Sunteți pe pagina 1din 8

CICM 2015 First International Conference on Advances in Civil Infrastructure and Construction Materials MIST, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1415 December 2015

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF AIRFIELD FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

Tahmida H. Shimu 1 , Mohd. M. RAHMAN 1 , Md. Naim Hossain 1 , Nusrat J. Nilu 1 , Khondaker S. Ahmed 1

1 Department of Civil Engineering, Military Institute of Science and Technology Mirpur Cantonment, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh E-mail: mehedi1341@gmail.com tahmida@ce.mist.ac.bd

Abstract. In recent days, finite element analysis is widely introduced to minimize the limitations associated with empirical methods in order to assess pavement performance (Stress, Strain, and Displacement) in an efficient manner. This re- search mainly focuses on the application of finite element method (FEM) to eval- uate mechanical behaviors and pavement performance of an airfield pavement under a standardized aircraft loading. For this purpose, a 2-Dimensional, 3- layered aircraft pavement is modeled using finite element software ABAQUS 6.13. The layers are modeled as linear elastic layers which represent an asphalt surface, an aggregate base and a granular subgrade. Dimensions and material properties of these layers are taken from FAARFIELD, a software to design air- port pavement. The aircraft wheel load is modeled as a uniform pressure load on the asphalt surface for simplicity. The objective of this study is to evaluate air- field pavement performance under simplified simulation environment in ABAQUS to serve as a preliminary basis of stress-strain analysis of pavement under aircraft loading.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, airfield flexible pavement, FAARFIELD, dynamic loading.

1

T. H. Shimu, M. Rahman, N. Hossain, Nusrat J. Nilu, S. M. Muniruzzaman, K. S. Ahmed

1 INTRODUCTION

Transportation system is referred to as one of the most essential infrastructures that influence the overall development of a country. The design of airfield flexi- ble pavement almost resembles to traditional empirical design methods of high- way pavement and from generation to generation it is modified to handle vulnerable situations. Airports are invincible part of air transportation system. Most of the airports in our country are mainly flexible pavement comprising with asphalt layer at top followed by base, sub-base (optional), and sub-grade [2]. This pavement experiences not only domestic aircraft landing but also international. The expansion and maintenance of international airports are quite difficult due to financial constraints and land scarcity. As a result it generates a pressure on ex- isting airport and ultimately affects both national and international communica- tion [1-5]. To cater critical cases of existing pavement, an attempt has been taken in this research for predicting pavement performance. Both 2-D and 3-D model- ing of airfield pavement can be used to evaluate pavement performance [2]. Based on existing literature, direct/analytical solutions of design approaches become convoluted due to some complexities of the system such as heavy air- craft loading, complex tire configuration, and dynamic implicit nature and direc- tion of loading and acceleration-deceleration phenomenon [5-6]. This is why recent studies have approached numerical solutions by using finite element tech- nique to study the pavement responses on an airfield. In this study, a 2-D three layered pavement is modeled using finite element package Abaqus to investigate the structural performance in terms stress distribu- tion in different layers of airfield flexible pavement. Since such problem can be idealized as plane stress problem, 2-D model is expected to extract results close to 3-D approximation considering all other challenges. Material properties are taken from FAARFIELD with an arbitrary aircraft combination. In addition, a brief study of convergence for different seed control is also conducted and finally meshing the most vital part is successively done by trial and error process with a view to achieve higher degree of accuracy.

2 METHODOLOGY

This study focuses on evaluating structural responses of airfield pavement in 2-D model using finite element software ABAQUS. A convenient approach has been taken to establish a standard wheel configuration, wheel pressure, contact area to use on this software for evaluating stress-strain characteristics of flexible pave- ment. Stress-strain analysis is used to predict distresses in pavement and different failure condition. Basically, ABAQUS is a finite element software widely used for stress analysis. In this software, modeling of structural systems can be executed through accom- modating multifarious facilities such as boundary condition in both vertical and horizontal directions, loading as pressure or velocity and direction, surface condi-

2

Finite Element Analysis of Airfield Flexible Pavement

tion, fine meshing,different material properties (linear elastic,elasto-plastic, hy- po-elasticetc.) under a computer simulated environment [2]. Finally, using the finite element technique the software generates various output variables as re- quested such as plots of stress distribution and deflection along the modeled sys- tems. The study of convergence of stress and deflection can also be done in this software by changing the mesh size control and comparing the variation in stress- deflection contour plots.

