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# Slender columns & Piles

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Eurocode 2 - Contents
1. General 7. Serviceability limit state
2. Basis of design 8. Detailing – general
3. Materials 9. Detailing – particular rules
4. Durability 10. Precast concrete
5. Structural analysis 11. Lightweight concrete
6. Ultimate limit state 12. Plain concrete

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Design moment

UK Guidance: PD 6687-1
The column design moment is: Cl. 2.11
MEd = Max {M02; M0e + M2; |M01 - 0.5 M2 - 2NEdei|}
Where: Exp (5.32)
M0e = 0.6 M02 + 0.4 M01 ≥ 0.4 M02

## For a non-slender column this becomes:

MEd = M02

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Design moments

## Taken from How to Design Concrete Structures using Eurocode 2

O Brooker et al. The Concrete Centre, 2018
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Nominal Curvature Method

## e2 = 0.1 l02 (Kr K fyd/(0.45 d Es)) Cl. 5.8.8

Where
Kr = (nu –n)/(nu-nbal)  1
n = NEd/(Ac fcd)
nu = 1 + 
nbal = 0.4
 = As,est fyd/(Ac fcd)
K = 1 + bef  1
b = 0.35 + fck /200 –  /150
ef = effective creep ratio
ef = (∞,t0) M0Eqp /M0Ed
 = slenderness

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Worked example
A pinned-based 350 x 350 square column, has a design axial
load, NEd = 1824.1 kN and the major axis bending ULS moment
at the top of the column from the analysis is 146.1 kNm. The
equivalent quasi-permanent moment is 108.1 kNm.
It has been shown that the
column is slender. The
effective length of the
column, l0 is 2965 mm.
Determine the design moment
when the cover, cnom to the 8
mm links is 35 mm and the
concrete class is C30/37.
Assume that 8 No H32 bars
are required.

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Worked example

Solution
MEd = Max {M02; M0e + M2; |M01 - 0.5 M2 - 2NEdei|}
Where:
M0e = 0.6 M02 + 0.4 M01 ≥ 0.4 M02
M02 = Mz +ei NEd ≥ e0NEd
Mz = 146.1
ei = l0/400 = 2965/400
= 7.41 mm
e0 = Max {h/30, 20} = {350/30, 20}
= 20 mm
M02 = 146.1 + 0.0074 x 1824.1 ≥ 0.02 x 1824.1
= 146.1 + 13.4 ≥ 36.5
= 159.5 kNm
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Worked example

## M0Ed = M0e = (0.6 M02 + 0.4 M01) ≥ 0.4M02

= (0.6 x 159.5 + 0.4 x 0) ≥ 0.4 x 159.5
= 96.0 kNm

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Worked example

## MEd = Max {M02; M0e + M2; |M01 - 0.5 M2 - 2NEdei|}

M2 = NEd e2
where
e2 = (1/r)l02/2
where:
1/r = KrK/r0
where
1/r0 = yd /(0.45d)
yd = fyd/Es = 435/200 000 = 2.175 x 10-3
d = 350 – 35 – 8 – 16 = 291 mm
1/r0 = yd /(0.45d) = 2.175 x 10-3/(0.45 x 291)
= 16.6 x 10-6

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Worked example

## MEd = Max {M02; M0e + M2; |M01 - 0.5 M2 - 2NEdei|}

where (cont):
Kr = (nu –n)/(nu-nbal)  1
where, assuming 8 H32 bars (6430 mm2)
ω = As fyd/Ac fcd
= 6430 x 435 /(3502 x 0.85 x 30 / 1.5) = 1.34
nu= 1+ ω = 1 + 1.34 = 2.34
n = NEd/Ac fcd = 1824.1 x 103 /(3502 x 0.85 x 30 / 1.5)
= 0.88
nbal = 0.4
Kr = (2.34 – 0.88)/(2.34 - 0.4) = 0.75

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Worked example

## MEd = Max {M02; M0e + M2; |M01 - 0.5 M2 - 2NEdei|}

where (cont):
K = 1 + ef  1
where
b = 0.35 + fck /200 – λ/150
where
λ = 3.46lo/h = 3.46 x 2965 /350 = 29.3
b = 0.35 + 30/200 – 29.3/150 = 0.305
ef = (∞,t0) MOEqp/M0Ed
where
(∞,t0) from chart . . . . .

