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H E NRY D W W

B OO K S

I G H T
B Y

SE D G I C K

I T ALY I N T H E T H IR T E E N T H C E N T URY
S H OR T H IS T ORY O F I T ALY
A N APOLOGY
E

LIFE
F O R

SS AYS

O F
O LD

FRAN
N
MAIDS
GREAT
C IS
W
A

PAR
N

RIT
D

K MAN
O

E
T

RS
H E R E SS AYS

D A N T E , E T C .
M A R C U S A U R E LI U S
BIOG RA PHY T O LD

W
A As MUC H As

M AY BE BY LE T T E R S , TO G ETH E R

I TH SO ME A C C O UN T O F TH E

STO I C R E LI G I ON A ND AN E XPOSI

TION O F TH E R O M A N G o v E R NM E NT s

A TT EMPT To SUPPRE S S . CH RI STI A N

W W

ITY D UR I N G MAR CU s s R E I G N

BY

H EN RY D I G HT SEDG ICK

NE W H AV EN
YA L E U N I V E R S I TY P R E S S
ON D ON HUMPH R EY MI LF O R D O X F O R D UN I V E R S IT Y P R E S S

M D C C C CK X I ,
C O P Y R I G H T , M D C C C C X X I , B Y

Y A LE U N I V E R S I T Y P R E S S
I N M E M O R I A M

t r b th at by d st p s asp ir
S om e he e e ue e e

T o lay th ir j ust h and s on th at G o ld n K


e e ey

T h t op s t h P a l a c
a e e f E t rnity
e O e

T o su ch my rrand i
e s .

C o M U s .
P RE FACE

this littl book my purpos i t provid thos p opl


I
N e e s o e e e e

f whom t h M di t ti of Marcus Aur lius contain


or e e a on s e

a d p r ligious m aning with such introductory i f


ee e e ,
n or

mation about him h i ch aract r hi r ligion and hi li f


,
s e , s e , s e,

as I think j ud ging f rom my own xp ri nc th y m y d


,
e e e e, e a e

sir S I b gin with an xposition f Stoic p h ilosop hy


e
. O e e o ,

and as I b li v th at p h ilosop hy to h av b n primarily a


,
e e e e ee

r li gion I pr s nt it as such And in my d f nc to


e ,
e e . e e e s un

dry criticisms mad upon Marcus by anci nt and mod rn e e e

writ rs I giv by far t h most spac to t h grav st th at


e ,
e e e e e ,

h p rs cut d t h
e e eC hristians for I think no accusation
e e ,

would h av surpris d him mor or h av s m d to him


e e e, e ee e

mor unr asonabl


e e e .

I h av not wis h d to ncumb r t h pag s wit h not s and


e e e e e e e ,

th r for I h av r l gat d to t h app ndix most r f r nc s


e e e e e e e e e e e e e

to my authority for stat m nts in t h t xt Such quotations e e e e .

in a for ign langua g as h av not b n translat d in t h


e e e ee e e

t xt will b found translat d in t h app ndix Gr k p h ras s


e e e e e . ee e

th at occur in t h l tt rs I h av r nd r d in F r nch
e e e e e e e e .

Cambridg Massachus tts e, H D S e ,


. . .

Octob r 1 92 0 e , .
T A B L E O F C O N TE N TS

I N TROD U CTI O N
C H A P TE R
I . T H E FO U N DER S OF S TO I C IS M
II . S TO I C E T H I CS U N DE R T H E E MP IRE
III . B OYHOOD AN D YO UT H

W
IV . L ITE RARY S O C IETY I N R O M E
V . T H E S T U DY O F R H ET O R I C
VI . LE TT E RS B E T EE N FR IE N DS
VI I E ARLY M AN HOOD

W
.

VIII . FR O M R H ETO RI C To P H IL OSO P HY


IX T H E I N FLU E N CE OF S K E P TI C IS M

W
.

O T H E R M O TI V E S
XI . L U C I U S VE R US AN D T H E P AR T H IAN AR
XI I . T H E E MP E R O R M AR C US A T R O ME
XII I . T H E P LA G UE AN D T H E B ARB A RIAN AR
XIV TH E R EB ELL I O N O F AVIDI U S CAS S I U S

\
.

W
XV . CL OS I N G YEARS
XV I I 7vo P A G AN CR ITI C IS M S
'
.

W
XV I I . T H E R O M AN A T TIT UD E T O AR D C H R IST IAN IT Y
XV I I I . T H E PO L I CY OF T H E G OVE R N ME N T
XIX . E N FOR CE ME N T O F T H E LA
XX . E P ILO G UE

Ap p E NDIx
A S O M E A C C O U N T OF S T O I C L OG I C AN D P HYS I CS
.

B SAYI N G S OF E P I CTET US
C . B IB L IO G RA P HY
D A U T HO RIT IES FO R S P E C IF I C S TATE M E N TS I N T H E
TR AN S LATI O N OF P A SS AG E S I N A F O RE I G N
G U AG E, ET C .

I N DE x
I NT ROD U CT I O N

sayin g Das Sch aud rn ist d M nsch


OE TH E

S

G
,
e er e

h it b st s T il do s not n d t h ”
e e e mm d e , e ee e r ec o en a

tion f hi nam ; it carri s i t own authority


w
o s e e s .

Am on g t h qualiti s th at g to mak up charact r a s nsi


e e o e e ,
e

ti to t h f li g f
v en es s is t h sur st si gn f t h
e ee n o a e e e o e

hi gh r li f I t li s d p r th an oth r susc ptibiliti s

w
e e . e ee e -
e e e ,
s en

suons or spiritual Lov f am or truth h av gr at r pow r . e, e, ,


e e e e

to dazzl and ov rcom bute b stows t h mor abiding


e e, a e e e e

satisfaction ; it s ts a man apart f rom t h many it li fts hi m


w
e e ,

into communion wi th wh at f hi m is t h high st and or e e ,

e nnobl s hi condi tion T his s ns f


e s is t h f ruit f . e e o a e e o

t h r ligious li f
e e wh th r th a t e, in t h solitud e e e e

of t h monast ry library or wood in t h company f p opl


e e , , ,
e o e e

cons crat d to an id al or in t h burly burly of t h world


e e e ,
e -
e .

