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CHAPTER -V

STRUCTURE AND PROGRAMMES OF INTEGRATED TRIBAL


DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (I.T.D.A)

This chapter briefly depicts the origin and growth


of ITDA and presents the structure of ITDA, which includes the
functions and the duties of functionaries to implement the
programmes intended for the socio-economic empowerment of the
tribals, as well as the performance and efficacy of the ITDA.

Origin and Growth of ITDA


About the historical aspects relating to the emergence of ITDA
Paderu, the Paderu division, multi-purpose block was inaugurated
in 1956. It was converted into a tribal development block in 1962.
In 1964 the first body of the panchayat samithi consisting of
numbers from different village level bodies was selected. In 1975 an
integrated tribal development project came into existence covering
Paderu and some other tribal development blocks. In addition to
these agencies many developmental institutions covering the fields
of co-operative credit, educational services, medical facilities are
established for the all round development of the tribals. Several
protective legislations enacted by the state governments were
applied to the agency area.

The Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), Paderu,


Vishakhapatnam District, is a society registered on 20th February,
1975 under the society’s registration Act XXI of 1869 and started
functioning from 4th December, 1975. The objectives of the ITDA are
to plan and execute programmes and schemes aiming at socio-
economic development of the tribal families in the tribal sub-plan
area. After the introduction of single line administration in the

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tribal sub-plan area in 1986, the ITDA was entrusted with the
responsibility of coordinating the activities of all departments both
developmental and regulatory, for better results. The tribal sub-plan
area comprises 11 mandal Praja Parishads viz., Paderu,
Pedabayalu, Munchingiputtu, Anatagiri, Araku, Hukumpeta,
G.Madugula, Chintapalli, G.K.Veedhi, Koyyuru and Dumbriguda.
At the beginning of the fifth five year plan as envisaged by this
strategy, the areas of tribal concentration and areas of dispersed
tribal population were identified according to the guidelines
provided by the central government. Accordingly a total number of
3521 villages located in the scheduled areas were identified as areas
of tribal concentration, since the tribal population in these villages
constitutes more than 50 per cent of the total population. The total
scheduled tribe population living in these villages was 5, 57,572
(according to 2001 Census). The ITDA was constituted for the
formulation and execution of plans and programmers for the
development of tribal living in these areas. In the case of areas of
dispersed tribal population, the modified areas development
approach was adopted for the development of these people.
The ITDA of Visakhapatnam was registered under the societies
Registration Act, 1860, the agency form of organization was adopted
for ensuring functional autonomy and flow of funds from different
institutions1.Originally, the headquarters of ITDA was located at
Visakhapatnam which is also the district- headquarters. Later it
was shifted to Paderu which is located in the heart of the
tribal belt in order to take it closer to the tribal people. Accordingly
its frame has also been changed from ITDA, Visakhapatnam to
ITDA, Paderu.

1
Integrated Tribal Development Agency Report on the Activities of ITDA, 1978-79
paderu, 1979,

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Objectives:
The objectives of ITDA are 2

1. Achievement of socio-economic development of the tribals


2. Narrowing down the disparities in the levels of development of
tribal and non-tribal areas;
3. Raising the productivity levels in the fields of agriculture,
horticulture, animal husbandry, forestry and so on to create
an economic impact which will enable the targeted number of
families in the Tribal Sub-plan to cross the poverty line and
4. Elimination of exploitation of tribals in respect of alienation of
land, money lending, debt bondage, forest, excise, etc.

Organizational structure
Since the adoption of the Tribal sub-plan strategy there has been a
spurt in the growth of administrative machinery for the tribal
people and tribal areas, beginning with the state level and going
down to the grassroots level.

Several new agencies are created and new patterns of


administration have been carved out to envelope and implement the
development programmes initiated by the sub-plan.

At the micro level i.e., the state level, there is a secretary in


charge of tribal development. In some of the states, the secretary
also acts as the Commissioner for tribal development, while in the
other states, this position is held by a separate officer. The
secretary/commissioner is assisted by the Director, Tribal
Development/welfare. In certain states like Madhya Pradesh and
Bihar there are Regional Tribal Development Authorities below the
state level authorities. Besides, there is a coordination committee

2
.Ibid., P.14

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consisting of the Chief Minister as Chairman and the Chief
Secretary as Convener and a few other Ministers and secretaries as
members to review the implementation of tribal development
programmes in the sub-plan area.

At the micro level each ITDA (Integrated Tribal Development


Agency) consists of a project for each District having areas of tribal
concentration: It has authority for planning and overseeing the
implementation of tribal development programmes. There is a
project officer who is of the chief executive of ITDA whose duty is to
implement the plans and programmes evolved by the Project
Authority. Besides, there is a Project Advisory Committee with local
M.Ps and M.L.As, heads of departments connected with tribal
development work and a few prominent persons of the area to look
after both the formulation and implementation of the programmes
of ITDA.

Project Authority/Governing Body:


The ITDA Project Authority is also known as the Governing Body
which consists of the Collector as the chairman, Heads of related
departments, people’s representatives and the project officer of
ITDA as its members.

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The actual composition of the project Authority of the ITDA, Paderu is
as follows3:
I. Official Members:

District Collector, Chairman Project officer, ITDA,


Paderu.Member-cum-
Deputy Director, Agriculture
Member
Deputy Director Animal Husbandry
Member
District Cooperative officer
Member
District Educational officer
Member
District Tribal Welfare officer
Member
District Social Welfare officer
Member
Executive Engineer (Panchayat Raj)
Member
Executive Engineer
(Roads & Buildings)
Member
Superintendent Engineer (Irrigation)
Member
Superintendent Engineer

3
Integrated Tribal Development Agency, A Note on the working of ITDA, Paderu,
1980, pp.14-16

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(Electrical operations)
Member
Assistant Director (Fisheries)
Member
Deputy collector (Tribal welfare)
Member
Divisional Manager, Girijan
Cooperative corporation
Member
District Development officer
(Zilla Praja Parishad, Visakhapatnam)
Member
General Manager,
District Industries Centre
Member

II. People’s Representation


Members of Parliament (Bhadrachalam,
Visakhapatnam and

Anakapalli Constituencies)
Members

Members of the Legislative Assembly


(Chodavaram, G.Madugula and Chintapalli)

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Members

The composition of the General Body needs a few comments.


Making of the District Collector chairman of the Governing body of
ITDA, has both advantages and disadvantages. As the head of the
district administration and seasoned administrator he can provide
leadership and also effectively supervise and coordinate the
programmes of different, departments operating in the ITDA areas.
However, the District Collector is always very busy with
multifarious activities of the district administration and so he
cannot be stow adequate attention even on important matters
relating to ITDA. This seriously affects the functioning of this
institution. The tribal areas in the governing body and thus placing
them under the leadership of the District Collector ensures
convergence of all developmental programmes irrespective of their
controlling departments and such an integrated system of
administration perhaps, constitutes the corner stone of the whole
philosophy of the sub-plan strategy. These specialists can also
provide the necessary technical guidance to ITDA in the
implementation of its programmes in their respective fields.

The inclusion of the people representatives like M.Ps. and


M.L.As in the general body is in accordance with the spirit of
democracy to promote the participation of the beneficiaries in the
process of their own development which is most essential in the
context of tribal conditions. Thus the inclusion of both subject
specialists and tribal representatives make the Governing body a
balanced one. This enables it to perform its functions in an efficient
manner.

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The general body meets at least once in two months to
transact its business. However, in practice it rarely follows this
schedule. It was revealed that since its inception, the general body of
ITDA never met more than three or four times in a year. The main
reason for this seems to be the non-availability of the District Collector
and other officials for the meetings. It was stated thought of; it did not
materialize owing to the non-availability of the Collector of the
majority of the official members.
Powers and functions of the general body:
The General body transacts the following functions in its meetings4:
1. Preparation of Action-plans relating to the various schemes
and programmes to be undertaken in the tribal areas
2. Review of the progress achieved by the various schemes and
programmes implemented by ITDA
3. Consideration and approval of the annual budget of ITDA and
4. Review and approval of the action taken by the project officer
in running the administration of ITDA.

Besides the above powers, the general body is also vested with the
financial power to sanction up to Rs. 15 lakhs for executing minor
irrigation schemes. The general body is expected to discharge
certain other functions.
It provides necessary guidelines to the executive wing of the
administration regarding the sub-plan programmes. It has the
responsibility to see that the development programmes are
implemented by ITDA strictly within the limits of the financial
outlays prescribed by the Annual plans and also to see that the
procedures prescribed by the Government from time to time are
followed. Thus the governing body plays a vital role in the working
of ITDA.

