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Falcon soars into space and lands in the ocean

Musk’s Falcon 9 rocket had just shot 200 km up into space and flown almost horizontal to the planet at six
times the speed of sound, before falling back to Earth. Then, somehow, it landed like a feather on a robotic barge in
the ocean. The Falcon even found time to put an inflatable space habitat into orbit, too.
Engines and boosters have been dropping into the big drink from the moment NASA began launching
Mercury astronauts into space. Most of those rockets sunk to the bottom of the ocean. Some components of the
space shuttle were recovered, of course, and the orbiter itself landed on a runway. But never before Friday has a
rocket blasted into space and then returned to make a vertical landing at sea.
These are 1heady times for a new generation of private spaceflight companies. It was only 2five months ago
that Blue Origin launched 3its 4New Shepard rocket to space before landing 5it vertically in West Texas. SpaceX
followed suit in December when its larger and more powerful Falcon 9 not only flew to space, but delivered a satellite
into orbit and touched down at a landing site along the Florida coast near its launch pad. Now SpaceX has taken the
significant step of landing at sea.
6That’s critical, because it’s much more fuel efficient for a rocket to touchdown on a ship below the point

where it releases its payload into orbit, rather than go all the way back to a landing site near the Florida coast. SpaceX
estimates that only one-half of its launches will have enough fuel to fly back to the coast after fulfilling their primary
After trying reusability with the 7space shuttle, 8which proved far more expensive to refurbish for subsequent
flights, NASA has largely given up on reusable spaceflight. Russia, Europe, and other government agencies have too.
9So it fell to the new space companies, with their ethos of low-cost, to make frequent launches as a means of opening

up access to space, in order to push the technology forward.

SpaceX and Blue Origin have been the most visible proponents of reusable launch vehicles. But other firms,
including XCOR, 10Masten Space Systems, and Virgin Galactic, are interested too. 11They do not seek so much to win
lucrative government contracts, but to get lots of people and stuff into space, to create a space economy, and to set
about the business of colonizing the solar system. “This was a really good milestone for the future of spaceflight,”
Musk said. “This is another step to the stars”, he added.
12Despite SpaceX’s arresting success on Friday, the job is not yet done. 13The venerable space shuttle offers

a sobering lesson for these new space companies. 15Whereas NASA said in the 1970s the shuttle would slash the

cost of delivering payloads into space to $25 a pound, it ended up costing closer to $25,000 a pound. It’s one thing
to land a rocket, and it’s another thing to fly it again without spending a lot of time and money.
Musk must prove that his Falcon 9 rocket can be re-flown with modest modifications. After the first SpaceX
landing in December, the company performed a static firing test of the 16vehicle, 17which went well until one of the nine
engines showed thrust fluctuations. That rocket will stand as a monument outside the company’s headquarters in
Hawthorne, California. Perhaps the Falcon 9 that landed at sea will be flown again.
18“It should fly again,” Musk said Friday. SpaceX will try to return the booster back to Cape Canaveral, in

Florida, by Sunday. After running a series of tests on the Falcon, the company plans to fire its engines 10 times in a
row on the ground. “If things look good, it will be qualified for reuse,” Musk said. “We’re hoping to relaunch it on an
orbital mission, let’s say by June”, he added.
19Initially SpaceX plans to reduce the cost of a Falcon 9 rocket with a reused booster to $43 million per flight,

a savings of 30 percent. But this is only the beginning. Musk wants to make nearly all of the Falcon 9 launch system
reusable, and he wants to make launches and landings routine. “Rapid and complete reusability is really important to
make a rocket cost effective, like an airplane,” he said. “We’ve got to ultimately get rockets to that point.” “A Falcon 9
might fly as many as 100 times before retirement”, he added.

By Eric Berger
Retrieved and adapted from like-a-boss-falcon-soars-into-space-and-lands-in-the-ocean/
Access on July 2nd, 2016.

1. (Pucrj 2017) In terms of reference, it is correct to affirm that

a) “its” (ref. 3) refers to “five months ago” (ref. 2).
b) “it” (ref. 5) refers to “New Shepard rocket” (ref. 4).
c) “which” (ref. 8) refers to “space” (ref. 7).
d) “They” (ref. 11) refers to “Masten Space Systems” (ref. 10).
e) “which” (ref. 17) refers to “vehicle” (ref. 16).

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Read the text to answer the question(s).

The Vikings
Raiders, travelers or brave explorers?