But t h l av n of r li gion is not always at work v n in


e e e e ,
e e

m f r li gious li f
en o e Th spirit blow t h w h r and w h n it
e
. e e e e e

list th Som tim s t h caus s th at l ad m to r li gion


e . e e e e e en e ar e

clos at h and b r av m nt disappointm nt i ; som tim s


e ,
e e e e ,
e , s n e e

public calami ti s turn whol communiti s to t h gr at funda


e e e e e

m ntal qu stion of li f I s th r a God and som tim s a


e e e, e e ?
,
e e ,

r ligious g nius com s with h alin g on hi lips and rous s


e e e e s e

m both sin gly and in m ltitud s to p rc iv t h b auty


en , u e ,
e e e e e

of a univ rs in wh ich th r is a God and t h d solation f

W
e e e e ,
e e o

a univ rs in whi ch th r is non But r li gion do s not li


w
e e e e e . e e e

W
at b ck and call ;
e

c a not kindl wh e wi ll n e en e ,

Th fi whi ch i t h h art r sid s


e re n e e e e .

Th r tim s wh n t h t mpl of t h soul is mpty


e e a re e e e e e e e . e

may acknowl d g with our int llig nc t h supr m nobl


e e, e e e, e e e e
12 MA RCUS A URELIUS
n ss of that ov rpow ring s ns of r v r nc w hic h turns
e e e e e e e e e

a man in upon hi h art and fills him with a consciousn ss


w w w
s e e

o f a pr s nc int rpr t th at consciousn ss or t hat pr s nc


e e e, e e e e e e

as will ; and y t
e cannot conj ur it to com A li s e e e e . e e

b yond t h r ach of t h human will I t is in t h s mpty


e e e e . e e e

w
tim s t h s barr n moods that t h r is n d f som doc
e , e e e ,
e e ee o e

trin som rul of action th at s h all s rv as mak s hi ft t o


e, e e ,
e e e

occupy t h mpty plac w h ich t h s ns of


e e s hould e e e e a e

occupy Suc h a mak s hift is t h Stoic p hilosop hy


. e e .

Und r t h long dominion of C hristian dogma chos n


w
e e e
,

souls h av xp ri nc d in a s h arp r or dull r d gr d


e e e e e ,
e e e ee, as

S h d
c au th s hudd r of
e r n, f rom t h consciousn ss
e f e a e e e O

what th y b li v d to b a manif station of t h divin pr s


e e e e e e e e e

nc But t h C h ristian f aith h lost its anci nt authority


w
e e . e as e ,

and though t h r many cri s L h r ! L t h r ! as y t


e e ar e e ,
O e e o e e e

no r ligion h com to pr ach t h gosp l of wh at is


ne e as e e e e

to b And it is not impossibl nor y t unlik ly th at t h


e . e, e e , e

principl s und rn ath Stoic p h ilosop hy may still b of


e e e e s er

vic today to t ach t h pil grim soul to find t h at support


e

, e e

within hims lf whic h h do s not find with out


w
e e e .

Th anci nt Stoics w r in t h sam ignoranc as s k r s


e e e e e e e ee e

today h no long r C h ristians T h y h d no t h i t


o ar e e . e a au or a

tiv r v lation no word f God to t ach th m t h natur f


e e e , o ,
e e e e o

t h world in w h ic h t h y f ound t h ms lv s no divin


e cod e e e e , e e

O f laws to t ll t h m w h at to do T h y look d about and


e e . e e

b h ld sorrow dis as old g maladj ustm nts f ll sorts


e e ,
e e, a e, e o a ,

wars b tw n stat s civil strif cont ntion amon g n igh


e ee e ,
e, e e

bors arth quak s and t mp sts Such was t h world th n ;


,
e e ,
e e . e e

it i not v ry diff r nt now I n a world of this sort wh at


s e e e .
,

s h all a man do to p rsuad hims lf th at it is a world of e e e

ord r and not f c haos th at th r is som th ing in it oth r


e o ,
e e e e

th an vanity th at it h wh at t h human h art i f t h human


,
as e e ,
e

h art h d spiritual y s would pronounc to b a m anin g


e a e e ,
e e e ?

Th Stoics w r h on st m
e and would not g b yond t h
e e e en o e e

e vid nc f t h s ns s th y turn d away from Plato s dr am


e e o e e e ,
e e

e
W
IN TRODUCTION 13

th at t h soul r l as d f rom t h body may b h old divin


e e e e e e e

b auty and f rom Socrat s h op f communion with t h


w

W
e e e

w
, o e

h roic d ad and cr at d w h at t h y call d a p h ilosop h y but

w
e e ,
e e e e ,

wh at may mor prop rly call a r li gion out f t h world


e e e e , o e

as th ir h uman s ns s
e it a r li I on aust r and cold but
e e sa e e e

m met en m

w
m 1 u

W
,

t he way with th m f th ir p hysics w r c hildis h and th ir


e ,
or e e e ,
e

m tap hysics not v ry muc h b tt r but I do th ink can go


e e e e , e

far nou gh to d riv h lp and consolation h ow v r m a gr


e e e e ,
e e e e

and barr n both h lp and consolation s h all app ar match d


e e e e

with th os o ff r d by C h ristianity
e e e .

T h y b li v d th at all t h 8 . e e e e e

u i v rs is f
n e substanc and constitut s a unity t h at
e o on e e, e ,

m en int gral parts f t h mi ghty whol and in th ir


ar e e o e e, e

liv s h lp to ac c omplis h t h will of t h wh ol ; and f rom


e e e e e

th s post l at s t h y d riv d an abiding s ns of t h s ri


e e u e ,
e e e e e e e

ou s n es s and d gn ty f human l f T h y d duc d as a


i i o i e e e e

M
.
,

M w ars as it w r t h uni e ,
e e, e

form f t h univ rs and must quit hims l f with wisdom


O e e e, e ,

t d y many a man o a ,

p rh aps not v ryon if h will consid r t h starry


e e e e, e e e

h av ns and t h
e e arth with its vast div rsity f t hin gs som
e e e o ,
e

instinct with lif som ndow d with mi nd may brin g hi m


e, e e e ,

s l f to f l t h at t h univ rs is ntitl d to t h adj ctiv


e ee e e e e e e e e

di iv ne, h ow v r muc h t h at t rm may vad h i att mpts at


e e e e e s e

d finition and th at h h ims l f is a c omrad f ll th at


e , e e e o a

e xists f t h infinit ly gr at and t h infinit ly littl and


,
O e e e e e e,

t h at h is bound by virtu f th at comrad s hi p to fulfill t h


e ,
e o e ,
e

bond f all gianc w h ich t h acc ptanc f lif impli s th at


o e e e e e o e e ,

th e bond is sacr d lik t h m t m f th Roman


e ,
e e s ac r a en u o e

soldi r and th at h m r ly b caus h is a man must


e ,
e, e e e e e ,
s ee

to it th at h i li f is cons crat d s e e e .

