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Physical development:-

Physical development is the process that starts in human infancy and continues into late
adolescent concentrating on gross and fine motor skills as well as puberty. Physical development
involves developing control over the body, particularly muscles and physical coordination. The
peak of physical development happens in childhood and is therefore a crucial time for
neurological brain development and body coordination to encourage specific activities such as
grasping, writing, crawling, and walking. As a child learns what their bodies can do, they gain
self confidence, promoting social and emotional development.

Importance Physical development in learning:-

Our bodies go through amazing transformations when it comes to physical growth and
development. Think about the vast physical changes that occur between a newborn baby and a
young adult. Recall the different things you or children you know were able to do at different
stages while growing up. Physical activity is very important for our overall development and
growth. Moving the different parts of our bodies, sitting up, rolling, crawling, walking, running,
jumping, holding, and manipulating different materials or objects are examples of ways in which
we use our bodies to explore our environment and learn about the world. These are also ways to
keep our bodies healthy, fit, and well-functioning.

Physical development refers to the advancements and refinements of motor skills, or, in other
words, children’s abilities to use and control their bodies. These advancements are evident in
gross- and fine-motor skills, and they are essential to children’s overall health and wellness.
Gross- motor skills involve the use of large muscles in the legs or arms, as well as general
strength and stamina. Examples of such skills include jumping, throwing, climbing, running,
skipping, and kicking. Fine-motor skills involve the use of small muscles in the arms, hands, and
fingers. They are supported by advancements in perception, or the ways in which children use
their senses to experience the world around them. Examples of such skills include stringing
beads, scribbling, cutting, and drawing. Fine-motor skills enable children to perform a variety of
self-help tasks, such as using utensils and dressing themselves. There is a great deal of variation
in the development of fine-motor skills.

Children’s motor abilities in preschool develop as a result of physical development. As their

bodies mature, children progressively strengthen their muscles and are able to better control their
bodies. Skill mastery and development, however, are also the result of brain growth and
development. For example, consider a preschooler kicking a ball back and forth with a peer or
caregiver. This child must have acquired control over muscles and their movement in order to be
able to kick the ball. The child also depends upon vision to determine the location and direction
in which to kick the ball and on hearing for instructions from a peer or caregiver. We will
explore the body-brain connection and its impact on children’s overall learning and growth in
more detail in Lesson Two (Developmental Milestones) when we examine influences on
physical growth and factors that affect children’s physical development.

Defining social development

Social development is about putting people at the centre of development.This means a

commitment that development processes need to benefit people, particularly but not only the
poor, but also a recognition that people, and the way they interact in groups and society, and the
norms that facilitates such interaction, shape development processes.

While the role of formal institutions and policies has become central to the development debate,
the role of informal social institutions has received less attention. Debates on growth and poverty
reduction have paid relatively little attention to the impact of, for example, norms of cooperation
in villages and neighbourhoods, community oversight in the management of projects, or non-
discrimination against women and minorities in education and health. Of course, micro-studies
invariably highlight their importance, but can we measure such informal social institutions?

What exactly are these social institutions? We understand these as the behaviours, norms and
conventions that pattern human interaction. Participation in local organisations, demonstrations,
petitions, and elections are examples of such behaviours. Norms and conventions, often
unwritten, govern human interaction, and are the lived relations between people. Norms of non-
discrimination against groups based on ethnicity, language, or gender are examples of social
institutions, as are norms of criminal behaviour and about civic activism.

Social development thus implies the change in social institutions. Progress toward an inclusive
society, for example, implies that individuals treat each other (more) fairly in their daily lives,
whether in the family, workplace, or in public office. Social cohesion is enhanced when peaceful
and safe environment within neighbourhoods and communities are created. Social accountability
exists to the extent that citizens’ voices are expressed, and heard by the authorities. Formal
institutional reform – for example, the provision of legally enshrined rights, better law
enforcement, or more participatory governance – are part of the process by which institutional
change is achieved, changing the way people relate to people is an equally important part of this.
The Indices of Social Development focus on measuring the informal social institutions, how they
compare across countries, and how these changes over time. It does this by using existing
databases, around the world, and combining these to find the best possible match with our
definition of social development. Through an on-going process of expert discussion, and review
of existing databases, we have organised the Indices of Social Development into five groupings:

Main Principles of Growth and Development of Children

The process of development has been studied experimentally and otherwise. The studies and
researches have highlighted certain significant facts or principles underlying this process. These
are as follows:

(i) Development follows a pattern:

Peculiar of the species Development occurs in orderly manner and follows a certain sequence.
For example, the human body cuts his molars before his incisors, can stand before he walks and
can draw, a circle before he can draw a square. In physical development one can see the
cephalocaudal sequence in the prenatal life of the human child.

