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CO Codes I.

Multiple Choice
1. Forty parts of copperas and lime per million parts of dye house effluent removes 50% of the
CO03 color. How much will be required to reduce the color to 5% if n=8.5?
a. 124.5 ppm b. 50 ppm
c. 110 ppm d. 99.6 ppm

2. Water contains organic color which is to be extracted with alum and lime. Ten parts of alum and lime
CO03
per million parts of water will reduce the color to 50% of the original color and 20 parts will
reduce the color to 7%. Estimate how much alum and lime as parts per million are required to
reduce the color to 1% of the original color.
a. 22.9 b. 18.5 c. 14.8 d. 15.8

3. A single stage distillation set up where feed stream is present.


CO01 a. simple batch c. simple continuous
b. fractional distillation d. steam distillation

4. A multiple stage distillation set up.


CO01 a. simple batch c. simple continuous
b. fractional distillation d. steam distillation

5. A solvent-water mixture is to be distilled at 50°C. The vapor pressure of the solvent at this
CO03 temperature is 320 mmHg and that of water is 440 mmHg. The solvent is immiscible in water and
has a molecular weight of 150. The weight of the solvent in kg that will be carried over in the
distillate with 324 kg of water is
a. 1988 b. 1971 c. 1964 d. 1945

6. One hundred moles per hour of solution containing 50 moles of A, the rest B is subjected to simple
CO03 continuous distillation. The distillate contains 40 moles of A. If A is 5 times more volatile than B,
concentration of A in the distillate is_____.
a. 0.85 b. 0.80 c. 0.64 d. none of these

7. The slope of the rectification section operating line is equal to ____


CO01 a. L/V b. Lbar/Vbar c. Lf/Vf d. q

8. In adsorption, activated carbon is most likely the


CO01 a. Adsorbate b. adsorbent

9. Suppose 1000 kJ of heat is needed for a mole of feed to become saturated liquid and 6000 kJ
CO03 is needed to evaporate a mole of it. Calculate the quality (q) of feed.
a. 0.17 b. 6.0 c. 1.17 d. 1.0
10. Using the data in no. 9 calculate the slope of the feed line.
CO03
a. -0.20 b. 1 c. 3.00 d. 6.88

11. Suppose the reflux ratio is 1.0. The slope of the operating line of rectifying section is
CO03 _______.
a. 0.67 b. 1.0 c. 2.0 d. 0.5

12. A binary mixture of 4 moles benzene and 8 moles toluene will boil at
CO03 a. 94°C b. 94°F c. 105°C d. 99°C

13. The percentage change in the boiling point of a 60 mole % benzene toluene solution when
CO03 the pressure is increased from 1 atm to 2 atm is
a. 27.8% increase c. 25.5% increase
b. 25.5% decrease d. None of these

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ENGR. CONRADO P. MONTEROLA
XXX JR. ENGR. JESUNINO AQUINO XXX
FORM OVPAA-013A
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14.The distribution coefficient of n-hexane at 10 atm and 200°C is_____.
CO03 a. 2.6 b. 1.4 c. 0.9 d. none of these

15. A liquid mixture containing 50% benzene and 50% toluene by weight is to be fed to a
fractionating column at a rate of 5000 kg/hr. the feed rate at kg mol/hr is _______.
CO03
A. 29.95 B. 58.80 C. 59.22 D. 28.846

16. The approximate minimum number of stages for a binary system with relative volatility of 5,
CO03 fractionally distilled to yield a composition of 0.90 in the distillate and 0.10 in the bottom is
A. 1.53 B. 2.73 C. 3.45 D. 4.31

17. The rate determining step in leaching is_________.


CO01
a. The dissolution of solute in solvent.
b. The diffusion of solvent into the solid particles.
c. The diffusion of solute towards the surface of the solid.
d. The diffusion of the solute from the surface towards the bulk of the solvent.

18. The underflow in leaching is consisting of _________.


CO01 a. The inert solid and the retained solution.
b. The solvent and the dissolved solute.
c. The solution which is not retained by the inert solid.
d. The inert solid.

19. The overflow in leaching is consisting of _________.


a. The inert solid and the retained solution.
CO01 b. The solvent and the dissolved solute.
c. The solution which is not retained by the inert solid.
d. The inert solid.