4. .A note on the working of ITDA, op.cit., p.22

193
However, a perusal of the actual working of the governing
body reveals that it has no powers to exercise and its role is more or
less confined to ratification of whatever schemes and programmes
evolved at higher levels and passing them on ITDA for
implementation. Further, the members envinced little interest in its
deliberation. The items that are placed on the agenda of the
meetings are approved without much discussion by the members.
Further, the meetings are dominated by the project officer who
plays a very important role in the preparation of the agenda. The
participation of tribal representatives is at best negligible since the
proceedings are often conducted in English which is not understood
by the tribal members. Generally there were few occasions when the
tribal members actively participated in the deliberation. Thus a
close study of the working of the governing body reveals that even
though in the sub-plan strategy it is assigned very important
responsibilities in actual practice, its role is circumscribed on
account of several reasons.

Project officer:
The project officer is the chief executive of ITDA. He occupies
a pivotal place in the entire administration of this agency. The
overall responsibility for the management of ITDA lies with him. He
plays a key role not only in the preparation of plans and
programmes of ITDA but also in their execution. He is the captain of
the tribal team of officials who are involved in the task of tribal
development. He is also the friend, guide and philosopher of these
officials in performing their tasks. He also acts as liaison between
ITDA and the government and other agencies working in the same
field. He projects the image of ITDA among the public in general and
the tribals in particular. On the whole it can be said that the
success or failure of this organization in achieving its goal of tribal
development to a large extent depends upon the efficiency, vigor

194
and dynamism of the project officer. Usually, an IAS officer of the
junior cadre in the rank of Joint collector is appointed as the
project officer. The appointment of an IAS officer as the project
officer is expected to serve two purposes: (a) he can secure the
obedience of the district level departmental heads because of the
status he carries (b) he can maintain good relationship with the
District Collector and other higher authorities like the secretaries
and can push through his plans and programmes without much
difficulty. In view of this appointing an IAS officer is a rational
policy. However, there is constant criticism from several quarters
that the IAS officers who are generalist administrators with highly
urbanized and sophisticated outlook are not suitable to man the
tribal development agencies because of the sensitive nature of the
tasks they perform and the socio-cultural life and personality of the
tribals they have to serve are very different. However, it was found
in the present study that this criticism was not supported by truth.
It was observed that about 80 per cent of the project officers
working in ITDA programmes under study were IAS officers. They
were found to be very dynamic and efficient and discharged their
duties with much interest and commitment. They have a good
record of achievement. Further, they mixed with the tribals very
freely and intimately. They were very sympathetic towards the
tribals. Several of them have earned a good reputation among the
tribal people for their commitment and zeal. Thus, the present a
study proved that IAS officer work more efficiently and deliver the
goods better than non-IAS officers as heads of the ITDA. The
controversy over their appointment as the chief executives of the
tribal development agencies like ITDA is purely imaginary and has
no empirical evidence.

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Tenure of the project officers:
There is no fixed tenure for the project officers; the sub-
plan strategy is silent about the tenure of this vital functionary.
However the government seems to favour between 2 and 3 years as
the term of this officer. This period is quite adequate for an officer to
understand the typical nature of tribal people and their problems
and to discharge his functions effectively. However, very few project
officers stayed beyond 2 years in the service of ITDA. Most of them
stayed less than one year in this organization. The reasons are
fairly obvious. The tribal areas which lack modern facilities were not
liked by some officers while others were transferred by the
government as a matter of routine without any reason. It is evident
from the reports of ITDA, that out of the 10 project officers who
worked in ITDA, Paderu, since its inception in 1979 only 4 project
officers served for 2 years while the others have stayed for very brief
periods ranging from 6 to 9 months. Frequent transfers of the
project officers caused serious dislocation in the administration of
ITDA.
Powers and functions:
In the sub-plan strategy the following functions have been assigned to
the project officer5.
(a) Identification and demarcation of areas of tribal concentration
(b) Identification of primitive pockets for special attention for
development under the package programme
(c) Recognition of more backward communities
(d) Coordinating and supervising all developmental activities in the
sub-plan areas
(e) Preparing periodical progress reports on the schemes and
programmes of ITDA
(f) Implementation of protective legislation and

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(g) Serving as member secretary of the Advisory committees on
tribal development

In general, the role of the project officer was found to be


that of a coordinator, even for discharging this function efficiently,
he had no administrative powers. As a result, instead of being an
effective coordinator, his activities often came to be confined to that
of progress reporting, i.e., to reporting and coordinating to the
extent possible the progress of the developmental with in ITDA. If he
happens to be an IAS officer, the departmental officers working in
ITDA readily extend the necessary cooperation to him because of
the consideration that the particular IAS officer might one day
become the head of their department. But if this is not the case
even for this cooperation he has to strive hard. This situation
prevailed because all the officials of the different departments
posted in an ITDA, reported not to the project officer but to their
respective district departmental heads who wrote their confidential
reports.

Further, the ITDA headquarters is located far from the district


headquarters and so it is very difficult for the project officer to
coordinate the activities of the departments from the project area.
Besides the project officer has no control over the district level
officers. It lies in the hands of their respective heads of
departments. Even if they fail to obey the orders of the project
officers, he has no power to punish them. Due to this, the role of
the project officer as the coordinator of the developmental
programmes in the project area cannot be effective.

5.Government of India, planning commission fifth five year plan, new Delhi, 1975,
pp.210-214

197
However, a major change in the position of the project officer
occurred in 1987 when the government decided to make ITDA a
single agency in the sub-plan area for the speedy development of
the tribal areas. The government initiated several measures to
strengthen the position of the project officer. These measures
include6
(a) Elevation of the cadre of the project officer to that a Joint
Collector and Additional District Magistrate:
(b) Vesting the Project Officer with powers of Inspection,
review and responding on all officers and institutions
operating in the project area
(c) Making all the officers of the various departments which
implement the programmes of ITDA responsible to the
project officer
(d) The BDOs who are directly responsible for the
implementation of the development programmes in the
tribal areas are brought under the control of the project
officer
(e) The project officer is made the appellate authority under
the land alienation and the money lending regulations in
force in the state
(f) All the appointments to the posts in the Sub-plan should
be made by a selection committee with the project Officer
as its chairman
(g) He is authorized to make entries in the service registers of
all the class II officers including the block development
officers working in the tribal areas.

6.Government of Andhra Pradesh department of Tribal welfare a report on the


Tribal sub-plan Hyderabad, 1988, pp.41-44

198
These reforms had little effect as there is no substantial
change in the position of the project officer of ITDA even after the
implementation of the changes. Consequently the project officer has to
confine his role to coordination and supervision of the activities
implemented by the different departments in the areas of operation of
ITDA. Nevertheless, a few project officers by virtue of their cadre were
able to command the obedience of the officials of the various
departments and implement the programmes effectively. For
instance, the programme evaluation organization of the Planning
Commission found that in several states including Andhra Pradesh the
project officers belong to IAS cadre7.
The working group appointed by the Planning Commission
during the seventh five year plan re-views the implementation of the
sub-plan programme. Observed that the role of the project officer of
ITDA in most of the states was that of a coordinator and even in that
role he is not able to discharge his duties effectively because he
happens to be a junior officer from the State Civil Services8. ITDA has
been conceived as operational units with a view to achieving
administrative organizational and financial integration of the areas
and programmes, for speedier development of the scheduled tribes.
But such integration has not been realized particularly on account of
the fact there has not been much devolution of power and
authority to the project officer9.
The working group made several recommendations to make the
position of the project officer stronger and to ensure his effective
functioning these recommendations is as follows10,

7. Government of India, planning commission, Evaluation of Report on Integrated


Tribal Development project, New Delhi: programme Evaluation organization, 1987,
pp.10-12
8.Government of India, Planning Commission, report of the working group on tribal
Development during the seventh five tear plan 1985-90, New Delhi: Ministry of
social welfare, 1989, pp.62-68
9. Ibid
10. Ibid

199
(1) The Project Officers should belong to the superior services of
the state or All India cadres and may be given authority to
make annual entries in the performance records of all class II
officers of all developmental services and cadres of the state
governments working in the project areas
(2) The project officer may at their discretion inspect both the
offices and the field work of class II officers working within
their jurisdiction.
The working group also suggested that to make ITDA a sufficiently
strong agency for intervention in several important sectors it would be
desirable to Strengthen ITDAs by providing them with a few
Assistant project Administrators who would be in charge of specific
sectors of development and assist the Project Administrator. The
number of officers to assist the project officer in this manner should
depend upon the size and population covered in an ITDA and also the
scheme taken up in the area11.
Staff Pattern:
The project officer is assisted by a number of subject specialists
who are designated as Assistant project officers. These subject
specialists belong to department like agriculture animal husbandry
Engineering, sericulture, Horticulture, and so on. These officers
who are of the cadre of Assistant Directors in their respective
departments are drawn on deputation to work in ITDA. Recently,
the district Tribal welfare officer and the special Deputy collector
(Tribal Welfare) were merged with ITDA for better coordination. The
District Tribal welfare officer was made the Assistant project officer.
Besides these officers, ITDA consists of a number of the project
officer is assisted by a number administrative and Ministerial staff
like office superintendents, Accounts officers and several office
Assistants, typists and attenders, peons, etc..