This mean that control of the body as well as improvements in the structure itself develops first
in the head and progresses later to parts further from the bread.

The cephalocaudal sequence may be illustrated by the development of motor functions. When
the baby is placed in a prone position, he can lift his head by his neck before he can do to by
lifting his chest. The control of muscles of the trunk precedes that of the muscles of the arms and
Even the specific phases of development such as motor, social and play follows a pattern also.
Group play activity follows the self-centered play activity. The child is interested in himself first
before he can develop interest in other children. He babbles before he talks, he is dependent on
others before he achieves dependence on self.

(ii) Development proceeds from general to specific responses:

It moves from a generalised to localised behaviour. This can be observed in the behaviour of
infants and young children. This new-born infant moves his whole body at one time instead of
moving only one part of it. The baby waves his arms in Ogeneral and makes random movements
before he is capable of such a specific response as reaching out for a specific object.

He makes random kicking with his legs before he can co-ordinate the leg muscles well enough to
crawl or to walk. When given an unpleasant stimulus on any part of the body i.e. a pin-prick he
reacts with the entire body before he learns to restrict the movement to the particular part of the
body which is stimulated. In the emotional field, the baby first responds to all strange objects
with a general fear. Gradually, his fear becomes specific. He reaches out for the object as a
whole before he can hold its specific parts.

(iii) Development is a continuous process:

Development does not occur in spurts. Although, it is suggested that there are definite
developmental stages such as ‘gang age’ or ‘adolescence’, yet it is a fact that growth continues
from the moments of conception until the individual’s reaches maturity. It takes place at a slow
regular pace rather than by ‘leaps and bounds’. Development of both physical and mental traits
continues gradually until these traits reach their maximum growth.
For example, speech does not come over-night. It has gradually developed from the cries and
other sounds made by the baby at birth. The first teeth seem to appear suddenly, but they start
developing as early as the fifth fetal month: they cut through the gums about five months after
birth. There may be a break in the continuity of growth due to illness, starvation or malnutrition
or other environmental factors or some abnormal conditions in the child life.

(iv) Although Development is Continuous Process, yet the Tempo of

Growth it not Even:

There are periods of accelerated growth and periods of accelerated growth. During infancy and
the early preschool years, growth moves swiftly. Later on it slackens Growth from three to six is
rapid but not so rapid as form birth to three years. In early adolescence it is again rapid as
compared to the period covering eight to twelve years.

(v) Different aspects of growth develop at different rates:

Neither all parts of the body grow at the same rate, nor do all aspects of mental growth proceed
equally. They reach maturity at different times. For example, the brain attains its mature size
around the age of six to eight years. It gains much in organisation after that. The feet, hands and
nose reach their maximum devolvement early in adolescence.

This can explain the awkwardness, clumsiness and self-consciousness characteristic of this
period. Similarly, creative imagination develops rapidly during childhood; it seems to reach its
peak during youth. Reasoning develops at a relatively slower rate. Rote memory and memory for
concrete objects and facts develop more quickly than memory for abstract and theoretical
General intelligence reaches its peak, in most cases, about the age of 16 years. Children probably
learn more new things in the first five years of life than in all the rest of their lives. Adolescence
is marked by the most rapid development of the genital systems and of certain definite social
interests and emotional capacities which is not so in other stage of development.

(vi) Most Traits are correlated in Development:

Generally it is seen that the child whose intellectual development is above average is so in health
size, sociability and special aptitudes. Mental defectives tend to be smaller in stature than the
normal child. Idiots and imbeciles are often the smallest of the feeble-minded group. There is a
correlation between high intelligence and sexual maturity.

(vii) Growth is Complex. All of its Aspects are closely Inter-Related:

“It is impossible to understand the physical child without understanding him at the same time as
a child who thinks and has feeling. ” His mental development is intimately related to his physical
growth and its needs. Again, there is a close relationship between his total adjustment to school
and his emotions, his physical health and his intellectual adequacy. An emotional disturbance
may contribute to difficulties in eating or sleeping. A physical defect may be responsible for the
development certain attitudes and social adjustments.