20. Leaching of sugar from sugar beets is done using


CO01 a. Hot water b. dilute sulfuric acid c. hexane d. lime water

LO01 21. Which of the following operations does not involve leaching?
CO01 a. Dissolving gold from ores.
b. Dissolving pharmaceutical products from barks.
c. Dissolving sugar from sugar beets.
d. Removing nicotine from its water solution by kerosene.

22. The rate of leaching generally increases with increasing


CO01 a. Temperature b. viscosity c. pressure d. size of the solid

23. Stage efficiency in leaching depends on _____.


a. Time of contact between solid and solution.
CO01 b. Rate of diffusion of the solute through the solid and into the liquid.
c. Both a and b.
d. Vapor pressure of the solution.

24. All of the following are assumptions in ideal leaching except _____.
CO01 a. The inert solid is not dissolved in the solvent.
b. Sufficient contact time is provided so that all solute is dissolved in the solvent.
c. The concentration of solution in the final stage is equal to the concentration of solution in the initial
stage.
d. The solute is infinitely soluble in solvent.

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25. Drying of leaves, barks and roots is done prior to leaching in order to ______.
CO01 a. Reduce the moisture content.
b. Rapture the cell wall.
c. Converts the natural product to its active form.
d. Increases the area of contact.

26. The N value for overflow is generally


CO01 a. Less than 1 b. greater than 1 c. equal to 1 d. equal to zero

27. The leaching equipment generally used for sugar beets is _________.
a. thickener
CO01 b. Fixed bed leaching
c. Hilderbrandt extractor
d. Bollman extractor

28. This leaching equipment contains 3 screw type conveyor


CO01 a. thickener
b. Fixed bed leaching
c. Hilderbrandt extractor
d. Bollman extractor

29. This leaching equipment is generally associated with a slowly rotating rake at the bottom of
container.
CO01 a. thickener
b. Fixed bed leaching
c. Hilderbrandt extractor
d. Bollman extractor

30. In liquid-liquid extraction, degrees of freedom F is generally equal to


CO03 a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3

31. In an extraction process the greater the weights of solute in the raffinate relative to that in the
CO01 extract then the distribution coefficient is relatively _________.
a. high b. low c. not affected d. unpredictable

32. Liquid-liquid extraction is based on the difference in


CO01 a. Solubility b. viscosity c. partial pressure d. specific volume

33. When the solvent dissolves very little of the solute then
a. solvent of low latent heat should be used.
CO01 b. solvent of low freezing point should be used.
c. large quantity of solvent will be required.
d. very small quantity of solute is required.

34. In extraction, as the temperature increases, the area of heterogeneity


CO01 ( area covered by binodal curve) generally ________.
a. increases b. decreases c. remains unchanged d. none of these

35. Small solute molecule in liquid phase diffuses thru a membrane because of concentration
CO01 gradient to another liquid phase.
a. Dialysis b. gas permeation c. ultrafiltration d. reverse osmosis

36. A medical equipment used to “oxygenate” the blood so that the heart can be stop from
CO01 beating.
a. Hemodialysis c. heart and lung machine
b. Stethoscope d. ECG

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ENGR. CONRADO P. MONTEROLA
XXX JR. ENGR. JESUNINO AQUINO XXX
FORM OVPAA-013A
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37. Membrane separation process used to purify water from oceans and seas.
CO01
a. Dialysis b. reverse osmosis c. ultrafiltration d. gas permeation

II. Problem Solving


1. Leaching. A treated ore containing inert solid gangue and copper sulfate is to be leached in a
countercurrent extractor using pure water to leach the CuSO4. The solid charge rate per hour
consists of 10000 kg inert gangue, 1200 kg of CuSO4 and 400 kg of water. The exit wash solution
CO03
is to contain 92 wt % water and 8 wt % CuSO4. A total of 95 % of the CuSO4 in the inlet ore is to
be recovered. The underflow is constant at N = 0.5 kg inert solid/kg solution. Calculate the number
of stages required. 20 pts