11. Ibid.

200
While the Superintendents and Accounts Officers are drawn
from departments like the Revenue department and Treasury. The
remaining staff are the staff of ITDA
The functions of some important officers of ITDA are given
below12.
1. Executive Engineer (Tribal welfare):
The Engineering wing undertake various civil construction works like
construction of school buildings, check dams, office buildings, etc.,
and other small scale industrial houses in the agency areas. This
wing consists of a Deputy Executive Engineer a few Assistant
Executive Engineers, Draftsman and other field staff.
2. Special Deputy Collector (Tribal welfare):
This officer is meant to implement the provisions of protective laws
such as land transfer regulation money lenders regulation and debt
relief regulation in the scheduled areas.
3. District Medical and Health Officer

There is an Additional District medical and Health officer in ITDA,


besides the Medical officers in the Primary Health Centres, Mobile
Medical Units and Government Hospitals to supervise and man the
medical institutions.
4. Project Agriculture officer
He is in charge of the agriculture schemes in ITDA. He monitors all the
agricultural programmes of ITDA, besides organizing and
supervising the extension work relating to agriculture.
5. Project Horticulture officer

He supervises and monitors all the horticultural activities, besides


implementing programmes social forestry, and podu prevention
activities in the ITDA area.

12. Integrated Tribal Development Agency Report on the activities of ITDA, Paderu

1989, pp.28-32

201
6. Project Education officer
The main function of the project education officer is to look after the
academic aspects of the schools in the ITDA area and to ensure
satisfactory educational levels among the tribals.

7. Assistant Director (Industry)

He looks after the industrial development in the tribal areas. He is also


responsible for improving the traditional skills of the tribals in a
scientific way so as to enable them to establish agro-based and small
scale industries
8. Assistant Director (Sericulture)
He executes and monitors sericulture programmes including tsar in
tribal areas and provides the necessary guidance to the tribal
farmers.
9. District Tribal welfare officer
He assists the project officer in the implementation of Tribal welfare
department programmes as the Ex-officio Assistant project officer of
ITDA. He specially looks after the implementation of educational
programmes and supervises the educational institutions in the ITDA
jurisdiction.
10. Project veterinary officer

He supervises the veterinary hospitals in the ITDA areas. He also


assists in the purchasing of cattle for the tribal beneficiaries under the
different schemes.
11. Statistical officer
Data connected with all the development programmes of ITDAs is
collected by this functionary. He also drafts the action plans and
looks after the monitoring of the developing programmes.
12. Administrative officer:
The Office Administration and other establishment matters are
looked after by the administrative officer.

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13. Assistant Accounts officer

The maintenance of accounts of ITDA is done by the Assistant


Accounts officer and his staff.
14. Assistant project officer (publicity)

The main function of the special publicity cell which he is in


charge of is to inculcate a sense of awareness among tribals about
development programmes through audio-visual techniques.
15. Extension officer -Fisheries
He guides the tribals in pisciculture. These officers are
generally posted to ITDA for three years. However, very few officers
complete this term. Several of them get quick transfers because of
their own wishes or owing to the policy of their respective
departments. As a result, these posts often fall vacant, and are not
filled immediately. Further, administrative control over these
officers is vested in their respective departments and the project
officers have no control over them. Hence, the project officer can
hardly secure their obedience to his orders and instruction. In this
situation these officials tend to be birds of passage without any
commitment. This attitude certainly reduces the administrative
efficiency of ITDA.

PROGRAMMES OF ITDA
The research is carried out with the specific objective of 1.
assessing the socio, economic, development of tribal communities
under ITDA project 2.for complete understanding and arriving at a
conclusion to suggest certain procedures for overall development
and better presentation in Paderu agency area. Tribal in Paderu
Agency Area developed and economically better off, ITDA, Paderu is
vibrant in coordinating and getting special programmes and
projects as and when demanded by tribal, Sectoral performances
are often above the narrow development objective and guided by

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ITDA’s goals and objectives. All the schemes executed for tribal are
demand driven and above the narrow political interest and
Institutional delivery mechanisms are energetic in the effort for
sustainable growth and development of the tribal living in the
nearby Agency area.

With a view to review the programmes of the ITDA, which is


the umbrella of departments, with single - line administration all
departmental activities and commitments have deeply been
analyzed at different levels and people’s opinion have been taken
there onto have a clear view on the programmes of the Department
and arriving at suggestions for improvement. The study therefore,
has given a lot of focus on various aspects of tribal development like
staffing pattern, Institutional pattern, various schemes of
Department, performance in each sector, behavioral pattern and so
on and so forth.

The performance of each department, so to say each one is an


independent institutions, has been examined at three stages 1)
Government Plan and Programme, 2) Measures adopted for
execution of the scheme and 3) effectiveness and sustainability of the
initiative. The study, in turn, arrives with specific ‘objective -
oriented’ suggestions and recommendations for progress in the
performance of all line departments.

EDUCATION
Education, being the most powerful instrument for tribal
empowerment, assumes special priority in the ITDA Annual Plan.
Efforts of ITDA Plan is, therefore, target - oriented in fulfilling the
goal of ‘ Education for Women’s equality’ as laid down in the
National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986 and revised in 1992.

204
Under the umbrella of ITDA, improvement and providing
education is scrupulously dealt by two wings convergent i.e. Tribal
Welfare Department headed by a special cadre officer called District
Tribal Welfare Officer (DTWO) and District Educational Officer
(agency). Both the Departments deal with clearly specified issues.
Tribal Welfare department looks after the management,
improvement and ensuring quality living in welfare Ashram
Schools, while the DEO (agency takes care of extending general
education for the tribals in the agency.

The DTWO discharges his duties from the ITDA head Quarter
and manage the operation with support of Assistant DTWOs from
different mandal headquarters. The DEO (A) having base at ITDA,
manages education programme in the agency. The performance of
the departments are analysed with respect to the parameters like
institutional efficiency, scholarships and social welfare activities in
Primary, High School, Intermediate, Graduation all in terms of
quality education and above education in the following sections..
Educational Institutions and Their Management:
Since the inception of ITDAs in Andhra Pradesh and Paderu
in particular, education is given to top most priority as the
targeted involvement. Multiple layers of institutions have been
constructed and institutionalized across the agency to render
educational service to the tribals. Position of educational
institutions in Paderu agency shows that the primary schools five
times higher than all other educational institutions available (see
Table 5.1). There are 2285 primary schools functioning in Paderu
Agency Area to cater to the educational need of 85,478 tribal
students, with a basic objective to access to primary education.

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TABLE 5.1
Status of Educational Institutions in Paderu Agency:
S.No. Institutions 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
1 Alternative Schools
279 377 377 619 734
2 Primary Schools
1438 1438 1438 1551 1551
Upper Primary
3 Schools 112 112 112 140 140

4 High Schools 58 58 58 64 96

5 Govt. Jr Colleges 9 9 9 9 9

6 Private Jr. Colleges 1 1 1 2 3

7 Degree Colleges 1 1 1 1 2
8 Gurukulam
Schools 8 8 9 9 9
9 Gurukulam
Colleges 8 8 9 9 9
10 Polytechnic
Colleges 1 1 1 1 1
Source: ITDA, Paderu, Visakhapatnam District

Primary education is being offered through different


educational institutions such as, Alternative Schools, GPS (TW),
MPPS/ Govt, and Aided Schools. The enrolment statistics of boys and
girls to these institutions shows that students’ enrolment to
MPPS/Govt and GPS (TW) is high, which establishes the fact that
demand for these education is more. It is significance noticing that
admission of girls to these above mentioned institutions is relatively
high.(See Table:5.2)

In order to provide and impart quality education to the tribal


students in the face of their economic weakness and geographically
disconnectness, ITDA has opened up Ashram Schools to provide to

206
the need of the tribal students perusing high school education.
Students enrolled to the institutions are provided with free
education, free boarding and Medicare facilities till the completion of
schooling.