(viii) Growth is a Product of the Interaction both Heredity and


Neither heredity alone, nor the mere environment is the potent factor in the development of an
individual. But it is not possible to indicate exactly in what proportion heredity and environment
contribute to the develop-ment of an individual. The two work hand in hand from the very
The environment bears upon the new organism from the beginning. Among the environmental
factors, one can mention nutrition, climate, the conditions in the home, and the type of social
organisation in which individual move and live, the roles they have to play and other.

(ix) Each Child Grows in his own Unique Way. There are wide
individual differences:

How much and how little individuals vary one from another has not yet been discovered as
definitely as the fact that they do differ. It is definitely indicated in various studies that the
differences in physical structure are less than the differences in intellectual capacity. Similarly, it
has been found out, that personality differences are far more marked than either physical or
intellectual differences. Differences in special aptitudes seem to be the most marked of all.

Individual differences are caused by diff-erences in hereditary endowment and environmental

influences. Among the environmental influences, the most important factors are food, climate
health conditions, opportunities for learning, motivation to learn, social relationships, codes of
behaviour set up by the social group to which the individual belongs, and the strength of social
approval or disapproval.

Individual differences in rate of development remain constant. For example, a child may be slow
in learning in early childhood. It is wrong to presume that he will catch up with the average.
Evidence shows that the rate of growth is consistent and those who grow rapidly at first will
continue to do so and those who develop slowly in early years will continue to do so, in later
years. This observation is not applicable when the growth has been regarded by some condition
which may be remedied, if the treatment is given in time.

(x) Growth is both quantitative and Qualitative:

These two aspects are inseparable. The child not only grows in ‘size’; he grows up or matures in
structure and function. Breckenridge and Vincent have given a nice example to illustrate this
principle. The baby’s digestive tract not only grows in size, but also changes in structure,
permitting digestion of more complex foods and increasing its efficiency in converting foods into
simpler forms which the body can use. The younger the child, the simpler the emotions. With
growth, there is an increase of experiences and these produce more and more complex emotional
reactions to more and more complicated situations.

(xi) Development is Predictable:

We have seen that the rate of development for each child is fairly constant. The consequence is
that it is possible for us to predict at an early age the range within which the mature development
of the child is likely to fall. But it may be noted that all types of development, particularly mental
development, cannot be predicted with the same degree of accuracy. It is more easily predictable
for children whose mental development falls within the normal range rather than for those whose
mental development shows marked deviation from the average.

(xii) Principle of spiral versus linear arrange-ment:

The child doesn’t proceed straight on the path of development with a constant or steady pace.
Actually he makes advancement, during a particular period but takes rest in the next following
period to consolidate his development. In advancing further, therefore, he turns back and then
makes forward again like a spiral.

Developmental psychologists have also observed that each developmental phase has certain traits
characteristic if it, that it has certain undesirable forms of behaviour which are usually found at
that age and which are outgrown as the individual passes into the next stage, and that every
individual normally passes through each stage of development.

Jersild, while writing about the principles of development, remarks that one feature of the
growing ability is its spontaneous use and wholeheartedness.

As a child’s capacities for doing, thinking and feeling mature he has an impulse to put them to
use, and he often does it wholeheartedly. This is described by Jersild as ‘Indigenous motivation’.
Another feature of human development is its struggle. The process of growth involves
conflicting impulses and demands. The child struggles against these in his striving toward

The process of development is also characterised by anticipation, in that it is also geared to the
needs of the future, by the capacity for self-repair by the developmental revision of habits, by the
persistence of archaic behaviour trends and by its quality of becoming’ its dynamic rather static
nature, made so by the changes that occur in the individual at every step.

Development is affected by many factors. Some of these factors play a more important role than
others. These factors are intelligence, sex, glands of internal secretion, nutrition, fresh air and
sunlight, injuries, accidents and diseases, position in the family, psychological conditions in the
family matrix, social roles and cultural demands. These factors affect different phases of
development at different stages in varying degrees.

Stages of development
There are three stages of motor development in children.

The first stage is marked by extremely rapid growth and development, as is the second stage. By
the age of 2 years old, this development has begun to level out somewhat. The final stage does
not have any marked new developments, rather it is characterised by the mastering and
development of the skills achieved in the first two stages.


The Newborn Child

It is argued that many of a newborn's reflexes contribute to motor control as the child learns new
motor skills. For example the stepping reflex promotes development areas of the cortex that
govern voluntary walking. This and other examples can be seen in the table below.
Reflex name


Age Disappears

Motor preparation

Tonic neck

Assumes fencing position; 1 arm extended in front of eyes on side to which head is turned. Other
arm flexed.

