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Unit 2.

YOUR BODY AND YOU

LANGUAGE FOCUS
Phonetics
Consonant clusters /pl/, /pr/, /gl/, /gr/:
preview, pleasure, gradually, glucose ...
Grammar
- The future simple with will Vs be going to
I'm afraid the doctor will not be able to see you this afternoon. He will be busy operating on a patient.
The goods are all here. We are going to send them tomorrow morning.
- The passive
Each one of the children in the class has been given a piece of paper and a crayon.
They are drawing pictures in the painting room.
The patients were carefully examined, and then they received treatment.
Vocabulary
Words and phrases about health and illnesses:
oxygenate, respiratory system ...
I. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in
pronunciation in each of the following questions.
1. A. brain B. waist C. hair D. tail
2. A. digestive B. flesh C. system D. energy
3. A. blood B. tattoo C. food D. tooth
4. A. circulate B. cane C. capable D. capillary
5. A. nervous B. eyes C. organs D. shoulders
II. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word that differs from the other three in the position of
primary stress in each of the following questions.
1. A. skeletal B. intestine C. digestion D. dioxide
2. A. oxygen B. memory C. exercise D. internal
3. A. acupuncture B. alternative C. temperature D. complicated
4. A. recommend B. stimulate C. evidence D. harmony
5. A. stomach B. digest C. body D. forehead
III. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the
following sentences.
1. Properly intake of water, salt and minerals can prevent chronic illnesses and even reverse the damage already
A B C D
done.
2. The pharmaceutical industry would lose billions in profits if people relied on the natural healing properties of
A B C
water other than expensive and toxic drugs.
D
3. The reasons why lack of water causes the body to become stressed and diseased, as well as very simple
A B C
methods to ensure your own vibrant health, are all explained in details.
D
4. In dehydration, even the body has a lot of water in it, it is the lack of free water that constitutes dehydration.
A B C D
5. You need to replace the water loss from your body with fresh intake of water in order to supply the body with
A B C D
free water to perform new functions.
IV. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following sentences.
1. Dehydration is the underlying cause ____ many chronic diseases."
A. to B. for C. of D. by
2. Any time you want to perform a function that requires water to perform that function, you had better give that
water to the body in ____ of the event.
A. case B. accordance C. prior D. advance
3. If you want to eat, give your body the water that is needed ____ digest food.
A. in order to B. in order that C. in order of D. in order for
4. If you want to exercise and sweat, give the body the water that it has to shed in ____.
A. sweat B. sweating C. sweated D. sweater
5. It is free water shortage in the body ____ constitutes dehydration.
A. who B. whom C. it D. that
6. The human brain is the body's ____ receiving and sending signals to other organs through the nervous system
and through secreted hormones.
A. control center B. controlled center C. central controller D. center control
7. The human heart is responsible for pumping blood ____ the body.
A. through B. throughout C. in D. along
8. The liver has many functions, ____ detoxifying of harmful chemicals, breakdown of drugs, filtering of blood,
secretion of bile and production of blood-clotting proteins.
A. include B. that includes C. which includes D. including
9. The lungs are responsible for removing oxygen from the air we ____ and transferring it to our blood where it
can be sent to our cells.
A. breathe B. inhale C. absorb D. exhale
10. Studies have shown that physical activity reduces stress; a ____ effect was observed when this took place
outdoors.
A. double B. doubled C. doubled D. doubles
11. A healthy balanced diet ____ fiber, vitamins, minerals, fresh fruit and vegetables, as well as protein,
carbohydrate and fats.
A. sticks to B. consists of C. goes on D. follows up
12. Salt is essential in order to regulate the blood sugar, it's essential to ____ hydro-electricity.
A. power B. create C. do D. manufacture
13. The structure of bones depends on salt for fullness, because 27 percent of the salt reserve in the body ____
in crystallized form in the actual bone structure, in the shaft of the bone.
A. is B. are C. has been D. have been
14. You need daily exercise because your brain ____ depends on how you move your muscles.
A. chemist B. chemical C. chemistry D. chemicals
15. When you use your muscles, you burn the branched-chain amino acids, ____ are competitors to tryptophan
passage across the blood-brain barrier.
A. who B. which C. that D. those
16. To reverse any of the diseases produced by dehydration, it is essential to ____ supplement the body with
intracellular minerals.
A. adequate B. adequately C. adequacy D. inadequate
17. The human brain is responsible for our thoughts, feelings, memory storage and ____ perception of the
world.
A. general B. generate C. generating D. generally
18. The kidneys take urea out of the blood and combine it with water and other substances ____ urine.
A. to make B. make C. making D. that make
19. The respiratory system allows us ____ in vital oxygen and expel carbon dioxide in a process we call
breathing.