The study reveal that the rate of student enrolment is


increasing upward over the five years under study .The higher
enrolement of students are enrolement indicates that the tribal
people have well understood the importance of education and its
value in the day to day life. All 11 mandals of the agency are
covered by 102 Ashram Schools, i.e. 70 for boys and 32 for girls the five
years ITDA enrollment figures of Ashram Schools reveal that almost
more than 32,000 students across the agency are availing residential
education across the years. statistics of current admission is little
above than the enrollment figure of the last three years i.e. from
2004to2006 is reported due to direct participation of primary school
teachers in education campaign.

Table: 5.2 year-Wise Students Enrolment In Primary Schools Of


Paderu Agency:

YEAR BOYS GIRLS TOTAL


2003-2004 33064 27043 60107

2004-2005 35178 28778 63956

2005-2006 39225 32090 71315

2006-2007 46909 37481 84390

2007-2008 47016 38462 85478

Source: Dist. Educational Officer (A), Paderu, Visakhapatnam

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Intermediate education in agency area is being taken care of
through Government Junior Colleges, Private Junior Colleges, and
APTWR Junior Colleges, (Boys & Girls). In total there are 16
Institutions functioning to provide Intermediate education.
Enrolment statistics of students shows that demand for
intermediate education is gradually increasing ( See table:5.4).
However, the intensity of girls intermediate education in APTWRJC
(G) is following zigzag path. The student’s enrollment trend to
Government Junior Colleges is upward increasing and the
institutions are capable of managing the increased strength.
Statistics reveals that there are on an average 3,000 students
taking admission into Intermediate Colleges across the agency area,
which in turn are opting for Degree Courses.

There are only two Degree Colleges functioning in the agency


area to cater to the higher level education need of tribal students. It is
surprisingly seen that students’ strength in Government Degree
College, Paderu is getting multiplied every year. As revealed from the
table below The current strength of 5253 is a figure in upper side to
manage the strength and ensure imparting of quality education.
The demand for Degree education, as has been revealed, is increasing
over the years.

208
TABLE-5.3
Year-Wise Students Enrolled In Degree Colleges In Paderu
Agency:
Name of the
S.No. 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
College

Govt Degree
1
College, 1006 1378 2765 4577 5253
Paderu

Govt Degree
2 College, 163
Chintapalli

Total
1006 1378 2765 4577 5416

Source: Coordinator, collegiate Education, ITDA, Paderu,


Visakhapatnam Dist.

Adult tribal girls especially from the agency areas, going for
higher education needs moral support and escort, while they are
getting education in cities. It is also observed that adult girls
pursuing carrier settlement higher education are not sure of the
education pursuing and hence, carrier guidance is essential.

209
Table - 5.4
Year-Wise Students Enrollment In Junior Colleges In Paderu
Agency:S

Name of the 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08


College

Govt. 2938 3179 3649 4509 4656


Jr. Colleges

APTWR 402 901 851 697 815


Jr. Colleges (B)

APTWR 132 641 429 361 586


Jr. Colleges (G)

Total 5471 6720 7788 6706 8056

Source: Coordinator, Collegiate Education, ITDA, Paderu,


Visakhapatnam Dist

Pre-Metric and Post-Metric Scholarships:

Tribal students of Paderu agency area are encouraged for


higher education and vocational education too. ITDA is
continuously encouraging students to continue current education
and inspire for pursuing higher education by way of extending pre -
Metric and post Metric scholarships. The activity is executed by the
district Tribal Welfare Officer of the agency and overall control of
project officer, ITDA. Decadal statistics of ITDA revealed that

210
proportionately more expenditure was incurred for few students
during 90’s. During 1995-2000, per student expenditure for
scholarship was bit high while dramatic change takes place in the
year 2000. The expenditure per student has remarkably reduced.
More students have accessed the post - metric scholarship
obtaining the highest record of 16,154 students in the year.
Education being the prime force behind change of the
people’s life, livelihoods, attitude, behavior, brings about a
sustained overall change in the locality, the agency is mandated
towards imparting quality education through residential schools.
The tribal; welfare schools are persistently showing impact in the
agency through drawing attention of tribal students for taking
admission into the residential mode and retaining till completion of
the education. Similarly, parents motivated, mobilized and are
assured of good future by these institutions. Schools running under
the Tribal Welfare Department are taking care of overall
requirement of all tribal students taking admission into residential
mode of education and ultimately extending free education for all.
In order to draw the attention of the tribal students towards
education, provision of scholarships has been made to encourage
students to go for higher education. Scholarship statistics of Paderu
shows that no. of students accessing scholarship increasing over
the year’s statistics indicates that there is more number of students
opting for / pursuing higher education. The encouragement
thorough provision of scholarship has changed the mindset of tribal
and made them firm to continue education.
By mean, students enrolled to the Ashram Schools and
Gurukulams are supplied with all logistics to stay in the school and
pursue education without feeling bit of difficulty. Apart from
logistics, they are provided with pocket money of Rs. 75/- and Rs.
50/- per month per student pursuing education at Gurukulam

211
colleges and schools respectively, needless to mention of Tribal
Welfare Department’s initiative toward providing to and fro travel
charges to students during school holidays is motivating non-
boarders and villagers at large to send their children to ashram
schools.
Pre - Metric scholarship figures revealed that an amount of
Rs. 2014Crores had been released towards the pre - metric
scholarship to the tribal student in 2006 while an amount of Rs.
1.95 Crores has been released in 2007.
Study Aids:
All inhabitants of Ashram Schools and Gurukulams are
supplied with bathing soap, chappals, oil, detergent, note books etc. at
free of cost. In fact, special care for girl’s children is provided. Basic
minimum requirements to live in the hostel and carry on education
are supplied by ITDA.

Social Welfare:
Apart from the education intervention for the tribals, the
ITDA is working closely on social welfare of the tribal. Inter caste
marriage in the agency have been encouraged, for which couple
going for inter - caste marriage are given with some financial
encouragements. Over he last five years, Paderu ITDA has seen 84
inter caste marriages in incurring an expenditure of Rs.8 Lakhs.in
2005-06, and 18 lakh in 2006-07.

Day Scholar Education:


Apart from the Ashram schools education tribal children are
provided education through institutions initiated by Education
Department. Children have been enrolled to different schools
functioning under the education department. During 1995 the
availability and accessibility to educational institutions was very

212
poor, which was acting a negative factor for universalization of
education. The survey in 2006 revealed that around 10,000
students across the agency area were dropouts.
Best Available Schools (BAS):
The Best Available Schools was started in the year 1985-96
with a view to provide quality education in the District itself, as
these schools are said to be the best institutions in the District. The
objective of the scheme was to sanction Scholarships to the selected
Scheduled Tribe students taking admission into classes 5th and 7th
only in the Best Available Schools. In order to streamline and
strengthen the scheme, guidelines are issued the concerned
authorities, so that the selected bright ST children will have quality
education.
Selection of students for availing BAS scheme is done through
a Common Entrance Test. It is also worth to be noted that ST
children whose parental income is not exceeding Rs. 18,000/- per
annum are eligible for admission in Best Available Schools and one
child from a family is eligible for the scholarship under this scheme,
except for PTG (Boys and Girls) and ST Girls. Allotment of
institutions to the selected students is made as per the preferences
indicated by the parents/ guardians, basing on merit and
availability of the seats in the institutions.
TABLE-5.5
Students Enrollment In Best Available Schools.
Year 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- Total
04 05 06 07 08
Students
Enrolled 801 765 831 827 1080 4304
Financial
Expenditure 65.39 65.98 73.73 74.22 134.29 413.61
(Rs.Lakhs)
Source: Dist. Tribal Welfare Officer Paderu, Visakhapatnam

213
Students’ admission in the Best Available Schools in Paderu
Agency Area shows that demand for admission in to the Best
Schools has been increasing over the years. However, the number of
students availing the scheme is comparatively high in 2007-08 and
so also the financial assistance as evidenced from the above table.
ITDA has given priority for PTGs taking admissions into these
schools. The district statistics of Best Available Schools shows that
there are five schools selected under the scheme during first phase
and looking at the demand that the English medium school in BAS
shall be opened by TW Department itself to give quality education to
bright students.