O f ll Sw t i aMarcus Aur lius h


o cs t and most e e u r es

sympath tic ; ind d is f t h most gracious fi gur


y ‘ n

e ee e one o e e

out f all history I n t h b wild rm nt f untoward cir


o . e e e e o
14 MA RCUS A URELIUS
strov f a th ory f t h univ rs th at s hould
mand hi r v r n c and xcit hi
he
s ed for a pra
t h at s hould mak him t h ob di nt s rvant of a divin
e

e e
or

e
e
e

e
o

e
s a

e
e

w e, a n

e
e e

will Lik us h was h d g d about wit h doubts Lik us


. e , e e e . e ,

b con f ront d t h alt rnativ of a univ rs w hic h mov d by


e e e e e e e ,
e

r ason proc ds toward a rational goal or f an irrational


e ,
ee , o

u iv rs prop ll d by i t own blind prop rti s upon a pur


n e e, e e s e e

wW
p l cours A h says Eith r th r is a compound
o s e es s e . s e :

e e e

ing a confusion and a disp rsion or t h r is unity and e e e

W
, , , , ,

ord r and provid nc I f t h form r hy car to liv on


e ,
e e . e e ,
e e

in suc h a m aningl ss turmoil and muddl ? hy conc rn


e e e e

mys lf wit h anything xc pt t hat som tim I s h all b com


e e e e e

e e

earth ? hy x mys l f ? F or what v r I do t h di p



ve e e e , e

s er

sion will com upon m But if t h latt r alt rnativ i



e e
. e e e e s

tru I stand r v r nt and st ad fast and I trust in my


e, e e e ,
e ,

rul r (M A VI
e . F rom t h is similarity in situation
. .
,

com s hi pow r to h lp us on our way


e s e e .

Th r tim s in v ry man s li f in which a lon ging


e e ar e e e e

e

poss ss s hi m to com into ri ght r lations with t h univ rs


e e e e e e e,

to bring hi spirit into accord with its laws hi individual


s , s

wi ll into unison with t h univ rsal wi ll Wh n sorrow com s e e . e e ,

or t h v nin g of li f approach s t h gr at probl ms of


e e e e e , e e e

at t h door I t is b caus Marcus Aur lius e . e e e

was h au t d by th s qu stionin gs and found t h solution


n e e e e e ,

at l ast for h ims l f to li in


e in kind
e ,
e

ruits f hi sc h olar f o s

s h ip may h av with r d and di d is still amon g t h first


e e e e ,
e

o f sc h olars in h i sympat h y wit h h uman n ds and in h i


s ee ,
s

knowl d g f t h human h art truly said


e e o e e , :

L livr d Marc A el y t auc n bas do gmatiqu


“ —

e e e ur e, n a an u e e e,

cons rv ra ét rn ll m nt f rai ch ur Tous d puis l t h é


e e e e e e sa e .
,
e

a e

ou c lui q i croit t l j usqu a l homm l plus ngagé


e u se e ,
’ ’
e e e

dans l croyanc s p t i lié d c h aqu cult p uv nt y


es e ar cu r es e e e, e e
IN TRODUCTION 15

trouv r d frui ts d é di fi t i C st l livr l plus pur


e es

ca on .

e e e e e

m nt humain qu il y ait
e livr incomparabl ’
ce e e, ce

manu l d la i r ési gné t E gi l d c ux qui croi nt


e e v e e, c e v an e e e ne e

pas surnatur l
au La sci nc pourrait détruir Di u t
e . e e e e e

l am q l livr d P é r st rait j un ncor d i



e, ue e e es en s es e e e e e e e v e

e t d v é rit é La r ligion d Marc Aur el


e . t la r ligion
e e
-
e, es e

absolu c ll q i r ésult d simpl fait d un h aut con


e, e e u e u e

e e

sci nc moral placé


e e f ac d l i e,Ell n st i e en e e

u n v er s . e

e n

d un rac ni d un pays Aucun é Ol t i aucun p g é



e e

. e r v u on , ro r s,

aucun dé couv rt e pourront la ch ang r e e ne e



.

And R nan says no mor th an wh at many m h av f lt


ww
e e en e e ,

e ach in hi s v ral way from t h anci nt unknown annotator


s e e ,
e e

o f t h V atican manuscript
e h xpr ss d hi gratitud in , o e e e s e

v rs down to F r d rick t h Gr at h says Marc Aurel


e e, e e e e , o ,
“ -
e

p ut etr d tous l humains a pouss é la v rtu d gr é l


e -
e, e es ,
e au e e

w
plus émin nt and wh n fals f ri nds b tray d him b took
e ,
e e e e e e

hims l f f estr ngth and comfort to t h M di t t i ; down


or e e e a on s

to Mont squi u h wrot Jamais p h ilosop h n a mi ux


e e o e:

e

e

fait s ntir aux homm s l douc urs d la v rtu t la dignité


e e es e e e e

d l ur etr q Marc Aur el l ur t touché l am ’


e e e ue -
e: e od e es ,
e

di l p i t el v down to G n ral Gordon Mat



r an
a
gg e, es r e e e e ,

th w Arnold F r d ric W H My rs and many anoth r f


e ,
e e . . e ,
e o

l ss nam And b caus


e e many p opl f so many sorts
. e e so e e o

h av t gr at stor by t hi Roman gos p l and b caus “ ”


e se e e .
s e ,
e e

m ditations about conduct gain in int r st f rom a knowl d g


e e e e e

t h at t h writ r h liv d in full accord with hi own id als


e e as e s e ,

I h av th ou gh t t h at in spit f t h numb r f books alr ady


e ,
e o e e o e

writt n t h at conc rn Marcus Aur lius th r migh t b room


e e e ,
e e e

for still anoth r I h av tri d to s h ow him as w ll as t h


e . e e ,
e e

mat rials would p rmit not


e h app ars on t h cold e ,
as e e e

h i ghts of h i r li gious p h ilosop h y but as h was s n by


e s e ,
e ee

h i cont mporari s in yout h manh ood and in lat r y ars


s e e , , ,
e e .

