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A DESCRIPTION OF THEME IN LEWIS CARROL’S ALICE’S ADVENTURES

IN WONDERLAND & THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS

A PAPER

BY

RUTH MANUELA. H
REG.NO : 142202091

DIPLOMA III ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM


FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH SUMATERA
MEDAN
JUNE 2017
It has been approved by
Supervisor,

Dra. Swesana Mardia Lubis. M.Hum.


NIP. 19571002 198601 2 003

Submitted to Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of North Sumatera


In partial fulfillment of the requirements for DIPLOMA (D-III) in English study
program

Approved by
Head of Diploma III English Study Program,

Dra. Swesana Mardia Lubis. M.Hum.


NIP. 19571002 198601 2 003

Approved by the Diploma III English Study Program


Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera
as a Paper for the Diploma (D-III) Examination
Accepted by the Board of Examiners in partial fulfillment of the requirements for

the D-III Examination of the Diploma-III Examination of the Diploma III English

Study Program, Faculty of Cultural Studies, Universitas of North Sumatera.

The examination is held on date


Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera

Dean,

Dr. Budi Agustono, M.S.


NIP. 19600805198703 1 0001

Board of Examiners :
Name Signature
1. Dra. Swesana Mardia Lubis, M.Hum. ____________

2. Drs. Parlindungan Purba, M.Hum ____________

3. Drs. SiamirMarulafau, M.Hum ____________


AUTHOR’S DECLARATION

I, Ruth Manuela H, declare that I am the sole author of this paper. Except where

the reference is made in the text of this paper, this paper contains nomaterial

published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper by which Ihave

qualified for or awarded another degree.

No other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the main

textof this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of another

degree inany tertiary education.

Signed :
Date : AUGUST, 2017
COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

Name : RUTH MANUELA. H

Title of Paper : Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland & Through the


Looking Glass
Qualification : D-III / AhliMadya

Study Program : English

I am willing that my paper should be available for reproduction at the discretion

ofthe Libertarian of the Diploma III English Study Program Faculty of Culture

StudiesUSU on the understanding that usres are made aware of their obligation

under law ofthe Republic of Indonesia.

I am not willing that my papers be made available for reproduction.

Signed :

Date : AUGUST, 2017


ABSTRACT
Literature is a kind of imaginative writing. It reflects a problem of life done by
human being. Novel is one of literary works that has intrinsic elements. Studying
intrinsic elements in a novel, it means to studylife experience of group human
being through a novel. The writer analyzes the theme novel “ Alice’s Adventures
in Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass. Therefore, the this paper entitled
become : ” Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass”.
Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass is about the
fiction written by English, Lewis Carroll. This novel is about the little girl named
Alice who lost in a magical world with the strange creatures and she doing
magical adventures in the wonderland.
ABSTRAK
Sastra adalah sebuah karangan fiksi dalam bentuk tulisan, dalam tulisan
itumenggambarkan masalah yang dialami oleh manusia. Novel adalah salah satu
karya sastra yang memiiki unsur instriksi (unsur dalaman). Mempelajari unsur
instriksik dalam sebuah novel sama dengan mempelajari pengalaman hidup dari
sekelompok manusia melalui novel. Penulis menganalisis unsur tema dalam novel
berjudul “ Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass. Oleh
karena itu, Tugas Akhir ini Berjudul ” Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland &
Through the Looking Glass”. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland & Through the
Looking Glass ini mengisahkan tentang cerita fiksi yang ditulis oleh penulis dari
Inggris, Lewis Carrol. Novel ini bercerita tentang seorang gadis kecil yang
bernama Alice yang tersesat di dunia ajaib yang dipenuhi oleh makhluk aneh dan
melakukan petualangan ajaib di negeri ajaib.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all, I would like to Thank to God, who gives me health, strength,

and capability to finish this paper as my last assignment to finish my study at

English Diploma III Department, University of North Sumatera.

Then I would like to express a deep gratitude, love, and a appreciation to

the dean Faculty of Cultural Studies, Dr. Budi Agustono, M.S and the head of

Diploma III English Study Program and my supervisor too , Dra. Swesana

Mardia Lubis.M.Hum who gives me a lot of knowledge, her time, advice, to

correct this paper during the process of writing and i say thanks to my supervisor.

I also wish to thank all of the Lectures in English Diploma Study

Program for giving me in instruction, and knowledge.

And then I would like to say thank to my lovely family especially to my

beloved parents, S.Hutabarat and B. Silitonga. Thank you for all your

motivation, advice, prays, and loves. I present this paper for you.

Thank you to my beloved brother Hardo Daniel Hutabarat and my

beloved sister Christin Debora Hutabarat. I really thank you for your support,

pray and love.

I would like to say thank you to Someone for your love,pray, patience,and

anything that i can’t mention more to support me to finish this paper and i will be

missing you.

I would like to say thank to my beloved friends Kelly Kitnas Sitohang

and Yus Natalya Simamora for your love and support me to finish this paper.
I would like to say to my friends Elida Tiarma, Ayu Silitonga, Diah

Kemala, Tiara Maharani, and Rio Brema. I will be missing you all.

I would like to say thank you to Tiara Indriyani and Marsaulina

Sianturifor your support me.

