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A

RM PROJECT
ON
SUPERSTITIONS IN INDIA
AT
NASHIK

SUMITTED TO
SAVITRIBAI PHULE PUNE UNIVERSITY
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE COURSE
MASTER’S OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
(HRD-I)

SUBMITTED BY: GUIDED BY:


JYOTSNA R GAWARE. DR. AHIRE.
BHAVANA R SHRIRAME.
PALLAVI R KSHIRSAGAR.

MVP’S
INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY
(IMRT) NASHIK
ACADEMIC YEAR 2018-2019

1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are using this opportunity to express our gratitude to everyone who supported
us for our RM mini project . We are thankful for their aspiring guidance, invaluably
constructive criticism and friendly advice during the project work. We are sincerely
grateful to them for sharing their truthful and illuminating views on a number of
issues related to the project .
A special gratitude we give to our guide, [ Dr.Ahire], whose contribution in
stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped us in our project. We would
like to express my deepest appreciation to all those who provided us the possibility
to complete this report.

Date …............
Place …...............

2
DECLARATION BY STUDENT

We Jyotsna R Gaware, Bhavana R Shirame, Pallavi R Ksrisagar, hereby


declare that the RM project titled as “SUPERSTITIONS IN INDIA” is been
presented by us to Savitribai Phule Pune University in partial fulfillment of the
course Master of Business Administration[HRD-1] is our work and
the results in the project are correct and not been submitted to any other
university.

Date:

Place : IMRT COLLEGE,NASHIK.

3
DECLARATION BY GUIDE

This is to verify that jyotsna bhavana pallavi has completed the project work
entitled as superstitions in india under my guidance and supervision. I consider this work
for degree MBA HRD-1 , as partial fulfillment of the curriculum. Submitted the report as
per the norms laid down by SAIVITRIBAI PHULE PUNE UNIVERSITY, PUNE .The
information obtained from the other source is fully checked and acknowledged in the
report .It is further certified that the work or its part has not been submitted to any institute.

MVP’S IMRT COLLEGE , NASHIK

Name of Prof. Sign of guide

Date :

4
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sr. No. Chapters Contents Page No.


1 Introduction of the Topic. 8

Meaning of word superstition 9


Definition of superstition 9
Origin of superstition 9
Most important aspects of causes of 10
superstition
Ignorance 10
Fighting religion 10
Superstition and religion 10
Some of common superstition in society 11
Rational changes challenge 12
Proposed remedies 13
Programs to eradicate superstitions in 13
community
Objective of eradication of superstition 13
Impact of eradication of superstition 14
2 Research Methodology 15
Definition of research methodology 16
Meaning of research methodology 16

5
Sr. No. Chapters Contents Page No.
Types of research 16
Types of sample 18
Primary data 20
Secondary data 21
Data analysis, interpretation and 25
presentation
Need of interpretation 26
Impact of interpretation 26
Essential of interpretation 27
Presentation 28
Sampling 28
3 Literature Review 29
4 Data Analysis and Interpretation. 31

Data represents in Tables and Graphs 32

Data analysis of age group- I. 32


Data analysis of age group- II. 43
5 Conclusion 55
Recommendations 57
Suggestions 57
References 58
Bibliography 58

Questionnaire 59

6
Sr.NO LIST OF FIGURES PAGE NO

1 FIGURE NO 1 32
2 FIGURE NO 1.1 33
3 FIGURE NO 1.2 34
4 FIGURE NO 1.3 35

5 FIGURE NO 1.4 36
6 FIGURE NO 1.5 37
7 FIGURE NO 1.6 38
8 FIGURE NO 1.7 39
9 FIGURE NO 1.8 40
10 FIGURE NO 1.9 41
11 FIGURE NO 1.10 42
12 FIGURE NO 2 43
13 FIGURE NO 2.1 44
14 FIGURE NO 2.2 45
15 FIGURE NO 2.3 46
16 FIGURE NO 2.4 47
17 FIGURE NO 2.5 48
18 FIGURE NO 2.6 49
19 FIGURE NO 2.7 50
20 FIGURE NO 2.8 51
21 FIGURE NO 2.9 52
22 FIGURE NO 2.10 53

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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SUPERSTITION:

No matter which part of world you will find the people believe certain beliefs and
superstitions and India is no exception in this case. Though the Indian society is fast
progresing, there are many people who are still superstitions and have a strong faith in the
local beliefs; most of the beliefs have originated from Indian religious texts and scriptures,
dharma sindhu, a Sanskrit scripture. Prescribes the day-to-day behaviors patterns for the
followers of Hindu religion without assigning any reasonable logic for its directives. The
standard view point is that most of Indian beliefs have sprung with an objective to protect
from evil spirits, but some gods marked by the evil eye, stars that affect earthly actions
theseare just some superstitious phenomenon that inspires fear. We can see the
superstition.
Therefore as constancy a kind of reassurance against fluctuation as though we are part of
anin penetrable mystery with incomprehensible rules. All superstitions remain as outward
expressions of the tensions and anxieties that hold way over humanity as it struggles down
the corridor of life from birth to death, irrespective of education status and richness.

Meaning of the Word Superstition

The meaning and literary term of the superstition. The word superstition means
“falsehood,
vain and nonsense talk” and but it is necessary to clarify the meaning of two words reality
and truth to get to know the meaning of the phrase superstition. Whatever is in the world
or
universe means reality. For example, a tree is a reality and that the vine leaves are green in
summer is a reality too. And when we say angles, fairer, heaven and hell are truth, it
means
that there are and they have existence, we are at the level of the second meaning of the
word“truth”. Truth means “the original being true and antiauthority “but the term is
defined as“the perception of reality” superstitions are its plural”. It means that if we have
the conceptof something or understand something and it is our understanding which is out
of mind, itunderstands the truth. The term superstition means the speaking, belief or
understanding andyour belief is superstition.

Definitions of Superstition

A belief or way of behaving that is based on fear of the unknown and faith in magic or
lack:a belief that certain events or thing will bring good or bad luck. A belief or
practice,resulting from ignorance, fear of the unknown, trust or in magic or chance or a
false conception of caution.An irrational object attitude of mind toward the super natural.
Nature or god resulting from superstition.