And I h av tri d to pr s nt Stoic p h ilosop hy not as mod rn


e e e e ,
e

p hilosop h rs int rpr t it but as Marcus vi w d it and


e e e ,
e e

acc pt d it And I h av also f lt it ri gh t to j usti fy hi m in


e e . e e
16

e
MA RCUS
n forcing t h law of t h land against t h C hristians
e e
AU

look back with our knowl dg of w h at C h ristianity is at its


e
e e

b st and with our knowl dg t hat it was d stin d to pr vail


e e
RELIUS
e

e e
.

e
W e

,
,

and assum too r adi ly t hat t h pagan opposition was wron g


e e e .

P rhaps r ason as w ll as faith may j ustify its partisans


e e ,
e , .

Marcus Aur lius did t h right as God gav h im to


e e th

e s ee e

right ; and in doing add d a ch apt r to t h h istory f



so , e e e o

trag dy and of lif s irony


e

e .

H D S . . .
18 MA RCUS A URELIUS
or Habakkuk T h y w r dogmatic m car l ss of cus
. e e e en , e e

t m
o
y civility v n to t h point
ar f insol nc but fl m
e e e o e e, a a e

with a passionat ardor to mak m good according to th ire e en e

conc ption f goodn ss Sk ptics and m


e o f th world e . e en o e

pour d ridicul upon t h ir way of livin g and h av h and d


e e e ,
e e

down j ocos an cdot s about th m ; but th s critics w r


e e e e e e e e

blind d by pr j udic Epict tus look d with sympath tic


w
e e e . e e e

e y s and h drawn quit a di ff r nt pictur His account


e as e e e e .

e nabl s us to und rstand hy Z no with h i H braic t m


e e e , s e e

p m
er a t turn d to t h m rat h r t h an to oth r s cts f
en ,
e e e e e or

W
practical wisdom in t h conduct of li f Th Cynic E pi t e e . e ,
c e

tus says is lik a fath r for all m


,
hi sons and all
e e ,
en are s

om n hi daught rs ; h must l t hi li gh t s h in b for m


e s e e e s e e e en

and s h ow th m t hat without any of t h th in gs th y t


e ,
e e se

stor by a man may b virtuous and th at simplicity and


e , e ,

frugality good f t h body as w ll t h soul His


are or e e as e .

consci nc must b pur and h i li f also H must watch


e e e e, s e . e

and labor for mank ind His th oughts must b such


w
. e as a re

worthy of a f ri nd f t h gods f a s rvant f Z us f e o e ,


o e o e ,
o on e

h s h ar s in t h divin pow r H must always b r ady to


o e e e e . e e e

sa y 0,
Z us l

ad t h ou m on H must not blam God or
e ,
e e . e e

man ; h must b f r from ang r nvy or r s ntm nt ; h


e e ee e ,
e ,
e e e e

must rid hi ms l f f all d sir Oth r m may wis h to con


e o e e . e en

c al wh at th y do and th r for liv in a hous s hut t h


e e ,
e e e e e, e

door and t a port r to guard it ; but t h h ous f t h


,
se e e e o e

Cynic is built of mod sty mod sty is hi door and mod sty e ,
e s ,
e

t h port r t h at guards it (Discours s I I I


e e . e , ,

T h s doctrin s accord d with Z no s racial inh ritanc


e e e e e

e e,

and b incorporat d th m into hi cr d H took also


e e e s ee . e an

oth r f amous t n t f th irs T h y ass rt d th at m not


w
e e e o e . e e e en a r e

citiz ns f t h town w h r th y h app n to b born but


w
e o e e e e e e ,

citiz ns of t h world and


e all gianc to t h whol world
e ,
o e e e e e .

Th Cynics l arn d t h is f rom Socrat s ; in h i tim


e e h e e s e, o

v r t h notion was a m r acad mi c th ory but a ft r Al x


e e , e e e e e ,
e e

and r t h Gr at h d sw pt away t h ind p nd nc of citi s


e e e a e e e e e e e
THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM
w
19

and stat s and h d gath r d a gr at portion of t h arth


e a e e e e e

into vast mpir it acqui r d a


on e e and practical i g i fi
e, e ne s n

canc ; and by t h ti m f Marcus Aur lius wh n ll t h


e ,
e e o e , e a e

w st rn world was und r Roman sway it h d b com a


e e e , a e e

commonplac amon g ducat d Romans And naturally t h


e e e . e

t h ory was asy f acc ptanc for a P h o nician br d in


e e o e e e , e

Cyprus and living in Ath ns e .

Had Z no liv d in J d h would h av b n a prop h t


e e u a ea e e ee e

of J h ovah but hi lot h a p p n d to b cast in G k trad


e , s e e e a
'