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Concrete - creep
t0
1
N R
2 S
3

5 C20/25
C25/30
C30/37
10 C35/45
C40/50
C45/55
C50/60
20 C55/67
28 days assumed C60/75
C70/85
30 C80/95
C90/105

50
(∞,t0) = 2.4
100
7,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 3,0 2,0 1,0 0 100 300 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500
 (t 0) h 0 (mm)
h0 = 2Ac/u, where:
Ac = 350 x 350 = 122500 mm2
u = 4 x 350 = 1400 mm
h0 = 2 x 122500/1400 = 175 mm
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Worked example

## MEd = Max {M02; M0e + M2; |M01 - 0.5 M2 - 2NEdei|}

where (cont):
ef = (∞,t0) MOEqp/M0Ed
where
(∞,t0) = 2.4
MOEqp = 108.1 (given)
M0Ed = 159.5 (a.b.)
ef = 2.4 x 108.1/159.5 = 1.62
K = 1 + bef  1
K = 1 + 0.305 x 1.62 = 1.50  1
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Worked example

## MEd = Max {M02; M0e + M2; |M01 - 0.5 M2 - 2NEdei|}

where (cont):
1/r = KrK/r0
= 0.75 x 1.5 x 16.6 x 10-6 = 18.7 x 10-6
Therefore:
e2 = (1/r)l02/2
= 18.7 x 10-6 x 29652/2
= 16.5 mm
M2 = NEd e2
= 1824.1 x 0.0165 = 30.1 kNm

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Worked example

Finally . . .

## MEd = Max {M02; M0e + M2; |M01 - 0.5 M2 - 2NEdei|}

= Max{159.5; 96 + 30.1; |0 - 0.5 x 30.1 – 2 x 13.4|}
= Max {159.5; 126,1; 11.8} = 159.5 kNm

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## Plain and lightly reinforced

sections EN 1992-1-1 cl.12.1.2
• Section 12 of Eurocode 2-1-1 provides ‘additional rules for
plain concrete structures or where the reinforcement
provided is less than the minimum required for reinforced
concrete’.
fctd,pl = αct,pl fctk,0.05 /γc

## • Owing to less ductile properties of plain concrete, the

recommended factor for long term effects αc is reduced:

## Factor αcc αct αcc,pl αct,pl

EN 1992‐1‐1 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8
UK NA (Amd 1) 0.85 flexure/axial 1.0 0.6 0.8
1.0 otherwise

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Bending and axial force

## NRd = ηfck,plbhw (1– 2e/hw) Cl. 12.6.1

where:
ηfck,pl = design compressive
strength
b = overall width of the
cross-section
hw = overall depth of the
cross-section
e = eccentricity of NEd
in the direction hw

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Slenderness

## λ = l0/i = β lw/i Cl. 12.6.5.1

where:
lw = clear height of member
β = coefficient, depends on support conditions
= 1.0 for columns
= 2.0 for cantilever walls
See table for other support conditions
λ should be less than 86

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Slenderness

Table 12.1

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## 0.85 hf/a (3gd/fctd) Cl. 12.9.3

As a simplification:
hf/a  2 may be used

hF

a a
bF

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Unreinforced bored cast-in-place
concrete piles EN 1536 cl.7.1
The execution standard EN 1536 states that bored piles may
be designed as unreinforced if:
• Pile head reinforcement is provided, i.e.
• Reinforced for accidental loads (e.g. arising from construction
works)
• Starter bars ‘or other system’ to locate centre of pile
• Actions produce only compressive stresses in the pile, i.e.
• Design actions
• Actions caused by construction
• Actions resulting from the ground
Bored piles should be reinforced over any length of:
• soft soil i.e. low strength fine soil, cuk  40 kPa
• loose soil i.e. ID  35%

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## Resistance of unreinforced piles

in compression EN 1992-1-1
cl.6.2.1(3)
Verification of compression resistance of plain concrete piles is
demonstrated by:
NEd  NRd ,pl
NEd = design value of applied compression force
NRd,pl = design compression resistance of an unreinforced pile, given by:
 
NRd ,pl  fcd ,pl Ac   cc ,pl  fck Ac
 kf  c 
fck = characteristic (cylinder) strength of concrete
c = partial factor for concrete strength in compression (= 1.5)
kf = model factor for cast-in-place piles without permanent casing (= 1.1)
αcc,pl = factor for long term effects in plain sections (= 0.8) [UK NA gives
0.6]
Ac = cross-sectional area of pile 𝑁 𝛼 ,
𝑓
𝐴 𝑘 𝛾

