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MIDTERMS  Impressions – through

senses/receives information
I. PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT OF  Expressions – perception
UNDERSTANDING THE SELF  Sensation – to receive senses
 Perception – interpretation of
Philosophy – continuing search of truth senses
- love of wisdom 7. Ryle – “Behavior is the output of
 Philo – love sensation and perception.”
 Sophia – wisdom  Behavior – product of a stimulus
(maybe a person, object or
 Self – who you are as a person weather) and response
- existence of human being 8. Kant – “There is a mind that organizes
 Existence – body/tangible the impressions. It is called the
- Soul/behavior apparatuses of mind.”
 Apparatuses of Mind – frame of reference
Philosophers: - beliefs
1. Socrates – “Self is composed of body - habits
and soul.” - values
 Body – imperfect - culture
 Soul – perfect and the life-giving - morality
aspect of the body
9. Ponty – “Mind and body are intertwined.”
2. Plato – “Self is composed of body and  Gestalt – the whole is more important than its
soul but has 3 parts.” part.
 Ratio – the mind, responsible for
 Appetitive – desire, soul that SELF
- soul that preserves the body Sociology – scientific state of human behavior
 Spirited – emotion, feeling, moral based in the influence of others
 Socius – companion/associate
3. St. Augustine – “Man is bifurcated by Logos – study
nature which is the body that is bound to
die and soul that lives eternally.”
 Bifurcated – has 2 branch; body and Branches:
 Dualistic – 2 opposite parts of idea 1. Macrosociology – study of human society
or belief - Origin, structure, functions, and
4. St. Thomas Aquinas – “Man is  Origin
composed of matter and form.” a. Primitive Society – hunting and
 Matter – stuffs/the body itself gathering
 Form – the essence/the soul that b. Herding and Holticulture –
animates the body pasteural
c. Agricultural Society – planting
5. Rene Descartes – “Self is the and harvesting
combination of mind or cogito and d. Industrial Revolution/Society –
extension of the mind which is the body the use of machines to reduce
or extenza.” human labor
 Mental Operations: e. Technological/Digital Society – in
- affirms, understands, refuses, doubt, terms of communications,
reasoning, perceive, problem solving information, and transportation.
 Structure – hierarchy because of
6. Hume – “Self is a bundle of impressions socio-economic status
and expressions.”  Functions – to provide basic needs
- labor/manpower
 Direction – developing because of 3. Linguistic Anthropology – study of language
scientific breakthrough in terms of as a tool for communication
- to make people globally competitive Culture – provides established pattern of behavior
by K-12, participating in ASEAN summit – complex whole – complex because it is
and import liberalization composed of broad and variety of elements and
whole because it represents the union
2. Microsociology – behavior of people  Cultura – care or cultivation
 Factors Influencing Human Behavior
a. Family – respect, discipline ELEMENTS:
b. Spiritual Institution – different
practices 1. Knowledge – acquired information
- Body of information
Social Institutions: 2. Laws – acquired through knowledge and belief
- we can make laws that govern
- dynamic; based on influence of others individuals within a society
- self expressions 3. Arts – aesthetic, beauty
- peace and order, policies - Aesthetic ability of people by the
- to provide needs acquired knowledge and laws
- to gain knowledge 4. Moral – ability to detect which is right or wrong
5. Practices – folkways, norms
1. Family - Acquired through morals, arts, laws and
- first and oldest knowledge
- basic unit 6. Habits – repetitive actions
- foundation of society – acquisition of knowledge - Fixed tendencies, traits
- Functions: - Way of explaining self
a. Emotional Support – love, care and
affection Subculture – groups in within one culture
b. Financial Needs – in order to survive Culture Shock – conflict on your belief,
c. Socio-economic Status - confusion, anxiety, doubt caused by being in a
foreign place that is very different on what you
2. Education/Educational Institution used to do
- consciously controlled pattern because there Ethnocentrism – superiority of culture
are factors affecting learning: teachers/admin, - Judging other cultures based on your
materials/tools, subjects, assessments/evaluations culture
- active and effective social participation Xenocentrism – inferiority of culture
- training ground - Perspective from ideas or styles of other
- Functions: cultures
a. Liberating – free from poverty, ignorance, Culture Relativism – no one is best in culture
free from being dependent from other people - Respecting one another’s culture
b. Equalizing – fair to everyone
c. Socialization – enable students to interact Modes of Acquiring Culture
with other people 1. Imitation – observation
2. Formal Teaching – formal study of a
Anthropology – study of human being THE SELF
 Anthros – man, human being
 Logos – study Psychology – study of mind
 Psyche – soul/mind
Branches:  Logos – study