4 months

May prepare for voluntary reaching


Lifts one foot after another in stepping response

2 months

Prepares for voluntary walking

Palmar grasp

Spontaneous grasp of adult's finger

3-4 months

Prepares for voluntary grasping

Assessing reflexes in newborns will determine the health of the nervous system, as reflexes that
are weak or absent, exaggerated, or overly rigid may indicate some brain damage. Therefore
stages will need to be modified slightly.

The average ages at which gross motor skills are achieved during infancy may vary. This range
may be seen in the table below.

Motor Skill
Average Age Achieved

Age Range (90% Infants)

Head erect & steady when held upright

6 weeks

3 weeks-4 months

Lifts self by arms when prone

2 months

3 weeks-4 months

Rolls from side to back

2 months

3 weeks-5 months

Grasps cube

3 months, 3 weeks
2-7 months

Rolls from back to side

4 ½ months

2-7 months

Sits alone

7 months

5-9 months


7 months

5-11 months

Pulls to stand

8 months
5-12 months

Plays Pat-a-cake

9 months, 3 weeks

7-15 months

Stands alone

11 months

9-16 months

Walks alone

11 months, 3 weeks

9-17 months

Builds tower of 2 cubes

13 months, 3 weeks

10-19 months
Scribbles vigorously

14 months

10-21 months

Walks up stairs with help

16 months

12-23 months

Jumps in place

23 months, 2 weeks

17-30 months

Although the sequence of motor development is fairly uniform across children, differences may
exist individually in the rate at which motor skills develop. A baby who is a late reacher may not
necessarily be a late crawler/walker. Concern would arise if the child's development were
delayed in many motor skills.

Summary of Table
Motor control of the head comes before control of the legs. This head-to-tail sequence is called
the cephalocaudal trend.
Motor development proceeds from the centre of the body outward; i.e. the head, trunk and arm
control is mastered before the coordination of the hands and fingers. This is the proximodistical

Physical growth follows these same trends throughout infancy and childhood.

Once the child has grasped these gross motor skills, they are then able to explore their
environment further by grasping things, turning them over, and seeing what happens when they
are released. Infants are then able to learn a great deal about the sight, sound and feel of objects.

Reaching and grasping development is a classic example of how motor skills start out as gross,
and then graduate to mastering fine motor skills.

At 3 months voluntary reaching gradually improves in accuracy. It does not require visual
guidance of arms and hands, but rather a sense of movement and location.

By 5 months reaching is reduced as the object can be moved within reach.

At 9 months an infant can redirect reaching to obtain a moving object that changes direction.

6-12 months the infant can use a pincer grasp, thus increasing their ability to manipulate objects.


The period of the most rapid development of motor behaviors is the period between 2 and 6
years (also known as the preschool years). Skills that appear are:

Basic locomotor


Fine eye-hand coordination

Walking leads to running, jumping, hopping, galloping, and skipping

Climbing evolves from creeping.

The following points need to be highlighted.

By the age of 3 walking is automatic.

By 4 years the child has almost achieved an adult style of walking.

By 3 years the child has attempted to run, albeit awkward in style and lacking control.

By the age of 4-5 years the child has more control over running and can start, stop and turn.

By 5-6 skills in running have advanced to the level of an adult manner.

Between the ages of 3 and 6 climbing proficiency using ladders, etc., has developed.

By 6 years children can hop and gallop skillfully, and jumping distances are longer.

At the age of 3 children begin a shuffle which evolves into skipping by the age of 6.

At the age of 2 children learn to kick, as their balance mechanism has developed. A full kick
with a backswing has developed by the age of 6.

Throwing at the age of 2-3 years is not very proficient although is attempted. This has improved
by the age of 6 when the child will include a step forward.

At the age of 3 a child can catch a large ball with arms straight; at 4 elbows will be in front when
catching; and by the age of 6 years, elbows will be held at the side.


After the age of 6 years old, it becomes increasingly difficult to describe changes and differences
in motor skills development. The following characteristics are evident:

Changes are more subtle, and are often to fine motor skills only

By 9 years eye-hand coordination has developed to being very good

Growth is relatively slow

This stage is terminated by the onset of puberty

Motor skills are perfected and stabilized

Links can be made to physical development.

The following are assessed during this stage.

Running. This will become faster depending on the length of stride and tempo.

Jumping. The ability to jump higher will become greater due to body size, weight, age and

Throwing. Boys begin to throw further with a better technique and accuracy.

Balancing and coordination. This increases as the child becomes older and control is perfected.

