources by selecting words/sentence which might contain

translation procedures in the translation process

3.4 Technique for Analysis Data

As stated by William and Chesterman (2002), “The analysis of the

translated texts involves the textual comparison of a translation with its

original”. Therefore, the researcher provided the selected data in a table of

comparison between the Source Text and the Target Text.

The researcher created several steps of data analysis techniques as

follows:

1. Making a table of comparison between the Source Text and the

Target Text for the selected utterances which might be translated

using certain translation procedures.

2. Classifying the selected data into several categories such as word,

sentences, phrase

3. Classifying tables for the selected data into more specific categories

based on the translation procedures proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet.


Provide its description then calculates total number and percentage of

each procedure to find out the amount of each procedure based on the

following formula:

P = F x 100%
N
P: number of percentages
F: frequency of translation procedures
N: number of the whole sample
CHAPTER IV

FINDING AND DISCUSSION

4.1 FINDING

After reading two Goenawan Mohamad’s poetry entitled are Senja Pun

Kecil,Kota Pun Jadi Putih , Z , and Dingin Tak tercatat that translated into English by

Harry G Aveling the writer listed down some source languages (SL) and TargeT

Languages (TL) whereas from Indonesia into English . After that, the data were

analyzed into Borrowing, Literal Translation, Transposition, Modulation,

Adaptation, Omission, and Addition. It was analyed can be seen as follows:

1. Borrowing

Vinay and Darbelnet (1958) define borrowing as a procedure that involves

using the same word, phrase, or expression in the original text into the target

text without translation

Table 4.1 The Data Table of Borrowing Procedure


Source Text Target Text Type of Procedure
Page. Di subway Page. In the subway Borrowing
220 221

Table 4.1 showed the borrowing procedure is applied. The source language is

borrowed directly into the target language without any grammatical change.

It can be said that this procedure is a pure borrowing since there is no

naturalized form found in the result of the target language translation. The

borrowing procedure, because word subway in the Source Text and in the

Target Text is not communicatively equivalent in terms of style which aims

at expressing the message of the sentence. In conclusion, the borrowing

procedure does not transfer the message in the sentence from Source Text

into the Target Text effectivel

2. Literal Translation

Vinay and Darbelnet stated literal translation is a procedure of translating the


Source Language directly word-by-word grammatically and idiomatically.

Literal translation is acceptable if the translated language contains the same

word, phrase, or sentence structure, the same meaning, and the same style as

in the Source Language

Table 4.2 The Data Table of Literal Translation Procedure


Source Text Target Text Type of Procedure
Page. Aku tak tahu saat Page. I have no idea of Literal Translation
220 pun sampai 221 when we arrive

Page. Dari sayap langit Page. From the frozen Literal Translation
206 yang beku 207 wings of the sky

Page. Ketika burung- Page. As the birds on Literal Translation


206 burung, di rumput 207
dingin the cold grass

Page. Menunggu seluruh Page. Waiting for Literal Translation


206 usia 207 death

Page. Menghitung Page. Balancing Literal Translation


206 ketidakpastian dan 207 uncertainty and
bahagia pleasure

Page Dibawah bulan Page. Beneath Marly Literal Translation


208 Marly 209 moon

Page Dingin tak tercatat Page Cold Literal Translation


198 199 unregistered

Table 4.3 showed that Theses translations are not necessary to make any

change other than the obvious one, like those concerning grammatical

concord or inflectional endings. In translating this word, the translator applied

literal translation. The translator perfectly translated the word into the target

language without any borrowed word

3. Modulation

Modulation is a translation procedure that occurs in the translation process

which involves changing the point of view of the Source Language in the
Target Language in the semantic realm.