1. Cultural Anthropology – norms Soul – without the soul the body is considered to be dead
2. Social Anthropology – interaction of people - Life-giving aspect of the body
Mind – it is the regulator or the central factor
Scientific – process, experiment and theories B. Psychotic – severe (masochist, maniac)
Human Behavior – depended upon reaction
Intelligence – an attempt to measure or evaluate actual
Background: and potential abilities

1. Traditional – Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – is a single score that

 Primitive – superstitions, animism indicates the individual’s general intellectual level
 Greek Philosophers – non-religious
speculation/reasoning Binet Test
 Aristotle – remember + think = learning 1. Individual Test – one on one interview
- Learning because of the bonds of 2. Group Test – written
connection in the nervous system.
IQ Range
2. Scientific 1. Custodial (idiot) – below 25
 Windt – psychological lab 2. Trainable (imbecile) – 25-50
- To conduct test 3. Educable (moron) – 50-70
 Watson – behavior 4. Border Line Defective – 70-80
 Freud – treatment of mental illness 5. Low Average – 80-90
6. Average or Normal – 90-110
 Psychological test – measurement
7. High Average – 110-120
8. Superior – 120-130
9. Very Superior – 130-140
Schools of Psychology
10. Genius – 140 and up
1. Structuralism – study of conscious experience
2. Functionalism – study of man’s adjustment to his
environment V. LEARNING
3. Behaviorism – study of behavior not consciousness
- Study of overt behavior Learning – a process of involving both the whole
4. Associationism – learning is the formation of bonds thing of the child and the total situation. It
and connections in the nervous system continues throughout an individual’s life.
5. Psychoanalytic School – study of unconscious  Adaptation – acquire, accept from environment
experience (PUPCET, passed and comply the requirements and
 Id – amoral, animalistic select course)
 Ego – pride, reality, within the standards of society  Adjustment – the way we practice or adaptation
 Superego – conscience, moral or cope with the situation (cope with college
6. Gestalt School – overall experience is more environment, less social life more time to study)
important than the elements which made it up  Change in behavior – result, when there are
7. Purposivism – objects have definite purpose learned things, there are changes

Types of Behavior: Types of Learning

1. A. Overt – observable behavior a. Rational Learning – abstract/basic to concrete
- Facial expressions, actions to concept to knowledge
B. Covert – unobservable behavior - Involves the process of abstraction by which
- emotions, feelings, thinking, hidden desires concepts are formed
- Math, English, Science
2. A. Conscious – aware - Outcome is knowledge
- Through sensation b. Motor Learning - begins with mind
B. Unconscious – unaware - Observation, imitation, repetitive actions,
- mannerisms (normal condition) then acquisition of movement
- drunk, high (abnormal condition) - Accuracy of movement that begins with
3. A. Normal – actions with consideration of laws, - Outcome is skill
folkways - PE, arts
B. Abnormal – can be mental, physical (paranoia, c. Associational Learning – ideas and
phobia, birthmarks) experiences are retained, recalled, recognized
- Outcome is the retention and acquisition of
4. A. Neurotic – mild facts and information
- Dates, numbers -With words
d. Appreciational Learning – process of acquiring -Most formal education is concerned with the
ideas, attitude, knowledge, satisfaction, values dual process of learning concepts and at the
and judgment same time attaching names to them
- involves aesthetic development - Thinking is verbal matter which involves
- It depends on the attitudes, ideal, words and concepts which words stand.
satisfaction, judgment, and knowledge
- Communicate words to describe and
concerning values as well as recognition of
worth interpret
- PUP Logo Star (star means highest form of c. Creative Thinking
learning) - Product of right hemisphere
- Must be novel, unusual, or original and must
be useful of meaningful
Laws of Learning d. Convergent
- Leads to one intended answer
a. The Law of Readiness – maturation in terms of
age, physiological and psychological - Identification
b. The Law of Exercise – law of use (retention) e. Divergent
and law of disuse (forgetting) - We think in different directions; various
c. The Law of Effect – pleasant (use), unpleasant answer
(disuse) it supplements the law of exercise - Multiple choice
- States that connections which are pleasant - Matching type
to be repeated and strengthened