These areas can benefit greatly from systematic instruction in motor skills, and physical
education programs at school. The quality and type of environment a child is exposed to will
influence the extent to which the child develops the motor skills learned in the first two stages of
development. Furthermore a child's motor interests will be determined by his or her
opportunities. Differences in gender also come into play in this stage.

Piaget stages of intellectual development:-

The Piaget stages of development is a blueprint that describes the stages of normal intellectual
development, from infancy through adulthood. This includes thought, judgment, and knowledge.
The stages were named after psychologist and developmental biologist Jean Piaget, who
recorded the intellectual development and abilities of infants, children, and teens.

Piaget's four stages of intellectual (or cognitive) development are:

Sensorimotor:- Birth through ages 18-24 monthsToddlerhood (18-24 months)early

childhood (age through 7)

Concrete operational:- Ages 7 to 12
Formal operational:- Adolescence through adulthood
Piaget acknowledged that some children may pass through the stages at different ages than the
averages noted above and that some children may show characteristics of more than one stage at
a given time. But he insisted that cognitive development always follows this sequence, that
stages cannot be skipped, and that each stage is marked by new intellectual abilities and a more
complex understanding of the world.

Sensorimotor Stage:-

During the early stages, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them. They
focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their immediate

Because they don't yet know how things react, they're constantly experimenting with activities
such as shaking or throwing things, putting things in their mouths, and learning about the world
through trial and error. The later stages include goal-oriented behavior which brings about a
desired result.

Between ages 7 and 9 months, infants begin to realize that an object exists even if it can no
longer be seen. This important milestone -- known as object permanence -- is a sign that memory
is developing.

After infants start crawling, standing, and walking, their increased physical mobility leads to
increased cognitive development. Near the end of the sensorimotor stage (18-24 months), infants
reach another important milestone -- early language development, a sign that they are developing
some symbolic abilities.

Preoperational Stage:-

During this stage (toddler through age 7), young children are able to think about things
symbolically. Their language use becomes more mature. They also develop memory and
imagination, which allows them to understand the difference between past and future, and
engage in make-believe.

But their thinking is based on intuition and still not completely logical. They cannot yet grasp
more complex concepts such as cause and effect, time, and comparison.

Concrete Operational Stage:-

At this time, elementary-age and preadolescent children -- ages 7 to 11 -- demonstrate logical,

concrete reasoning.

Children's thinking becomes less egocentric and they are increasingly aware of external events.
They begin to realize that one's own thoughts and feelings are unique and may not be shared by
others or may not even be part of reality. During this stage, however, most children still can't
think abstractly or hypothetically.

Formal Operational Stage:-

Adolescents who reach this fourth stage of intellectual development -- usually at age 11-plus --
are able to logically use symbols related to abstract concepts, such as algebra and science. They
can think about multiple variables in systematic ways, formulate hypotheses, and consider
possibilities. They also can ponder abstract relationships and concepts such as justice.

Although Piaget believed in lifelong intellectual development, he insisted that the formal
operational stage is the final stage of cognitive development, and that continued intellectual
development in adults depends on the accumulation of knowledge.

Erik Erickson theory of psycho social psychology:-

Erik Erikson (1950, 1963) proposed a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial development
comprising eight stages from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a
psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality

Erikson's ideas were greatly influenced by Freud, going along with Freud’s (1923) theory
regarding the structure and topography of personality. However, whereas Freud was an id
psychologist, Erikson was an ego psychologist. He emphasized the role of culture and society
and the conflicts that can take place within the ego itself, whereas Freud emphasized the conflict
between the id and the superego.

According to Erikson, the ego develops as it successfully resolves crises that are distinctly social
in nature. These involve establishing a sense of trust in others, developing a sense of identity in
society, and helping the next generation prepare for the future. Erikson extends on Freudian
thoughts by focusing on the adaptive and creative characteristic of the ego and expanding the
notion of the stages of personality development to include the entire lifespan.

Like Freud and many others, Erik Erikson maintained that personality develops in a
predetermined order, and builds upon each previous stage. This is called the epigenic principle.

The outcome of this 'maturation timetable' is a wide and integrated set of life skills and abilities
that function together within the autonomous individual. However, instead of focusing on sexual
development (like Freud), he was interested in how children socialize and how this affects their
sense of self.

Psychosocial Stages:-
Erikson’s (1959) theory of psychosocial development has eight distinct stages, taking in five
stages up to the age of 18 years and three further stages beyond, well into adulthood. Erikson
suggests that there is still plenty of room for continued growth and development throughout
one’s life. Erikson puts a great deal of emphasis on the adolescent period, feeling it was a crucial
stage for developing a person’s identity.
Like Freud, Erikson assumes that a crisis occurs at each stage of development. For Erikson
(1963), these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the
individual (i.e. psycho) conflicting with the needs of society (i.e. social).