However, Best Available School scheme under Tribal Welfare


Department (TWD) is not yielding expected results.

Education programmes in the heart of the involvement of


ITDA. ‘Charity begins at home’ is grossly guided by the level of
education of the family members to understand the issues of
development. High tribal concentration, low literacy level and poor
communication ability are viewed to be factors inhibiting tribal
growth and development and crippling the economy closed.

Health:
In Paderu Agency Area, there are 33 PHCs and 195 sub
centers institutionalized to deal with the health issues. Seasonal
analysis of health shows that T.B., Viral Hepatitis, Acute
Respiratory infections and Typhoid are being endemic. Health
services are operational under the primary health care system. In
tribal area, the health services are executed by the Additional
District Medical & Health Officer and malaria by District Malaria
Officer and monitored by ITDA. The PHCs are functioning at Mandal

214
level and health service is rendered grossly operational at village level
through MPHA (M) & (F).

Health service is rendered in the face of in - adequate staff and


geographic spread of agency necessitated development of a
comprehensive, systematized and collaborative health intervention to
reduce the seasonal morbidity and mortality in coordination with all
departments working under the umbrella of ITDA. The health
services offered, impact created and people’s opinion/satisfaction is
discussed in the subsequent paragraphs.

Early Detection and Prompt Treatment (EDPT):

The G.O.s, The Self Help Groups, Village Organizations of IKP


and all Voluntary Organizations working in the agency area are
joining hand to extend assistance to Health Department to respond
quickly to the referral cases. As per the mandates of the Mandal
Mahila Samakhya (MMS) who is acting as the platform to the
respective mandals on the schedule day of MMS meeting, all
departments are to participate and solve the issues of the
community. Each department is getting a time slot for addressing
the issues raised by SHGs. The current arrangement has enabled
the health department to know the problem and provide quick
response to the needy and most vulnerable and marginalized and in
the community.

Water Borne Diseases in Agency Area:


Primarily people in Paderu agency area depend on spring and
stream for drinking and household purposes. The soil topography
and location mostly pose the challenge to go for dug well or bore
well. However, ITDA had dug several wells and bore wells and

215
kundies in almost every second habitation. Tribal because of
traditional practice generally use spring water as it is their
traditional practice spring and stream water during rainy season
often get contaminated with man as well as animal wastes, natural
wastes and hence, became the major source of outbreak of
diseases, where families and villages together gets affected.

It is observed that the Diarrhea occurrence in the agency area


is very severe. Statistics of Diarrhea patients in agency always
touched the four digit figure. Jaundice and Typhoid though caused
of consumption of non - portable drinking water, its severity is very
much limited. Overall trend for diseases occurring due to
consumption of un - hygienic drinking water is following a
downward decreasing trend over the periods under study (see
table:5.6)

Table - 5.6
Status of Water Borne Diseases in Paderu Agency

S.No. Disease 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

1 Diarrhea 4863 5231 4645 2284 2463

2 Jaundice 402 531 488 423 117

3 Typhoid 481 517 654 404 371

Total 5746 8283 7792 5117 4958


Source:ADM&HO(T),PADERU, Visakhapatnam District

216
Anemia:
Tribals in Paderu Agency Area are very laborious and hard
working. Enough nutritious food with tiring work will enhance the
energy level of the body and hence, the resistance power. It is
observed that women are mostly engaged in agricultural works. And
it is known that agriculture in Agency Areas is mostly confined to
Podu cultivation” and cultivation is carried out following slash and
burn technology. In the face of strenuous work and because of age
old practice of ‘early age marriage’ and early child bearing in most of
the cases made pregnant and lactating mother and children are
anemic due to lack of adequate nutritious food in Paderu Agency
Area.

Agency Anganwadi centers statistics reveals that there are


2222 mini and main Anganwadi centers functioning in the Agency
Area to cater to the need of the lactating mothers, pregnant ladies and
children(See table:5.7)

ITDA has made persistent effort to increase the accessibility


of reproductive health service in remote of the remotest villages.
Statistics reveals that there are 1427 Anganwadi Centers
discharging service across the Agency Area during 2003-04 to
2005-06. However, a dramatic expansion of Anganwadi Centers has
taken place during 2006-07 and 2007-08. There are 795 Main and
Mini Anganwadi centers which have been institutionalized to cater to
the service need of remote villages. (See Table:5.8)

217
TABLE-5.7
Status of Anganwadi Centres in Paderu Agency Area
S.No. Name of the Main Main Total
Project Anganwadi Anganwadi
Centers Centers
1 Ananthagiri 123 83 206
2 Arakuvalley 225 105 330
3 Chiontapalli 192 284 476
4 G.Madugula 96 173 269
5 Koyyuru 85 58 143
6 Munchingiputtu 99 127 226
7 Paderu 196 184 380
8 Pedabayalu 106 86 192

Total 1122 1100 2222


Source: Project Director, Dist. Women & Child Devp. Agency,
Visakhapatnam
TABLE-5.8
Year-wise Status of Anganwadi Centres in Paderu Agency
Area
S.No. Year Main Main Total
Anganwadi Anganwadi Anganwadi
Centers Centers Centers
1 2003-04 812 615 1427
2 2004-05 812 615 1427
3 2005-06 812 615 1427
4 2006-07 971 615 1586
5 2007-08 1122 1100 2222

Source: Project Director, Dist. Women & Child Devp. Agency,


Visakhapatnam

218
Statistics of antenatal service shows that there are almost
88per cent of women have access the service during the reporting
period across the Agency Area.

Statistics reveals that 87.88per cent children are fully


immunized across the Agency Area over the period under study.
The DPT/OPV/HEP-B coverage statistics shows that 89%children
have accessed the immunization service during the year 2005-07.
Similarly coverage of BCG in the Agency Area shows 92% , the year
2006 reveals highest achievement (10058). Coverage of Measles in
the Agency Area during the study period is 82.66% . (see table 5.9)
Apart from the THR and IFA distribution, AWC’s are serving as
counseling centers for the newly married and immunization centers
for the children.

Respiratory Infections Among the Children:


The seasonal growth and development of parthenium weed is
provided to be a notorious plant which causes respiratory problem
among the children during flowering season due to wide spread of
pollen grains in the air. The flowering season is coinciding with the
increase of fever incidence and respiratory problems during May till
August.
TABLE: 5.9
Status of Child Immunization During 2005-2007
2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Method Target Achiev % Target Achiev % Target Achiev % Total
ement ement ement %
DPT,OPV 10754 8299 77 9680 9440 98 10560 9760 92 89
, HEP-B
BCG 10754 8264 86 9680 10058 104 10580 9120 86 92
Measles 10754 7761 72 9680 8546 88 10580 9325 88 82.66
Total 32262 25324 78.33 29040 28044 96.66 31720 28205 88.66 87.88
Source: Dist. Immunization Officer, Visakhapatnam

219
Malaria:
The seasonal analysis of fever and, malarial cases in Paderu
shows that April - June is the period where the cases of malaria
and fever are reported to be very high across the years. (See table:
5.10).
At the habitation level; Community Health Workers (CHWs)
are rendering health services. All to together 3200 active CHWs
daily visiting all families in their area of operating habitation and
giving the first aid solution. CHWs are deployed with a noble view to
extend health services to the most remote village located in hilltop
and cut off locations all time. Apart from collection of blood smears,
distributions of first aid medicines, mobilization of pregnant ladies
for institutional delivery are the responsibilities shouldered by her.
A total of 966 Anganwadi centers in Paderu also joining hand in the
drive of malaria evacuation in the Agency. Anganwadi Centers are
the model centers for awareness creation on promotion of
consumption of boiled drinking water, village cleanliness and village
health and sanitation.
Table-5.10
Month-wise Incidence of Fever and Malaria cases
S. No Month No. f Fever Cases No. of Malaria Cases
2005 2006 2007 2005 2006 2007

1 January 21126 18051 10651 282 131 131

2 February 26175 20375 12427 440 190 163

3 March 36076 25243 20049 597 279 259

4 April 38682 26679 23139 680 474 323

5 May 67726 28534 28351 1139 448 311

6 June 74796 42258 30501 1730 515 305

220
7 July 73956 47605 31751 1496 490 306

8 August 61895 25933 26742 904 259 207

9 September 37484 21087 23111 415 183 161

10 October 33773 20990 19501 262 202 134

11 November 38802 19448 16606 295 234 72


12 December 25194 17465 11430 208 183 54
Total 537690 315675 254259 10453 3588 2426
Source: ADM & HO (T) Paderu, Visakhapatnam.