The Vikings sailed the seas, attacked towns, and stole treasures all over Europe between 800 and 1100. They
started from Scandinavia and attacked many countries in Europe. They settled in Britain, Ireland and France. They
also crossed the Atlantic Ocean and arrived in Iceland and Greenland. They discovered North America but they also
traveled east to Russia and south to Arabia.
They were good farmers and excellent shipbuilders. They used their ships for war. They also used them to
carry people and goods to new lands. In winter, when there was not much farm work to do, they stayed home and did
other interesting jobs. Men made swords to use them in battle. The Vikings liked swords so much they often decorated
them with gold and gave them names. Women cooked and made clothes, shoes, and jewelry for themselves,
__________ children and husbands.
In 866 the Vikings captured an Anglo-Saxon town. They called it Jorvik and it was the capital of the Viking
kingdom for 200 years. They made Jorvik rich and one of the most famous cities in Britain. Some years ago,
archeologists discovered part of that Viking town in York, the modern city of Jorvik. They found many things such as
jewelry, coins and clothes. If you ever go to York and you want to travel back in time and see how the Vikings lived,
visit the Jorvik Centre!

Adapted from Wilson, D. M. (1987) The Vikings, Activity Book, British Museum Press.

2. (G1 - col. naval 2017) Which possessive form completes the gap in the text?
a) their
b) her
c) his
d) hers
e) theirs


Based on the text below, answer the question(s).

Too many third graders can’t read this sentence

9 Feb. 2017 – Editor’s Picks

Two-thirds of U.S. third graders face challenges that will impact their future, including academic struggles that
could lead to dimmer academic and career prospects. Sadly, only one in three U.S. students demonstrates reading
proficiency at the end of third grade. This has alarming consequences for these children, and for our country.
A report released today from the Business Roundtable (BRT) shed light on this troubling trend in American
education, and advises business leaders on how they can help put more children on a path to success.
I’ve heard it said that before third grade, students are learning to read, while after third grade, they’re reading
to learn. Grade three is a crossroads in a life’s journey. If you’ve read this far, then you understand why is so
important. Not enough of our young learners can say the same.
I encourage you to read the BRT report. As you read, please consider ways to help our schools and our
teachers keep students on paths to bright futures.

Leave your comments below

Michael Jonas
Really, all I read was blabla wa wa wa. Are you Charlie Brown’s teacher? If we can’t understand our children
who are crying out for help and direction, then there is a something wrong with you. Please go back and check
yourself! They are worth so much more.

Rick Shire
Thanks for sharing. With two young children, I increasingly think about the importance of early childhood
education. Pre-k care is far too inaccessible, ultimately magnifying from the earliest stages of life.

Tom Frank
What exactly is education? Academic education doesn’t make someone a better person or even a better
employee. I would guess that anything we learn in the education process is at the most 10% useful to us as people.
Education should teach academia but also life skills such as budgeting, EQ skills, languages etc., all the elements to
be a successful person and not necessarily a successful professional.
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Adapted from

3. (Esc. Naval 2017) By reading the text, we CANNOT state that the pronoun
a) “their” in “Two-thirds of U.S. third graders face challenges that will impact their future…” refers to “Two-thirds of
U.S. third graders”.
b) “these” in “This has alarming consequences for these children…” refers to “only one in three U.S. students”.
c) “they” in “… how they can help put more children on a path to success.” refers to “business leaders”.
d) “they” in “… while after third grade, they’re reading to learn.” refers to “students”.
e) “you” in “I encourage you to read the BRT report.” refers to the reader.

4. (Esc. Naval 2016) Which is the correct way to complete the excerpt below?

The Legacy of Hartlepool

“He thought that if he had the courage to visit the Long Gallery, the portraits of __________ ancestors would come to
life in __________ frames. __________ would point __________ fingers and say: ‘We did __________ duty. We
spent the money as __________ was meant to be spent […].”
(TORDAY, Paul. The Legacy of Hartlepool Hall. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2012.)
a) him – its – We – ours – ours – he
b) him – theirs – They – their – ours – it
c) her – their – We – ours – our – he
d) his – their – They – their – our – it
e) his – its – They – theirs – our – it



Bullying among children and teenagers is not something new but it is getting more and more common by
modern methods of communication.
Cyberbullying happens when an adolescent is put in danger by another child or teenager by photos or text
messages sent to cell phones or posted on social networks. Sometimes cyberbullies send mails with sexual
comments or take passwords of other teenagers and log on to websites with false identities. Children also play
Internet games and make fun of each other in many ways.
A study by a Canadian University shows that 1half of the young people interviewed said that they suffer
bullying. 2One of the reasons is the great use of cell phones over the past years. Today’s children are connected with
each other electronically. They call friends every time they want or communicate with them on Facebook.
3Cyberbullying is getting extremely popular because teens can stay anonymous. 4Many adolescents act this

way because they feel frustrated or angry and want to punish somebody for something that happened to them. 5At
other times they do it just for fun or because have nothing else to do. 6Parents usually don’t know their child is a
cyberbully. 7They perceive it just when the victim or the victim’s parents contact them.
This kind of bullying is not as inoffensive as many people think. In some cases it can lead to suicide. 8Many
countries have organized campaigns to inform adults and children of its dangers.
9There are a few ways to prevent cyberbullying. First, it is important to show children that they have to respect

others and they are responsible for what they do. For victims it is important not to play the bully’s game or answer their
emails and text messages. It is also important to get help from parents and teachers.
Often schools get involved. 10They bring together the parents of victims and cyberbullies and talk with them.
Cyberbullying does not always end at school. Often, parents go to the police and accuse the bullies.

(Adapted from cyberbullying/cyberbullying-on-the-rise.htm)

5. (G1 - epcar (Cpcar) 2016) In the sentence, “Many countries have organized campaigns to make adults and
children informed of its dangers.” (reference 8), the underlined expressions can be substituted for
a) it – they.
b) they – it.
c) they – them.
d) them – they.

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Leia o texto para responder à(s) questão(ões).

“They don’t see us as a powerful economic force, which is an incredible ignorance.” – Salma Hayek, actor,
denouncing sexism in Hollywood at the Cannes Film Festival; until recently, she added, studio heads believed women
were interested only in seeing romantic comedies.
(Time, 01.06.2015.)

6. (Unifesp 2016) O termo “they” refere-se a

a) powerful economic force.
b) sexism in Hollywood studios.
c) Hollywood studio heads.
d) women.
e) Cannes Film Festival organizers.


A(s) questões a seguir refere(m)-se à figura abaixo:

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7. (Ita 2016) Considere as seguintes construções léxico-gramaticais da figura:

I. O uso do -ing mostra que os tipos de inteligência são momentâneos.

II. O uso dos pronomes you, we, your, yourself possibilita identificação dos leitores com a figura.
III. Os pronomes what e why têm função interrogativa.

Está(ao) correta(s)
a) apenas a I.
b) apenas a II.
c) apenas a III.
d) apenas a I e a II.
e) todas.

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Resposta da questão 1:

A alternativa correta a esta questão de referência pronominal é a alternativa [B], que estabelece a relação referencial
entre o pronome “it” e seu antecedente “New Shepard rocket”. As demais alternativas não se apresentam como
plausíveis, visto que:

[A] “its” (ref. 3) se refere a “Blue Origin”.

[C] “which” (ref. 8) se refere a “trying reusability with the space shuttle”.
[D] “they” (ref. 11) se refere a “other firms, including XCOR, Masten Space Systems, and Virgin Galactic”
[E] “wich” (ref. 17) se refere “a static firing test of the vehicle”.

Resposta da questão 2:

A alternativa [A] está correta, pois o possessive adjective their refere-se ao substantivo women.

Resposta da questão 3:

A alternativa [B] deve ser escolhida, pois o demonstrative adjective these não se refere a only one in three U.S.
students (apenas um em três alunos norte-americanos), mas sim a two-thirds of U.S third graders (dois terços dos
alunos norte-americanos do terceiro ano).

Resposta da questão 4:

A alternativa [D] está correta, pois preenche corretamente as lacunas com pronomes pessoais e possessivos.
Tradução: “Ele achava que se tivesse a coragem de visitar a Galeria Long, os retratos de seus ancestrais ganhariam
vida em suas molduras. Eles apontariam seus dedos e diriam: ‘Nós fizemos nossa obrigação. Nós gastamos o
dinheiro conforme ele foi programado para ser gasto’.”

Resposta da questão 5:

A expressão "Many countries" (muitos países) pode ser substituída por "they" (eles), pois possui a função sintática de
sujeito. A expressão "adults and children" pode ser substituída por "them" (eles) porque possui a função sintática de
objeto direto.

Resposta da questão 6:

O pronome they refere-se aos studio heads de Hollywood, ou seja, aos chefes de estúdios de Hollywood. O texto
coloca: "They don’t see us as a powerful economic force, which is an incredible ignorance" (Eles [os chefes de
estúdios de Hollywood] não nos veem como uma força econômica poderosa, o que é uma incrível ignorância).

Resposta da questão 7:

[I] Incorreta: O uso do -ing é devido à nominalização dos verbos.

[II] Correta: Os pronomes destacados, respectivamente você, nós, seu e você mesmo foram utilizados para
aproximar o leitor daquele que escreveu a mensagem.
[III] Incorreta: Tais pronomes não têm função interrogativa uma vez que não se encontram em perguntas.

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