According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and
the acquisition of basic virtues. Basic virtues are characteristic strengths which the ego can use to
resolve subsequent crises.

Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages
and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. These stages, however, can be
resolved successfully at a later time.

1. Trust vs. Mistrust:-

Is the world a safe place or is it full of unpredictable events and accidents waiting to happen?
Erikson's first psychosocial crisis occurs during the first year or so of life (like Freud's oral stage
of psychosexual development). The crisis is one of trust vs. mistrust.

During this stage, the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live. To resolve these
feelings of uncertainty, the infant looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and
consistency of care.
If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of
trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even
when threatened.

Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of hope. By developing a sense of trust, the infant can
have hope that as new crises arise, there is a real possibility that other people will be there as a
source of support. Failing to acquire the virtue of hope will lead to the development of fear.

For example, if the care has been harsh or inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the
infant will develop a sense of mistrust and will not have confidence in the world around them or
in their abilities to influence events.

This infant will carry the basic sense of mistrust with them to other relationships. It may result in
anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them.

Consistent with Erikson's views on the importance of trust, research by Bowlby and Ainsworth
has outlined how the quality of the early experience of attachment can affect relationships with
others in later life.

2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt:-

The child is developing physically and becoming more mobile. Between the ages of 18 months
and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother,
picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc.

The child is discovering that he or she has many skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes
and shoes, playing with toys, etc. Such skills illustrate the child's growing sense of independence
and autonomy. Erikson states it is critical that parents allow their children to explore the limits of
their abilities within an encouraging environment which is tolerant of failure.

For example, rather than put on a child's clothes a supportive parent should have the patience to
allow the child to try until they succeed or ask for assistance. So, the parents need to encourage
the child to become more independent while at the same time protecting the child so that
constant failure is avoided.

A delicate balance is required from the parent. They must try not to do everything for the child,
but if the child fails at a particular task they must not criticize the child for failures and accidents
(particularly when toilet training). The aim has to be “self control without a loss of self-esteem”
(Gross, 1992). Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of will.

If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they
become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world.

If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves,
they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent
upon others, lack self-esteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their abilities.

3. Initiative vs. Guilt:-

Around age three and continuing to age five, children assert themselves more frequently. These
are particularly lively, rapid-developing years in a child’s life. According to Bee (1992), it is a
“time of vigor of action and of behaviors that the parents may see as aggressive".

During this period the primary feature involves the child regularly interacting with other children
at school. Central to this stage is play, as it provides children with the opportunity to explore
their interpersonal skills through initiating activities. Children begin to plan activities, make up
games, and initiate activities with others. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of
initiative and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions.

Conversely, if this tendency is squelched, either through criticism or control, children develop a
sense of guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to others and will, therefore, remain followers,
lacking in self-initiative.
The child takes initiatives which the parents will often try to stop in order to protect the child.
The child will often overstep the mark in his forcefulness, and the danger is that the parents will
tend to punish the child and restrict his initiatives too much.

It is at this stage that the child will begin to ask many questions as his thirst for knowledge
grows. If the parents treat the child’s questions as trivial, a nuisance or embarrassing or other
aspects of their behavior as threatening then the child may have feelings of guilt for “being a

Too much guilt can make the child slow to interact with others and may inhibit their creativity.
Some guilt is, of course, necessary; otherwise the child would not know how to exercise self
control or have a conscience.

A healthy balance between initiative and guilt is important. Success in this stage will lead to the
virtue of purpose.

4. Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority:-

Industry versus inferiority is the fourth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial
development. The stage occurs during childhood between the ages of five and twelve.

Children are at the stage where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to do things
on their own. Teachers begin to take an important role in the child’s life as they teach the child
specific skills.

It is at this stage that the child’s peer group will gain greater significance and will become a
major source of the child’s self-esteem. The child now feels the need to win approval by
demonstrating specific competencies that are valued by society and begin to develop a sense of
pride in their accomplishments.

If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they begin to feel industrious and
feel confident in their ability to achieve goals. If this initiative is not encouraged, if it is restricted
by parents or teacher, then the child begins to feel inferior, doubting his own abilities and
therefore may not reach his or her potential.

If the child cannot develop the specific skill they feel society is demanding (e.g. being athletic)
then they may develop a sense of inferiority. Some failure may be necessary so that the child can
develop some modesty. Again, a balance between competence and modesty is necessary.
Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of competence.

5. Identity vs. Role Confusion:-

The fifth stage is identity vs. role confusion, and it occurs during adolescence, from about 12-18
years. During this stage, adolescents search for a sense of self and personal identity, through an
intense exploration of personal values, beliefs and goals.

The adolescent mind is essentially a mind or moratorium, a psychosocial stage between

childhood and adulthood, and between the morality learned by the child, and the ethics to be
developed by the adult (Erikson, 1963, p. 245) During adolescence the transition from childhood
to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at
the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc. The individual wants to belong
to a society and fit in.

This is a major stage of development where the child has to learn the roles he will occupy as an
adult. It is during this stage that the adolescent will re-examine his identity and try to find out
exactly who he or she is. Erikson suggests that two identities are involved: the sexual and the

According to Bee (1992), what should happen at the end of this stage is “a reintegrated sense of
self, of what one wants to do or be, and of one’s appropriate sex role”. During this stage the body
image of the adolescent changes.

Erikson claims that the adolescent may feel uncomfortable about their body for a while until they
can adapt and “grow into” the changes. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of fidelity.
Fidelity involves being able to commit one's self to others on the basis of accepting others, even
when there may be ideological differences.

During this period, they explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity based upon the
outcome of their explorations. Failure to establish a sense of identity within society ("I don’t
know what I want to be when I grow up") can lead to role confusion. Role confusion involves the
individual not being sure about themselves or their place in society.

In response to role confusion or identity crisis an adolescent may begin to experiment with
different lifestyles (e.g. work, education or political activities). Also pressuring someone into an
identity can result in rebellion in the form of establishing a negative identity, and in addition to
this feeling of unhappiness.

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation:-

Occurring in young adulthood (ages 18 to 40 yrs), we begin to share ourselves more intimately
with others. We explore relationships leading toward longer-term commitments with someone
other than a family member.

Successful completion of this stage can result in happy relationships and a sense of commitment,
safety, and care within a relationship. Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships
can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression. Success in this stage will lead to the
virtue of love.

7. Generativity vs. Stagnation:-

During middle adulthood (ages 40 to 65 yrs), we establish our careers, settle down within a
relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture.
We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming
involved in community activities and organizations.

By failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and feel unproductive. Success in this
stage will lead to the virtue of care.

8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair:-

As we grow older (65+ yrs) and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity
and explore life as a retired person. It is during this time that we contemplate our
accomplishments and can develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life.

Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our past, or feel that
we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often
leading to depression and hopelessness.

Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of wisdom. Wisdom enables a person to look back on
their life with a sense of closure and completeness, and also accept death without fear.

Types of emotions:-

There are five types of emotion: conceptions, sensations, reflexes, involuntary expressions and
voluntary expressions.

Conceptions, sensations, reflexes and involuntary expressions are biological adaptations. They
are transmitted to the next generation through reproduction. They are universal to the species.

Voluntary expressions are cultural adaptations. They are transmitted to the next generation
through interaction. They vary by culture.
Conceptions direct your behavior
Conceptions are positive or negative mental effects that are triggered by conclusions.

Maternal love is a positive effect triggered by the conclusion “my child is happy”. Maternal
grief is a negative effect triggered by the conclusion “my child is dead”.

Conceptions can also be triggered by imagining a conclusion. Maternal grief can be triggered by
imagining the conclusion “my child is dead”.

Conceptions do not trigger physical effects. Conceptions do not need to trigger physical effects
to direct your behavior.

A few conceptions do trigger involuntary expressions, which have a different purpose.

Sensations direct your behavior.
Sensations are positive or negative mental effects that are triggered by the presence or absence of
sensory stimuli.

Pleasing taste is a positive effect triggered by the taste of food. Hunger is a negative effect
triggered by the absence of food. Disgust is a negative effect triggered by the smell of toxins,
such as fecal matter.

Sensations can be triggered by stimuli that is real, recorded, remembered or imagined. Men feel
sexual pleasure when they see a naked woman whether she is real, recorded, remembered or

Sensations trigger almost no physical effects. A few sensations do trigger minor physical effects,
like salivation. However, sensations do not trigger any major physical effects, like increased
heart rate. Sensations do not need to trigger physical effects to direct your behavior.
A few sensations do trigger involuntary expressions, which have a different purpose.

Reflexes help you avoid threats
Reflexes are triggered by conclusions or sensory stimuli. Fear can be triggered by the conclusion
“a man is pointing a loaded gun at me”. Fear can also be triggered by the sight of a snake.