2.1 Dimensioning and Material Properties Considered

Considering four layered flexible pavement HMA surface course, aggregate base course, crushed aggregate subbase course and granular subgrade course, thickness of different layers are extracted from FAARFIELD for an arbitrary air- craft combination (Table-1). Arbitrary values are considered as inputs for annual departures of aircrafts. For these thicknesses, a 3-layered 2-D pavement is mod- eled in ABAQUS as a standard/explicit model. To simulate an infinite subgrade layer in the bottom, this layer is ignored in the model and is replaced with a fixed support. A constant slope of 45º is considered on both sides at each layer. Assuming that all materials behave linearly within the elastic limit, moduli of elasticity of different layers are also taken from FAARFIELD for the above men- tioned combination of aircraft loading (Figure 1). A constant poison’s ratio of 0.35 is considered for all the layers as suggested in FAARFIELD. Densities of these layers are taken from Advisory Circular of FAA [7] for a typical airfield pavement (Table 2).

Table 1: Aircraft combination for which thickness of different layers are extract- ed from FAARFIELD

   

Gross Wt.

Annual

No.

Name

lbs

Departures

1

A320-100

150,796

360

2

B737-800

174,700

600

3

B757-300

273,500

800

4

B787-8 (Preliminary)

486,000

600

5

B707-320C

336,000

1,300

6

B737-900

174,700

300

7

A310-200

315,041

1,000

8

MD83

161,000

800

9

B777-200 ER

658,000

800

3

T. H. Shimu, M. Rahman, N. Hossain, Nusrat J. Nilu, S. M. Muniruzzaman, K. S. Ahmed

N. Hossain, Nusrat J. Nilu, S. M. Muniruzzaman, K. S. Ahmed Figure 1: Structure of flexible

Figure 1: Structure of flexible pavement

Table 2: Material properties of different pavement layers

Layer

Type

 

Poison's

Density

No.

Ratio

(pci)

1

P-401/ P-403 HMA Surface 0.35

0.069444

2

P-401/ P-403 St (flex) (Stabi- lized base coarse)

0.35

0.070602

3

P-209 Cr Ag (Sub base) 0.35

0.072338

2.2 Boundary and Surface to Surface Interaction Modeling

Boundary conditions are considered as displacement or rotational. The bounda- ries on both sides of the model are restricted to move along X axis and free to move along Y axis (U1=0) and at the bottom fixed support is considered (U1=U2=UR3=0) to simulate an infinite subgrade. Surface to surface interaction is taken as Tie and internal friction among them is neglected.

2.3 Loading

In this study, a uniform pressure load is applied at the top of asphalt surface. The loading value is obtained from FAARFIELD by considering the following pa- rameters of Boeing 707-320C aircraft which is taken as the design aircraft for this study (Table-3).

4

Finite Element Analysis of Airfield Flexible Pavement

Table 3: Loading parameters

Parameters

Values considered

Aircraft Model

B 707-320C

Gross Takeoff weight

336000 lbs

Tire Contact width

14 in

Wheel load

39900 lbs

Load given by FAARFIELD

2850 lb/in.

2.4 Element type and meshing

Fine meshing is done all through the section to obtain approximate results. Finer local seeds are considered with a direction towards load and a biased ratio of 5 (>1) where load is applied to accommodate for the higher stress and nodal dis- placements at that region. Meshing details used in this study are given in Table 4.

Table 4: Meshing details.

Mesh Control

Quad-Dominated

Element Type

Standard-Linear-Plane Stress

 
 

Layer No.

Top

Bottom

Number of seeds control (Edge)

1

160

50

2

50

55

3

55

60

of seeds control (Edge) 1 160 50 2 50 55 3 55 60 Figure 2: Element

Figure 2: Element meshing with bias ratio

5

T. H. Shimu, M. Rahman, N. Hossain, Nusrat J. Nilu, S. M. Muniruzzaman, K. S. Ahmed

3 RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION

Finite element modeling provides stress in both directions. On the basis of ele- ment type, meshing, boundary condition and surface modeling, large variations in results are obtained. Stresses found in this study are shown in Figure 3.In this case due to vertical static load, tensile strain in horizontal direction and compres- sive strain in vertical direction prevail. Deflection plot found from analysis is given in Figure 4.

Deflection plot found from analysis is given in Figure 4. Figure 3 : von-Mises stress contour

Figure 3 : von-Mises stress contour plot

given in Figure 4. Figure 3 : von-Mises stress contour plot Figure 4: Maximum deflection plot

Figure 4: Maximum deflection plot

Stress at the top layer of asphalt surface course is found maximum where the load is applied as expected but there also generates a maximum stress zone at contact surface of base and subbase course. A uniform pressure bulb is seen in the stress contour plot as well as in deflection plot. Deflection gradually decreas- es with the depth of pavement layer. Maximum and minimum stress and deflec- tion at different layers are shown in Table 5.