2. Liquid-liquid extraction. An inlet water solution of 100 kg/h containing 0.010 wt fraction nicotine
in water is stripped with pure kerosene stream in a countercurrent multistage tower. The water and
kerosene are essentially immiscible in each other. It is desired to reduce the concentration of the
CO03
exit water to 0.0010 wt fraction nicotine.
a. Determine the minimum flow rate of kerosene. 10 pts
b. Using 1.5 times the minimum flow rate determine the theoretical number of stages needed.
The equilibrium data are as follows with x the weight fraction of nicotine in the water solution
and y in the kerosene. 10 pts

3. Distillation. A liquid mixture of benzene-toluene is to be distilled in a fractionating tower at 101.3


kPa pressure. The feed of 100 kg mol/h is liquid and it contains 45 mol% benzene and 55 mol%
toluene and enters at 327.6 K. A distillate containing 10 mol % benzene and 90 mole % toluene
and a bottoms containing 10 mol % benzene and 90 mol % toluene are to be obtained. The
reflux ratio is 4.00. The average heat capacity of the feed is 159 kJ/kg mol.K and the average
CO03
latent heat 32099 kJ/kg mol.
a. Calculate D and B. 5pts
b. Estimate the boiling point of the feed. 5pts
c. Calculate the quality of the feed, (q). 5pts
d. Calculate the y intercept of the feed operating line. 5pts
e. Calculate the y intercept of the rectification line. 5pts

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ENGR. CONRADO P. MONTEROLA
XXX JR. ENGR. JESUNINO AQUINO XXX
FORM OVPAA-013A
THIS FORM IS AVAILABLE AT THE OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS
4. Adsorption/Ion exchange. An ion-exchange column containing 99.3 g of amberlite ion-
exchange resin was used to remove Cu 2+ from a solution where Co = 0.18 M CuSO4. The
tower height = 30.5 cm and the diameter = 2.59 cm. The flow rate was 1.37 ml solutions/s to the
CO03 tower. The breakthrough data are shown below.

The concentration desired at the break point is C/Co = 0.020.


a. Determine the break-point time. 5 pts
b. Calculate the usable capacity, Tt. 5 pts
c. Determine the length of unused bed. 5 pts
d. Determine the saturation loading capacity of the solid. 5 pts
e. Suppose the ion exchange column is scaled up and the new breakpoint time is 900 s
calculate the height of the new ion exchange tower. 10 pts

5. Membrane Separation. A dialysis machine will be designed to remove urea from the blood
of a kidney patient. The concentration of urea in the blood is initially 30.0 mg/100 cc and after
undergoing dialysis it should be 0.0 mg/100 cc. The membrane thickness is 1.59 X 10 -5 m,
CO03
K’ = 0.75, DAB = 3.5 x 10-11 m2/s inside the membrane, the mass transfer coefficient in the
blood is 1.25 X 10-5 m/s and 3.33 x 10-5 m/s in the dialysate.

a. Calculate the total resistance. 5 pts


b. Calculate the flux of urea. 5 pts

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c. Calculate the total area of the membrane of the dialysis machine if it’s to remove 20.00 g
urea /h. 10 pts

6. Filtration. Using the Hagen-Poiseulle equation in the handbook, derive the Poiseulle constants,
CO03
Kp and B. 10 pts

7. Using molecular sieves, water vapor was removed from nitrogen gas in a packed bed at 28.3°C. The column
height was 0.268 m, with the bulk density of the solid bed being equal to 712.8 kg/m 3. The initial
water concentration in the solid was 0.01 kg water/kg solid and the mass velocity of the nitrogen
gas was 4052 kg/m2.h. The initial water concentration in the gas was co = 926 X 10-6 kg water/kg
CO02
nitrogen. The breakthrough data are as follows.

A value of c/c0 = 0.01 is desired at the break point. Calculate the following:
a. Break point time 5 pts
b. Fraction of total capacity used up to break point 5 pts
c. Length of unused bed 5 pts
d. Saturation loading capacity of the solid 5 pts
e. For a proposed column length Ht = 1.00 m, calculate the break point time. 5 pts

8. A saturated liquid feed of 200 mol/h at the boiling point containing 42 mol % heptane and 58 %
ethyl benzene is to be fractionated at 101.32 kPa abs to give a distillate containing 97 mol %
heptane and a bottoms containing 1.1 mol % heptane. Equilibrium data are given below at 101.32
CO04
kPa abs pressure for the mole fraction n-heptane xH and yH .

a. Calculate the mol/h distillate, mol/h bottoms. 5 pts


b. What is the minimum reflux ratio? 10 pts
c. If the reflux ratio is 1.5 times the minimum reflux ratio find theoretical number of plates, and
the feed tray number. 10 pts

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ENGR. CONRADO P. MONTEROLA
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d.