A. take B. to take C. taking D. taken
20. The urinary system helps eliminate a waste product called urea ____ the body, which is produced when
certain foods are broken down.
A. of B. off C. from D. out
21. The skin, or integumentary system, is the body's largest organ, which protects us from the outside world, and
is our first defense ____ bacteria, viruses and other pathogens.
A. of B. upon C. to D. against
22. Our bodies are supported by the skeletal system, which consists of 206 bones ____ tendons, ligaments and
cartilage.
A. that connect to B. that are connected by C. which connects to D. which is connected by
23. The job of ____ circulatory system is to move blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hormones,
around the body.
A. a B. the C. its D. whose
24. The digestive system consists of a series of ____ organs that together, allow the body to break down and
absorb food, and remove waste.
A. connect B. connecting C. connected D .connective
25. The pharmaceutical industry would lose billions in profits if people relied on the natural healing ____ of
water rather than expensive and toxic drugs.
A. features B. characteristics C. properties D. matters
26. Once you're dehydrated, you also become mineral ____, which is the foundation for all diseases in the
human body.
A. deficient B. deficiently C. deficiency D. deficiencies
27. The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes, lymph ducts and lymph vessels, and also ____ a role in the
body's defenses.
A. takes B. does C. acts D. plays
28. The nervous system controls both voluntary action (like conscious movement) and involuntary actions (like
breathing), and sends ____ to different parts of the body.
A. signs B. signals C. signatures D. signers
29. A: "I need to stop eating such unhealthy foods."
B: “____”
A. That sounds delicious and nutritious.
B. I know what you mean. I've started eating better myself.
C. I mainly eat baked chicken, because there's not a lot of fat.
D. Are you sure that's how you want me to make it?
30. A: "Doctor, can you give me some suggestions on how to stay healthy?"
B: “____”
A. Well, first of all, you need to make sure that you eat the right foods.
B. It is very confusing to know what to eat.
C. As long as you don't overdo it, a glass of wine a day should be OK.
D. If you smoke, you need to stop.
V. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s)
in each of the following sentences.
1. Each day, the kidneys process about 200 quarts (50 gallons) of blood to filter out about 2 quarts of waste and
water.
A. remove B. take in C. take off D. separate
2. Though the tongue may seem like a simple organ, it has a wide range of purposes, such as licking, breathing,
tasting, swallowing and articulating speech.
A. making B. delivering C. giving D. broadcasting
3. The acid also works to kill harmful microbes that may have made their way into the body along with food and
drink.
A. attended B. entered C. touched D. attacked
4. To survive and reproduce, the human body relies on major internal body organs to perform certain vital
functions.
A. private B. personal C. inside D. inner
5. The major organ in the body of human beings is the brain which is primarily responsible for performing all
the functions and actions of the body.
A. having B. fulfilling C. working D. showing
VI. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following
sentences.
1. Low salt diets actually cause osteoporosis, not calcium deficiency.
A. Low salt diets do not cause calcium deficiency, but actual osteoporosis.
B. It is neither calcium deficiency nor osteoporosis that is actually caused by low salt diets.
C. Actually, it's not calcium deficiency but osteoporosis that is caused by low salt diets.
D. Low salt diets are an actual cause of osteoporosis, not calcium deficiency.
2. Many people say that salt causes the body to hold water.
A. It is said that salt caused the body to hold water.
B. Salt is said to have caused the body to hold water.
C. The body is said to cause water to hold with salt.
D. The water hold in the body is said to be salty.
3. A balanced healthy diet helps keep cholesterol levels down.
A. Cholesterol levels are kept down with a balanced healthy diet.
B. A healthy diet helps keep cholesterol levels balanced.
C. Keeping cholesterol levels down is helped with a balanced diet.
D. A balanced healthy diet is key to keeping cholesterol levels down.
4. Water makes up more than 50 percent of the average adult's body weight.
A. Making up more than 50 percent on average of the adult's body weight is water.
B. On average, the adult's body weight is composed of up to 50 percent of water.
C. More than 50 percent of the average adult's body weight is made up of water.
D. The average percentage of 50% of adult's body weight produces water.
5. The main disease of skin which is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin A is pre-mature ageing.
A. Causing deficiency of Vitamin A is the main disease of skin known as pre-mature ageing.
B. The deficiency of Vitamin A is the main cause of pre-mature aging, a disease of skin.
C. Pre-mature aging, a disease of skin is mainly caused by the deficiency of Vitamin A.
D. Pre-mature aging is the main disease of skin caused by the deficiency of Vitamin A.
VII. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of sentences given.