Reflexes trigger a mental effect that suppresses conceptions and sensations. When you are
frightened, you cannot feel sexual pleasure or humiliation. Suppression helps you concentrate on
avoiding a threat by eliminating distractions.

Reflexes trigger defensive physical effects. Startle involuntarily tenses neck muscles, which
prevents tearing by a predator’s claws or talons. Fear releases adrenalin to increase heart rate,
which helps fight or flight.

Reflexes are the only emotions that trigger major physical effects.

Involuntary expressions direct the behavior of others
Involuntary expressions are triggered by a conception, sensation or reflex. The reflex of fear
triggers the involuntary expression of horror.

Involuntary expressions have a different purpose than their trigger emotion. Fear helps you
avoid threats. The expression of horror on your face helps others avoid threats.

Voluntary expressions direct the behavior of others
Voluntary expressions are triggered by habitual decision. Anger is a habitual response to feeling
revenge. Laughter is a habitual response to feeling humor. These expressions seem involuntary
because they are deeply ingrained habits, like walking or talking.
Voluntary expressions are better than speech. Anger is more credible than calmly stating “I am
being coerced by revenge to harm you”. Laughter can be understood more easily than an
audience of people simultaneously saying “I feel humor”.

Factors that Affect Emotional Development in Children?

1. Hereditary factors

It has been seen that some similarities are found between the emotional development of parents
as well as children.

2. Maturation

As the child develops mentally, he also gets emotionally matured. It has been proved through
experiments by psychologists that development of emotions of the child depends upon the level
of maturation the child.

3. Training

Watson has proved that children learn through conditioning. He did an experiment on a nine
months-old baby. The baby was shown a rat and in the background a loud sound was made.
After some time it has seen that the baby started crying at the sight of the rat.

Thus it was proved that young children's emotions are influenced by conditioning. Through
experiments, it was seen that children start getting scared of the things with which their mothers
feels frightened when the parents expresses affection he also starts responding in the same
manner. If there is expression of physical love in the family, he also kisses hugs and expresses
love by touching.

4. Health
Children with sound health are able to control their emotions in a better way. Children who are
weak remain irritable, easily excitable and emotionally unstable.

5. Intelligence

Children who are intelli-gent are emotionally stable. Children with low intelligence quotient are
emotionally unstable.

Relation of family members with each other and how they express their emotions affects the
emotional behaviour of the child. If the behaviour of the parents is stable and they express their
emotions in a subdued and balanced manner, the child will also learn to express his emotion in a
balanced manner.

If the parents shout in anger, show violent behaviour, the baby also adopts the same behaviour
and shows temper tantrums. He will throw his toys and other things in a fit of anger. Over
pampering makes the child obstinate and indiscipline. Parents who are not able to give time to
their children or somehow don't show any affection, their children become submissive or

7. Social environment

Just like family, neighbourhood, school, society members exert influence on the emotional
development of the child. If the environment of the society is tense and emotionally charged the
child will also become emotionally unstable. If people around are emotionally stable, they
express their emotions in a socially approved way. If people have control over their emotions the
child also imitates and follows the same pattern regarding his emotions. He will learn better
control over his emotion and will always try to confirm the socially approved way of expressing
his emotions.

8. Control over emotions

To main-tain physical and mental health, it is very necessary to have control over emotions. At
the time of emotional state, body undergoes many changes like change in blood circulation, pulse
rate, breathing, effect on digestive system, stretching of eyes, closing of fists, etc. When these
emotional states are created in the body frequently and intensely, it affects the body badly.

That is why it is very necessary to exercise control over emotions and they should be expressed
in a socially approved manner so that the person and the people around him can live in peace and

Meaning of Individual Differences:

Intellectual Differences
responsibility, and knows that success depends on his own right judgment and exertion, is
replaced under a despotism by an indolent reliance upon what its master may direct, and by a
demoralising conviction that personal advancement is best secured by solicitations and favour.

INTELLECTUAL DIFFERENCES. It is needless for me to speak here about the

differences in intellectual power between different men and different races, or about the
convertibility of genius as shown by different members of the same gifted family achieving
eminence in varied ways, as I have already written at length on these subjects in Hereditary
Genius and in Antecedents of English Men of Science. It is, however, well to remark that during
the fourteen years that have elapsed since the former book was published, numerous fresh
instances have arisen of distinction being attained by members of the gifted families whom I
quoted as instances of heredity, thus strengthening my arguments