Factors Affecting Learning f. Problem Solving

1. Maturation or readiness – through guidance or - Highest form of thinking because it has
process or stages
2. Intelligence of Learner –native capacity of an
- There are stages:
3. Opportunities for Learning – economic  Preparation – collect facts and
conditions material that seem to be relevant to
4. Environmental Conditions – school facilities the problem
5. Health of the Learner – physical defects  Incubation – after failure is solving
6. Emotional Factor – personal problem the problem, the thinker temporarily
gives up
- utilize the materials
VI. THINKING  Illumination – production of novel
Thinking - is a process of symbolic mediation. - AHA moment
 Symbolic – thinking is done under symbols, inner
 Evaluation – determines that idea
interpretation, and representation
will work
 Mediation – thinking fills the gap between a stimuli
- trial of the ideas and adjustments
and response
- Factors Affecting:
 Human Behavior – battle field
 Intelligence –
 Memory is a term used to label the way facts and
 Motivation – directness to thought
past experiences are impressed, retained and later
recalled.  Set – the way people used to do
Classifications of Thinking  Functional Fixedness – tendency to
a. Conceptual Thinking think of objects in the way they
- Involves where in people engage in thinking usually function
which concepts are mediating process.
- Symbolic construction represents feature or g. Reasoning
attribute objects - Why and how
- Example: Ballpen, color or brand - Follows logical order
b. Verbal Thinking h. Imagery
- Photographic memory - Defensiveness drive – desire to depend oneself
creating imaginary situations in mind from blame, criticism


Emotions – integrated reaction of total organism
Motivation – from the word motives which means  movare, emovare means to stir up, agitated, upset or
inner state that energizes, activates or moves behavior move
towards goal. - integrated; internal (increase of pulse rate) and
 Motive – something that incites the organism to external (trembling, excessive sweating)
function - total organism – an experience of total organism
 Need – lack of something that needed to satisfy - variations
 Drive – physiological/psychological  basic – innate (love, fear, anger)
- Impels the organism to become active  derived – interaction (manifestations of fear,
 Goal – something that satisfy a need love and anger like happiness, sadness,
nervousness etc.)
Classifications of Motives
a. Physiological/Survival Motives – normal body  mild – puppy love, crush, infatuation
functions  intense – obsessions, possession, jealousy
- Hunger – rhythmic construction of empty
stomach  positive – pleasant
- Thirst – when deprived from water for over  negative – unpleasant
period of hours
- Recovery for Fatigue – desire to rest and get  constructive – love
some sleep
 destructive – too much love will kill you
- Maintenance of Temperature Nomulcy – 98.6
degree Fahrenheit
Aspects of Emotion
- Avoidance of Pain – not wanting to be hurt a. Physiological – internal bodily changes
- Circulatory system (change of heart beat),
respiratory system (gasping for breath)
b. Psychological/Social Motives – arises from the
b. Emotional behavior – observable reactions of your
interaction of other people
- Affectional drive – love and affection
- amygdala – part of brain that plays the role of
- Need for security and safety – strong desire to
be secured
- Gestures, facial and vocal expressions
- Sex urge – involves another person c. Emotional experience – experience of emotions
- The need for affiliation – associate oneself with
- Because of feelings
- Personal, subjective, varied
- Gregariousness – wants to be in the presence of
- Tension, relaxation, excitement
others Emotional Responses
- Dependency – depending for supports from
1. Fear – common response to environmental
parents stimuli
- Social Approval – to be approved by the group
- Distress, grief
2. Anger – often express before we have thought
c. Personal Motives/Ego-Integrative Motives –
about it
built around “self”
- Annoyance, disgust, disappointment, wrath,
- Recognition – prestige and status drive
scorn, hatred, frustration
- Achievement drive – feeling of having done 3. Love – pleasant experience has their roots in
something worthwhile or important emotional response of love
- Power drive – need to control or influence other - Joy, laughter, excitement, thrill, affection,
people happiness
- Autonomy – drive for independence; the need to
resist influence of others
Ways of Controlling Emotions
1. Outward manifestations – overt behaviors
(gritting our teeth, clenching)
2. Emotional situations – we try to avoid situation
that triggers our emotional responses
3. Temperament – hold your temper
4. Emotional suppressions – been beneficial and
negative effects
5. Teaching emotional control – learn to face
reality, emotional problem needs a solution
6. Expecting emotional situations – learns to
develop emotional responses that are
sanctioned by society
I. PHYSICAL SELF AND SEXUAL SELF  Produces ovaries (egg cell, left and right,
HEREDITY – transfer of traits from parents to o Egg Cell – one ripened egg, circle or
offspring possible because of genes from round and visible
fertilization  Produces testes (sperm cell, left and right,
o Sperm Cell – millions of cell, tail and
o Physical – hair color
head, microscopic
o Mental – mathematical/literary skills
 begin to form until the eight week of
- mental retardation
embryonic development
o Health – heart illnesses
- allergies, asthma
GENES – traits or characteristics to be inherited  Identical Twins – single zygote
by an offspring from the parents through the - monozygonic twins
union of sperm and egg cell - same physical appearance
- “unit of DNA201D  Fraternal Twins – dizygotic twins
- two eggs at the fallopian tube
- different physical characteristics because
CHROMOSOMES – 23 from mother, 23 from they come from 2 cells
father  Quadruplets – 1 egg and 1 sperm split into 4
 Autosome – 22 pairs  Triplets - 1 egg and 1 sperm split into 3
1. Physical Traits – hair color, nose shape  Siamese - conjoined twins
2. Mental Traits – mathematical ability,
mental defects GENETIC DISORDER
 Gonosome – 1 pair  Turner’s Syndrome – problem in the 23rd part
- “gono” from “gonad” means “sex-linked of the chromosome
chromosomes” - absence of egg cell
o Estrogen – female hormone - cannot carry a child
o Progesterone – female hormone, active  Kunefeller’s Syndrome – problem in the 23rd
during pregnancy up to giving birth part of the chromosome
o Testosterone – male hormone - small testicle
 X + X female, X + Y male - supermale syndrome = super aggressive
– 23 pairs individuals, easily to commit crime
 Down’s Syndrome – problem in the 21st pair
of chromosome
FERTILIZATION – union of sperm cell and egg - physical or mental manifestation
cell - slow learner and same physical features
- formation of zygote (a cell that is formed when  PKU Syndrome – slow learner, boarder line
egg and sperm is combined) defective
 STAGES - phenylketonuria (lack of phenylaline)
1. Germinal Stage – zygote is an ordinary
- multiplication of cells and one multiplied  early pregnancy
it becomes complete set of cells  late pregnancy
2. Embryonic Stage – miniature critical  4th degree of consanguinity:
- first three months of pregnancy 1st degree – mother to son
- petal sac (inunan) - father to daughter
- umbilical cord (tube nutrients) 2nd degree – siblings to siblings
- amiutic fluid 3rd degree – uncles to nieces
4th degree – 1st cousins
3. Fetal Stage – fetus