I would like to say thank you to Dandi Hutagalung, Vickry

Hidayatullah, Fenrico Pasaribu,Katon Sri Gumelar, Michael Sitinjak,

Muhammad Akbar, Nampati, Muhammad Fachri. I will be missing you all.

Thanks to my dearest friend in English Diploma 2014, Anggriani Manik,

Dini Nababan, Tamara Rebecca, Cetryn Sinaga, Vini Tobing and also to

Yudha Panggabean. Thank you for your support, cares, and others things that

help me to complete this paper. Thank you for the nice friendship during our

study. I will be missing the days we spent together.

I would like to say thank you to all my friends in Class A and B Diploma

III English Study Program/Solidas 2014. Thank you for your support that help

me to complete this paper. I will be missing you all.

Finally, I do realise that this paper is still far from being perfect. Therefore

I welcome any constructive criticism and suggestions towards this paper.

Hopefully this paper can inspire and give knowledge for anyone in the future.

Date, 01st, August 2017


The Writer

Ruth Manuela .H
Reg. 142202091
TABLE OF CONTENTS
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION........................................................................... i
COPYRIGHT DECLARATION ....................................................................... ii
ABSTRACK ........................................................................................................ iii
ABSTRAK ........................................................................................................... iv
ACKNOWLEGEMENTS................................................................................... v
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... vii
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... 1
1. 1 Background of the Study ........................................................................... 1
1. 2 Problem of the Study ................................................................................. 6
1. 3 Objective of the Study ............................................................................... 6
1. 4 Scope of the Study..................................................................................... 6
1. 5 Significance of the Study .......................................................................... 7
1. 6 Method of the Study .................................................................................. 8

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ............................................ 9


2. 1 Defenition of novel .................................................................................... 9
2. 2 Theme ........................................................................................................ 10
2.2.1 Type of Theme ............................................................................ 11
2.2.2 Theme Functions ......................................................................... 12

3. DESCRIPTION OF THEME IN LEWIS CARROL’S ALICE’S


ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND & THROUGH IN THE
LOOKING GLASS ................................................................................. 26
3.1 Theme ........................................................................................................ 26

4. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ................................................... 50


4.1 Conclusion ................................................................................................. 50
4.2 Suggestion ................................................................................................. 52
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 55
APPENDICES
A. Biography of the Author Synopsis of the Movie
1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Literature, mostly is defined as the entirely of written expression. Still,

there is an understandinf that not every written work can be categorized as

literature in the more exact meaning of the word. The word aesthetic or artistic

are two words that always used to characterize literary work and to differenciate it

from any other kind of written document such as scholary writing, legal document

or books. Then find many definitions of literature.

Literature (from Latin litterae(plural); letter) is the art of written work, and

is not confined to published sources (although, under some circumstances,

unpublished sources can also be exempt). Robert (1993: 1) says that literature also

refers to compositions that tell stories, dramatize situations, express emoticons,

and analyze and advocates ideas. From the statement, it is concluded that there are

3 kinds of literature, namely : (1) novel (a work of prose fiction written in the

narrative, usually in the form of stories), (2) drama (literature designed to be

performed by actors who played works of art orally among the players (dialogue),

(3) poetry (expresses a conversation or interchange that is grounded in the most

deeply felt experinces of human beings)

Roberts and Jacobs (1993:2) say, “ Literature may be classified into four

categories or genresL porse fiction, poetry, drama, and non-fictionprose which

classed as imagined literature.” The genres of imaginative literature have much in

common, but they are also have distinguishing characteristics. Prose fiction, or
narrative fiction, icludes myths, parables, romances, novels, and short stories.

Originally, fiction meant anything made up, crafted, or shaped, but today the word

refers to prose stories based in the author’s imagination. Fiction is distinguished

from the works it imitates, like historical accounts, reports, bioraphies,

autobiographies, letters, personal memoirs and meditations.

Literature may be classified into four categories or genres: 1. Prose fiction,

2. Poetry, 3. Drama, 4. Nonfiction prose. Usually the first three are classed as

imaginative literature. The genres of imaginative have much in common, includes

myths, parables, romances, novels, and short stories.

The word novelhas been derived from an Italian word novella, which

means a new story or a new thing. A number of critics have defined the word

novelin a different way. Dr. Tillyard defined the novel as “ A novel is a not too

unorganized, fictitious narrative in prose of at least, say, 20,000 words.” W.E

Williams defines it as “ A long narrative in prose detailing the actions of fictitious

people.”

Terri Eagleton (1983:1) states that “ there have been various attempts to

define literature. You can define it, for example, as “imaginative” writing in the

sense of fiction-writing which is not really true. But even the briefest reflection on

what people commonly include under the heading of literature suggests that this

will do. The literature as imaginative writing not really true because sometimes it

lifted up from someone’s imagination or drea,. A distinction between ‘fact’ and


‘fiction’, then, seems unlikely to get us very far, not least because the distinction

itself is often questionable one.

Novel is a picture of real life and manners, and of the time in which it was

written. Novel describes the true event (nonfiction) or fiction event which the

novelist want to present in the novel. In nonfiction novel, the novelist presents the

actual and the sequence of real event from their life experience.

In this paper a novel’s theme is used as the material of the discussion.

Tarigan (1993:125) says that theme is a spesific outlook on life or certain feelings

about lives or definite system of points which make of made main idea of

literature.