1. Salt is vital. It extracts and gets rid of acids.
A. It's vital for salt to extract and get rid of acids.
B. Salt is vital as it extracts and gets rid of acids.
C. Extracting and get rid of acids is vital to salt.
D. Salt extraction and getting rid of acids are vital.
2. The teeth are part of the skeletal system. However, they aren't considered bones.
A. The teeth are part of the skeletal system, but they aren't considered bones.
B. Being also part of the skeletal system, the teeth aren't considered bones.
C. As not being considered bones, the teeth are also part of the skeletal system.
D. Although considered bones, the teeth are not part of the skeletal system.
3. Humans have five vital organs that are essential for survival. These are the brain, heart, kidneys, liver and
lungs.
A. Five vital organs that are essential for humans to survive are the brain, heart, kidneys, liver and lungs.
B. The brain, heart, kidneys, liver and lungs are at least five organs that are essential for human survival.
C. Being essential and vital for humans to survive, the five organs are called the brain, heart, kidneys,
liver and lungs.
D. The brain, heart, kidneys, liver and lungs are not only vital but essential for humans to survive.
4. There are almost 78 organs in a human body. They vary according to their sizes, functions or actions.
A. There are almost 78 organs in a human body who varies according to their sizes, functions or actions.
B. There are almost 78 organs in a human body which vary according to their sizes, functions or actions.
C. According to their sizes, functions, or actions, almost 78 organs in a human body vary.
D. Their sizes, functions, or actions have made almost 78 organs in a human body vary.
5. Our skin not only provides protection to the internal body parts. It also gives us our sense of touch.
A. Our skin not only provides protection to the internal body parts, but also gives us our sense of touch.
B. Because our skin provides protection to the internal body parts, it also gives us our sense of touch.
C. Providing protection to the internal body parts, the skin gives us our sense of touch.
D. To provide protection to the internal body parts, the skin gives us our sense of touch.
VIII. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct word or phrase
that best fits each of the numbered blanks.
You need a balanced vegetable and protein (1) ____, a ratio of 20 to 80, 80 percent vegetables and fruits,
not very much starch, and 20 percent protein. Do this and (2) ____ the right amounts of water and cut out sodas,
I can (3) ____ you, I guarantee no disease (4) ____ occur in you for a long time. You need your water before
your food. First thing in the morning when you wake up, two glasses of water to offset the (5) ____ of
overnight. Then you need a glass of water half an hour before food (6) ____ if you expect to digest the food, you
better give the water beforehand. You need also a glass of water two-and-a-half hours after food, to (7) ____ up
the process of digestion, and hydrate the areas that lost water to the circulation. You need (8) ____ every quart
or liter of water a quarter teaspoon of salt, you also need the other minerals (9) ____ regulate the volume of
water that is held inside the cells. You need a balanced protein; eggs are very good, cottage cheese is excellent,
to give you all the amino acids and (10) ____ structure.
1. A. meal B. dining C. food D. diet
2. A. exchange B. absorb C. take D. convert
3. A. assure B. make sure C. ascertain D. make certain
4. A. will B. would C. may D. might
5. A. dehydrate B. dehydrating C. dehydrator D. dehydration
6. A. as B. even C. because D. only
7. A. end B. put C. finish D. wrap
8. A. with B. for C. in D. at
9. A. in order to B. in order that C. in order for D. in order of
10. A. balance B. balancing C. balanced D. balances
IX. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of
the questions.
Health is the greatest wealth and the most precious thing that an individual can have in this world. In
case of ill health, all the luxuries and pleasures of life lose their true charm and become meaningless to you. The
poorest but healthy person can enjoy life better than the one who is the richest man of the world but is
physically or mentally ill. To provide yourself with the necessities of life, you have to bear the pains of hard
work. But if you are in tone, all the strenuous activities can be made really pleasant and fun-yielding! At the
same time, there is also significant increase in your productivity at work. Such are the people who make great
achievements in their short lifespan that startle the globe.
Do you know the easiest means of maintaining the fitness of mind and body? Availing the treasure of
health does not require as much labor as accumulating heaps of money. It is so simple but requires optimum
level of determination, consistency and regularity. The first important thing, in this regard, is to get at least basic
knowledge of the structure and functioning of different organs and organ systems in the body. You must know
what your body needs and what it doesn't. Secondly, take nutritious and balanced diet in right quantity and at the
right time. Thirdly, the importance of regular exercise, particularly in the morning, has to be duly emphasized.
Smoking, excessive drinking and the use of drugs leave drastic effects on the overall performance of
your body. Besides intense suffering, the efficiency at work is adversely affected. So, you have to avoid all these
things only for your own health's sake. Any diseased person can realize the worth of health, but the wise thing is
to value this treasure while you are healthy.
1. It is stated in paragraph 1 that ____.
A. People's greatest wealth is their own health B. The poorest people are normally the healthiest
C. The richest people are also the wealthiest D. The poorest can enjoy their lives better
2. The word 'necessities' in the passage almost means ____.
A. things that are indispensable B. things that are luxurious
C. everything that people want to have D. anything that attract people's attention
3. The phrase 'in tone' almost means ____.
A. with a strong ambition B. having good health
C. with good responses D. maintaining a good mood
4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a means of maintaining people's physical and mental health
according to the passage?
A. Knowing the structure and functioning of organs and organ system in the body
B. Taking nutritious and balanced diet in right quantity and at the right time
C. Laying emphasis on doing regular exercise, particularly in the morning
D. Building relationships with people who share the same interest and hobby
5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as what leaves negative effect on human body's performance?
A. smoking B. hard work C. excessive drinking D. use of drugs
X. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of
the questions.
A virus is a tiny germ that can infect the body. Different kinds of viruses can also infect animals and
plants. There are thousands of kinds of viruses. There are about 100 kinds of viruses that cause colds. Viruses
are much too small for scientists to see even with an ordinary microscope. Scientists must use a powerful
electron microscope to see viruses. A virus is a pretty simple thing. It has two basic parts. It has an outer part
called a protein coat. Inside the coat, it has genes. Genes are tiny structures that tell plants and animals how to
grow and what shape to be.
Each kind of virus infects, or attacks, a different type of cell. All parts of your body are made of units
called cells. Cold viruses head for the lining of your nose or throat. Sometimes the cold virus spreads to the air
passages that lead to your lungs. When a cold virus gets into your nose cells, it tries to take over. First, it takes
off its protein coat. Next, it lets its genes go free. The genes command your nose cells to make more of the
virus. The virus actually uses part of you to make copies of itself. More and more viruses grow in the cells that
make up the lining of your nose. They burst out of one nose cell and head for other nose cells. This is how the
infection spreads. An infected nose cell dies after the new viruses burst out. As your nose cells die, your head
feels stuffy. Your nose starts to run. Dying cells make you feel sick.
You can give your cold virus to someone else. You send out viruses when you cough or sneeze. Another
person can breathe in the virus from the air near you. The virus gets on your hands when you blow your nose.
Other people can get the virus by touching what you have touched and then touching their nose, eyes, or lips.
You can help keep a cold virus from spreading by covering your mouth when you cough or sneeze. You should
also wash your hands often.
Different viruses spread in other ways. The rabies virus is in the saliva (spit) of an infected dog. The dog
spreads the virus when it bites. Mosquito bites can also spread viruses. West Nile Virus goes from birds to
mosquitoes when the mosquitoes bite the birds. The mosquitoes then spread the virus when they bite humans
and other animals.
The virus that causes AIDS is in blood and other body fluids. The viruses that cause cold sores and
chicken pox get in through the skin. Other viruses live in food and get into people who eat the food.
1. The passage discusses all of the following EXCEPT ____.
A. what a virus is B. what forms a virus C. how a virus attacks D. how viruses spread
2. The author starts the passage mainly by ____.
A. defining virus B. warning about virus infection
C. describing a virus D. mentioning an example of virus
3. Which of the following is NOT true about a virus according to the passage?
A. The inner part of a virus is a gene.
B. Viruses attack both animals and plants.
C. Each type of virus affects a different type of cells.
D. Viruses can be seen with powerful electron microscopes.
4. The word "passages" in the passage is closest in meaning to ____.
A. column B. circle C. way D. bag
5. The word "it" in the passage refers to ____.
A. protein coat B. nose cells C. cold virus D. the infection
6. The phrase "burst out of" in the passage mostly means ____.
A. get in and destroy B. run away from C. get in and out D. break open
7. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
A. Cold viruses attack the nose before getting into the lung.
B. When the cells are dying, people will feel sick.
C. A virus can spread via animals infected with the virus.
D. Viruses can infect people through the food people eat.
8. Which of the following could be most likely the reason for the writer to describe cold viruses?
A. Cold viruses attack humans' nose before the lung.
B. Cold viruses cause one of the most common diseases.
C. It's very easy to prevent cold viruses from spreading.
D. Cold viruses are actually beneficial to the human body.
9. What can you most likely infer from the passage?
A. Eating various food types and keeping balance in nutrition is the key to a healthy body.
B. Eating safe food and get vaccinated to prevent different diseases will help you keep fit.
C. Eating healthy food and staying clean can help protect people from infection of viruses.
D. Eating good food and staying away from animals will make humans free from diseases.
10. The overall tone of the passage is ____.
A. argumentative B. narrative C. informative D. creative