r ee

ing city t h m tin g plac of many div rs id as and f


,
e ee -

e e e e ,
o

t h s h absorb d t h mat rialistic t h ori s f t he arly


e e e e e e e e o e

I onian p h ilosop h rs ; h di d not c onc iv of a di vin p rson


e e e e e e

ality nor b com a monoth ist furth r th an to acc pt t h


,
e e e e e e

u ity f t h univ rs nor ris to a spiritual conc ption f


n o e e e, e e o

r ality oth r t han to grant an xtr m t nuousn ss to t h


e e e e e e e e

univ rsal substanc I f h consid r d th s id as h r j ct d


e e . e e e e e e e e e e

th m and took su c h suit d hi m wh r v r h f ound th m


e ,
as e ,
e e e e e ,

f rom H raclitus So c rat s Plato Aristotl or Dio g n s


w
e ,
e , ,
e, e e ,

and fusin g t h m to g th r by t h h at f hi passionat


,
e e e e e o s e

t mp ram nt cr at d a
e e e p h ilosop hy P rh aps h gav
,
e e ne . e e e

fr r r in to hi t mp ram nt and laid gr at r m p h asis on


ee e s e e e e e e

s l f d nial in ord r to mak t h contrast mor vivid b tw n


e -
e ,
e e e e e ee

h i puritan band in t h
s Paint d Porc h wh r t h v ry e e ,
e e e e

walls nrich d by pictorial art pr ach d h roism and th at


e e e e e ,

pl asant gard n outsid t h city g at s wh r among f uits


e e e e e e e, r

rip in th ir s asons E p icurus mock d t h b li f in a


e e e ,
e e e e ra

ti l u iv rs and tau gh t h i di scipl s t h way to a li f


on a n e e s e e e

fr f rom car As to Z no s doctrin s I will l t hi


ee e . e

e ,
e s s en

ten c es ,w hich som tim s ch ar g d with passion lik


ar e e e e e

p h ras s from I saiah som tim s pr gnant with h om ly wit


e ,
e e e e

a ft r t h mann r of t h Book f Prov rbs sp ak for th m


e e e e o e ,
e e

s lv s
e e .

Y sh all not mak any grav


e imag s e en e ,

N ith r sh all y build t mpl s to t h God


e e e e e e s,

For nothing b uild d i wort hy f t h G ods e s o e ;


20 MA RCUS AURELIUS
Th e h a diwork f n o artisans and carp enters
Is ittl w orth
of l e , neither i s it sacred .

Y sh ll not b auti fy t h city


e a e e ,

S av w ith t h ri gh t ousn ss f th m th at li v th r in
e e e e o e e e e

N ith r sh all y hav courts f law


.

e e e e o

L v i t h g d f amity and f r dom


.

o e s e o o ee ,

L ov i di in h h lp th to k p t h c ity sa f
e s v e, e e e ee e e,
H i t i th at p r p ar th c onc or d
e s e e .

Y sh l l not li v divi d d into c iti s


e a d into to wnshi p s
e e e an

Nor b k p t asund r b y contrary l aw s ;


,

e e e

B ut y sh a ll ho ld ll m as f ll o w c itiz ns and f llo w to wnsm


e a en

e e e en.

Y s h all h v
e l aw and a custom
e on e one ,

Lik fl o ck h r d d und r
e a c rook th at f d th to g th r
, e e e on e , ee e e e .

Th natur
e f t h univ rs i t w o f old
e o e e e s ,

T h r i th at w hi ch w ork th an d th at wh i ch i w rough t u p on
e e s e s

A nd th at whi ch i w rought up o
.

s n

Is sub stanc that hath n ith r shap nor form


e e e e

A nd th at whi ch w ork th up on i t e

I t h w or d and t h w or d i Go d
s e , e s .

A nd G d is v rl asti ng
o e e

A nd p m t t h a ll sub stanc
er ea e e,

A n d th r by cr at th ch s v ral th ing ;
e e e e ea e e

A nd f rom this sub stan c p ro c d all cr at d things e ee e e .

A nd t h univ rsal wh o l i sub stanc


e e e s e,

A nd th at into w hi ch sub stanc i d ivi d d i matt r e s e s e ,

A n d t h uni v rsal wh ol b com th ith r gr at r nor


e e e e e ne e e e

B ut a ch s v ral th ing b com th gr t r or l ss ;


e e e e e ea e e

For t h s v ral p arts d o t r main t h sam always


e e e no e e e ,

B ut th y p art asund r and agai th y c om to g th r


e e , n e e e e .

G d i b o dy most p ur
o s , e,

A nd t h b ginni ng f all th ings


e e o ,

A nd hi p rovi d nc ps d t h a ll th at ise e er v a e .

G o d i th r Go d i i
s e e , s a r,

G d i s p irit f th r al fi
o s o e e e re ;

H i d ifi
e s d th rou gh out c r tion

u se ea

A s h on y through t h h on ycomb
e e e ;
G od go th to and f th r ugh out a ll th at i
e ro o s,

G d i min d G o d i soul G o d i natur


o s , s , s e

I t i G o d th at h o ld th t h univ rs to g th r
s e e e e e e .
THE FOUNDERS OF STOICISM 21
Th e ar t ifi and disp os r f t h univ rs
c er e o e e e

Is t h wor d and t h wor d i r ason


e , e s e ;
H i f at
e s e .

H i t h d t rmining c aus
e s e f all th ings
e e e o

H i Z us
,

e s e .

I n a ll th in gs i t h d ivin s e e;

Th l a w f natur i d ivi n
e o e s e

Th w or ld and t h h av ns t h sub s t nc
.

e f G d
e e e ar e e a e o o

A nd t h d ivin p o w r w ork th i t h stars


,

e e e e n e

A nd i t h y ars i t h month s and i t h s sons


,

n e e , n e n e ea .

Z us H ra and V st
e , e e a,

A nd a ll t h g d s nd go dd ss s e o a e e

A re not G ods b ut nam s , e

G iv n to th ings th t l a ck l i f and s p ch
e a e ee ;
For Z us i t h ky H ra t h i
e s e s , e e a r,

P os i d o t h
e n d H p h a stus fi
e s ea, an e e re .

L o t h f ountain f lif i ch ara ct r


e o e s e

A nd f rom i t i th ir or d r fl o w f orth actions


, .

, n e e , ou r .

B h old h app in ss i t h smooth fl o w f li f


e , e s e o e .

Th f ulfillm nt f a man s li f

e e o e

I to li v i a cc or d w i t h natur
s e n e;

8 to l iv i t liv i ri gh t ousn ss
0 e s o e n e e ,

For n tur l ad th t right ousn ss


a e e e o e e ,

A d th
n d f l i f i to li v i a cc or d w ith virt u
e en o e s e n e.

Follow t h G d s

Ww
e o .

M an i b orn sol ly f ri gh t ousn ss


s e or e e ,

For right ousn ss d r w th to its l f t h so ls f m


e e a e e e u o en

ith no lur no o ff ri gs f rom with oute, e n ,

B ut f i t o s pl nd r s o n e o

Virtu f its lf i suffici t f happ i ss


.

e o e s en or ne ;
R i gh t ousn ss i t h so l and only goo d

W
e e s e e ,

A nd nothing i vi l s v th at wh ich i vil and b as


s e a e s e e

W
.

O f t hi g th t som th r

n s a a r e, e e e are

h i ch goo d an d som w hi ch
ar e vil e ar e e ,

A nd som w hi ch n ith r good nor vil


e ar e e e e .

A nd t h goo d th s
W
e a re e e

isd om S b i t y J usti c an d Fortitu d


o r e , e e .

A d th e vi l
, .
-

t h SE

n e ar e e
22 MA RCUS URELIUS
A
Folly Int mp r nc
, e e a e, Inj ustice a nd C o w ar d ic e

A nd th i g that n i th r goo d nor evi l are in d i ff er ent


.

n s ar e e e

A nd things i di ff r nt th s
.

n e e ar e e e

L i f an d d ath goo d r p ut
e e d i ll r p ut
, e e an e e,
P ain and pl ur rich s and p ov rty
eas e, e e ,

S i ck n s and h lth and su ch li k


es ea , e .

W
A nd f m th r
o tw o sorts
en e e ar e ,

Th u p ri gh t man an d t h w i ck d m
e ; e e an

A nd t h u p righ t man all hi li f


e s e

ill d o t h things th at right


e are ,

B ut t h w ays f t h w i ck d
e vil o e e ar e e .

Th wi s man is bl ss d t h wi s man is ri ch
e e e e , e e ;
O ly t h w is how v r n dy th y b
n e e, rich ; e e ee e e, ar e

O ly t h w is h ow v r ill f avor d
n e e, b auti ful ;e e -
e a re e

For t h lin am nts f t h soul


,

e e e o e
A re mor b auti ful than thos f t h b o dy
e e e o e .

All goo d m f ri d s to anoth r


en ar e en o ne e .

A d as I h av said t h wisdom f som


n ,
e f hi maxims h ,
e o e o s as

t h h om ly tang of t h Book of Prov rbs


e e e e .

Th w is m
e will d o ll th ings w ll
e an a e ,

H will s aso hi p orri d g w i s ly


e e n s e e .

G iv not thi
e nto that which i pl asant ;
ne ear u s e

A nd tak f rom t h fi t te h i f r d om f s p ch e a er er s ee o ee .

Th ou gh y abl to g t s w ts f rom your l b ors


e ar e e e ee a ,

Y t y tak th m f rom cook sh o p s


e e e e .

His sayings in conv rsation h d t h sam individuality


w
e a e e

and vi gor B tt r to tri p with t h f t th an t h tongu


:

e e e ee e e .

T h r is nothing n d much as tim And h oft n


w
“ ”
e e e ee so e . e e

quot d t h r mark f a music t ac h r to a yo ng flut play r


e e e o e e u e -
e

h was blowing a g r at blast on hi flut Gr atn ss do s “


o e s e, e e e

not mak a th ing xc ll nt but xc ll nc mak s a thing


e e e e , e e e e e

gr at And wh n som sp ndthri fts w r xcusing th m


w

e . e e e e e e e

s lv s saying th at th y sp nt out of a larg prop rty h


e e ,
e e e e ,
e

answ r d S you agr w th t h cook h put t much


e e ,

o ee i e o oo

salt in hi dis h and said h h d a gr at quantity l ft H


s ,
e a e e .

e
T H E F O U N D E R S O F S T O I C I S M 23
d fin d in accord with Aristotl a fri nd
e e , a s cond s l f e, e as e e ,

and ass rt d th at a voic s hould b t h flow r of b auty


e e e e

e e e .

Sinc t h d at h f Socr at th r h d b n gr at r phil


e e e o es e e a ee e e os o

p h but no man of such incisiv p rsonality


er s , e e .

r Th r . e e

h was in At h ns a
e e ,
s

unsustain d by any b li f in a national god and


e
p e e , un su

port d by any such traditions as com fort d S mitic p opl s


e e e e e

in tim f troubl n v rth l ss h


e o t h ims l f to t he, e e e e e se e e

prop h t s task f proclaimin g th at th r is dignity in


e

o e e

h uman li f t h at t h r is m aning for m


e, in t h word d t e e e en e

and that nothing is of any worth but right ousn ss d


u '

e e an

nothing vil but bas n ss T h r is noth ing nov l in hi phi


e e e . e e e s

l
oso
phy His do g ma t h at man s h ould liv in h armony wi t h
. e

natur m a d i th at hi soul s h ould b in tun with t h


e, . n cn v , s e e e

soul f all things is a conc ption th at li s at t h bottom of


o ,
e e e

all r ligions ; it is x pr ss d in t h istic th ou ght by t h b


e e e e e e o e

dien ce o f t h h uman wi ll to t h divin will and in C h ristian


e e e ,

ity by t h pray r Thy will b don Z no mi ght w ll h av


w
“ ”
e e ,
e e . e e e

addr ss d thos v ry words to t h univ rs Th pro found


e e e e e e e . e

influ nc f hi t a c hin g was d not to id as but to


w
e e o s e u e, ne e ,

t h passion th at h in f us d into t h m His pr ac h in g brin g s


e e e e . e

to mind th at f anoth r gr at S m itic t a c h r h also


o e e e e e , o

w nt to At h ns God t h at mad t h world and all thin gs


e e :

e e

th r in
e e dw ll th not in t mpl s mad with hands ;
,
e e e e e

n ith r is wors hipp d with m n s h ands as th ou gh h n d d


e e e e

,
e ee e

any t hin g s in g h giv th to all li f and br ath and all


ww
,
ee e e e, e ,

thi n gs ; and h ath mad of blood all nations f m f e one o en or

to dw ll on all t h fac f t h arth I n hi m liv


w
e e e o e e . e e,

and mov and h av our b in g ; as c rtain also of your


e, e e e o n

po ts h av said F or
e e also h i o ff sprin g
,
e ar e s .

Z no compos d tr atis s O t h N t
e f
e M O H l e e n e a u re o a n, n e

leni c E d u c a t i o n , O n t h e Theog o ny of H es io d, O n t he Log os ,


O n t he Un i v er s e, O n S u bs t a n c e O n C i v i l P oli t y , and many ,

oth rs rounding out


e ,
hi s syst m e so th at it s h ould m t all ee
24 MA RCUS A URELIUS

W
qu stions and criticisms f hi quick witt d h ar rs ; but

W
t he e o s
-
e e e

not hing h com down to us but scatt r d f ragm nts w h ic h


as e e e e ,

h av b n car fully coll ct d to g t h r and f rom t h s

W
e ee e I e e e e e e

W
,

h av quot d Z no was to hi g n ration w h at Carlyl was


e e . e s e e e

to our fat h rs ; th r is a kindr d virility and tonic in th ir


e e e e e

words and t h sam m anl


, e fl ud e e

toward li f S nt nc s from S t R t and H


e . e e e a r or es a r u s er o or

f iii g Ii k
'

c h o s f rom t h Paint d Porch Evil onc



e e e e e :

e

manfully f ront d c as s to b vil ; put g n rous battl h op


e e e e e e e e e

in plac f d ad passiv mis ry and vil its l f b com s a


e o e ,
e e ,
e e e e

kind f goodo H r in t his poor mis rabl h amp r d


. e e, ,
e e, e e ,

d spicabl Actual wh r in v n now th ou stand st h r or


e e ,
e e e e e ,
e e

nowh r is t hy I d al work it out th r f rom ; and workin g


e e e : e e ,

b li v liv b f r F ool ! t h I d al i in thys l f t h imp d


e e e, e, e ee . e e s e ,
e e

imcnt too is in thys l f t hy condition is but t h stu ff th ou e : e

art to s h ap th at sam I d al out of wh at matt rs wh th r


e e e : e e e

suc h stu ff h of t his sort or th at e th form thou giv st , so e e

it b h roic
e e .

Z no poss ss d t h t n ascetic valor th at stirs m to


e e e e s er , en

h roism but h lack d oth r qualiti s


e ,
qually n c ssary i f
e e e e , e e e

a prop h t wis h s to conv rt a p hilosop hy into r li gion, t h


e e e e e

quali ti s f t nd rn ss and po tical imagination T h s d fi


e o e e e e . e e e

i i
c en c es w r suppli d by Cl anth s f rom Assos in Asia
e e e e e ,

Minor hi succ ssor h ad f t h Stoic Sch ool Th most


, s e as e o e . e

notabl r mains f Cl anth s


e e in v rs o e e a re e e .

H Y M N T O Z E U S

w
M ost glorious immortal gods 0 Thou of , ,

O f many nam lm i gh t y l t i gly es , a ev er a s n ,

O Z us O Natur s l or d h rul st all b y l a w


,


e e o e

w
, , ,

H il ! a

Ti m t f mortal m to call on Th
w

s ee or en ee ;

For t hy childr n e and f ll mortal things e are, o a

T h at li v d mov arthe an alon e on e , are e e

M d i Th i imag
a e T o Th
n th r for I sing
ne e . ee, e e e,

My hym and p rais Thy p ow r for v r


n e e e e .
26 MA RCUS A URELIUS .

Cl anth s also was t h first I b li v to introduc a d i


e e , , e ,
e e e, e s

tinction in t h doctrin f d t rminism ; wh il r co gnizin g


e e o e e e e

t h absolut control of d stiny h tri s to pr s rv


e e a sort e , e e e e e

of spiritual fr dom t t h will and as was hi wont in


ee o e , , s

matt rs that touc h d hi motions h mbodi d hi id a in

W
e e s e , e e e s e

som simpl v rs s
e e e e :

L a d m O Z us and th u O D stiny
e e, e , o , e ,

h r v r y h av b i d m tak my pla c
e e e e e e e e,

A nd I sh all f oll o w una f rai d


A n d th ough I cow ar d tur and my w ill f ail
.

n ,

Non t h l ss sh all I f o ll o w
e e e .

I n Marcus s tim th is distinction b tw n t h cons ntin g



e e ee e e

will and t h r luctant will was acc pt d doctrin Only to


w

e e e e e.

living cr atur s ndow d with r ason h it b n giv n to


e e e e e as ee e

f ollow t h cours f F at wit h submissiv will f


e e o t f ll e e ,
or o o o

is s h r n c ssity f all (M A X
ee e e And S n ca says
or

. .
,
e e ,

l t m fata l t m t h t Him th at is will

w

D t
u cu n v o en e n o en e ra un ,

ing t h F at s l ad on hi m t h at is unwilling th y drag


e e e ,
e .

Cl anth s was succ d d by C h rysippus h cam from


e e ee e ,
o e

a littl town in Cilicia not f from Tarsus (t h birthplac


e , ar e e

also of t h po t Aratus wh om St Paul quot d in hi sp ch


e e . e s ee

on Mars Hill ) a man f l ss rugged p rsonality th an Z no


, o e e e ,

l ss t nd r and po tic t h an Cl anth s but f tir l ss z al


e e e e e e ,
o e e e

and industry H wrot innum rabl tr atis s strai ght n d


. e e e e e e ,
e e

crook d plac s in t h Stoic syst m fill d in gaps and gav


e e e e ,
e ,
e

it gr at r consist ncy and solidity H s ms to h av b n


w
e e e . e ee e ee

b tt r known th an Z no to t h Roman Stoics ; at l ast Mar


e e e e e

cus Aur lius h do s not m ntion Z no class s C hrysippus


e , o e e e , e

wi th Socrat s and Epicurus and Juv nal sp aks f plast r


e ,
e e o e

casts of him t h at adorn d t h h ous s of hi pro f ss d d e e e s e e a

mi rs But furth r th an this C hrysippus do s not conc rn


t e . e e e

us .T h s th r m stablis h d t h Stoic Sch ool


e e ee en e e e .
C H A P T E R I I

W
S T O I C E T H I C S U N D E R T H E
E M P I R E

ET tim of C h rysippus and t h r i gn f


E E N t he e e e o

Marcus Aur lius Stoic p hilosop hy th ou gh not e , ,

chang d in th ory with r gard to t h part iculars


e e e e

that I h av t f orth s hi ft d i t c ntr f gravity tur i n g


e se ,
e s e e o ,
n

mor and mor away f rom m tap hysics and applyin g its l f
e e e e

almost xclusiv ly to t h imm diat busin ss H i m d ct I f


e e e e e e - u .

the r ad r tak s up a book upon Gr k p hilosop hy and


e e e ee

turns to t h ch apt rs th at d al with t h Stoic sc hool h


e e e e ,
e

will almost c rtainly find Stoicism tr at d as a p h ilosop hy


.