Fetal Sac – for water

Umbilical Cord – for foods, nutrients, air
DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH Natural and Artificial Methods of
 Sexually transmitted disease - infections that  Natural Method
are passed through sexual intercourse. 1. Abstinence – saying no to sex
 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - vaginal 2. Calendar Method – withholding from coitus
infections that are left untreated that spreads during the days that a woman is fertile
to female reproductive tract - 3 to 4 days before and 3 to 4 days after
 Orchiditis - inflammation of testes ovulation for safe sex to prevent
 Tumors - common reproductive cancers such contraception
as tumors in breast and cervix 3. Basal Body Temperature – woman’s
 Menopause temperature at rest
 Epididymitis  Artificial Method
1. Oral Contraceptives – pill that limits sperm’s
access to ovaries
TYPES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 2. Hormonal Injections – changes in the
 Solitary Behavior – involving one individual endometrium and cervical mucus and can
- self-gratification help prevent ovulation
- begins at or before puberty 3. Male Condoms – a rubber sheath that is
- common to unmarried placed on the erects male reproductive organ
 Sociosexual – one or more to traps sperms
- motivated by curiosity
1. Heterosexual – male with female 1. Physiological Problem
2. Homosexual – male with male or female with - least among them
female - abnormal development of genitalia or the
ones that control sexual response
 Inherited sexual response – to ensure - largest category
human behavior - caused by socially induced inhibitors,
 Degree of Restraint or another type of sexual myths by society
Influence a. Premature emission of semen
b. Ejaculatory response – inability to
o Mahinhin/Maginoo
ejaculate in coitus
o Sanctity of marriage
o Adultery – babae nangaliwa c. Vaginismus – strong spasm of the
o Concubinage – lalaki nangaliwa pelvic; penetration is painful