Another opinion expressed also by Aminudin (995:91). “Theme is the

underlying idea of the story to play a role and used as the author starting base in

describing fiction he created.” Theme is a main idea which based the story and

had a dominant position with the the result that concentrates the elements

according to made a literature together. Theme typically contains familiar, old or

given information. Theme provides the settings for the remainder of sentence.

Novel is a length story that narrates the life experinces. Novel have

extrinsic and intrinsic elements. intrinsic elements in a novel are character, setting,

plot, and theme. Character is a human being that plays actions in a novel. Setting

is the place and time in a novel. Plot is sequence of events that contain conflict in

a novel. And theme is central idea in a novel.


Theme is the main idea that the writer expresses. Theme can also be

defined as the underlying meaning of the story. It is simple thing that means the

reader of novel can be understood about the novel story from theme. Jacobus

(1993:18) says, “The theme of a novel is its message, its central concern-in short,

what is about. It is by no menas a simple thing to decide what the theme of novel

is, and many novels contain several rather than just a single theme. Often, the

search for a theme tempts us to relatively simple catchphrase.

Some of novels are fiction and some based on true stories. Both not only

entertain but also give meaning messages and impression to readers. Most people

are concerned with ordinary people and their problem in the societies in which

they find themselves (Jhon Peck and Martin Coyle,1998:102).

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, first published in 1865, and it was an

immediate success. Carroll's sense of the absurd and his amazing gift for games of

logic and language have made the Alice books popular with both adults and

children, and they have remained some of the best-known children's books written

in English. The well-known Disney adaptation draws freely from both books,

while retaining the basic structure of the first book and remaining faithful to the

flavor and central themes of the story.

The Alice books also mock the children's literature of the day. In keeping

with the character of the time, children's literature was full of simplistic morals

and heavy-handed attempts to educate the young. Some of the books supposedly

for children were quite dry, and at the least suffered from a lack of imagination.
Finally, the writer decide to write this paper entitled A DESCRIPTON OF

THEME IN ALICE’S ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND & THROUGH THE

LOOKING GLASS, LEWIS CARROL’S NOVEL

1.2 The Problem of the study

The problem of this study is :

1. What is the main theme of this novel?

1.3 The Objective the study

The objective of the study there are:

1. To describe the theme of this novel.

1.4 The Scope of the study

There are so many aspects in this novel that can be described, but I

become more interested in describing about the theme concentracted on this

novel; so, the scope of the study is limited to major theme, minor theme in the

novel Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass.

1.5 Reason for Choosing Topic

Because I know the novel about Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland

&Through the Looking Glass is interesting novel and the novel is unique because

people can read this novel by all ages and I also want to tell the people the novel

has a good languages by all ages too.


1.6 The Significance of Study

The significance of the study are :

1. To guide the reader in learning elements of the theme in the novel

2. To become a reference for subsequent researchers in analyzing the

elements of the elements of the theme in the novel

1.7 The Methods of the study

Writing this paper needed some data which are relevant to the paper.

Without data in writing a paper it will be difficult to finish because of some errors.

To complete this paper the writer applies two methods to collect the data, they are

library research and internet. Method of library research for finding data is collect

some book which are relevant with the analysis of this paper and copy part of

material in the book and internet to be references

The method of the study, the writer uses descriptive qualitative technique

to write this paper. The writer collects the quotations of the novel and selects the

quotations which contents events. The quotation is interpreted and analyzed, from

the analysis takes the conclusion.


2. THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 The Defenition of Novel

The word ‘novel’ is derived from Italian word ‘novella’ that used to

describe a short, compact, broadly realistic tale popular during the medieval

period. Until the seventeenth century ‘ novel’, if it was used at all, meant a short

story of the kind written and collected by Boccaccio (1313:75) in his

decameron.By about 1700, he had got something like its present meaning, which

as the shorter oxford dictionary tell us, is ‘a factious prose narrative of

considerable length in which characters and actions representative of real life are

portrayed in a plot of more or less complexity’. In other word a novel, as we

understand it today, is a story longer, more realistic and more complicated than

the Italian novella as written by Boccaccio and other writers at the time. The

novel is now the most widely read in all of kinds of literature, and the new from of

such kind of prose was then called ‘novel’ (novel means ‘new’).

Novel is a story which tells about someone life. Novels do not, however, present a

documentary picture of life. Along side the fact that novels look at people in

society, the other major characteristic of the genre is that novels tell a story. In

fact, novels tend to tell the some few stories time an time.

Differences between novels and short stories are in formality in terms of

shape and story length. A long story, let’s say hundred of pages, clearly can not be

called as a short stories, but more appropriately called a novel. Because of its

length, the novel can not inherit the solid unity that belongs to a short story.The
novel is also not able to make the subject stand out like a microcosmic principle

of short story. Instead the novels is able to present the development of one

character, a complicated social situation, relationship that involve many of few

characters, and a variety of complicated events occurring in greater detail. The

novel is able to create a complete universe at once complicated. This means that

the novel is both easy and more difficult to read when compare with the short

story.

Richard Taylor (1981:460) says that “Novel is a form of literary work.

Novel is normally a prose work of quite some length and complexity, which

attempts to reflect and expres something of the quality or value of human

experience or conduct”.

Sumardjo dan Sauni (1998:29) says that “novel is a story with the prose

form in long shape, this long shape means the story including the complex plot,

many character and various setting”.