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Origin of Superstition

Once upon a time life was extremely hazardous and the central feature of day-to-day
existence was pre occupation with the explanation for the relief of human misfortune,
vagaries of climatic and geographical conditions. Hostile neighborhood, fear of predators
etc, were constant concern of the human society during those days. These things might
have influenced for the superstitious behavior which are being carried till date, with craft
women wedded to the perhaps there is an unshaken belief in miraculous cures.

Magical remedies and supernatural phenomena which might have persuaded to remain
superstitious even in this age of reason and scientific progress As such there is a section of
the society which manipulators the mind of the people to their advantage and a mass
wealth and power exhibiting so called miracles and supernatural feats under the grab of
divine blessings.
These god men, babas, buvas, matajis and maharajas are main transporters of superstitions
and have got their stronghold on maharashtrian society. Educated and elite class also
supports these god men to protect their wasted interests. This class has completely twisted
the meaning of superstition under the name of faith.

The Most Important Aspects of the Causes of


Superstition

1. Ignorance

The most important factor which creates superstition in societies is ignorance. In the past
some people considered elliptical events as being the wrath of god. While, if the cause of
eclipse was clear for people, such beliefs have no place among people or some people call
sneezing waiting signal while in medical science it is clear that sneezing with a foreign
object especially a soft object is to remove foreign material from the nose. Similarly,
ignorance made numerous superstitions in religions. For example, some groups such Halt
(literally means whole grains) because of generosity, occult knowledge and other
wonderful things that they observed from imam, could not properly explained and analyze
such problems and knew them as pretext of superstition and heresy and anti-Islamic
movements. So, certainly, ignorance is one of the most important causes of superstitions in
Indian society.

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2. Fighting Religion

Ruthless and arrogant men who saw the spirit of religion contrary to their behaviours.
Directly or indirectly, struggled with the religion. One of the indirect ways of struggle with
the religion is creating superstitions in religious communities. The entrance of
superstitions in religious teachings collapse religion and detract its validity and prevalent
superstitions in the society not only make society collapsed but also traditional teachings
will change their place with the teachings of the superstitious in the beliefs “(and)” of
behaviours of believers. The Jews had more relationship with Muslims than any other
scripture and in this case, it means that the maximum effort in forgiving the traditional
sayings was from them. So, one of the main sources of society in which is becoming
familiar with the religion such as traditional sayings is mixed with thousands of
superstitions and it is very difficult to detect correct from incorrect historical,
interpretational as well as other sources are no exemptions.

Superstitions and Religion

Superstition is child of ignorance and mother of misery. Miracles are not only
impossible but they are unthinkable by any man capable of thinking. Ignorance is the soil
in which belief and miracles grow. The man who cannot think isles than man, the man who
fears to think is a traitor himself, the man who fears to think is superstitions slave. Reason
is the light, the sun, of the brain: it is the compass of mind. Priestly community produces
nothing. They are parasite. They say: “Believe and give”. The man who bows before an
idol of wood or stone is just a fool as he prays to an imagined god. Religion cannot reform
mankind because religion is slavery. Religion does not teach self reliance,
independence, manliness, courage, self-defence.

Religion makes god a master and man the serf. Religion has always been the enemy of
science of investigation and thought.
Religion has never made man moral, temperate, industrious, honest and free. That man has
never received any help from heaven, that all sacrifices have been in vain and all prayers
have died unanswered in the heedless air.

Some of the Common Superstitions in Society

1. Divination, astrology, prediction


2. Caught ghosts
3. Being unlucky of number thirteen
4. The consecration of Jumada and plants.
5. Prayer writing by some jobber
6. Prayer writing
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7. Opening book
8. Knowing sneezing as a sight of waiting.
9. Considering some animals unlucky (for example, it is
said that the crow is a crossed bird).
10. Considering some animals lucky (for example, it is said
that snake is a lucky animal).
11. Not cutting nail in someday.
12. Not moving in someday
13. Pouring boiling water on the ground burn the jinn.
14. Putting the blood of the victim’s on the door of the
house or cat etc..,
15. Writing from some particular topic
16. Rubbing the black expand on forehead of a baby.
17. Many superstitions about rainbow.
18. Breaking eggs to relive some eyes
19. Lighting candles in certain places for the need to be
Valid.
20. Bounding to do some normal people had a dream and
thousands of other superstitions that are not represented.

The Rational changes challenge

The rational and the scientifically inclined have all along challenged the superstitions
that exist and are willing to predict otherwise. They plan to further educate the general
public and have already persuaded then do to away with false beliefs and treat. The eclipse
as natural phenomenon. Having allayed their fears.
People have been coming out in large numbers in the recent years to view the eclipse
so much so that the scientific forum’s Tamilnadu chapter soon ran out of supply of solar
filters.
People are even travelling long distance to view this once in a lifetime spectacle.
A Delhi based organization SPACE which is striving to make science and astronomy
popular
among young people is taking interested folks to Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh and to samara
near Patna in the state of Bihar to view the solar eclipse. Boeing 737-700 has been charted
by Cox and kings toenable people to view the eclipse from a ‘sun side’ seat at 41,000 feet
on a three hour flight from Delhi. To the privileged few, who have paid 1,600 dollars to
drink in this
spectacle, experts will explain the goings on there is a 90% chance of viewing the eclipse
on this flight while there is only a 40% chance on the ground.

Proposed Remedies

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1. Thinking positive: one should think positive and try to develop attitude towards
challenges and or duos tasks. This can be achieved through reading, listening and watching
positive material in form of books. Biography, audio video means etc., in order to get rid
of the failure
syndrome.

2. Parental guidance: parents play an important part in removing all the fears and beliefs
in superstitions through personal guidance and real life examples.

3.Teacher’s guidance: teacher should encourage healthy discussions in the classroom to


get a clear picture of what’s the true and what’s a lie. This can dispel student’s belief in
superstitions.

4. Campaigns and other events: government and other non-governmental organisations


can enlighten the clouded minds with various events and campaigns which can be effective
tools in eliminating myths.

5. Role of media: various means of media can contribute to a large extent in bringing a
change in attitude towards these beliefs. The media should acts more responsibility
towards the young generation rather than carrying about their TRP’s.