 Excitement Phase – increase of pulse and
blood pressure
 Plateau Phase – brief duration
- orgasm usually occurs
 Sexual Climax – intense pleasure
 Resolution Phase – return to normal and
physiological state


 Autonomic System – involved in controlling
the involuntary responses
 Hypothalamus and Limbic System – are
parts of the brain believed to be responsible
for regulating the sexual response
 Reflexes - nerves receive commands from
brain and send them to the muscles; spinal
cord serves as a great transmission cable.
II. MATERIAL SELF III. SPIRITUAL SELF – if everyone fails, there is
one “unknown” that will help
 Belk 1988 – we regard our possessions as
parts of ourselves. We are what we have and
what we possess.  RELIGION – “religare” or to bind
 James 1890 – a man’s self is the sum of all - set of cultural beliefs and practices that
what he can call his. When the owner placed includes some or all of the following
a high value on things, it becomes their characteristics:
symbol. 1. A belief in anthropomorphic supernatural –
 William James – understanding the self can human form
be examined through its different 2. A focus on sacred supernatural – with
1. Its constituents 3. Presence of supernatural power and energy
o Material Self - – bible, cross, church
o Spiritual Self – there will always be 4. Performance of ritual activities
one “unknown” that will help
5. Articulation of worldview and moral codes –
o Social Self – because of dependency
scriptures as the guide
- acceptance and approval
6. Provides creation and maintenance of social
- to get love and affection to other
bonds within a community
o Pure Ego
2. Feelings and emotions they arouse (Self-
feeling) 1. Buddhism
- there are suffering, pain, and frustration
3. The actions to which they prompt (Self-
- reactive cycle of wanting & hating, like and
MATERIAL SELF INVESTMENT DIAGRAM  Samatha – practiced as mindfulness of
breathing and developing of loving-kindnes
1. Body - we are directly attached to this  Vipassana – practices aim at developing
commodity, investing in our body, that we
insight into reality
cannot live about
 Dharma – their reading where one can
- we strive hard to make sure that this body
acquire knowledge
functions well and good.
2. Clothes - the fabric and style of the clothes Three Universal Truth
we wear affect our attitudes and behaviors o Annica – Everything is impermanent and
- clothing is a form of self-expression changing.
3. Immediate Family o Dukkha – Impermanence leads to suffering,
- what they do or become affects us making life imperfect.
- we place huge investment on them when o Anatto – The self is not personal and
we see them as the nearest replica of our unchanging.
4. Home Four Noble Truth
- it is where our heart is; earliest nest of our o Dukkha - the truth of suffering
selfhood - all life involves suffering
- our experiences inside the home were o Samudaya - The truth of the origin of
recorded and marked on a parts and things suffering
on our home - suffering is caused by desire and
- it is an extension of self because in it, we attachment
can directly connect our self o Nirodha - The truth of the cessation of
Having investment of self to things, made us - desire and attachment can be overcome
attached to those things. We tend to collect and o Magga - The truth of the path to the
possess properties. cessation of suffering
- the way to overcome is the Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path 3. Symbolic in relation to its reference
o Right View – know the truth
o Right Mindfulness – control thoughts 3 MAJOR LOGOTHERAPHY ASSUMPTIONS
o Right Concentration - meditation 1. Life has meaning under all
o Right Effort – resist evil circumstances.
o Right Livelihood – respected life 2. Main motivation for living is our will to find
o Right Action – work for other’s good meaning in life.
o Right Speech – avoid hurting people
3. We all have freedom to find meaning.
o Right Intention – free your mind from
1. Purposive Work
2. Christianity
- believes in Trinitarian God 2. courage in the Face of difficulty
- God the Father (creator), God the Son, (savior) 3. Love
and God the Holy Spirit (sustainer).
 Sacrament of Baptism and Communion
 Christmas and Resurrection (Easter)

3. Hinduism – existence is a cycle of birth, death

and rebirth governed by karma
- reincarnated life will depend on how the past life
was spent
 Navrati – festival of nine nights, celebrates the
triumph of good over evil
 Vedas – sacred scriptures
 Diwali – festival of lights

4. Islam – Allah is their “One God”

- believes in unity and universality
- islam means “willing submission to God”

 Salat – prayer that is done five times a day
 Shahadah – statement of faith
 Zakat – monetary offering; 2.5% of Muslim’s
 Hajj – yearly pilgrimage to Mecca
 Sawm – fasting

5. Judaism
- believes in God of Abraham
- believes in the coming of Messiah
 Rosh Hashanah – New Year
 Yom Kippur – the day of atonement
 Pesach – pass over
 Shavuot – Pentecost
 Sukkot – tabernacles

 RITUAL - performance of ceremonial acts

prescribed by a tradition or a sacred law
1. A feeling of respect, awe, fascination, or
dread in relation to sacred
2. Dependence on belief system expressed in
myth language


1. Filipino Hospitality
2. Respect for Elders SUCCESS – accomplishment of aim or purpose
– fulfilment of your purpose
3. Close Family ties
5. Self-sacrifice BANDURA
6. Bayanihan - viewed people as agents of experience
7. “Bahala Na” Attitude - people are more than reactive organisms;
8. Colonial Mentality shaped by the environment
9. “Mañana” Habit - modeling is important part of learning
10. Ningas Kugon
12. Crab Mentality – the human capability to influence over one’s
functioning and the course of event by one’s
13. Filipino Time
– they can successfully perform behaviors that
Tim Berners-Lee – made WWW available to the will produce desirable outcome
public - confidence

“Anything posted online is considered public.” COLLECTIVE EFFICACY

- through screenshots - group’s shared belief in its ability to organize
and carry out actions that will lead to the
Persona – is the partial identity we create that fulfillment of group goals.
represents ourselves in a specifics situation
- depends upon the situation 1. OUTCOME EXPECTANCY – a person’s
estimate that given behavior will lead to
Self-presentation – is the process of controlling certain outcomes
how one is perceived by other people - behavior will lead to outcome
- the key to relationship inception and
2. EFFICACY EXPECTATION – the conviction
that one can successfully execute the
Online Identity – is the sum of all our behavior required to produce the outcomes
characteristics and our interactions online - outcome will lead to required behavior
Personal Identity – the self which differentiated High Assurance in their Capabilities
the individual unique from others 1. approach hard tasks as challenges
- emotional disposition, how we stand 2. set strong commitment to challenging goals
3. sustain efforts in the face of failures
Social Identity – is the level of self whereby the 4. attribute failure to insufficient effort
individual is identified by his or her group
membership Who Doubt Their Capabilities
1. shy away from tasks they view as personal
2. have weak commitment to their goals
3. dwells on personal deficiencies
 4. gives up quickly
5. slow to recover
6. fall easy victim to stress and depression

Four Main Sources of Influence

1. performance accomplishments or mastery
experiences – most effective way
2. vicarious experiences – determines the 2. Stage of Resistance – the body became
strength adaptive to the challenge
3. verbal or social persuasion – make people 3. Exhaustion Stage – the body dies because it
believe that they have what it takes has used up its resources of adaptation
4. psychological states – how stress is energy
perceived and interpreted
CAROL S. DWECK 2. Physical activity
 Fixed Mindset – people who believe that 3. Social support
success is based on their innate abilities
- dread failure because it is a negative SELF CARE THERAPY
statement of their abilities 1. Stop, breathe and tell yourself that you
will get through this.
 Growth Mindset – people who believe that 2. Acknowledge to yourself what you are
success is based on hardwork, learning, feeling.
training and perseverance 3. Find someone who listens and is
- do not mind or fear failure because actions accepting.
can be improved and learning comes from 4. Maintain your normal routine if possible.
failure 5. Allow plenty time for your task.
- allow a person to live a less stressful and 6. Take good care of yourself.
more successful life
GOAL SETTING THEORY BY EDWIN LOCKE - entails being war, and understanding
 Final Causality towards ourself when we suffer
- action caused by a purpose rather than self-criticism.
 Goal Attributes
- Internal: ideas or desired end SELF-COMPASSION PHRASES
- guides action to attain the object 1. This is a moment of suffering.
External: content, object, or condition 2. Suffering is part of life.
sought, a job 3. May I be kind to myself.
4. May I give myself the compassion I need.
3 principles:
1. Specific goals increase performance
2. Difficult goals when accepted result to
higher performance
3. Feedback leads to higher performance

Task Support – seek help from people, tools

Psychological Support – knowledge


 Stress – is any uncomfortable emotional

experience accompanied by predictable
biochemical, physiological, and behavioral
 Eustress – stress in daily life that has positive
 Distress – negative connotations


1. Alarm Stage – mobilization of the body’s
defensive forces
- Preparing for fight or flight