Concerted effort is made by the health department to reach


the services to each and every habitation. All the welfare schemes of
central and state Government are reaching the targeted beneficiary.
Agency administration has given lot of focus on the improvement of
village cleanliness and construction of garbage pits during the
period under study. (See Table:5.12). It is also reported that there
are more and more number of beneficiaries are accessing NMBS
and JSY schemes.

Tuberculosis and HIV / AIDS:


Tuberculosis in Agency Area is a disease drawing attention of
Health Department. Around 1382 cases have been recorded during the
study period across the mandals of the Agency. The trend of Tuberculosis
is increasing upward over the years.

Scenario of HIV/AIDS is spreading rampantly in the Agency

Area during the periods under study. Out of 12,661 tested for HIV
166 cases get confirmed during the years 2003 to 2007. This
situation confirms to the illiteracy, ignorance as well as sexual
practice of tribals. This may be cursory indication of sexual habits
of tribals having multiple partners, poverty, migration as well as

221
distressed economic condition. The study also reveals that there are
more number of cases detected in advanced - well connected
mandals in the agency area. The advantage of hill station is also
playing a role in spreading the disease, found in discussion with
Positive People Living With Aids (PPLWAIDS). Further, the
advantage of multifamily system of the tribal culture is also adding fire
to the fuel of HIV/AIDS.

Roads:
TABLE - 5.11
Division-wise Road Works Status During 2004 to 2007
Division 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

No. of Fin.(Rs No. of Fin.(Rs No. of Fin.(Rs No. of Fin.(Rs


KMs Lakhs) KMs Lakhs) KMs Lakhs) KMs Lakhs)
Tribal
Welfare 25.00 699.60 41.8 505.50 23.00 22.45 54.83 1311.01

Panchayat
Raj 34.00 687.04 53 1152.80 83.00 2051.08 41.00 954.00

Roads &
Buildings 99.14 935.73 49.26 1052.79 54.22 898.64 30.00 982.50

Total 158.14 2322.37 144.06 2711.09 160.22 2972.17 125.83 3247.51


Source: ITDA, Paderu, Visakhapatnam Dist.

Paderu agency with its vast geographic spread constitutes


56.38% of the Visakhapatnam Dist. Out of the 3574 habitations in
Paderu division, 1629 habitations are not connected by any road.
There are 86 major BT roads connecting 1930 habitations. Thus,
nearly 35% habitations are never connected with any road and many
tribals have to walk long distances.

222
Due to lack of road connectivity, it is becoming increasingly
difficult for the tribal community to reach the road point to catch
buses and reach the health centers in time. Due to lack of bus
connectivity patients bare being brought to the health centers by
Dolis and horses, which invariably takes time for the patients as
evident from the table below. Most of the patients are reluctant to go to
the health centers by Dolis and horses.

TABLE-5.12
Status of Road Connectivity
There are 3574 habitations in 11 Mandals of ITDA, Paderu

Habitations
Populations Un Connected Total
Connected

Less than 100 1112 301 1413

100-250 217 995 1212

250-499 54 509 563

500-999 5 140 145

SOURCE: Executive engineer (TW) Paderu, Visakhapatnam Dt.

Poor road connectivity crippled the tribal economy in many


forms, i.e. Marketing of agriculture produce, NTFPs available and
other products. Road connectivity brings in geographical isolation,
and material deprivation. Invariably, supply - demand gap in
delivering services and inaccessibility is created. Purchase of house

223
hold consumer durables and perishables are mostly takes place on
head loads.

Road connectivity in Paderu Agency Area are managed by


Tribal Welfare, Panchayat Raj, and Roads & Buildings division
separately. Statistics of ITDA shows that 588.25 KMs of road have
been constructed by all three Departments over periods under
study in the face of huge requirement of 35% of road connectivity to
the entire agency (See Table:5.13). Road works progress in the
Agency Area seems to be very slow. Financial expenditure on road
construction by all three Departments together during 2004 to 2007
revealed that expenditure on road construction has increased over the
years.

A visible gap is evidenced between the service availability and its


requirement in Agency Area. The unconnected, and semi
connected villages through all - weather roads, is in fact, need to be on
priority of ITDA for establishing connectivity.

Drinking Water & Sanitation:

There are plenty of perennial water resources available in the


form of springs and streams in Paderu Agency Area./ Some villages
are provided with open wells, bore wells and kundi by ITDA. Natural
springs which ia known as “oota” are the only sources available for
drinking as well as utility purpose in the remote villages. Due to
lack of safe drinking water, people are susceptible to various
communicable and water borne diseases like malaria, Typhoid,
Diarrhea, Cholera etc,. Almost 90% of the uncovered habitations
are inaccessible and also hill top villages. Various drinking water
schemes like PWS schemes, Gravity schemes, open wells, hand

224
pumps etc. are taken up to provide portable drinking water through
Tribal Welfare and Panchayat Raj Division

However, Panchayat Raj Department/ Rural Water Supply


(RWS) involvement in provisioning potable drinking water came into
force in the year 2005 and hence, have limited contribution towards
the endeavor. There are 3033 Drinking Water devices constructed
in the agency during the period under study (See table 5.17).
Statistics reveals that the Engineering Department has taken up
maximum number of Drinking Water devices 1108 in the Agency Area
during the year 2007-08, which is reflecting the seriousness of the
Government to address the problems of Tribals. The drinking water
initiative by ITDA is limited acceptability by tribals. Bore well and hand
pumps are not used to poor water delivery, frequent breakdown and
production of reddish water.

ITDA is persistently working to provide portable drinking


water to all habitations though constructions of different feasible
drinking water devices. Statistics of ITDA reveals that no number of
drinking devices constructed is more in 2007-08, clearly evidences
the fact that issue of hygiene and health are seriously addressed. It
is high time for the tribals to practice use of safe drinking water for
protecting themselves from various vulnerable diseases.

Drinking Water devices constructed in the agency area are


handed over to the community for use, without imparting adequate
training and managerial skill to the community for management of
the drinking water devices. This in most of the cases, as revealed
from discussion with the people, leads to ill functioning and mal
functioning as well as frequent breakdown of the devices, leading to
dependence of the people on ‘ootas’ for water. In order to make the

225
drinking water devices constructed in the agency area use worthy,
ITDA has attempted to impart training to villagers on the
management and malignance of drinking water devices. At least two
members from each Mandal have been trained to look after the
maintenance of the bore - wells and other PWS/MPWS.

TABLE-5.13
Drinking Water Devices Executed in Paderu Agency
Year Tribal Welfare Panchayat Raj

2003-04 31 47.53 24 25.50

2004-05 22 59.50 20 25.50

2005-06 260 151.02 288 242.67

2006-07 713 209.22 567 153.47

2007-08 1093 658.04 15 35.60

Total 2119 1125.31 914 482.74


Source; ITDA Paderu

Sanitation:
Tribes are diminutively aware of safe hygiene. Garbage dumps
are found in front of each residential area and are the breeding
ground of flies and mosquitoes. There are no proper drainage
facilities available, which seriously cause diarrhea, jaundice and
some common skin diseases. The available water from common
sources is being used for multiple purpose for washing clothes,
bathing, kitchen and for animal bathing too. In order to provide

226
secured sanitation and to avoid diseases, ITDA is constantly
endeavoring to ensure the following at the habitation level.

1. Temporary earthen drains during monsoon are provided. 2.


Special drives for use of Individual Sanitary Latrines. 3.
Construction of individual latrines and promotion of usage of
individual latrines through awareness programmes.
Minor Irrigation:

Plenty of water resources available in the form of rivers


springs and streams in the Paderu Agency Area. Agriculture is the
major source of economic development of the community, but
mostly rain fed in natural. In the lean season farmers practice
stream cultivation along valley lines. Second crop is only possible
for those, whose fields are fed by the natural springs. ITDA is
making concerted effort to provide water for irrigation using surface
and sub surface water. The following devices are executed in the
agency area depending on the availability of the surface and sub -
surface water.