Table 4.3 The Data Table of Literal Modulation Procedure


Source Text Target Text Type of Procedure
Page. Ketika berayun Page. As the season Modulation
220 musim 221 falls Translation

Page Gerimis raib Page Rain Invisible Modulation


198 199 Translation

Table 4.4 showed that the translator translates the word into falls. It is called

modulation. In an English-Indonesian dictionary by John M. Echols and

Hassan Shadily the word fall means jatuh, tumbang , turun, runtuh etc, there

is no word berakhir. If it is translated again literally into Indonesian

becomes Seketika jatuh musim of course it becomes inappropriate to the

original. But the writer thinks falls is still appropriate to render berayun

because This change does not give different meaning. The readers will know the

same meaning either in SL or TL. Second case the translator translates gerimis

into rain. It is a shift from general meaning into specific meaning. In

Indonesia there is a term gerimis and hujan lebat from the general term

hujan, whereas in English there are term drizzle(gerimis) and pouring(hujan

lebat) from the general term rain. The translator uses modulation when he

translates gerimis into rain, it seems that the translation is inappropriate

because there is different between gerimis and hujan when we look up the

definition in dictionary. But the translator thinks that gerimis(drizzle) and

hujan(rain) is equivalent enough. So there is no problem when the translator

uses rain to render gerimis, because it doesn’t break the real meaning of the

poem.

4. Omission

In this procedure, the translator deleted a certain part or parts of a source

text while transferring it into target language


Table 4.4 The Data Table of Omission procedure
Source Text Target Text Type of procedure
Page. Senja pun jadi kecil Page. Twilight fades Omission
220 221 Transaltion

Page. Begitu bergegas Page. Suddenly Omission


208 209 Transaltion

Page. Kota hanya basah Page. City wet Omission


198 199 Transaltion
Page. Di sana, seakan- Page - Omission
198 akan 199 Transaltion

In SL there are three words, but in TL there are just two words, so there is a

word which is omitted by the translator. It is the word jadi. In procedure of

translation it is called omission. The writer thinks that this omission is still

appropriate, because the omission doesn't change the meaning of the original

poem. But it doesn't mind if the word jadi is also translated, so the translation

becomes Twilight fades and The city white. The third case the translator

omits or doesn't translate the word begitu. It is called omission. In translating

a poem, omission is very common as far as it doesn’t break the real meaning

of the original. The fourth case In this case the translator translates the

sentence Kota hanya basah into City wet. The writer thinks that it is

appropriate enough. In SL there are three words, but in TL there are just two

words, so there is a word which is omitted by the translator. It is the word

hanya. In procedure of translation it is called omission. If the translator used

City wet it means Kota basah not Kota hanya basah., but the writer thinks

that it doesn’t break the real meaning of the original poem, so it is not a big

problem. The fifth case the translator doesn’t translate the words di sana,

seakan- akan.. By omitting those words it caused the poem lost the poetic

element, because there was one line lose. It is called omission


5. Adaptation

Adaptation procedure is used when certain word, phrase or expression in the

Source Language is not suitable or appropriate culturally in the Target

Language. The translator must replace the word, phrase, or expression in the

Source Language by adapting the suitable or appropriate word, phrase, or

expression of the Target Language

Table 4.5 The Data Table of Adaptation Procedure

Source Text Target Text Type of Procedure


Page. Dan pohon musim Page. And summer Adaptation
220 panas 221 trees Translation
(line :2)
Table 4.7 above that the word “ musim panas‟ in the SL translated into

“summer” . it is adaptation. Because this case where the type of situation

being referred to by the SL message is unknown in the TL culture. the

translators have to create a new situation that can be considered as being

equivalent.

6. Addition

Addition is normally cultural (accounting for difference between SL and TL

culture), technical (relating to the topics) or linguistic (explaining wayward

use of words), and is dependent on to the requirement of his, as opposed to the

original, readership

Table 4.6 The Data Table of Literal Addition Procedure


Source Text Target Text Type of Procedure
Page. Ada seribu kereta Page. A thousand trains Addition
220 api 221 stand ready Translation
(line:3)
Page Mengusir, tapi kita Page Driving us away, Addition
198 tetap saja 199 yet we stay Translation

Table 4.5 showed ,that in n this case the translator adds the words stand ready

in the end which means bersiap. It is called addition. The writer thinks that it

doesn't matter to add those words. The writer thinks why the translator adds
the words stand ready in the end, because the translator wants to get the same

sound of last word in the original (api). Second case the translator adds the

personal pronoun us in his translation. The writer thinks it is appropriate,

because the translator just wants to give more information, and it doesn’t

break the meaning of the original. This case is called addition.

7. Transposition

Transposition involves replacing one word class with another without

changing the meaning of the message. The Procedure also involves a change

in the grammatical change that occurs in translation from SL to TL (singular

to plural, position of adjective, changing the word class or part of speech).

Table 4.7 The Data Table of Literal Addition Procedure


Source Text Target Text Type of Procedure
Page. Lalu jatuh daun Page. Then the Mulberry Addition
220 murbe 221 leaves fell Translation
(line:9)

Table 4.7 showed that the transposition procedure is applied to transfer the

message contained the selected sentence by changing The word jatuh is

intransitive verb, in English the intransitive verb have to be put in the end. The

word jatuh is translated into fell, so it is appropriate to put the word fell in the

end and without changing the message in the sentence

4.2 Discussion

According to Vinay and Darbelnet’s strategy (Zare-Behtash 2009: 1579).

there are 7 translation procedures which can be applied in translating poetry. The

translation procedures are they are: borrowing, literal translation, transposition,

modulation, adaptation, omission, addition.

The following Table 4.2 presents the amount and percentage of each

translation procedure applied by the translator in translating Goenawan

Moehammad’s poetry
Table 4.2

No Translation strategies Total Percentage (%)

1. Borrowing 1 5,56%

2 Literal translation 7 38,89%

3 Transposition 1 5,56%

4 Modulation. 2 11,11%

5 Adaptation 1 5,56%

6 Omission 4 22,22%

7 Addition 2 11,11%

Total 18

The table above showed the amount and percentage of 7 translation

Procedures applied by the translator in order to translate Goenawan Moehammad’s

poetry. Those are Borrowing Translation which applied 1 times (5,56%), Literal

Translation 7 times (38,89%) transposition 1 times (5,56%), Modulation which

applied 2 times (11,11%), Adaptation translation strategy which applied 1 times

(5,56%), Omission which applied 4 times (22,22%), and addition translation

procedure which applied 2 times (11,11%). .Based on the data finding, it can be

concluded that all translation procedures are found, they are Borrowing, Literal

Translation, Transposition, Modulation, Adaptation, Omission, and Addition.


II. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1 Conclusion

The objective of this analysis is to find out what is the translation procedures applied by the

translator in translating Goenawan Moehammad’s poetry entitled Senja Pun Kecil,Kota Pun Jadi

Putih , Z , and Dingin Tak tercatat. Translation procedures stated by Vinay and Darbelnet’s

theory .Based on the data finding, it can be concluded that all translation procedures are found,

they are Borrowing, Literal Translation, Transposition, Modulation, Adaptation, Omission, and

Addition.

The researcher found Those are Literal Translation which applied 2 times (16,67%),

transposition which applied 3 times (30%), Modulation which applied 2 times (20%), Adaptation

translation strategy which applied 1 times (10%), Omission which applied 3 times ( 30%), and

addition translation strategy which applied 1 times (10%).

5.2 Suggestion

From the statement above, the suggestion would like to be given to the students. the people

and the translators who want to translate Indonesian text into English. They have to comprehend and

master the basic theory of translation, especially translation procedures. Furthermore, the translators

should pay attention to the following suggestion:

1. They must be more careful in using translation Procedures in order to make a better

translation

2. They must choose the closest and the most appropriate procedures in translating a text so that

the result of the translation can be understood easily.

3. Hopefully the result of this study will be able to provide valuable information and knowledge

about translation, especially the translation procedures


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