1. Calculate the boiling point of water in Tagaytay City (2000 ft in altitude). Assume
LO06 ambient temperature to be 20°C and the average molar mass of air to be 29 g/mole. The
enthalpy of vaporization of water is 40.7 kJ/mole.

2. The blade of an ice skate is ground to a knife edge on each side of the skate.
A. If the width of the knife edge is 0.001 in and the length of the skate in contact with the
LO07
ice is 3 in, calculate the pressure exerted on the ice by Mr. Michael Martinez if he weighs
100 lb (Payat sya d B?).
B. What is the melting point of ice under this pressure?
∆H fus = 1.4363 kcal/mol; ρ ice = 0.92 g/ml ρ water = 1.0 g/ml

3. The vapor pressure of solid CO2 is 76.7 mm Hg at -103C and its normal sublimation point is
-78.5C. What is the heat of sublimation of CO2?
4. At 90°C, the vapor pressure of pure methylbenzene is 53.3 kPa and that of pure 1,2-
dimethylbenzene is 20 kPa. What is the composition of a liquid mixture that boils at 90°C
when the pressure is 0.5 atm? What is the composition of the vapor produced?

5. The partial molar volumes of two liquids A and B in a mixture in which the mole fraction of
LO20 A is 0.3713 are 188.2 cm3 mol−1 and 176.14 cm3 mol−1, respectively. The molar masses of
the A and B are 241.1 g mol−1 and 198.2 g mol−1. What is the volume of a solution of mass
1.000 kg?

6. The solubility product of AgCl at 25°C is 1.82 X 10-10. Assuming Debye-Huckle Limiting
CO6
Law to apply, calculate
A. Solubility at pure water.
B. Solubility at 0.01 M NaF.

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ENGR. CONRADO P. MONTEROLA
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7. The molar conductivity of chloracetic acid at 25°C is 53.1 S cm2mole-1 at
CO6
625 X 10-4 M. If the limiting molar conductivity is 362 S cm2 mole-1, calculate the
dissociation constant of chloracetic acid.

8. Consider the lead acid battery with 1 m H2SO4 for the temperature range 0°C to 60°C, the
CO6 & CO4
cell potential is expressed as:

E(in Volts) = 1.917 + 56.1 x 10-6t + 108 x10-8 t2 (t is in °C)

Calculate ∆G, ∆H and ∆S at 25°C.

The electrode reaction for lead acid battery is given below:


Cathode Reaction: PbO2(s) + HSO4-(aq) + 3H+(aq) +2e- →PbSO4(s) +2H2O(l)
Anode Reaction: Pb (s) +HSO4- (aq) → PbSO4 (s) + H+ (aq) + 2e-

9. The limiting molar conductivity for NaCl, HCl and Na2CO3 are 126.39 S cm2mol-1, 425.96
CO6
S cm2mol-1 and 238.76 S cm2mol-1 respectively. Calculate the limiting molar conductivity
of carbonic acid (H2CO3).

10. An aqueous solution of gold nitrate, Au(NO3)3, is electrolyzed with a current of 0.555 ampere
CO6 until 1.32 g of Au has been deposited on the cathode. If the atomic weight of Au is 197,
determine the duration of the electrolysis in minutes.
11. A 1.00 m solution of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) freezes at -2.0088°C. What is its percent
CO6
apparent degree of dissociation?
12. The water flea Daphnia performs a constant number of heartbeats and then dies. The flea
CO6 lives twice as long at 15°C as at 25°C. Calculate the activation energy for the reaction that
controls the rate of its heartbeat.
13. Derive the equation for concentrations of reactant A, [A] and product C, [C] against time t
CO6 in a consecutive reaction below:

𝒌𝟏 𝒌𝟐
A→B→C
14. Consider the reaction H2 + I2 → 2HI
CO6 Show that the mechanism

I2 2I (fast, in equilibrium)

I + H2 H2I (fast, in equilibrium)

𝒌𝟓
H2I + I → 2HI (slow)

Leads to the result that the rate equation for the overall reaction is
v = k[H2][I2].