ITDA has made concerted effort to extend assured irrigation


facilities for 12,163 acres land under the JRY millennium
programme. About 600 wells are constructed and motors have been
provided to the beneficiaries in the Agency Area costing Rs.20.00
crores. Adding to the drive of irrigation for all cultivable land, Check
dams and Diversion Structures are massively constructed in Agency
Area with people’s involvement. There are as many as 1811 Minor
Irrigation structures i.e. Check dams and Diversion Structures and
Ancients have been constructed in Agency Area to cater the need of
command ability 63,833 acres. (See table: 5.18 & 5.19)

227
TABLE-5.14
Mandal-wise Ayacuts in Paderu Agency Area
S.no Name of the Mandal No. of Ayacuts in
sources (Acres)
1 Koyyuru 233 11335
2 Chinthapalli 124 6908
3 G.k.veedhi 102 4129
4 G.madugula 109 4846
5 Paderu 165 4842
6 Hukumpeta 160 5738
7 Pedabayalu 125 3918
8 Munchingiputtu 111 3786
9 Dumbriguda 131 4471
10 Aruku 223 6509
11 Ananthagiri 328 7351
TOTAL 1811 63833
Source: ITDA,paderu,Visakhapatnam

228
TABLE-5.15
Status of Check Dams Constructed in Paderu Agency Area
Division 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 TOTAL

Phy Fin. Phy Fin. Phy Fin. Phy Fin. Phy Fin.
(Rs. in (Rs. in (Rs.in (Rs.in (Rs.in
lakhs) lakhs) lakhs) lakhs) lakhs)
Tribal 213 562.17 203 379.66 183 374.01 131 680.39 517 1434.06
welfare
Source: Executive engineer (Tribal welfare),paderu,Visakhapatnam
district

Economic Support Schemes:


All the economic Support schemes for the tribal are guided by the
following objectives:
1) To build strong grass root level institutions of the poor where the
tribal community will actively participate in planning,
implementation and monitoring of the programmes and develop
greater access to and control over resources to sustain their
livelihoods and achieve self-reliance.2) To provide linkage and
convergence of all the resources available under tribal development
strategy and all other anti-poverty programmes of the Government
for the Tribal Development with a view to reaching out to maximum
number of Schedule Tribes. 3) To provide sustainable livelihood
opportunities to the Schedules Tribes who are below poverty line
particularly the poorest of the poor among them, for enhancing
their incomes and improving their quality of life.

Coffee Cultivation:-
Coffee cultivation requires cool climate and adequate shade
and hence, indeed, silver oak is massively planted to provide shade
to coffee plants. However, in order to maximize income from the

229
terrain, during the coming years focus has been given on plantation
of income generating plants like Mango,Neredu,Kamala, Busi,
Pongamia, etc., in place of silver oak as mixed shade plants for
shade in a phased manner. The mandays of employment generated
in coffee plantation is 3, 60,200 in last five years (See table 5.16)

Coffee cultivated in the Agency Area is organic in nature. The


leaf litters, and in some cases compost produced from the vermi-
copmpost initiative is applied in the coffee cultivated area. Coffee
cultivation has not only ensured supply of minimum needs of
marginalized community, but also addressed environmental
problem of deforestation arising from “Podu Cultivation”( shifting),
soil erosion and maintaining the forest eco-system intact.

Table-5.16
Extent of Coffee Coverage and Employment and Generation
Year Extent in No.of Beneficiaries No.of Mandays
acres covered Genarated
raised
2003-03 5556 5556 444480
2004-05 12677 13420 1014160

2005-06 7372 7840 589760

2006-07 7418 7472 593440

2007-08 12042 11572 963360

TOTAL 45065 45860 3605200

Source: ITDA,paderu,Visakhapatnam district


Agriculture:
Agriculture requires lot of investment of both man and money to
start with. Many farmers became bankrupt and mortgage of either
land or the product in the onset of the cultivation. In order to arrest

230
the situation and make the tribal farmers free from the clutches of
money lenders, ITDA has leveraged resources from GCC and the
Regional Rural Banks (RRB’s) working in the agency. It is also
reported that, loan sanctioned to interested farmers are not
following the stringent rules and procedures of loan allotment.
ITDA has guaranteed on behalf of tribal beneficiary interested for
availing loan. Total financial inflow into agriculture was noticeable
High in 2007 (See table 5.18) However, fund leveraged from GCC in
the 2007 is little less in comparison to the subsequent years.

Under the Indira Prabha (CLDP) Scheme 7801.59 acres of


assigned lands of ST farmers have been renovated with an
expenditure of 332.94 lakhs and made use worthy. The intervention
being objected to restore the agricultural land in one hand and
provide employment to the unemployed in lean season on the other has
achieved mileage in 2005-06.

TABLE-5.17
Loan Leveraged for Agriculture Cultivation in Paderu Agency Area
Year Bank GCC TOTAL

2002-03 630.20 23.3 653.5


2003-04 620.10 21.15 641.25
2004-05 630.00 30.42 660.42
2005-06 760.00 41.38 801.38
2006-07 774.31 32.89 807.2
TABLE 3938.61 176.59 4116.2
Source: GCC, Paderu, Visakhapatnam district & RRBs in Paderu
Sericulture:
Sericulture has been practiced for the past many years in
Tribal Area of Visakhapatnam District. Three types of natural silks
like mulberry, Tsar and Muga (experimentally) are grown in the

231
Tribal Area. Out of these (3) varieties of silk the tribals have
explored mulberry silk commercially. The farmers are getting an
average return of Rs.10, 000/- per acre of Mulberry garden per
annum through 3-4 crop cycles per annum.
The Department of Sericulture having its operational base at
Paderu is extending technical guidance and inputs to the farmers
through four technical service centres, three seed farms and one
reeling unit in Paderu Division.
Statistics revealed that there are 549 Tribal farmers who are
engaged in mulberry cultivation in 296 acres across 46 villages.
Over the years sunder study, 68.795M. Tons of Cocoons have been
harvested and fetched an amount of Rs.29.60 lakhs with average
yield of Rs.10, 000/- per acre ( see table 5.18)

TABLE-5.18
Sericulture Intervention in Paderu Agency Area
S.No Year Mulberry No. of Cocoons Subsidy
planted Beneficiaries produced sanctioned
in acres in Tons. (Rs.in
lakhs)
1 2002-03 60.00 105 16.500 7.315

2 2003-04 75.00 131 14.640 0.700


3 2004-05 53.00 100 10.871 0.000
4 2005-06 50.00 87 12.829 6.278
5 2006-07 58.00 126 13.955 8.705
TOTAL 296.00 549 68.795 22.998
Source: Assistant Director, sericulture, Paderu, Visakhapatnam
district

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Land Transfer and Regulation:

Constitutional provision to safeguard the tribals in their own


nativity is in force by way of many rules and regulations.
Constitution has crafted the policies favoring tribals. All these
aimed at restoring tribal rights, cultures, and ethnicity in their
place of living.

The Revenue Department is supportively dealing with benami


land issues of the tribals. In the agency like Paderu there are 5517
cases registered on 22260.32 acres of land till 2007 and of that
3517 cases are solved on 21613.00 acres of land and conferred
decision favoring schedule Tribes of 4213. The Department has not
taken any side in conferring decisions. This has been revealed
through conferring favorable decisions for 1114 non-schedule
tribes, covering 4359.00 acres of land ( See table 5.19) The split
between the act 1/70 and before is delineating the line of control for
transaction and non-transaction of immovable of tribals. People
residing before 1/70 are almost treated as tribals and are mingled with
tribal cultures and lives.

Effective enforcement of land transfer regulation, i.e.,1/70 Act


is in a problematic state. This is primarily due to low
understanding and no understanding of the act, which often
created fractions, confusions, and rivalry among the inhabitants.

233
TABLE-5.19
LTR Status in Paderu Agency Area Till 2007
S.no Particulars NO.of cases Extent
registered (in Acres)
1 Total cases Detectod 5517 22260.32

2 Total Cases disposed 5327 21613.00

3 Cases decided in favour of 4213 17254.00


STs
4 Cases decided in favovur 1114 4359.00
of non-STs
5 Land restored to tribals 3013 139.9.00

6 Cases pending 190 645.00

Source : special Deputy collector(TW),Paderu, Visakhapatnam


Disrtict

Community Investment Fund:


The community Investment Fund (CIF) provides resources to
the poor communities for use as means to improve their livelihoods.
This component supports the poor in prioritizing livelihood needs by
investments in subprojects proposed and implemented by the
Community Based Organizations (CBO’s). The cumulative CIF
expenditure up to 2007 is Rs.693.72 lakhs and the total numbers of
beneficiaries is 9532 in Paderu Agency area (See table 5.20).