R.J Rees (1973:106) says that novel is a fictitious prose narrative of

considerable length in which characters and action representative of real live are

portrayed in a plot of more or less complexity.

Therefore, novel creates by authors to represent their life experience that

they put in written form.

A novel is a totality, a comprehensiveness that is artistic.As a totality, the

novel has passages elements, most related to one another in close and mutually

dependent. The elements of a novel-builder who then collectively form totality


that-in addition to the formal elements of languages, there are many more kinds.

The division of the element in question is the intrinsic and extrinsic elements.

Novel is as a length story about life experience of human being. it can be

made base on imagination. The imagination is not really life experience, it is

impossible in real life. Novel also identified as narrative text informing of prose

with long shape that including some figure and fiction event and theme.

The source or the inspiration of writing novels can be based on trus story.

Theirs true story that we called as life experience. Novel can be reflecting of our

daily living around them. It could be easier because we just need to take from our

daily activities and our experinces. Put the ordinary story and also tells about the

ordinary person stories. Lift up from social problems, economics, or culture.

John Peck and Martin Coyle said that a lot of novels have young people as

the main character, for it is often the young who feel them to be most at odds with

conventional standards. You will have made considerable progress in

understanding the particular novel you are reading if you can see how it sets

certain individuals against society or their family.

Intrinstic Elements (intrinsic) are the elements that build the literary work

itself. Elements are what because the literary present as a work of Martial Arts.

Intrinsic elements of a novel element(directly) participate and build the story.

Extrinsic elements (extrinsic) are the elements that are beyond the works of

Martial Arts, but indirectly affect the building or system of the organism’s
Martial Arts. Extrinsic elements of a novel must be still seen as something

important.

Novel is narrative text informing of prose with a long shape that including

some figures and fiction event. The instrinsic elements of novel are plot, setting,

characterization, point of view, and theme.

Wellek and Warren (1970:91) say that literature reflects life as social

reality, so literature usually is very closely connected with certain social; therefore

in a traditional society, for example, it is quite difficult to distinguish between

poetry and religiuous cermonies, magic, or games.

Umar Kayam (1981:82-52) say, “Literature as one of the branches of art is

a manifestation and reflection of life and is a record of various aspects of culture.

Art is never seperate from society and is an integral part pf culture as well

as an expression of cultural creativity itself.” Based on the statements, it means

that literature is a kind of art that usually tells, dramatized, analyzed, expresses the

emotions, and advocates the ideas where the imagination of the author ordering

the exprerience of life into written or oral composition by offers the pleasure.

Esten (1978:9) say that literature is literary or disclosure of the facts

artistic and imaginative as a manifestation of human life. (and society) through

language as a medium and has a positive effect on human life (humanity)

There have been various attempts to define literature. You can define it,

for example, as a ‘’imaginative’’ writing in the sense of fiction, writing which is

not really true, but even the briefest reflection on what people commonly include
under the heading of literature suggests that this will do. Literature as imaginative

writing is reflected from people thought, that is not really true.

Shaw (1977:162) say that literature is the writing in which expression and

form, in connection with ideas and concern of universal and apparently permanent

interest are essential features. Literatureis frequently, but unwisely applied to any

kind of printed material such as circulars, leaflets, and handbills. The term is

correctly reserved for prose and verse of acknowledge excellence.

Coates (1983:17) says, “ The novel is impossible history, for history has

become impossible. It is powered by negative utopianism: it creates an image of

artificial reality, but not of a better one as a prophet would.” The novel story tells

the story human life generally in interacting with the environment and each other.

William (1934) say that writings having excellence of form of expression

and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. Literature is writings in

which expression and form in connecton with ideas of permanent and universal

interest, are characteristic or essential features as poetry, novels, history,

biography, and essays. Literature in the sense drama, poems, and novel has

something different.

Abram, (1981:119) says that novel is the nama of the literary kind and

there is a story to tell about how over the centuries, its substance has widened and

its conventions changed. In an excited moment, we can call the novel

‘independent’ elastic prodigious, and its story is as untidy as some of its

masterpieces. If Abrams has ever read any novels, he would have needed a far
wider cancas than he allowed to tragedy in taht survising fragment of analysis

known as the poetics.

Novella literary means ‘ a small new item’ and than interpreted as ‘ a short

story in the form of prose’. Rees (1973: 106) says, “Novel is a fictitious prose

narrative of considerable length in which characters and actions representative of

real life are portrayed in a plot of more or less complexity.” A plot is a series of

carefully devised and interrelated actions that progresses through a strungglr of

opposing forces (conflict) to a climax.

Novel is one of many possible prose narrative forms. Richard Gill

(1985:78) say that in writing, there is a recognition that a novel is something

specially made by an author so that a reader will respond to it in a particular way.

The good candidate has recognized three things about a novel: the events of the

novel, the author who has created them, and the reader for whom the novel is

written. In any good writing about a novel, these three things should be

mentioned.

The author, of course is the most important element: the events of the

novel and the reactions of the reader depend upon what he or she chooses to do.

Because without an author there could be no book at all, but there is also a much

more important reason: a novel is a world specially made in words by an author.