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Shear resistance of unreinforced
piles (EN 1992-1-1 cl.12.6.3(2))
Verification of shear resistance of plain concrete piles is
demonstrated by: VEd  VRd ,pl
VRd,pl = design shear resistance of an unreinforced pile:
fcvd Acc
VRd ,pl 
k
fcvd = design strength of concrete subject to combined shear
and compression
Acc = cross-sectional area of concrete in compression
k = model factor (= 1.5) 2
  cp   c ,lim 
fcvd  fctd ,pl   cp fctd ,pl  
2
 , cp   c ,lim
 
fcvd  fctd ,pl   cp fctd ,pl , cp   c ,lim
2

## σc,lim = fcd,pl – √(fctd,pl (fctd,pl + fcd,pl ))

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## Relationship between shear and

VRd,pl/Acc

cp

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Combined bending and
compression
Design bending moment effect in pile’s cross-section must not
exceed the design bending resistance of the plain section:
MEd  MRd ,pl

## Since no tensile stresses can act in the pile, design stresses in

outer fibres must satisfy:
 ct ,pl fck
0   d  fcd ,pl 
c
Design stress are given by:

## NRd ,pl MRd ,pl

d  
 D 2 4  D 3 32

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## Reinforced concrete piles – bending

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Assumptions used to develop
N:M interaction charts

## • Reinforcing bars are (rotationally) symmetrical about the

pile centre
• Above neutral axis, concrete and reinforcing bars provide
compression force
• Below neutral axis, only reinforcing bars provide tension
• Shape of concrete in compression = segment of circle;
must deduct area of steel in compression zone from it

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## Effective diameter and clear

spacing between bars
Effective diameter of main bars (h) is:
h  D  2c  2t  l
D = outside pile diameter
φl = diameter of (main) longitudinal reinforcement
φt = diameter of transverse (shear) links
c = cover to reinforcement
Clear spacing between main bars (sl)
is:  
sl  h sin    l
n
n = number of main bars
h = effective diameter of main bars
φl = diameter of longitudinal bars

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Reinforced concrete piles – shear

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Guidance

## • Shear in circular sections are

not explicitly covered in EN
1992-1-1
• Refer to Shear design of
circular concrete sections using
Eurocode 2 truss model by Orr
at al, 2010
• This also refers to Shear in
reinforced concrete piles and
circular columns by Feltham,
2004

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Circular members not requiring
design shear reinforcement
EN 1992-1-1 cl.6.2.1(3)
No shear reinforcement is needed when:
 100 Asl fck 
VEd  VRd ,c  CRd ,c k  3  k1 cp  Aeff   vmin  k1 cp  Aeff
 Aeff 
VEd = design value of applied shear force
VRd,c = memberdesign shear resistance without shear reinf’t
vmin = minimum shear resistance (as stress)
Av = effective pile cross-sectional area (replacing ‘bwd’ term)
Asl = area of longitudinal bars (ρl = Asl / A)  2%
fck = characteristic compressive strength of concrete (in MPa)
cp = compressive stress in section at its centroid
CRd ,c  0.18  c and k  1 200mm d  2
NEd  f 
k1  0.15 and  cp   0.2fcd  0.2  cc ck 
Ac  c 
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## Effective depth and effective

shear area of circular section
Consider a circular section, effective depth
effluence by the number of bars and
position. dv
h = D – 2cnom – 2Фt – Фt
dv = r + h/π
𝟐 𝐝𝒗
𝜽 𝟐 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟏 𝟏
𝑫
𝑨𝒗 𝒓𝟐 𝝅 𝜽 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽 ⁄𝟐 (In Radians)
Carefully consider value to use for As (to calculate ρl)
• For 6 main bars, only 2 likely to be acting as dowels
• For 8 main bars, 3 more likely
ρl  = As /Av

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Members not requiring design
shear reinforcement
Simple method: use value from table and, if required, add 0.15 NEd/Ac
 l (%) Effective depth, d  (mm)

200 225 250 275 300 350 400 450 500 600 750
0.25 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.48 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.38 0.36
0.50 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.45
0.75 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.53 0.51
1.00 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.59 0.57
1.25 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.63 0.61
1.50 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.70 0.67 0.65
1.75 0.90 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.68
2.0 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.77 0.74 0.71
Values for fck = 30 MPa. Where rI > 0.40% the following factors may be used:
fck 25 28 32 35 40 45 50
factor 0.94 0.98 1.02 1.05 1.10 1.14 1.19