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TABLE-5.20
Community Investment Fund Expenditure and IGA
Beneficiaries
S.NO Year No. of village No.of No.of Amt.
organizations self beneficiaries (Rs.in
Help lakhs)
Groups
1 2004-05 286 2674 33855 309.14
2 2005-06 298 1303 9532 384.58
3 2006-07 149 999 7484 3984.58
4 2007-08 132 514 3861 274.06
TOTAL 865 5490 54732 4952.36

Source : IKP-TPMU,ITDA,paderu,visakhapatnam

Collective Marketing:
Various marketing initiatives are taken up in 2007-08.
Rajma procurement in Paderu Agency Area is taken up by 78 VOs,
which fetched net benefit of Rs.2.3 lakhs. Similarly procurement
and value of addition of Turmeric is constantly taken up by CBOs,
which earned profit margin of Rs.10.00 lakhs across the VOs.
Procurement and sale of organic coffee is another initiative taking
momentum. Till the reporting year nearly 142 tones of coffee has
been procured and sold in the market. Effort of collective
marketing through VOs is seen in Tamarind, Amla Pulp, Niger, Red
Gram, Jafra, Pongamia seed, and many more ( see table 5.21).
Voss are constantly working on streamlining, strengthening, and
organizing themselves to bring marketing of all produces to the fold
of collective marketing in Paderu Agency area.

235
TABLE-5.21
Collective Marketing Activity of IKP, Paderu
S. Item 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
No Qty.in Amt.in Qty.in Amt.in Qty.in Amt. Qty. in Amt.in

Tons lakhs Tons lakhs Tons in Tons lakhs


lakhs
1 Rajma 192.83 27.73 284.5 51.9 136.75 38.90 305.71 79.37

2 Coffee 64.79 26.37 1.07 0.28 37.81 17.40 38.19 27.04

3 Tamarind 162.67 11.04 241.17 1.19 9.04 0.76 2.42 0.16

4 Turmeric 53.02 6.36 208.35 17.19 184.21 13.90

5 Adda leaf 94.52 5.94 4.73 2.6

6 Amla plup 8.18 1.41 3.29 0.55 11.11 1.96

7 Other 457.58 28.87 200.36 36.31 90.46 9.59 200.18 21.25


Commodities
Total 1033.59 107.72 943.47 110.61 472.38 82.51 546.5 127.82

Source: Dy .Engineer,(APSH Corpn),paderu,Visakhapatnam

IAY Housing:
The programme is useful to tribal beneficiaries, in
comparison to RPH scheme. In Agency Area, most of the villages
are very interior and not having any infrastructure facilities. The
sanctioned number of IAY houses is not sufficient to fulfill the
houses required by the eligible tribal beneficiaries. As per the
Government Order 14per cent of District allocation under IAY may
strictly implemented along with additional subsidy as all the houses
constructed in interior track. There are 1593 beneficiaries with an
outlay of 309.68 lakhs benefited till 2007 (see table 5.22).

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TABLE-5.22
Indira Awas Yojana Physical Units and Outlays
Year No. of physical Outlay
units (Rs.lakhs)
2001-02 229 4.58
2002-03 471 9.42
2003-04 304 60.8
2004-05 385 7.68
2005-06 402 100.5
2006-07 806 201.5
TOTAL 2597 384.48

Source: Dy. Engineer,(APSH Corpn), Paderu ,Visakhapatnam


district

Animal Husbandry:-
Tribals are born in nature and die in nature. Hence animal,
trees, forest and stones are the Gods and deity for the. Animal
always forms part of the society. It is seen that dwarf animal are
reared by the tribals. It is primarily because of the geographic
location of their habitations and the food availability. ITDA under
the Animal Husbandry Department is working closely towards
maintaining the traditional animals and also on their health.

The statistics of the Department statistics shows that more


number of cases treated by the Department was in 2003-04 while
nonetheless pace is maintained till now. Over the decease,
castrations cases reported are high in 2003-04 and so also the
vaccination of the animals (see table 5.23). The Department has

237
taken lot care to address the FMD during rainy season and the
winter. Since tribals use to keep goats and chickens at houses, the
disease taking life of man and animal altogether is obvious. Hence,
before the in-set of the season precautionary care has adequately
ensured at all habitation level.
TABLE-5.23
Activities and Beneficiary Details of Animal Husbandry
Initiative
Item of work 2002-03 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- TOTAL
04 05 06 07

1 Cases 191064 300195 253056 246992 220042 1211349


Treated
2 Castrations 11372 15586 14336 10715 9326 61335
Done
3 Vaccinations 393709 549740 581817 418927 352806 2296999
Done
4 Fodder 2350.00 4204.2 4747.4 3227.4 2998.4 17527.40
Development
(in Acres.)
Source: Assistant Director (Animal Husbandry), Paderu,
Visakhapatnam district

Girijan Co-Operative Corporation:


Girijan Cooperative Corporation is established in the agency area
with many fold objectives. It is mandated to.
1) Procure Minor Forest Produce (MFP) collected by the tribals dult
paying them Remunerative prices and thereby eliminating the
middlemen and private Traders who indulge in unfair trade
practices
2) To supply Essential Commodities and other Daily Requirements
at reasonable prices to the tribal consumers through the
network of DR Depots

238
3) To provide Short Term Credit to the tribal farmers for their
Seasonal Agricultural Operations
4)To Undertake activities such as processing and grading for the
benefit of the Corporation and its affiliated Societies and their
members and for their purpose to own or hire necessary plants
and machinery.
5) To undertake generally such other activities as are conducive to
the promotion of the economic interests and welfare of the
scheduled tribes and for the attainment of the above objectives.
TABLE-5.24
Decadal Activities of GCC, Paderu
S. YEAR MFP items AP Items DRs Sales Loans Total
Purchases Purchases (Rs.In issued Turnover
No
(Rs.in (Rs.in Lakhs) (Rs.In (Rs.In
Lakhs) Lakhs) Lakhs) Lakhs)
1 1995-96 116.42 153.29 660.89 18.10 948.70
2 1996-97 182.35 45.52 769.86 10.53 1008.26

3 1997-98 179.57 108.32 927.51 12.69 1228.09

4 1998-99 262.61 59.29 1075.75 13.46 1411.11

5 1999-00 207.07 100.08 1024.59 18.18 1349.92

6 2000-01 463.46 33.12 1946.78 16.12 2459.48

7 2001-02 300.71 26.84 1619.75 8.44 1955.74

8 2002-03 225.39 144.59 1467.17 19.11 1856.26

9 2003-04 430.52 89.51 2130.95 32.73 2683.71

10 2004-05 467.35 61.26 2457.71 37.26 3023.58

11 2005-06 480.83 187.49 3191.09 43.35 3902.76

12 2006-07 385.8 187.49 3498.58 33.04 4104.91

TOTAL 3702.08 1196.8 20770.63 263.01 25932.52

Source-Divisional Manager, GCC.Paderu,Visakhapatnam District

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Statistics revealed that purchase of Minor Forest Products
(MFPs) by GCC follows an increasing upward trend having the
highest amount of procurement in 2005-06.similarly the DRsales
are drastically increased Rs 3498.58 in 2006-07. The comparative
performance of all parameters over the decade revealed that
performance of the sector in the year 2006-07 is remarkable (see
table 5.24) .Apart from Girijan Co operative Corporation, other
marketing agencies do have a strong presence in the agency area
too. The agriculture marketing committee in the agency area do
have physical presence without functionality, which in sense is
opening up of opportunities for the other marketing agents to play
.There are approximately 52 shandies both major and minor in
Paderu agency area.

To sum up the study has deeply analyzed the functionally,


outcome and impact of different programmes like 1.Education,
2.Health, 3.Agriculture, 4.Land Transfer Regulations Act, 5.Land
Assignment, 6.Economic Support Schemes, 7.Engineering, 8.Coffee
Project, 9.Integrated Horticulture Development Project, 10.Indira
Prabha (CLDP), 11.Indira Kranthi Patham, 12.Remote and Interior
Area Development Programme, 13.Indiramma, 14.Animal
Husbandry and 15.Girijan Co-Operative Corporation departments.
The assessment regarding the implementation of these programmes is
presented in chapter VI.

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