2.2 Theme

There may be a moral in the story, such as the need for social reform in

many novels. It is the message that author whishes to convey or the lesson author

wants the reader to learn. Theme is revealed through the values of characters

when confronting obstacles and resolving conflict in pursuit of their goal. It can

be considered the foundation and purpose of your novel. Without purpose, the

story becomes trivial.

Theme or themes refers to the result of general and abstract thinking of a

writing. In this part, idea become the general thinking of the novel. in the literary

study the consideration of themes relates to meaning, interpretation, explanation,

and significance. Though themes are usually extensive and complex, separate

ideas may be named by a single word.

Theme, accoding to Stanton (1965: 20) and Kenney (1966: 88) is the

meaning contained by a story. But there are many meanings conceived and

offered by the story (novel), then the problem is a special meaningwhich can be

expressed as the theme.

Hartoko and Rahmanto (1986: 142) Theme is the ideas of common bases

that sustains a work of literature and are contained in the text semantic structure

and as regarding commonality or diffrences. Themes distilled from the motifs

contained in the relevant work that determines the presence of events, conflicts,

and situations. The theme became the basics of development of the whole story,

so he is animating the whole story. A common theme has a generalization, wider,


and abstract. However, the overall theme is the meaning of which supported his

story by itself would be hidden behind a story that supports it.

Theme is a main idea that the writer expresses. Theme can also be defined

as the underlying meaning of the story. Theme is another prime element of

literature, which contains the central idea of all literary forms such a novel, drama,

and short story. It reflects innocence, experince, live, death, reality, fate, madness,

sanity, love, society, individual, etc.

Stanton and Kenney, Theme is meaning of story which especially explains

a big part of its elements in the simple way. It is more or less synonymous the

central idea and central purpose.

The expanding of story does not always parallel with the framework

because the idea will often develop suitable with the author’s will,this is approved

by Hamalian and Fredick R Karl, where they claim that before writing a story, the

author will frame his ideas first. But when he thinks taht the idea has become so

usual in life and bore, he develops it out of the basic framework and makes his

story more interesting to be enjoyed and implemented his readers.

According to Wikipedia, theme is a broad idea, message or moral of a

story. The message may be about life, society, human nature. Theme often

explores timeless and universal ideas and are almost implied rather than stated

explicitly. To determine the main meaning in a novel, we should know the

definition of theme itself.


According Burton Goodman said that theme is a main idea or the main

point in a story. A theme must represent the whole part of the story, because the

theme is a basic development of a whole story. Actually it is not easy to find out

the theme in a novel. The reader has to read the novel and understand what the

story tells about.

The theme of a piece of fiction such as novels is it views about life and

how people behave. Theme of novels is a universal idea or message that sretches

through an entire story. The theme in a novel is more than it is subject matter,

because an author’s technique can play as strong a role in developing theme as the

actions of the character do.

According to Frederick R.Karl, Theme is a kind of composite statement

which requires our comprehension of numerous other elements. The theme can

not be anything you choose to make it. Every interpretation must be consistent

with what the author has provided. If you defend a particular meaning that you

feel deeply about it.

A novel may have several themes. Themes often explore historically

common or cross culturally recognizable ideas, such as ethical questions, and are

usually implied rather than stated explicitly. Along with plot, character, setting,

and style, theme is considered one of the fundamental components of fiction.

Theme is also a general basic idea that supports a literature, and it implies

in the text as semantic structure and connects with the similarities and differences.
Themes become basic development of the whole story, so it must represent the

whole part of novel.

2.2.1 The Type of Theme

• Main Theme (the theme of major)

The meaning of the basic story idea into a public drama literary works are

not only found in certain parts of the course. It could be said there is in the whole

section.

The major theme of a book is the storyline of the book. The plot, the

protagonists and the the supporting characters all together comprise the major

theme of any book.

• Additional theme (the theme of minor)

An additional theme that is only found on certain sections. Unlike the

major themes that can cover the whole story. Indeed, there is a whole range of

themes, but in practice very difficult to present a work that contains only one

theme only.

2.2.2 Theme Functions

Theme functions of a theme is to give input fix other structural elements,

such as plot, character, and setting; the most important functionality in prose that

is terminating the last element to be the whole story. This means that authors

create and shape the plot, bringing the characters to life, whether consciously or
not, express or implied, is essentially a behavior that is guided by the chosen

theme and has been directing it.

In addition, the theme also serves the vision. What is meant here is the

vision of the total response of the author of the life experience and linked with the

visible. On the other hand readers get the chance to see the life experiences of

others through thought provoking author of in other words, the author creates a

fictional world that leads us to our own culture is experiencing the event. All of

this can be obtained through the theme, as long as we can unite the whole element

of prose into a unified whole.


3. THE DESCRIPTION OF THEME IN LEWIS CARROL’S ALICE’S

ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND & THROUGH THE LOOKING

GLASS

3.1 Theme
Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a

literary work. This novel tells about Alice was the work of a mathematician and

logician who wrote as both a humorist. The book tells about fiction and comedy,

with the comedy, and mixing fantasy with actions. The book is the most

accessible of all literary masterpieces, and one of the strangest. Theme of

Loneliness Alice’s Adventure in Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass,

Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and of

having nothing to do; one or twice she was reading the book She cannot get her

recitations right, and she becomes even more confused. Alice becomes herself

confused and hopeless.

Theme of Alice’s In Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass is Alice is

the only person and character innoncence make a perfect girl of social in a la

Candide. By implication, there is the view that child’s perception of the world.