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ENGR. CONRADO P. MONTEROLA
XXX JR. ENGR. JESUNINO AQUINO XXX
FORM OVPAA-013A
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CO1 1. (15 pts) For the given reaction at 25°C, CaCO3(s)  CaO(s) +CO2(g) determine
(a) the standard Gibbs energy of reaction, ΔG°
(b) (b) the equilibrium constant, K
(c) the pressure of CO2 in equilibrium with a mixture of CaCO3 and CaO at 298K.
Note: at SATP, ΔfG° (CO2,g) = –94.3 kcal/mol,
ΔfG° (CaCO3,g) = –269.8 kcal/mol ,
ΔfG° (CaO,s) = –144.4 kcal/mol

2. (10 pts) A container is divided into two equal compartments. One contains 3.00 mol of Ar at 300K. The other
CO1 contains 2.00 mol of N2 at 300K. Assuming ideal gas behavior:
(a) Calculate the ∆G of mixing when the partition is removed.
(b) Calculate the ∆S of mixing.

CO1
3. (10 pts) Deep-sea divers can suffer a condition known as the “bends” if they breathe ordinary air at a pressure equal
to the ambient hydrostatic pressure, because nitrogen gas dissolves in blood at high pressure and is released as
bubbles in the bloodstream when the diver decompresses. Calculate the amount of nitrogen dissolved in 5.000 L of
blood (roughly the volume in an adult human) at equilibrium with air (78 mol% nitrogen) at a depth of 200 m,
assuming that Henry’s law constant for nitrogen in blood is equal to 7.56 x 104 atm, the value for nitrogen in water
at 20.0°C.

CO2 4. (15 pts) At –47°C the vapor pressure of ethyl bromide is 10 mmHg, while that of ethyl chloride is 40 mmHg. Assume
that the mixture is ideal. If there is only a trace of liquid present and the mole fraction of ethyl chloride in the vapor
is 0.80,
(a) what is the total pressure and the mole fraction of ethyl chloride in the liquid?
(b) If there are 5 mol of liquid and 3 mol of vapor present at the same pressure as in (a), what is the overall
composition of the system?

CO3 5. (10 pts) Determine the molecular weight of the solute if the osmotic pressure of a solution containing 10.0 g solute per
liter of solution is 10.0 torr at 27°C.

6. (15 pts) Determine the solubility of PbC2O4 (Ksp = 8.5 x 10–9) (considering ionic interactions) in
CO3
(a) 0.0015 m K2C2O4 solution
(b) a solution which is 0.0010 m in Ca(NO3)2 and 0.0020 m in NaNO3

CO3 7. (10 pts) Consider a 0.010m weak monoprotic acid solution in water with pKa = 5.40. Considering ionic interactions,
determine
(a) the pH of the solution
(b) the boiling point of the solution

CO4 8. (10 pts) Consider the cell: Hg(l)| Hg2SO4(s)| FeSO4 (aq, a = 0.01)| Fe(s)
(a) Write the anode half and cathode half reactions.
(b) Write the overall cell reaction.
(c) Calculate the cell potential, E, the equilibrium constant for the cell reaction, K, and the standard Gibbs energy
change, ΔG° at 25°C.

9. (10 pts) The temperature-composition diagram for the Ca/Si binary system is shown below. If a melt at 20 mole
CO2
percent silicon composition originally at 1500°C is cooled to 1000°C, what phases (and phase composition) would be
at equilibrium? Estimate the relative amounts of each phase.

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ENGR. CONRADO P. MONTEROLA
XXX JR. ENGR. JESUNINO AQUINO XXX
FORM OVPAA-013A
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REVIEWED BY/ DATE (COURSE COORDINATOR) APPROVED BY/ DATE (PROGRAM CHAIR/ CLUSTER COORDINATOR)
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ENGR. CONRADO P. MONTEROLA
XXX JR. ENGR. JESUNINO AQUINO XXX
FORM OVPAA-013A
THIS FORM IS AVAILABLE AT THE OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS