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https://doi.org/10.1007/s40030-018-0352-1

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION

Nivin Philip1 • Theresa Paul2

The Institution of Engineers (India) 2019

weakened plane, and if the weakened plane is strengthened,

it leads to a favourable effect on the buckling effect of the Steel structures have been widely used in recent con-

pre-twisted column. A linear buckling analysis was con- structions due to their faster construction and lower labour

ducted for the boxed and unboxed sections of columns with intensiveness. Steel is a recyclable material that leaves

varying twisted angles using ANSYS workbench. It was behind minimum waste under demolition, proving to be a

found that pre-twisting was effective in increasing the sustainable construction material. Buckling is a mode of

buckling capacity of a column up to 51% for unboxed failure that is usually observed in compression materials

columns having an optimal twist angle of 135 and 15% due to structural instability. Currently, slender columns are

increase for boxed columns showing an optimal angle of becoming increasingly important and popular due to the

155. Blast load analyses on pre-twisted columns were development of high strength and several innovative

conducted for loaded and unloaded conditions using architectural structural concepts that add to the aesthetic

ANSYS AUTODYN for 10 kg of TNT (trinitrotoluene). A beauty of the structure.

column subjected to a 10-kg blast load could withstand the Sections typically used in steel structures include I

blast without any failure. The kinetic energy absorbed by sections, channels, angles, etc., called open sections, and

the columns diminished for 10 kg of TNT, and loaded rectangular or circular tubes called closed sections. The

columns yielded without initiation of any cracks, whereas strength of compression members made of such sections

unloaded sections did not yield. depends on their slenderness ratio, i.e. by increasing the

moment of inertia of the cross section. Similarly, the

Keywords Pre-twisted Buckling Blast strength of beams can be increased by increasing the

Slenderness ratio Wedge Johnson–Cook Thin walls moment of inertia of the cross section. Therefore, the

buckling of the plate elements in the cross section under

compression/shear may take place before the overall col-

umn buckling or overall beam failure, by lateral buckling

or yielding called local buckling. Thus, local buckling

imposes a reduced effect on the load-carrying capacity of

columns and beams due to the reduction in the stiffness and

strength of locally buckled plate elements.

Thin columns usually buckle along the plane of least

& Nivin Philip resistance. However, the column resistance varies at each

nivinadoor@gmail.com

point along its centroidal axis when its section is perma-

1

Mar Baselious Christian College of Engineering and nently pre-twisted. A pre-twisted member is a structural

Technology, Peermade, India member that has a natural twist about its longitudinal axis.

2

Mar Athanasius College of Engineering, Kothamangalam, The axial strength and the static performance of the column

India may be influenced by this pre-buckling twist, which, in

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

turn, may vary in any arbitrary manner along with the Finite Element Modelling

length of the member [1, 2]. The results obtained from

various studies generally show a very wide variation. Finite element (FE) modelling of pre-twisted columns was

However, all of the studied models agree that, with the developed using the commercial software ANSYS Work-

increase in the angle of twist, the buckling strength of the bench 12. Each column was modelled using a three-di-

column increases [3–5]. Therefore, pre-twisting can be mensional solid part and was meshed with 20-node three-

considered as a simple method of strengthening thin col- dimensional solid elements of SOLID186. A fixed–fixed

umns subjected to axial loads or making thinner (lighter ends condition was introduced such that the rotation and

and more economical) columns with the same strength. translations were restricted at the supports.

Currently, a high risk of terrorist attacks is observed. The column sections used in this study are

Bomb attacks are the most frequent terrorist activities.

• Unboxed section—ISHB 150 9 150 9 11.8

Blast phenomenon lasts only a period of milliseconds and

• Boxed section—ISJC 175 9 150

results in the production of very high temperatures and

pressure. Unfortunately, public infrastructure, such as air- The material properties used for the steel column are

ports and railway stations, shopping centres, offices, shown in Table 1. The steel column was modelled in

financial and government institutions, are highly exposed ANSYS Workbench 12, its cross-sectional details are

to such attacks [6]. Blast loading of the critical supporting shown in Fig. 1, and its dimensional details are shown in

elements of public facilities can cause considerable Table 2.

reduction in their carrying capacities and will result in the Different rotational angles are considered in the present

partial or global collapse of the buildings. The problem of FE analysis. The column length used in this study is 3

blast wave interaction with the structure and its destructive metres. A set of pre-twisted angles between 0 and 360

effect has already been presented in many papers, but there

are no studies regarding its effect on the pre-twisting of

Table 1 Material properties of steel columns

structural compression members. From previous studies,

the effect of pre-twisting that resulted in the increase in Material property Value

buckling capacity also requires detailed study, including Density 7850 kg/m3

boxed sections that will display local failure on compres- Young’s modulus 2 9 1011 Pa

sion [7]. Abed et al. evaluated the improvement in elastic Poisson’s ratio 0.3

buckling capacity of pre-twisted steel columns using linear Tensile yield strength 2.344 9 108 Pa

perturbation analysis of various lengths twisted at angles of Compressive yield strength 2.344 9 108 Pa

0–180 [8, 9]. He explained that there is a significant

Tensile ultimate yield strength 4.6 9 108 Pa

improvement in the critical buckling capacity for different

slenderness ratios. Chiew et al. [10] conducted an experi-

mental investigation of the ultimate load behaviour of thin-

walled box columns, and the result shows that the failure

was caused by the local buckling of the component plates.

Various blast analysis studies have been conducted on steel

columns. Tiwary et al. [11] studied that, for axially loaded

steel columns, there exists a critical lateral blast impulse,

and any impulse above this value results in the collapse of

the column. The studies also show that, along with the

structural damage caused by the blasting, a significant

reduction in the load-carrying capacity of the member

occurs [12, 13]. The present research will investigate the

effect of pre-twisting on the buckling capacity of steel

columns under pure axial compression and attempt to find

an optimal twist angle. Blast load analysis of pre-twisted

steel columns is conducted using ANSYS AUTODYN for

loaded and unloaded conditions for a 10-kg TNT blast

charge.

Fig. 1 a Cross section of the I section; b FE modelling of the I

section; c cross section of the box section; d FE modelling of the box

section

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

Section name a (mm) b (mm) c (mm) d (mm) Properties Value

ISHB 150 9 150 9 11.8 150 132 11.8 9 Reference density 0.001225 g/cm3

ISJC 175 9 150 150 175 8 12 Gamma 1.4

Reference temperature 288.200012 K

Specific heat 717.599976 J/kg K

Internal energy 2.068 9 105 kJ/kg

Properties Value

Parameter A 3.7377 9 108 kPa

Parameter B 3.7471 9 106 kPa

Parameter R1 4.15

Parameter R2 0.9

Fig. 2 Meshed model of unboxed and boxed steel column sections Parameter W 0.35

C–J detonation velocity 6.93 9 103 m/s

with an increment of 15 is considered. A fixed–fixed ends C–J energy/unit volume 6 9 106 kJ/m3

condition was introduced so that the rotation and transla- C–J pressure 2.1 9 107 kPa

tions were restricted at the supports. One support end,

however, was allowed to translate in the direction that the

than the distance of the column from the point of detona-

unit load was applied. Each column was modelled using a

tion. The stand-off distance of the column from the centre

three-dimensional solid part and was meshed with 20-node

of the charge was taken to be 1.5 m, and hence, the length

three-dimensional solid elements of SOLID186. Different

of the wedge was fixed at 2 m. The wedge was modelled

mesh size configurations were examined to simulate the

and meshed using a one-degree quadrilateral element. Air

accurate results, and the element size adopted was 25 mm

and TNT are the materials used to fill the wedge, and they

for the unboxed section and 38 mm for the boxed sections

are directly available from the AUTODYN material

(Fig. 2).

library. The explosive was modelled using the John

Linear buckling analysis was then performed to obtain

Wilkins Lee Equation of State, and the air was modelled as

the buckling capacity and failure mode for each column.

an ideal gas. The material properties of air and TNT are

From this particular analysis, buckling modes and critical

shown in Tables 3 and 4. A detonator was placed at the

loads were obtained, and the expected improvement in the

vertex of the wedge (0, 0, 0) to start the blast.

column axial capacity was recorded. Blast load analysis

The amount of TNT used for the blast loading depends

was conducted for the prismatic and pre-twisted columns at

upon the weight of TNT that can be carried by different

optimal twist angles under loaded and unloaded conditions.

vehicles [15–17]. In the study, 10 kg of TNT can be carried

The responses of the columns were recorded and compared

in a suitcase, and a radius of charge calculated as 114 mm

to analyse the improvement in the response of pre-twisted

was used for the blast charge. A schematic diagram of the

columns against blast load.

wedge modelled in AUTODYN is shown in Fig. 3.

A schematic representation of the pressure wave prop-

One-Dimensional Analysis of a Wedge in AUTODYN

agation in a wedge is shown in Fig. 4. The one-dimen-

sional wedge model was analysed until the wave reached

The blast in the air can be modelled using ID analysis of

the end of the wedge, and hence, the negative pressure in

AUTODYN with a multi-material Euler solver. In

the ideal blast pressure curve was ignored in the analysis.

AUTODYN, one-dimensional simulation was performed

The output of the one-dimensional analysis was re-mapped

using a 2D axis symmetric solver in the shape of a wedge.

into the three-dimensional air domain. The wedge contains

The software itself automatically defined the angle of the

multiple materials, such as air and TNT. When the output

wedge. The wedge’s inner radius and outer radius were

was re-mapped into a single-material 3D Euler domain, the

calculated based on the amount of TNT used for the blast

TNT also mixed to the air was defined in the 3D domain.

analysis [14]. The length of the wedge should be greater

The column is defined as a Lagrangian meshed element,

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

shown in Eq. 1 [6, 14]

T Troom m

rflow ¼ ½A þ Bðep Þn ð1 þ C ln ep Þ 1

Tmelt Troom

ð1Þ

p

where A, B, C, n, and m are material constants, e is the

Fig. 3 10-kg TNT one-dimensional wedge modelled in AUTODYN effective plastic strain rate, T is the actual temperature

based on plastic work, Troom is the room temperature, and

Tmelt is the melting temperature. The analysis performed by

the authors indicated that the growth of the temperature

produced by plastic deformation while validating the

current model was less than 100 C. At that temperature,

an influence of temperature on the yield stress of steel was

very low; therefore, the thermal part in the JC equation was

omitted. The strain at fracture is given by Eq. 2

h i

T Troom

ef ¼ D1 þ D2 eD3 =reff 1 þ D4 lnep0 1 D5

Tmelt Troom

ð2Þ

Fig. 4 Blast wave propagation in the one-dimensional wedge where D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5 are material constants, p is

the pressure, and reff is the effective stress. The J–C

and the air is defined as an Euler element; hence, the material for mild steel is given in Table 6.

coupling between the column and air is achieved by The column was analysed for loaded and unloaded

defining them to be ‘‘fully coupled,’’ making the Lagran- conditions for the 10-kg TNT blasting. The safe axial load

gian mesh interact dynamically with the Eulerian mesh. capacity of the prismatic boxed and unboxed columns was

determined by multiplying the buckling capacity by the

Blast Analysis of Pre-twisted Steel Columns reduction factor kk depending upon the slenderness ratio of

the columns, as given in Table 7.

A discrete model of pre-twisted steel columns was devel- The columns were fixed at the top and bottom, and the

oped using 20 nodded 3D solid elements, and the plastic– column itself is restricted to velocity along its axial

elastic material model was applied to describe the steel direction such that the column does not move in the axial

element properties. The columns were named based on the direction. A flow-out boundary condition was given around

blast loading cases, and the loaded and unloaded conditions the air domain to let the blast energy flow out without

for both the boxed and unboxed sections are shown in reflecting when it reaches its end boundaries. In loaded

Table 5. columns, the top support provides the safe load capacity of

The Johnson–Cook (J–C) model provides an appreciable column. Gauges are provided at three points to measure the

prediction of the response of a material and high strain rate

effects on stress flow. According to the J–C material Table 6 Johnson–Cook material model and damage constants for

mild steel

Material constants Value

Table 5 Column notations

Initial yield (A) 234.4 MPa

Notation Description

Strain hardening (B) 413.8 MPa

UI Unloaded I section under 10 kg of TNT Hardening exponent (n) 0.25

UTI Unloaded twisted I section under 10 kg of TNT Thermal softening (m) 1.03

LI Loaded I section under 10 kg of TNT Strain rate coefficient (C) 0.0033

LTI Loaded twisted I section under 10 kg of TNT D1 5.625

UB Unloaded box section under 10 kg of TNT D2 0.3

UTB Unloaded twisted box section under 10 kg of TNT D3 - 7.2

LB Loaded box section under 10 kg of TNT D4 - 0.0123

LTB Loaded twisted box section under 10 kg of TNT D5 0

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

Table 7 Reduction factor (kk) for stresses with respect to the slenderness ratio for steel columns

k 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

k 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

kk 0.45 .45 0.3 0.34 0.30 0.26 0.23 0.21 0.19

k 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 300 350

kk 0.17 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.07 0.05

responses of the column near the top and bottom supports buckling load of Pcr = 18,104 kN is observed at a twist

and at the middle of the support. angle of 155, as shown in Fig. 5.

Linear Buckling Analysis During buckling, the pre-twisted steel sections assumed

deformed configurations normal to the plane where the

From the linear buckling analysis of pre-twisted columns, axial compressive load was applied. The compression

critical buckling loads were recorded to study the members were assumed to be slender enough to achieve

improvement in buckling capacity due to pre-twisting. global buckling as shown in the deformed shapes presented

Figure 5 shows the increase in buckling capacity for the in Figs. 6 and 7. The I section suffered global buckling, and

unboxed and boxed sections with respect to the critical the first three failure modes are presented in Fig. 6.

loads corresponding to varying pre-twisting angles. However, in the case of the boxed section, due to its thin

Assessment of the FE results for pre-twisting up to walls, the thin walls undergo local buckling before the

[ = 180 indicates that the buckling capacity is always overall column buckles laterally, as shown in Fig. 7. This

higher than P0 ; in the case of an I section. The increase in phenomenon occurs because, in closed sections such as the

critical load is therefore always rising until the optimum hollow rectangular section, both flanges and webs behave

pre-twisting angle is reached, which is found to be 135, as internal elements, and the local buckling of the flanges

after which the improvement decreases relatively, but the and webs depends on their respective width–thickness

critical buckling load of the I section Pcr = 6612.7 kN ratios. Local buckling has the effect of reducing the load.

remains of larger value than the reference P0 = 4378.7 kN

(critical buckling load at 0 pre-twist). Blast Analysis

In the case of the boxed section, buckling capacity was

analysed at varying twist angles from 0 to 180 with an Figure 8 shows the pressure–time curve for 10 kg of TNT

increment of 15. The optimum twist angle with the highest explosive. From the figure, the maximum peak value of the

pressure reached 900 kPa at 1 ms and diminished to an

ambient pressure of 101.4 kPa at 4 ms in air. The pressure–

Isection time curve for 10 kg of TNT resembles the ideal blast

Boxsection

18000

curve.

16000 I Section

14000 (a) Unloaded

Buckling Load (kN)

12000

Figure 9 shows the displacement time graph for the

10000 unloaded prismatic and twisted I sections for 10 kg of

TNT. At the initial stage up to 10 ms, the displacement for

8000

prismatic and twisted columns was equal, but after that, the

6000 twisted column showed higher displacement.

Figure 10 shows the kinetic energy time plot for U13

4000

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 and UT13 for 10 kg of TNT; the energy absorbed by the

Twist Angle (degrees) twisted column was 19.375 J at 2.508 ms and by the

prismatic column was 5.844 J at 1.818 ms. The energy

Fig. 5 Variation of buckling load with varying twist angles of the

boxed section

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

Fig. 6 a First buckling mode shape of the I section at 135 pre-twist. b Second buckling mode shape of the box section at 155 pre-twist.

b Second buckling mode shape of I section at 135 pre-twist. c Third c Third buckling mode shape of box section at 155 pre-twist

buckling mode shape of I section at 135 pre-twist

compare Figs. 9, 10, and 11, for prismatic columns, the

absorption rate was higher for the twisted column due to its peak energy was maintained from 1 to 8.5 ms. Therefore,

multiple-phase interaction with the blast load. the maximum effective strain obtained for 10 kg of TNT

The effective strain and von Mises stress generated by was 5.557 9 10-4 at 8.28 ms, and the von Mises stress

UI and UTI are shown in Figs. 11 and 12. When we corresponding to that was 1.282 9 105 kPa. In the case of

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

UI

UTI

20

15

10

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Fig. 8 Pressure–time curve for 10-kg TNT blast wave

Time (ms)

twisted I section for 10 kg of TNT

UI

UTI

40

twisted column showed a higher displacement. Figure 14

shows the kinetic energy–time plot for LI and LTI for

35 10 kg of TNT; the energy absorbed by the twisted column

30

was 6648.9 J at 18. 416 ms, and that by the prismatic

column was 1925.07 J at 9.33 ms. The energy absorption

Displacement (mm)

25 rate was higher for the twisted column due to its multiple-

20

phase interaction with the blast load.

Effective strain and von Mises stress plots for LI are

15 shown in Fig. 15. It can be seen that the column reached an

10

effective strain value of 0.012 and von Mises stress value

of 3.392 9 105 kPa, which were greater than the yielding

5 values. Therefore, we could say that yielding had occurred

0

in the column, but it did not fail at 100 ms. Further

0 20 40 60 80 100 increment of von Mises stress and strain will not occur

Time (ms) because the energy absorption diminished at 80 ms. Fig-

ure 16 shows that the effective strain and von Mises stress

Fig. 9 Displacement–time curve for the unloaded prismatic and

plot for LTI attained at a strain value of 0.011 with a

twisted I section for 10 kg of TNT

corresponding stress value of 3.382 9 105 kPa.

Box Section

the twisted column, the effective strain generated was

2.965 9 10-4, and a von Mises stress value of (a) Unloaded

6.839 9 104 kPa was generated at 2 ms, as shown in Figure 17 shows the displacement–time curve for the

Fig. 12. In both cases, the effective strain and von Mises prismatic and twisted box sections for a blast load of 10 kg

stress values did not exceed the limited value, i.e. the of TNT. From the figure, it can be seen that the prismatic

yielding value. Hence, both columns withstood the 10-kg section exhibited slightly higher displacement compared to

TNT blast load. the corresponding twisted box section up to 75 ms.

(b) Loaded Figure 18 shows the kinetic energy–time curve for the

unloaded prismatic and twisted box section, in which the

Figure 13 shows the displacement time graph for the twisted column exhibits greater kinetic energy absorption

loaded prismatic and twisted I sections for 10 kg of TNT. (9 J at 3 ms) than the prismatic column (0.4 J at 3 ms). In

At the initial stage up to 10 ms, the displacement for the twisted column, the absorption of more kinetic energy

prismatic and twisted sections was equal, but after that, the is due to the effect of blast pressure on multiple phases.

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

Fig. 11 Effective strain and von Mises stress contour plot of UI at 8.28 ms

LTI LTI

120 LI LI

7000

100

6000

80

Displacement (mm)

5000

Kinetic Energy (J)

4000

60

3000

40

2000

20

1000

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

Time (ms) Time (ms)

Fig. 13 Displacement–time curve for the loaded prismatic and Fig. 14 Kinetic energy–time curve for the loaded prismatic and

twisted I sections for 10 kg of TNT twisted I sections for 10 kg of TNT

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

Fig. 15 Effective strain and von Mises stress contour plot of LI at 100 ms

Fig. 16 Effective strain and von Mises stress contour plot of LTI at 100 ms

UB UB

UTB UTB

60 60

50 50

Displacement (mm)

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

Time (ms) Time (ms)

Fig. 17 Displacement–time curve for the unloaded prismatic and Fig. 18 Kinetic energy–time curve for the unloaded prismatic and

twisted box sections for 10 kg of TNT twisted box sections for 10 kg of TNT

Figure 19 shows the strain contour plot and von Mises Figure 20 shows the strain contour plot and von Mises

stress plot of UB at 3 ms. UB showed a maximum strain stress plot of UTB at 3 ms. UTB had shown a maximum

value of 2.471 9 10-5 and von Mises stress value of strain value of 7.02 9 10-5 and von Mises stress value of

5.703 9 103 kPa at 3 ms, and the material has not yielded. 1.62 9 104 kPa at 3 ms. As we can see, the column

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

Fig. 20 Maximum effective strain and von Mises stress plot of UTB

LB

LTB LB

LTB

50 6000

40 5000

Displacement (mm)

4000

30

3000

20

2000

10

1000

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

Time (ms) Time (ms)

Fig. 21 Displacement–time curve for the twisted and prismatic Fig. 22 Kinetic energy–time curve for the twisted and prismatic

loaded box sections loaded box sections

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

Fig. 23 Maximum effective strain and maximum von Mises stress of LB at 100 ms

Fig. 24 Maximum effective strain and maximum von Mises stress of LTB at 100 ms

resisted the blast pressure, and from the stress and strain Summary of Results

plot, we can see that yielding has not yet started.