Programs to Eradicate Superstitions in Community

1. Programs for spreading and inculcating scientific outlook

a) Public meetings and lectures on various topics-pseudo sciences like Vastushastra


Phalajyotish (astrology).

b) Vidyavahini programs like Grantham yatra (books exhibition) Vishay yatra (science
exhibition). Akshadarshanc mobile planetarium), conservation of environment etc.

2. Developing inquisitive and critical activity/attitude:


Activities are trained in awaking people and inculcating this attitude in workshops and
camps, university and colleges professors participate in these programmes.
3.Constructive criticism of religion:

Demonstration to oppose animal sacrifice: jata mukti (cutting) the mattered tresses of
girls and saving them from being dedicated to goddess Yellamma). Exposing fraudulent
Babs-Buvas- Mata’s Fakirs and missionaries
claiming supernatural powers.

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Objectives of Eradication of Superstition

1. To popularise the science knowledge.

2. To develop scientific thinking

3. To cater the individual mind towards science.

4. To uplift the scientific thinking.

5. To tap the community people.

6. To study identified concept.

7. To avoid the blind beliefs

8. To develop the scientific temper in an individual.

9. To disprove the blind beliefs.

10. To develop scientific attitude, scientific method, scientific application, scientific


interest etc among the individuals.

Importance of Eradication of Superstitions

1. To know the real knowledge.

2. To think in a systematic way.

3. To get a science knowledge update.

4. To think critically in a systematic manner.

5. To develop the prosperity towards science.

6. To disperse the blind belief.

7. To eradicate superstition in the community.

8. To localise the scientific thinking and scientific reasoning.


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Chapter 2

Research Methodology

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Definitions:-

“Research is the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled


observations that may lead to developed of generalization, principles, or theories resulting
in prediction and perhaps ultimate control of events”

According to waltz and Basusell,


Research is a systematic formal rigorous and precise process employed to gain solution
to problem or to discover and interpret new fact and relationship

MEANING:
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may
be understood as a science of the study how research is done scientifically. The various
steps that are generally adopted by researcher in study his research problem along with the
logic behind them. It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research method
or techniques but also the methodology. Thus when we talk of research methodology we
not only talk at the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we
use in the contest of our research and explain why we are using particular method or
techniques and why we are not using other so that research are capable of being evaluate
either by research himself or by other.
Research can be carried-out using various methods and techniques which are
collectively called as research method.

TYPES OF RESEARCH

Types of Research

Research can be classified in many different ways on the basis of the methodology of
research, the knowledge it creates, the user group, the research problem it investigates etc.

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Basic Research

This research is conducted largely for the enhancement of knowledge, and is


research which does not have immediate commercial potential. The research which is done
for human welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. It is called basic, pure,
fundamental research.
The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge, not to create or invent
something. According to Travers, “Basic Research is designed to add to an organized body
of scientific knowledge and does not necessarily produce results of immediate practical
value.” Such a research is time and cost intensive.
Quantitative Research

This research is based on numeric figures or numbers. Quantitative research aim to


measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project for
future period. In social sciences, “quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical
investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships”. The
objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories
or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research presents non-quantitative type of analysis. Qualitative research is


collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say.
Qualitative research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols,
metaphors, and description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective and
uses very different methods of collecting information, mainly individual, in-depth
interviews and focus groups.
Phenomenology:-a form of research in which the researcher attempts to understand how
one or more individuals experience a phenomenon.
Ethnography: - this type of research focuses on describing the culture of a group of people.
A culture is the shared attributes, values, norms, practices, language, and material
things.Hence researcher selected exploratory (Qualitative research) type of research.

Sampling methods:-
Within any of the types of frame identified above, a variety of sampling methods
can be employed, individually or in combination. Factors commonly influencing the
choice between these designs include:
Nature and quality of the frame
Availability of auxiliary information about units on the frame
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Accuracy requirements, and the need to measure accuracy
Whether detailed analysis of the sample is expected
Cost/operational concerns

TYPES OF SAMPLE:-

Probability Sampling
Non-probability Sampling
Simple Random
Convenience
Systematic Random
Snowball
Stratified
Quota
Multi-stage Cluster
Theoretical
Probability sampling:-

1. Simple Random:-

In a simple random sample (SRS) of a given size, all such subsets of the frame are given
an equal probability. Furthermore, any given pair of elements has the same chance of
selection as any other such pair (and similarly for triples, and so on). This minimizes bias
and simplifies analysis of results. In particular, the variance between individual results
within the sample is a good indicator of variance in the overall population, which makes it
relatively easy to estimate the accuracy of results

2. Systematic sample result


Systematic sampling (also known as interval sampling) relies on arranging the study
population according to some ordering scheme and then selecting elements at regular
intervals through that ordered list. Systematic sampling involves a random start and then
proceeds with the selection of every element from then onwards

3. Stratified sampling
When the population embraces a number of distinct categories, the frame can be organized
by these categories into separate "strata." Each stratum is then sampled as an independent
sub-population, out of which individual elements can be randomly selected. [2] There are
several potential benefits to stratified sampling.

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4. Cluster sampling
It also means that one does not need a sampling frame listing all elements in the target
population. Instead, clusters can be chosen from a cluster-level frame, with an element-
level frame created only for the selected clusters. In the example above, the sample only
requires a block-level city map for initial selections, and then a household-level map of the
100 selected blocks, rather than a household-level map of the whole city.

Non-probability sampling:

Social research is often conducted in situations where a researcher cannot select the kinds
of probability samples used in large-scale social surveys.
For example, say you wanted to study homelessness – there is no list of homeless
individuals nor are you likely to create such a list. However, you need to get some kind of
a sample of respondents in order to conduct your research. To gather such a sample, you
would likely use some form of non-probability sampling.

1. Quota sampling:-

Quota sampling is designed to overcome the most obvious flaw of availability sampling.
Rather than taking just anyone, you set quotas to ensure that the sample you get represents
certain characteristics in proportion to their prevalence in the population.
Note that for this method, something about the characteristics of the population ahead of
time. Say you want to make sure you have a sample proportional to the population in terms
of gender

2. Multi-Stage Sampling:-

Sometimes the population is too large and scattered for it to be practical to make a list of
the entire population from which to draw a SRS. For instance, when the polling
organization samples US voters, they do not do a SRS. Since voter lists are compiled by
counties, they might first do a sample of the counties and then sample within the selected
counties. This illustrates two stages. In some instances, they might use even more stages.
At each stage, they might do a stratified random sample on sex, race, income level, or any
other useful variable on which they could get information before sampling.

3. Snowball:-

Snowball sampling is a method in which a researcher identifies one member of some


population of interest, speaks to him/her, and then asks that person to identify others in the
population that the researcher might speak to. This person is then asked to refer the
19
researcher to yet another person, and so on.
Snowball sampling is very good for cases where members of a special population are
difficult to locate. For example, several studies of Mexican migrants in Los Angeles have
used snowball sampling to get respondents.

4. Purposive Sampling:-

Purposive sampling is a sampling method in which elements are chosen based on purpose
of the study. Purposive sampling may involve studying the entire population of some
limited group
As with other non-probability sampling methods, purposive sampling does not produce a
sample that is representative of a larger population, but it can be exactly what is needed in
some cases – study of organization, community, or some other clearly defined and
relatively limited group.

5. Convenience Sample:-

A convenience sample is a matter of taking what you can get. It is an accidental sample.
Although selection may be unguided, it probably is not random, using the correct
definition of everyone in the population having an equal chance of being selected.
Volunteers would constitute a convenience sample.

Collection of data, methods and techniques


The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined. While
deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should
keep in mind two types of data viz. Primary & Secondary.

1. PRIMARY DATA :-

Primary data are original and first-hand information. The source of such information is the
individuals and the incidents around them generally. Information relating to the project
was collected during formal and informal discussions with the group member.
Queries arising in due course of the project brought into the notice of concerned
authority and necessary explanation and solutions are adapted.
The data which is directly collected by the researcher and was not available before is
called as "primary data". The sources of primary data are very useful in. finding the real
facts about the incidents or events. It includes the personal observation of the researcher
and respondent. Primary data are the freshly collected data that provide information about
a particular problem. These data can be gathered using techniques like, interview,
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observation, mailing, counseling, etc

2. SECONDARY DATA :-

The source of information through documents concerning individuals and institutions


are known as secondary data or documentary source
It is the second hand data obtained by the use of secondary sources such as articles,
books, journals, internet, etc. For the research related to the marketing strategy of branding
Apple Inc., the secondary data was collected via the use of internet (websites, articles and
journals) and books mainly. The secondary data collected was presented in the research is
the form of a literature review. The citations and referencing states clearly from which
online websites, published articles or journals the data was collected from. Few of the
reasons that the secondary data was also collected along with primary data were because of
its readily available nature, and it helps to support primary data, making it more specific as
it helps to uncover the gaps, deficiencies and other information that needs to be collected.

Characteristics of Secondary Data :

Different characteristics of secondary data are as follows:

1) Available and Adequate: The information available from secondary data is suitable
and acceptable to make correct decision in solving the problem.

2) Cheaper: Since the information received from secondary data can be received easily, it
is comparatively cheaper than primary data collection. The analysis of secondary data
information may also provide equally satisfactory results required for research. The
information thus collected has wider spectrum compared to data collected through primary
collection.

3)Less Time Consuming: The search time involved in data collection is very much
reduced in secondary data collection exercise compared to primary data collection.

4) More Accurate Data: The secondary data is based upon official count or survey
conducted by government departments or some organizations involved in research and is
bound to be more accurate due to vast area coverage and extensive research work
undertaken which is generally not done in primary data collection which is based on
limited survey.

5) Helps Defining Research Problem and Generating Hypothesis: The data obtained
through secondary data can also significantly contribute to research work under initial
21
stage where area is unfamiliar and some theory is evolved based upon limited inputs. The
secondary data certainly helps researchers to understand the ground realities, exposes too
many options that can be followed and suitable alternatives may be adopted.

6) Helps Defining the Population: Secondary data helps to define the general status of
population of an area. For example, the statically per capita income of people in an area
can reveal the financial categories of the people such as affluent, rich, average middle class
or below poverty line. This is also applicable in various other fields like agriculture,
weather, etc.

Secondary Data Sources: Sometimes, collecting primary data proves to be complicated and
infeasible, due to which researchers prefer to collect readily available data upon which
various statistical analyses can be carried out. These data are available in huge amount and
are continuously generated. The secondary data can be collected in following manner:

Internal Secondary Data:

1. Secondary data generated within the research conducting organization is known as


internal secondary data. Data generated within the organization can be either formal
or informal. Formal data are generated periodically in a structured layout such as
reports of various departments, half yearly reports, etc. On the other hand, informal
data are not periodically generated such as' conceptual booklets, new policy
frameworks, etc. Formal internal data can be collected from following major
sources:

2. Sales Analysis: Sales analysis reports generated within the organization are
important internal source of secondary data. These reports contain the information
about the sales pattern and fluctuations in market position. These can be very useful
in drawing the solution of related problems.

3. Invoice Analysis: The invoices of an organization also act as a secondary data


source. These invoices help in understanding the sale and purchase pattern of the
organization in different situations or scenarios. The information collected through
the invoices may be summarized carefully to reach a particular solution. Various
data related to customer can be obtained with the help of invoices, such as, name of
customer, type of product, location of product delivered, etc.

4. Financial Data: Researchers can get a lot of financial data recorded within the
22
organization. These records may contain the information regarding production cost,
storage cost, transportation cost, sales cost, etc. these data are very useful data for
marketing research. These financial data are periodically generated from time to
time, and henced are proven.

5. Transportation Data: The transportation data regarding the routes, vehicles, loads,
etc., provide a lot of information regarding the transportation activities. These data
allow the researchers. To analyze the trade-offs between various costs and
determine the ways to get maximum - financial benefits.

6. Storage Data: Various costs associated with storage, such as, handling cost,
maintenance cost, etc., are the important data that are generated within the
organization. These data help the researchers in analyze research. These financial
data are periodically generated from time to time, and hence are updated.

7. Transportation Data: The transportation data regarding the routes, vehicles, loads,
etc., provide a lot of information regarding the transportation activities. These data
allow the researchers. To analyze the trade-offs between various costs and
determine the ways to get maximum – financial benefits.

8. Storage Data: Various costs associated with storage, such as, handling cost,
maintenance cost, etc., are the important data that are generated within the
organization. These data help the researchers in analyzing various pros and cons
related to the storage of materials and therefore suggesting suitable methods to be
adopted.

External Secondary Data:


Sometimes, important secondary data is not found within the organization. The
secondary data derived from different sources outside the organization is known as
"external secondary data". Some important sources of secondary data are as follows:

1. Libraries: Library is one of the external secondary data sources, which the
researcher may use to collect the necessary information for the research. Different
kinds of libraries provide a range of data for the research. Books related to research
topics, journals, magazines, research papers, etc., are available in various libraries,
maintained by different organizations and institutions.

2. Literature: A variety of literature is available on different subjects and issues. These


literatures are the result of extensive research practices. There is plenty of valuable
information in such kind of sources, which can be utilized for the resolution of
23
current research problems.

3. Periodicals: Business periodicals are published at regular time intervals, viz, yearly,
half yearly, bi-monthly, fortnightly, quarterly, etc. The secondary data are published
by various government and non-government agencies regarding finance, trade,
transport, industry, labor etc. These periodical contain various trends, future
prospects, opportunities in market, etc., which can be used by researchers in their
current research problem various pros and cons related to the storage of materials
and therefore suggesting suitable methods to be adopted.

4. References and Bibliography: The references and bibliography of a particular


research or journal can be a useful resource for deriving secondary data related to
specific issue. Researchers can take a huge amount of data which can then be
analyzed to get deeper insight.

5. Census and Registration Data: Data collected through census and different
registration programs may become very useful in deriving secondary data. As this
data is collected through extensive effort and field work, it contains the appropriate
information about various issues like, agriculture, trade, transport, banking, etc.

6. Trade Associations: Large amount of useful data may be derived from trade
associations as these contain the relevant information about the changes and
happenings in the industry. The information from one trade association is exchanged
with other trade association for updating the information content. Research firms
gain the access to different information from these associations.

7. Government Departments: The information available from government departments


may be utilized as secondary data in research process. Government departments can
provide various information regarding position and growth of different sectors of an
economy like finance, banking, trade and transport, agriculture, etc.

8. Private Sources: There are many organizations which publish the statistically
processed data for further use. These are the private institutions which perform
primary research about particular events or situations and compile the final facts and
figures. Some of the examples of such sources are Economic Times, Financial
Express, Indian Marketing Association, etc. The researchers engaged in current
marketing research can utilize the information available from these institutions by
purchasing journals, magazines, newspapers, etc., which are publicly available.

24
9. Commercial Research Institutions: Some institutions in the market deal in
purchasing and selling of different kind of data or information, which are collected
through research. Many market research institutions are in the business of providing
statistically processed data or information, by taking help of secondary data or by
conducting fresh surveys.

10. International Organizations: Several international organizations like World Health


Organization, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, International Labour or
data about a particular research. These data are available in huge amount and are
continuously generated. These organizations have plenty of information or resources
to provide data about issues like population, inflation, agriculture, education, labour
problems, child problems, women development, trade and transport, etc. Hence,
researcher collect the data through primary source i.e. through questionnaire.

DATA ANAYLSIS, INTERPRITATION & PRESENTATION

Introduction:-

Appropriate analysis tools are used to convert raw data into information that can be used in
marketing research. Percentile a ratios are some elementary methods of data analysis.
Some statistical methods such as mean, median, mode, percentage, and standard deviation
should be used as per requirement.

Objective of data analysis :-

1. Forecast the possible areas where faults can occurs.


2. How much strong relationship among the variables.
3. Measurement of degree of ambiguity.
4. Observe and control the influences of other associated characteristics.
5. Making inferences and taking decision.

The analysis does provide answers to research questions interpretation is also necessary
interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from the collected facts after
analytical and experimental study. It is the device through which is the factors that seem to
explain what has been observed by the researcher in the course of the study can be better
understood.
Interpretation is essential due to the following reasons:

a. Continuity in research can be maintained through interpretation by establishing links


25
with similar studies having the same underlying principle.
b. Interpretation leads to the establishment of explanatory concepts that can serve as a
guide for future research studies.
c. Researcher can explain to others the real significance of his researcher findings.
Precautions in Interpretation:

The task of interpretation needs to be undertaken in an impartial manner and in correct


perspective because even if the data are properly collected and analyzed, wrong
interpretations may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Hence the following precautions need
to be taken while interpreting results:

Researcher must assure himself that the data used are appropriate, trustworthy, adequate
and homogenous and have been properly analyzed.
Researcher must be cautions about errors which may arise due to false generalization
while interpreting the result. He should be well equipped with the use of statistical
measures. Broad generalizations must be avoided.
Researcher must remember that interpretation is closely linked with the analysis.
The researcher must remember that there should be constant interaction between
theoretical orientation and empirical observation.

Need of Interpretation:

The usefulness and utility of research findings depends upon the proper
interpretation. It is basic component of the research process. Interpretation is necessary in
the research process due to the following reasons:

1. Facilitates understanding of own research findings:- only through interpretation it is


basic component of the researcher of think of what his findings are and why they are
and then, he can make the others to understand the real significance of his research
findings.

2. Facilitates understanding of abstract principles behind findings:- Through


interpretation, the researcher can well understand the abstract principle behind his
own findings can link his findings with those of the other studies having the same
abstract principle. Thus, he can predict about the concrete world of events and can
maintain the continuity in research.

3. Forms Hypothesis: - Interpretation is involved in the transition from explanatory to


experimental research, because the interpretation research finding of explanatory
26
research study often results into hypothesis for experimental research.

4. Guidance for future research :- Interpretation establishes the explanatory concept


that can serve as guide for future research studies.

5. Stimulates research: - Interpretation opens new avenues of intellectual adventure


and stimulates the guest for more knowledge.

Importance of interpretation:-

Interpretation is essential for the simple reason that the usefulness of research findings lies
in proper interpretation. It is being considered a basic element of the research process
because of the following reasons.
1. It is through interpretation that researcher can well understand the abstract principles
that work behind his findings.
2. It leads to the establishment of explanatory concepts that can serve as a guide for further
research.
3. It makes other understand the real significance of his research findings.
4. In case of exploratory study, the interpretation helps to formulate a hypothesis or to
develop a research problem.

Essentials of Interpretations of Data:-

1.Accurate Data: - For the proper analysis and interpretations the data collected should be
accurate.

2.Sufficient Data: - The basis truth is that unless sufficient data is not available the
researcher may never achieve the objectives of proper
Interpretations, analysis Biased of unrepresentative results may be obtained if
interpretation are drawn based on unreliable or insufficient data.

Proper Type of Classification and Tabulations: -

To attain the objective of accurate interpretations, the investigators are required to base
their calculations, estimations and judgments on data represented in a properly classified
and tabulated from:

Presentation

27
The formal presentation of information is divided into two broad categories:
Presentation Skills and Personal Presentation.
These two aspects are interwoven and can be described as the preparation, presentation
and practice of verbal and non-verbal communication. This article describes what a
presentation is and defines some of the key terms associated with presentation skills. Many
people feel terrified when asked to make their first public talk. Some of these initial fears
can be reduced by good preparation that also lays the groundwork for making an effective
presentation.

Half a century ago as lakme took her step in to freedom. Lakme first brand was born at
time when the beauty industry was at a growing. Lakme tapped in to what would grow to
be among the leading high interest segment in the industry that of skin care and cosmetic
products.

Research Area
Nasik

Types of Research
Exploratory and Descriptive type of Research

Sampling Method
Simple Random Sampling

Sample Size
100 for general

Primary Data
Through Questionnaire

Secondary Data
By Web

Analysis of Data
Review Method

28
CHAPTER-3

LITERATURE REVIEW

29
No matter how sophisticated our society becomes, superstitions persist in having an
impact on success or failure. Superstition can be passed down through generations or
created on a purely individual level. Most superstitions have two different parts. One is
about good luck; another is about bad luck. Some of the older forms of superstition like
walking under a ladder, stepping on cracks in pavement, spilling salt, breaking mirrors or
other "bad omens" are examples of misguided belief. Average people use articles of
clothing like a "lucky tie" or "lucky shirt" they wear whenever going out for a job
interview or participating in some other event like gambling. Other people rely on
astrology or other forms of irrational mental exercises to test for the right time to make a
particular decision or perform certain actions. Superstitious beliefs are tied to the
supernatural or unpredictable side of events that are in the scope of things otherwise
beyond our control. Superstition works completely on irrational belief systems where one
successful mental correlation counteracts many unsuccessful results.
The effect superstitions have on people differs from person to person according to their
own attitude toward superstition. Some people just don’t believe it because they think it
has no rational justification. Some people follow it simply just for fun, not really believe in
it. Others who deeply believe it or take it too seriously, at last, become almost totally
dominated by traditional superstitions in daily affair of life. Being too superstitious could
lead to problems such as unfounded fear of things, excessive unnecessary caution and
scrupulosity in outward observance. This can make people oversensitive to some
unimportant trivia and worry about anything while those people seeing some things like a
black cat crossing one’s path which they think a implication of bad luck. Therefore, life
will be a lot more stressful for those who people with these concepts of superstitions
deeply-rooted in mind, because they get anxious about anything that has something to do
with the superstition. In spite of the fact that superstition is a somewhat out-of-date idea,
many people still just skeptically follow it. Probably because they think they could control
their fate by using some simple activities or behaviors as superstitions suggest.
Even though most people don’t believe in superstitions, they still, to some extent, affect
lots of people regardless of today’s modern technology, educational level or ethnicity.
Hence, it is of great importance to build up an appropriate attitude toward superstition
though we may not know all the truth about it. When dealing with superstitions, we don’t
have to pay too much attention or out great emphasis on these so-called ‘signs’ of
forthcoming bad things. If you just inevitably feel tense about what may happen in the near
future after seeing those ‘signs’, just bear in mind that what you believe in is infinitely
much more powerful than superstition itself. However, superstitions are not just that
worthless; it makes cultures around the world more fascinating and attractive after all.

30
CHAPTER-4

ANALYSIS OF DATA

31
Data analysis of 100 Respondents of 2 different age group was
studied.

Age Group I - [20-30years] - 50 respondents.

Age Group II – [31-45years] – 50 respondents.

Data Analysis of Age Group I [20-30years]

Gender: Female - 40
Male - 10

10, 20%

female
40, 80% male

Figure 1

32
Q1) How strongly do you believe in superstitions?
strongly disagree 35
Disagree 8
Neutral 5
Agree 2
Strongly agree 0

2, 4% 0, 0%

5, 10%

8, 16% strongly disagree


disagree

35, 70% neutral


agree
strongly agree

Figure 1.1

4% of them agreed.
10% of them are neutral.
16% of them disagreed.
70% of them strongly disagreed.

33
Q2) Do you believe superstitions have anything to do with
reality?
Yes 3
No, who believes in such things! 36
I am not sure 11

3, 6%

11, 22%

Yes
No, who believes in such things!
36, 72%
I am not sure

Figure 1.2

6% of them believe.
72% of them do not believe in superstitions.
22% of them are not sure about superstition.

34
Q3) Do you own any object that has special meaning or
belief to you?
Yes 15
No 35

15, 30%

Yes
35, 70%
No

Figure 1.3

30% of them owned an object which had special meaning or belief to them.
70% of them didn't own an object which had special meaning or belief to them.

35
Q4) Do you believe any of the following superstitions? TICK
ONE.
Black cats are bad omen 10
Avoiding to walk under ladders 2
The number 13 is unlucky 18
Not stepping outside the house if you have just sneezed 5
Not eating non vegetarian food on Tuesdays 15

Black cats are bad omen.


10, 20%
15, 30%
2, 4% Avoiding to walk under ladders

The number 13 is unlucky


5, 10%
18, 36%
Not stepping outside the house if
you have just sneezed
Not eating non vegetarian food
on Tuesdays

Figure 1.4

10% of them believed that stepping outside the house if they've just sneezed was
considered inauspicious
20% of them believed that black cats are bad omen.
36% of them the number 13 is considered unlucky.
4% of them believed the superstition to avoid walking under ladders.
30% of them believed that non vegetarian food should not be eaten on Tuesday.

36
Q5) Do you read your horoscope for the day, and have you
ever found it to be true?
Always 7
Sometimes 23
Never 30

7, 14%
20, 40%

Always
Sometimes
23, 46%
Never

Figure 1.5

14% of the students always read their horoscope and found it to be true.
46% of them rarely read their horoscope.
40% of the others never read their horoscope.

37
Q6) On a scale of (1to5), how strongly do you believe in good
and bad luck?
1 5
2 8
3 24
4 7
5 6

1, 7%
2, 13%
5, 33%

3, 20% 2
3
4
4, 27% 5

Figure 1.6

33% of the students strongly believed in good and bad luck.


27% of them partly believed in good and bad luck.
20% of them were neutral to the belief of good and bad luck.
13% of them believed very little in good and bad luck.
7% of them disregarded good and bad luck.

38
Q7) Have you ever made a wish seeing a shooting star?
Yes 19
No 31

19, 38%

31, 62% Yes


No

Figure 1.7

38% of them have made a wish seeing a shooting star.


62% of them never made a wish seeing a shooting star.

39
Q8) Do you think science has an answer to every superstition?
Yes, every superstition can be explained by science 4
Yes, but only sometimes 26
No, they both are two different things 17
I do not know 3

3, 6% 4, 8%
Yes, every superstition can be
explained by science
17, 34%
Yes, but only sometimes

26, 52%
No,they both are two different
things
I do not know

Figure 1.8

8% of them weren't aware if science has an answer to every superstition.


52% of them thought science did have an answer to every superstition but only
sometimes.
34% of them believe that science and superstition were two different things.
6 % of them didn't know if science had an answer to every superstition

40
Q9) Did taking a teaspoon of curd with little sugar before
your board exam bring you good luck?
Yes, definitely 14
No 24
Sometimes 12

12, 24% 14, 28%

Yes, definitely
No

24, 48% Sometimes

Figure 1.9

28% of them believed taking a teaspoon of curd with little sugar before board exams
brought good luck.
48% of them disregarded eating curd with sugar for good luck.
24% of them took a teaspoon of curd with sugar for good luck only when they needed
it.

41
Q10) On a scale of (1 to 5), how strongly do you believe that
superstitious affect a person lifestyle?
1 13
2 5
3 22
4 3
5 7

1, 7%
5, 33% 2, 13%
1
2
3, 20%
3
4
4, 27%
5

Figure 1.10

33% of them strongly believed that superstitions affected a person's lifestyle.


27% of them partly believed that superstitions affected a person's lifestyle.
20% of them were neutral to the belief of superstitions affecting a person's lifestyle.
13% of them believed very little in superstitions affecting a person's lifestyle.
7% of them disregarded the belief of superstitions affecting a person's lifestyle.

42
Data Analysis of Age Group II [31-45years]
Gender: Female - 30
Male - 20

20, 40%

30, 60% female

male

Figure 2

43
Q1) How strongly do you believe in superstitions?
Strongly disagree 7
Disagree 3
Neutral 7
Agree 12
Strongly agree 21

7, 14% 3, 6%
21, 42% strongly disagree
7, 14% disagree
neutral

12, 24% agree


strongly agree

Figure 2.1

14% of them did not strongly believe in superstitions


6% of them disagreed in superstitions.
14% of them had a neutral opinion about superstitions.
24% of them believed in superstitions.
42% of them strongly believed in superstitions.

44
Q2) Do you believe superstitions have anything to do with
reality?
Yes 21
No 19
I m not sure 10

10, 20%
21, 42%

Yes
No
19, 38%
I am not sure

Figure 2.2

38% of them didn't believe that superstitions had anything to do with reality
42%of them did not believe in superstitions have anything to do with reality.
20% of them were not sure about superstitions are related with reality.

45
Q3) Do you own any object that has special meaning or belief
to you?
Yes 27
No 23

23, 46%

27, 54% Yes


No

Figure 2.3

54% of them keep and believe in special objects.


46% of them don’t keep and believe in special objects.

46
Q4) Do you believe any of the following superstitions? TICK
ONE.
Black cats are bad ome 12
Avoiding to walk under ladders 2
The number 13 is unlucky 18
Not stepping outside the house if you have just sneezed 8
Not stepping outside the house if you have just sneezed 10

Black cats are bad


omen.

Avoiding to walk under


ladders
10, 20% 12, 24%
8, 16% 2, 4% The number 13 is
unlucky
18, 36%

Not stepping outside


the house if you have
just sneezed
Not stepping outside
the house if you have
just sneezed

Figure 2.4

16% of them believed that stepping outside the house if they've just sneezed was
considered inauspicious
24%% of them believed that black cats are bad omen.
36% of them believed that the number 13 is considered unlucky.
20% of them believed that non vegetarian food should not be eaten on Tuesday.
4% of them believed that walking under a ladder is unlucky.

47
Q5) Do you read your horoscope for the day, and have you ever
found it to be true?
Always 28
Sometimes 13
Never 9

9, 18%

Always
13, 26% 28, 56%
Sometimes
Never

Figure 2.5

56% of them always read their horoscope and found it to be true.


26% of them rarely read their horoscope.
18% of them never read their horoscope.

48
Q6) On a scale of (1to5), how strongly do you believe in good and
bad luck?
1 4
2 6
3 9
4 14
5 7

1, 7%
5, 33% 2, 13%

1
2
3, 20%
3
4
4, 27%
5

Figure 2.6

33% of them strongly believed in good and bad luck.


27% of them partly believed in good and bad luck.
20% of them were neutral to the belief of good and bad luck.
13% of them believed very little in good and bad luck.
7% of them disregarded good and bad luck.

49
Q7) Have you ever made a wish seeing a shooting star?
Yes 10
No 40

10, 20%

Yes

40, 80% No

Figure 2.7

20% of them have made a wish seeing a shooting star.


80% never made a wish seeing a shooting star.

50
Q8) Do you think science has an answer to every superstition?
Yes, every superstition can be explained by science 12
Yes, but only sometimes 19
No , they both are two different things 11
I do not know 8

8, 16% Yes, every superstition can


12, 24% be explained by science

11, 22% Yes, but only sometimes

19, 38% No,they both are two


different things
I do not know

Figure 2.8

22% of them weren't aware if science has an answer to every superstition.


38% of them thought science did have an answer to every superstition but only
sometimes.
24% of them were aware of superstitions can be explained by science.
16% of them had no idea about superstitions and science are related.

51
Q9) Did taking a teaspoon of curd with little sugar before your board
exam bring you good luck?
Yes, definitely 13
No 12
Sometimes 5

5, 10%

12, 24%
Yes, definitely
33, 66% No
Sometimes

Figure 2.9

66% of them believed taking a teaspoon of curd with little sugar before board exams
brought good luck.
24% of them disregarded eating curd with sugar for good luck.
10% of them took a teaspoon of curd with sugar for good luck only when they needed
it.

52
Q10) On a scale of (1 to 5), how strongly do you believe that
superstitious affect a person lifestyle?
1 5
2 2
3 23
4 13
5 7

1, 7%
5, 33% 2, 13%
1
2
3, 20%
3
4
4, 27%
5

Figure 2.10

33% strongly believed that superstitions affected a person's lifestyle.


27% of them partly believed that superstitions affected a person's lifestyle.
20% of them were neutral to the belief of superstitions affecting a person's lifestyle.
13% of them believed very little in superstitions affecting a person's lifestyle.
7% of them disregarded the belief of superstitions affecting a person's lifestyle.

53
CHAPTER-V

CONCLUSIONS,
RECOMMENDATIONS
AND
SUGGESTIONS.

54
Conclusion
Superstitions are the types of belief’s practices or rite irrationally maintained by ignorance
of the laws of nature or by faith in magic or chance.
Superstitions plays important role to develop positive attitudes in some situations and in
some situations it become a bad practice.

Superstitions and blind faith are two of the weakest mental quantity of any human being
on earth not only with Indian society.
It is impossible to change society on whole but yes as an individual one can adopt changes
in life style and beliefs.

Today science and technology growing fast, so we must develop scientific attitude among
the people to eradicate superstitions.

These are the conclusions from our project study as follows:

FOR GROUP I

 Majority of respondents do not believe in superstitions.


 Most of the respondents said that the superstitions are not related to our daily life.
 Majority of the respondents didn’t carried any special object with them, but some of
them carried and believed in object superstitions.
 Ranking of superstitions people believe from our study are as follows:
 Number 13 is unlucky
 No eating of non vegetarian food on Tuesday
 Black cats are omen
 Do not step out if someone sneeze
 Avoid walking under ladder

 Most of the people read their horoscope daily, whereas some of them do not read
horoscope at all.
 Many of them partially believed in good luck and bad luck.
 Majority of the people have not made any wish to a shooting star.
 Most of the people believed that science have an answer to few superstitions.
 Many of them disregarded eating curd with sugar for good luck.
 Most of them strongly believed that superstitions affected a person's lifestyle.
55
FOR GROUP II

 Majority of them strongly believed in superstitions.


 Most of them did not believe in superstitions have anything to do with reality.
 Majority of the respondents did carried special object with them, but some of them
didn’t carried.
 Ranking of superstitions people believe from our study are as follows:
 Number 13 is unlucky
 Black cats are omen
 No eating of non vegetarian food on Tuesday
 Do not step out if someone sneeze
 Avoid walking under ladder

 Most of the people read their horoscope daily and found it to be true.

 Many of them believed in good luck and bad luck.

 Majority of the people have not made any wish to a shooting star.

 Most of the people believed that science have an answer to few superstitions.

 Many of them agreed eating curd with sugar for good luck.

 Most of them strongly believed that superstitions affected a person's lifestyle.

56
Recommendation
And
Suggestions
 People should not believe in superstitions.

 People should change their approach towards different things in the society.

 Black cat is not an omen at all, it is just a mammal living their own world.

 Horoscopes are only predictions they have no relation with our daily life.

 The people with more age give certain norms and restrictions to younger ones about
superstitions to be followed, which are fake.

 Every individual should study about the reality behind every superstition.

 There is no truth told by any baba, they all are dhongis.

 A shooting star cannot fulfill any ones dream it is in our hand to achieve goals/
Hanging lemon and chillies cannot stop accident.

 Number 13 is just a normal number it is wrong to say it is unlucky, as it comes in


every month of the year.

 Eating non vegetarian food on particular day is also wrong when done for god, as
many people kill animals as a devotion to god.

 People should avoid giving importance to superstition and focus on science, because
science has all the answers for every superstition.

57
REFERENCES
Websites:
 www.researchgate.net
 www.bhaumikkaji.com
 www.academia.edu
 www.allresearchjournal.com
 www.scribd.com
 www.scholar.google.co.in
 www.shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in

Search engine : http://www.Google.com

Bibliography
Name of book Name of author Year of publication
The most dangerous Larken Rose 2011
superstition
Omen Superstition of Edgar Thurston 1906
southern India
Superstition – A rational Yadneshwar Nagale 2012
discourse

58
QUESTIONNARE

RESPONDANTS:
AGE GROUP :
GENDER :

Q.1 How strongly do you believe in superstitions ?

Strongly disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly agree

Q.2 Do you believe superstitions have anything to do with reality?

Yes
No
I am not sure

Q3) Do you own any object that has special meaning or belief to you?

Yes
No

Q4) Do you believe any of the following superstitions? TICK ONE.

Black cats are bad omen.


The number 13 is unlucky
Avoiding to walk under ladders
Not stepping outside the house if you have just sneezed
Non vegetarian food should not be eaten on Tuesday

Q5) Do you read your horoscope for the day, and have you ever found it to be true?

Always
Sometimes
Never

59
Q6) On a scale of (1to5),how strongly do you believe in good and bad luck?

1
2
3
4
5

Q7) Have you ever made a wish seeing a shooting star?

Yes
No

Q8)Do you think science has an answer to every superstition?

Yes, every superstition can be explained by science


Yes, but only sometimes
No,they both are two different things
I do not know

Q9) Did taking a teaspoon of curd with little sugar before your board exam bring you good
luck?

Yes, definitely
No
Sometimes

Q10) On a scale of (1 to 5), how strongly do you believe that superstitious affect a person
lifestyle?

1
2
3
4
5

60