Table 5 : Maximum and minimum stress and deflection at different layers

Layer

Maximum

Minimum stress

Layer

Maximum

Minimum

Stress

(psi)

Deflection

Deflection

(psi)

(inch)

(inch)

1st

2.741E+03

2.339E+02

1st

3.694E-01

1.231E-01

2nd

2.513E+03

6.898E+02

2nd

3.079E-01

6.157E-02

3rd

1.146E+03

2.339E+02

3rd

2.771E-01

3.079E-02

6

Finite Element Analysis of Airfield Flexible Pavement

A convergence study is done with varying element number at top layer. From this study, it is found that stress increases with an ascending order along with increasing number of element (Figure 4) and around at 300 no. of elements, the convergence is established and the stress value becomes saturated.

Table 6: Summary of convergence study

Element No at Top Edge

Maximum Stress, Psi

160

2.741E+03

200

2.781E+03

240

2.937E+03

280

3.289E+03

320

3.363E+03

240 2.937E+03 280 3.289E+03 320 3.363E+03 Figure5: Stress variation for different no of element 4

Figure5: Stress variation for different no of element

4 CONCLUSION

To draw an overview of this study, a typical airfield pavement was initially de- signed using FAARFIELD from where thicknesses of different layers and mate- rial properties are obtained against an arbitrary aircraft combination. Basing upon these parameters, a finite element model of airfield pavement was established in ABAQUS. From stress analysis, maximum values of von misses stress were found to be 2.741E+03, 2.513E+03 and 1.146E+03 psi, respectively at top, mid- dle and bottom layer contact surfaces. These stress values found from this analy- sis can be further used to draw allowable stress or limit stress for mechanistic or empirical pavement design procedures. In addition, from the convergence check,

7

T. H. Shimu, M. Rahman, N. Hossain, Nusrat J. Nilu, S. M. Muniruzzaman, K. S. Ahmed

a saturation condition was found at a number of element or mesh controls of 300 seeds at top edge. This parameter can be used to optimize the stress-strain analy- sis of airfield pavement in further studies. A typical airfield pavement is of dy- namic implicit nature as the pavement layers represent anisotropic characteristics. The wheel loading is also of nonlinear nature to apprise for accelera- tion/deceleration phenomenon of aircrafts. In this study, nonlinearity is assimilated only in geometry but the layers are modeled as linear elastic with standard/explicit system. A uniform and static pressure load which is equilibrium to that of a design aircraft loading is considered to represent wheel load. For further research, a 3D dynamic implicit model along with standard tire imprint area can be carried out. Also, dynamic acceleration or velocity type load to apprise for the true representation of aircraft landing and takeoff can be con- sidered. Thus, a complete finite element study on airfield pavement design ap- proach can produce an economic design procedure for airport runways.

REFERENCES

[1]

Bhalla, B.,Vankar, A. A., and Zala, L.B., “Runway Pavement Design of a proposed Airport with the use of FAARFIELD Software”, International Journal of Science and Modern Engineering (IJISME) ISSN: 2319-6386, Volume-1, Issue-6, May 2013.

[2]

Rahman, M.T., Mahamud ,K., and Ahsan, S., “Stress Strain characteristics of flexible pavement using Finite Element Analysis”, International Jour- nal of Civil and Structural Engineering, ISSN 0976 4399,Volume 2, No 1, 2011.

[3]

Leonardi, G., “Finite Element Analysis of Airfield Flexible Pavement,” Science Letter Volume 3, University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.

[4]

Sukumaran, B., “Three Dimensional Finite Element Modeling Of Flexible Pavements,” Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Worldwide Airport Technology Transfer Conference, USA (2004).

[5] Zdiri, M., Abriak, N., Neji, J., and Ouezdou, M. B., “Modelling of the Stresses and Strains Distribution in an RCC Pavement Using the Computer Code Abaqus", Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 9 (2009).

[6]

Wardle, L. J., and Rodway, B., “Recent Developments In Flexible Aircraft Pavement Design Using The Layered Elastic Method,” Third Int. Conf. on Road and Airfield Pavement Technology, Beijing, April 1998.

[7]

Advisory Circular, U.S Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, AC No -150/5320-6E, (2009).

8