The results obtained from the blast analysis of pre-twisted

(b) Loaded

and prismatic steel columns under loaded and unloaded

The displacement–time curve for the loaded box section, conditions for three different load cases are tabulated and

for a blast load of 10 kg, is shown in Fig. 21. From the shown in Table 8.

graph, it can be noted that the twisted and prismatic box From Table 8, it can evidently be seen that all unloaded

sections showed a similar displacement value up to 50 ms, columns, i.e. both prismatic and twisted columns, did not

after which the twisted column showed higher fail under blast loading and that all loaded columns had

displacement. yielded but did not suffer the initiation of any cracks. The

The kinetic energy–time graph in Fig. 22 shows that the kinetic energy absorbed by the column had diminished to

higher energy absorbed for both columns was the same at zero, and hence, it could be said that the column withstood

the initial stage; after that, in the prismatic column, the the 10-kg blast load.

energy absorption diminished at 50 ms, and that of the

twisted column diminished at 60 ms. The effective strain

and von Mises stress for LB3 are plotted in Fig. 23. It can Blast Influence Ratio

be seen that the column reached an effective strain value of

0.00325 and von Mises stress value of 2.607 9 105 kPa, To represent the failure pattern for a section under the blast

which were greater than the yielding values, so we could load, it should be expressed in terms of blast influence

say that yielding had occurred in the column, but it did not ratio, i.e. the blast influence ratio should be equal to the von

fail at 100 ms. Mises stress by the yield stress of the material. Figure 25

A similar behaviour was seen for the twisted box col- shows the blast behaviour of a section with respect to blast

umns, in which the strain value had reached to 0.0063 and time, in terms of blast influence ratio, comparing the loaded

von Mises stress value had reached to 2.66 9 105 kPa and unloaded columns. The unloaded column showed a

(Fig. 24). safer side, and its influence ratio is less than one. In the

123

J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A

Type Maximum von Mises stress Maximum effective strain Displacement Maximum kinetic energy Status

UI 5.557 9 10-4 kPa 1.282 9 105 kPa Lower Lower Yielding not occurred

-4

UTI 2.965 9 10 kPa 6.839 9 104 kPa Higher Higher Yielding not occurred

LI 0.012 kPa 3.392 9 105 kPa Lower Lower Yielding has occurred, did not fail

LTI 0.011 kPa 3.382 9 105 kPa Higher Higher Yielding has occurred, did not fail

-5

UB 2.471 9 10 kPa 5.703 9 103 kPa Higher Lower Yielding not occurred

UTB 7.02 9 10-5 kPa 1.62 9 104 kPa Lower Higher Yielding not occurred

LB 0.00325 kPa 2.607 9 105 kPa Higher Equal Yielding has occurred, did not fail

LTB 0.0063 kPa 2.66 9 105 kPa Lower Equal Yielding has occurred, did not fail

1.4 4 LI

LTB optimal angle of twist, which exhibits a maximum buckling

LTI

1.2

UB

UI

load, was found to be 135. The I section shows a 51%

UTB

UTI improvement in critical load, and it suffered global buck-

BLAST INFLUNCE RATIO

1.0 ling. The boxed column also shows similar behaviour with

2 an improvement in buckling capacity of 15% with

0.8

increasing twist angles until an optimal angle of 155. In

0.6 addition to global buckling, boxed columns also suffered

local buckling because of their thin walls.

0.4 The kinetic energy absorbed by the columns diminished

0 for 10 kg of TNT, and the loaded columns yielded without

0.2

the initiation of any cracks, whereas unloaded sections did

0.0 not yield. Hence, both twisted and prismatic columns were

0 20 40 60 80 100 safer under a 10-kg TNT blast load. Using blast influence

blast time (ms)

ratio, we can predict the structural behaviour of columns

Fig. 25 Blast influence ratio versus time (ms) with respect to time.

College of Engineering, Kothamangalam (Structural Engineering

case of the loaded column, we could see a disturbance in Design Studio), for conducting this research.

the influence line mostly for twisted columns due to the

multiple-phase interaction of the blast that affected the

column strength. From the blast influence ratio, we could

predict the time delay and withstanding capacity of the

column. References

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