Rather to grow and lead to emotionalism and adult religiosity.

Another theme of this book, the tragic and inevitable loss of childhood

innoncence. Alice’s Adventure in Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass,

Alice goes through a variety of absurd physical change. Alice changes to be

traumatic and feel sadness when she trough them.


Theme of Exploration Alice’s Adventure in Wonderland & Through the

Looking Glass the adventures of one beautiful little girl a variety of strange

fantasylands. The exploration is about the language and explore herself about

knowledge. Alice in wonderland seeing and experience about journey anything.

Alice as a little brave girl to explorer about new world in wonderland.

The another theme of this book is mirroring. Alice’s Wonderland &

Through the Looking Glass is Looking Glass Land is like a mirror image of the

real world and Through the Looking Glass is in many ways mirror a Alice’s

Wonderland. Looking Glass starts indoors in the snowy winter. And the

Wonderland focuses on changes such as Alice growing big and shrinking small

again. Looking glass focuses on changes in time and space.

One of the theme of the book is about education and knowledge. The

novel of Alice in Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass is book learning. The

children learn in the schollroom. Alice books, it is possible to enjoy the nonsense

and silliness of the stories even if you don’t understand all the nuances.

The theme of knowledge is Alice constantly tests her school work to make sure

she is herself. She recites poems for various characters and always come out

wrong, the original of the parodies.

Now another theme of the book is showed by chess. Carrol loved games of

all the types and Wonderland images playing cards. Looking glass takes chess as

it’s primary game. Looking Glass-Land is conceived as a chess board. That Alice
struggles to understand, perhaps the real Alice’s process of learning the game of

chess.

Theme of the book is madness. Madness is the explanation for just about

sadly, silly, curious in Alice books. Madness is not simply the opposite of sanit,

there are many types of madness, each of which deviates from the norm in a

different way and to a different. Madness in the book is different from the other

books.

Theme of the book is Tone. Sometimes the tone is playful in an innocent

way about the Alice in Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass.

“One thing was certain, that the white kitten had had nothing to do with it:- it was
the black kitten’s fault entirely. For the white kitten had been having its face
washed by the old cat for the last quarter of an hour (and bearing it pretty
well,considering); so you see that it couldn’t have had any hand in the mischief”
(Looking Glass 1.1)

In other places, the narrator is tongue-in-cheek, which is a fancy way of


saying mocking or humorous in a lighthearted way. For example, Alice’s
astonishment at tumbling down the rabbit hole becomes a morbid joke between
the narrator and the reader

”Well!” thought Alice to herself, “after such a fall as this, I shall think nothing of
tumbling down stairs! How brave they’ll all think me at home! Why, I wouldn’t
say anything about it, even if I fell off the top of the house!” (Which was very
likely true.) (Wonderland 1.7)

In other places, the narrator feels sympathy for Alice’s bewilderment and
difficulties. When Alice despairs of ever getting into the beautiful garden, the
narrator pities her;
“Poor Alice! It was as much as she could do, lying down on one side, to look
through into the garden with one eye; but to get through was more hopeless than
ever; she sat down and began to cry again.” (Wonderland 2.5)

Overall, the narrator is gentle, even when making fun of Alice or enjoying
a private joke with the reader. We feel chummy with the narrator

Another theme of the book is Setting. Now begin with a Alice books.
Alice lives a domestic life with her older sister, nurse, and the member of family.
As a girl in the England of the mid 1800s, Alice would have been sheltered from
the most of the realities of the world around her, like industrialization, and
anything that might have been considered, awkward or silly.

In Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, the fantasy world is, you guessed it.
Wonderland is the place what is sound like (a land of wonders, of strange and
curious things).

Wonderland have a physical location (underground, where Alice falls after


tumbling down the rabbit hole) like original title Alice’s Adventures in
Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass. Wonderland is the dream world, since
Alice wakes up at the end of her the journey.

Looking Glass World is similar to Wonderland, but not the same.


Wonderlan is quirky, Looking Glass World is actually backwards in many ways.
Through the Looking Glass is the different kinds of backward-ness. Alice doesn’t
always have to run to stand still.

The Alice books celebrate youth as the time when the individual is open to
imaginative possobilities. Children can’t help grow old, and old man can maintain
a youthful outlook by preserving a spirit of nonsense and adventure. Growth is
depicted as out one’s control, but emotional can growth. Adulthood in these book
contrast with youth, adult are boosy.
Alice grows and changes in a variety of ways in Wonderland and Looking Glass
World, but her child like nature doesn’t depend on her size or age.

The Alice book language and communication continually fails to provide


an adequate means of communication. In fact, the complex and confusing nature
of language frequently leads to miscommunicaton. Miscommunication is rival
interpretations of the same words or sounds like same but different meaning each
other. Communication is complicated in Alice books, Humpty Dumpty’s as
exampkes show that there is nothing the inherently wrong with the language.

Another theme of the book is Violence. The violence in Alice books more
lighthearted moments of fantasy. There are many jokes or focus to the possibility
of death. Conflict, battle, and depicted as inevitable but pointless. Violence on the
Alice books is a surprising reminder of the suffering and pain taht exist without
any reason. Even in her imagination, Alice can’t escape this fundamental truth of
existence

It would be safe to say that the central theme is survival and adaptation to
sudden change. Many have argued that this is an allegory to the transition from
childhood to young adulthood, or from young adulthood to adulthood, which are
transition into complex, and complicated situations to which we have to adapt.