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## Members requiring shear

reinforcement – circular section
Shear reinforcement is needed when: vEd > vRd,c
It is reasonable to assume z = 0.77dv (rather than 0.9d)
As before, dv = r + 2rs/π
where
rs = radius to centre of the longitudinal reinforcement

bw = 2√((dv - z ) (2r – dv + z ))
bw

## Area of concrete strut

dv z seg

2rs/π = h/π

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Concrete strut capacity

## When = 21.8° (cot = 2.5)

VRd = 0.138 αcw fck (1 - fck/250) x bw z
and when = 45° (cot  = 1.0)
VRd = 0.2 αcw fck (1 - fck/250) bw z
For other strut angles:
VRd = 0.2 sin 2 αcw fck (1 - fck/250) bw z

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Coefficient αcw

## αcw = 1 for non-prestressed structures UK NA Cl.

6.2.3(103)
= (1 + σcp/fcd) for 0 < σcp ≤ 0.25 fcd
= 1.25 for 0.25 fcd < σcp ≤ 0.5 fcd
= 2.5 (1 – σcp/fcd) for 0.5 fcd < σcp < 1.0 fcd
fck fcd Mean compressive stress, σcp
0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30
20 13.3 1 1.04 1.08 1.15 1.23 1.25 1.25 0.63 — —
25 16.7 1 1.03 1.06 1.12 1.18 1.24 1.25 1 — —
30 20 1 1.03 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.25 — —
35 23.3 1 1.02 1.04 1.09 1.13 1.17 1.21 1.25 0.36 —
40 26.7 1 1.02 1.04 1.08 1.11 1.15 1.19 1.25 0.63 —
45 30 1 1.02 1.03 1.07 1.1 1.13 1.17 1.25 0.83 —
50 33.3 1 1.02 1.03 1.06 1.09 1.12 1.15 1.25 1 0.25
60 40 1 1.01 1.03 1.05 1.08 1.1 1.13 1.25 1.25 0.63
70 46.7 1 1.01 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.09 1.11 1.21 1.25 0.89

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Effect of Compressive Stress on cw
1.2

cw 0.8
0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Stress/fcd
cp/fcd
Concrete crushing strength increased for 0 < cp < 0.6fcd
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## Circular links only resist a component of the shear force

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## Not vertical, link capacity is reduced/enhanced depending on

location. For equilibrium use twice the reduced capacity.

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## Design shear resistance of

Two factors are introduced to allow for these effects:
𝑨𝒔𝝂
𝑽𝑹𝒅,𝒔 𝝀𝟏 𝝀𝟐 𝒛𝒇𝒘𝒚𝒅 𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝜽
𝒔
λ1 may be taken as 0.85 (may not be conservative)
λ2 = 1 for circular links
λ2 = ((p/2πrsv)2 + 1)-0.5
p = pitch of spiral links
Asw = cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement
z = inner lever-arm of reinforcement
fywd = design yield strength of shear reinforcement (= fyk / s)

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Minimum reinforcement for concrete
piles

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Minimum reinforcement
EN 1992-1-1 cl.9.2.1.1 &
9.5.2(2)
As,min = minimum area of reinforcement, given by (for
columns): N
As,min  0.1 Ed
fyd
As,min  0.002Ac  0.2%  Ac
Sections containing less reinforcement than As,min should be
considered as unreinforced

## Minimum shear reinforcement:

Asw/s = 0.08bw √fck /fyk

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Minimum longitudinal
reinforcement for bored piles EN
1536 cl.7.5.2,EN 1992-1-1
cl.9.8.5(3)
When reinforcement is required, minimum longitudinal
reinforcement:
• As  0.5% Ac for Ac  0.5 m2
• As  0.0025 m2 (i.e. 25 cm2) for 0.5 m2 < Ac  1.0 m2
• As  0.25% Ac for Ac > 1.0 m2
Minimum number and size of bars:
• For reinforced piles, 4 x l  12 mm
Eurocode 2 has different recommendations for minimum
number and size of bars:
• For reinforced piles, 6 x l  16 mm

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Minimum reinforcement
Minimum area of reinforcement,

5000
4500
4000
3500
As,bpmin (mm2)

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Pile diameter, mm

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