When Alice moves into Wonderland, things are difficult to her. More than just
enjoy herself and have fun in the freedoms of being alone. Alice feels traumatic,
rare, and odd changes, met very strange character, saw things she had never saw
before.

Those are feelings very similar to those of people of who are entering a
new stage in lives: Meeting stranges, solve problem alone, changes in our body,
experimenting with thing we never tried, something not knowing what it is.

Alice in Wonderland is such a rich work that is difficult to land on one


main theme but at the heart of the story lies the question of identity. Who isAlice?
Almost as soon as she enters the rabbit hole, Alice sense of self is under constant
assault.

She admits to the Caterpillar in Chapter five that she is undergoing a criris
about her identity. When he asks her who she is, she responds:

“ I – I hardly know, sir, just at

Present – at least I know who

I was when I got up this morning,

but I think I must have been

changed several times since then.”

“What do you mean by that?” said

the Caterpillar sternly. ‘Explain

yourself!”

“I can’t explain myself, I’m afraid,

Sir, said Alice, ‘because i’m not

myself, you see.”

“I don’t see,” said the Caterpillar.

“I’m afraid I can’t put it more cleary,’ Alice replied very politely,

‘for I can’t understand it myself to

Begin with’ and being so many

Different sizes in day is very

Confusing,”
This confusion about identity becomes central for this book. The

Duchess’s baby turns into a pig, teh Cheshire cat into a smile, and the Queen and

her court into a pack of cards. It is when she looks inward, holds her ground, and

is not afraid that she awakes from her dream:

“Hold your tongue!” said the Queen

turning purple.

“I won’t!” said Alice.

“Off with her head!” the Queens

shouted at the top of her voice.

Nobody moved.

“Who cares for you?” said Alice,

(she had grown to her full size by

this time.) “You’re nothing but a


pack of card!”

At this the whole pack rose up into the air, and came flying down upon

her. She gave a little scream, half of fright and half of anger, and tried to eat them

off. And found herself lying on the bank, with her head in the lap of her sister,

who was gently brushing away some dead leaves that had fluttered down from the

trees upon her face.

Alice in Wonderland is a timeless story that is relevant in many cultures,

having 40 languages. Through most of it’s history, Lewis Carroll’s Alice in


Wonderland has been described as a “ coming of age” story about the little girl

trying to figure out who she really is.

The theme of identity, Alice figuring out who she is, and coming of age

are so similar as to be one theme. As Alice travels through Wonderland, she is

constantly bombarded by personal changes that challenge her perception of

herself.

The main theme of Alice in Wonderland can therefore be described as one

of growing up and finding one’s of identity.

Death as a Constant and Underlying Menace, Alice continually finds

herself in situations in which she risks death, and while these threats never

materialize, suggest that death lurks just behind of Alice’s in Wonderland as a

present and possible out come.

Death appears in Chapter I is that Alice would say nothing of falling off of

her own house, since it would likely kill her. Alice takes risks that could possibly

kill her, but she never considers death as possible outcome


4. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

4.1 Conclusion

After reading and description the theme of Alice’s Adventures in

Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass, understood and description this novel

from the beginning up to the end, I come to conclusion that the theme in this

novel gives many posistive impacts on the readers. The theme is the central idea

of the work which presents its intention. The theme is closely connected to

character, setting, and plot, without the theme there won’t be a work of literature.

The theme of Alice’s Adventure in Wonderland & Through the Looking Glass ais

supported that is the main theme.

The main theme in the book tell about Alice. Alice more depth as a

character, more autonomy, and become more heroic. She becomes a character of a

little girl. Alice is the protagonist of the story. Her adventures begin with her

fateful jump down the rabbit hole. There are many characters, but the writer just

take it only White Rabbit, The Queen of the heart, and the Caterpillar.

4.2 Suggestion

After analyzing Alice’s Adventures in Wonderlad & Through the Looking

Glass, the writer hopes that this paper will be helpful for the reader, who wants to

know about the theme and it’s part. In fact, it will be better for the reader to

understand literature in general before reading a novel since that novel is one of a

familiar literaty works to anyone.


Novel can be enjoyed by everyone because it is written. Moreover, it is

also imporant to understand the theme in a story. It is because the reader will

know how the message delivered in the story of novel and teaches the moral

messages from the story.

Theme can be classified into several different categories; the level of

primacy is Main Theme. In the case, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland &

Through the Looking Glass about action, cartoon, musicals, fiction, moral mesage

which can give the lesson of the life.

However, the writer realizes that this paper is still far from being perfect

therefore the writer suggests the readers interested in analyzing the theme used in

a novel will do further research. Theme is only a part from many that can be

explored more. I hope this paper will be a starting point analysis. In this case, the

writer will receive any constructive criticsm to develop this writing.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alexander, L Taylor.1952.The White Knight, Oliver & Boyd. London

Derek, Hudson,1976. An Illustrated Biography Lewis Carrol. New York:

University London.

Donald, Rackin. 1991. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland ang Through the

Looking Glass. New York: Nonsense, Sense and Meaning, Twayne.

Harmon, William. 2000, A Hand book to Literature Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle

Riuv, New Fer Sly

Jo, Elewyn, Jones and J. Francis Gladstone. 1998. The Alice Companion. Milan

Lewis, Carroll 1965. Alice Adventures Under Ground. New York

Manindra Math Sinha, 1997. A Hand Book of the Study of Literature, Barcilly

242001.

McQuade, Donald, et al, 1998. The Harper: American Literature, third edition

Addison Wesley Longman.

Martin, Gardner. 1976. The Annotated Snark, Penguin. London.

William, Empson. 1997. ‘The Child as Swain,’ in Some Version Pastoral.London

https://www.biography.com/people/lewis-carroll-9239598

https://www.Wikipedia.org/wiki.com

https://www.enotes.com/literary-terms/theme
APPENDICES

A. Biography of the Author

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, best known by his pseudonym, Lewis

Carroll, was born in the village of Daresbury, England, on January 27, 1832. The

eldest boy in a family of 11 children, Carroll was rather adept at entertaining

himself and his siblings. His father, a clergyman, raised them in the rectory. As a

boy, Carroll excelled in mathematics and won many academic prizes. At age 20,

he was awarded a studentship (called a scholarship in other colleges) to Christ

College. Apart from serving as a lecturer in mathematics, he was an avid

photographer and wrote essays, political pamphlets and poetry. "The Hunting of

the Snark" displays his wonderful ability in the genre of literary nonsense. When

he was 14, Charles shipped off to the Rugby School, an elite boy’s boarding

academy in Warwickshire. He was an excellent student in mathematcs.


Charles Dodgson/Lewis Carroll was involved with Christ Church in some way for

the rest of his life. As the Oxford equivalent of a math major, Dodgson was an

excellent scholar. In 1852, he was awarded a Studentship at Christ Church, an

honor similar to a fellowship. It came with an annual stipend. In 1854, he received

his bachelor's degree from Christ Church, earning a First Class Honors in

mathematics and Second Class Honors in classics. He remained at Christ Church

for graduate studies, and earned his master's degree in mathematics three years

later. During this time he continued to publish stories and poems in local and

national magazines. In 1856, he began to publish under the pen name Lewis

Carroll. In a characteristic game of wordplay, Dodgson derived the name "Lewis

Carroll" from the Latinized version of "Charles Lutwidge."

In 1855, the Rev. Henry Liddell was appointed dean of Christ Church College.

Liddell was a major figure in Carroll's personal and professional life. He

appointed the young graduate student a lecturer in mathematics, effectively giving

him tenure when Carroll was only 24 years old. He also introduced the bachelor

scholar to his family, which included Liddell's wife and ten children. Carroll's

favorite of the Liddell children was three-year-old Alice. In 1856 Carroll met

Alice Liddell, the four-year-old daughter of the head of Christ Church. During the

next few years Carroll often made up stories for Alice and her sisters. In July

1862, while on a picnic with the Liddell girls, Carroll recounted the adventures of

a little girl who fell into a rabbit hole. Alice asked him to write the story out for

her. He did so, calling it Alice's Adventures under Ground. After some changes,
this work was published in 1865 as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland with

illustrations by John Tenniel.

Encouraged by the book's success, Carroll wrote a second volume, Through the

Looking Glass and What Alice Found There (1872). Based on the chess games

Carroll played with the Liddell children, it included material he had written before

he knew them. The first section of "Jabberwocky," for example, was written in

1855. More of Carroll's famous Wonderland characters—such as Humpty

Dumpty, the White Knight, and Tweedledum and Tweedledee—appear in this

work than in Alice in Wonderland.

Unlike most of the children's books of the day, Alice and Through the Looking

Glass did not attempt to convey obvious moral lessons. Nor did they contain what

critics have tried to insist are there—hidden meanings relating to religion or

politics. They are delightful adventure stories in which a normal, healthy,

clearheaded little girl reacts to the "reality" of the adult world. Their appeal to

adults as well as to children lies in Alice's intelligent response to ridiculous

language and action. In 1857, Carroll took his M.A. degree and was made "Master

of the House." During those years, he immersed himself in literature,

mathematics, and also in the London theater. He produced freelance humorous

prose pieces and verses for various periodicals, explored theories of dual

identities, wrote satires, published mathematical and symbolic logic texts,

invented word games and puzzles, and took up photography, a hobby that would

make him famous as one of the best Victorian photographers. In short, Carroll

became a sort of lesser English equivalent of Leonardo da Vinci. He invented the


Nyctograph, a device for writing in the dark, and he also invented a method of

remote control self-photography. Helmut Gernshein, the author of Lewis Carroll:

Photographer, calls Carroll's photographic achievements "astonishing"; in his

estimation, Carroll "must not only rank as a pioneer of British amateur

photography, but I would also unhesitatingly acclaim him as the most outstanding

photographer of children in the nineteenth century." Carroll published several

other nonsense works, including The Hunting of the Snark (1876), Sylvie and

Bruno (1889), and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893). He also wrote a number

of pamphlets poking fun at university affairs, which appeared under a fake name

or without any name at all, and he composed several works on mathematics under

his true name. In 1881 Carroll gave up his lecturing to devote all of his time to

writing. From 1882 to 1892, however, he was curator of the common room

(manager of the staff club) at Christ Church. After a short illness, he died on

January 14, 1898.