e e e ,

or as a syst m of univ rsal knowl d g T his may b prop r


e e e e
. e e

w
so f as conc rns wh at is call d t h Gr k p riod f S t i
ar e e e ee e o o

i m t h ough it s ms to m not unlik ly th at writ rs upon


c s ,
ee e e e

p hilosop h y h h av b n pond ring ov r t h dialogu s f


o e ee e e e e o

Plato and t h tr atis s f Aristotl e too r adily induc d


e e o e, a r e e e

to in Stoicis m anoth r f orm f Gr k thou gh t rath r


s ee e o ee ,
e

th an as I v ntur to think t h y s h ould do a


, e e i gos p l e ,
e ra c e

S A M M Y But w h at v r e e

Stoicism may h av b n during t h p riod f its h om ine ee e e o e

Ath ns it und rw nt a signal chang wh n it mi grat d to


e , e e e e e e

Rom I t was carri d th r by a v ry accomplis h d m mb r


e . e e e e e e e

of t h school t h p hilosop h r P a t i a nativ of t h


e , e e n ae us
,
e e

island of R hod s and impart d to Scipio A f ricanus t h


w
e ,
e e

youn g r t h n in t h h ight f hi glory as t h d stroy r f


e ,
e e e o s e e e o

Carth a g and to t h di stin guish d group f m


e, h sure e o en o

round d hi m I n lat r g n ration wh n Cic ro was youn g


e . a e e e ,
e e ,

anoth r v ry min nt p hilosop h r


e e e s also f e e , , o

R hod s contribut d to t h spr ad


e ,
e f th e e

o e
28

Stoic doctrin s
of P
e
MA

know from Cic ro although in an


e .

imp r f ct fas hi on w h at was contain d in t h nobl books


e
W
,
RCUS
e
A URELIUS

e
e ,

e
.


e

(as Horac calls t h m ) and from various



ti an ae us e e ,

sourc s t hou gh in a mor imp r f ct m asur t h dri ft f


e , e e e e e, e o

Posidonius s p hilosop hy Cic ro and t h Romans of h i



. e ,
e s

g n ration took from t h s t ac h rs th ir thics and vir


e e ,
e e e e e e

t
ua lly not h ing ls Th r ason f t h is was not d e to t h
e . e e o ue e

li m it d scop f w h at thos p hilosop h rs tau ght alth ough


e e o e e ,

t h y m y h av adapt d t h ir instruction to t h ir audi nc


e a e e e e e e,

but to t h Roman charact r and t h Roman traditions f


e e e o

virtu e .

Th At h nians d mand d a m tap hysical basis for t h ir


e e e e e e

e t hical cr d b caus by natur th y took pl asur in


ee ,
e e e e e e

abstract t hough t and acad mic disputations Th Romans e . e ,

on t h oth r h and w r a practical p opl indi ff r nt to


e e ,
e e e e, e e

m tap hysics and sci nc but d ply int r st d in matt rs


e e e, ee e e e e

f conduct ; t h y list n d t and acc pt d only s uch p


wm
o e e e o e e o
z ,

n ti gnsw g f Stoi c t hi as suit d t h ir h abitual n ds Of


eac n e e ee .

th s b
w w
e e i g orro n ant ,

it i n c ssary to sp ak f th y impr gnat t h int ll ctual


s e e e ,
or e e e e e e

atmosp h r in which Marcus Aur lius a br d d con


e e e s e , an

s t it tu eth sp cific doctrin s of t h l arn d m


e e h b e e e e en o e

cam hi tutors And first passing by t h doctrin f cos


e s .
,
e e o

m p li t
o o i m f citiz ns h ip in t h
an s city of humanity (a
,
o e e

doctrin r nd r d asy of acc ptanc by t h vari d ch aract r


w
e e e e e e e e e e

of t h p opl s unit d in t h Roman Empir ) l t m dw ll


e e e e e e , e e e

for a f mom nts on t h natur of t h cardinal virtu s


e e e e e e ,

bpdvnm s
(

which li t i es , ,

in spit f th ir e o i g nam s h av
e n e ,
e

no d t rminat bou ds but bl nd into


e e anoth r p e n ,
e one e , re re

s nt t h nobl st id als f t h Romans such as accordin g to


e e e e o e , ,

acc pt d tradition w r mbodi d in Cato t h Scipios and


e e , e e e e ,
e ,

oth rs and may b said to constitut t h moral dogmas of


e ,
e e e

th ir national r eligion Marcus Aur lius p E f t hem


e . e s ea s o
STOIC E THICS 29

with t h sam r sp ct with whic h t h Romans of


e e e e e t he Re
public would h av spok n of th m bu e e e ,

in an

find in h uman li f anythin g b tt r t han


on e e e

j ustic truth t mp ran c f ortitud or in s h ort th an t h


e, ,
e e e, e, , ,
e

w
cont ntm nt f your mi nd with its l f (in matt rs wh r it
e e o e e e e

s h ows you acting in accordanc with sound r ason ) or th an e e ,

its cont ntm nt with w h at v r F t allots you ith out your


e e e e a e

choosin g i f I say you —


anyt hin g b tt r than thi tur
, , s ee e e s, n

to it with your wh ol so l and nj oy t h nobl st th at you e u , e e e

can find (M A I I I ”
And again I f a man will th ink
. .
,
:

o f c rtain t h in g s as g ood in v ry trut h suc h as prud n c


e e ,
e e,

t mp ranc j ustic and fortitud th n with su c h p rincipl s


e e e, e, e, e ,
e

in hi mind h can no lon g r ndur to h ar rich s b in g


s e e e e e e e

call d good (M A V
e My x c us f tarryin g a
. .
, e e or

mom nt mor ov r th s cardinal virtu s is t h at t h usual


e e e e e e , e

En glis h translations w h ich I h av f ollow d abov pru e e e,


W
,

d nc t mp ranc f ortitud and j ustic tak n ov r f rom


e e, e e e, e, e, e e

t h Latin
e , ar e is not prud nc but e e

wisd a d not untouc h d b y t h os


n pro foundly po tical e e e

id as found in t h S mitic books f i d m Th v ry tru


e e e o s o :

e e e

B ginnin g f h is t h d sir
e o f disci p lin
er and t h car f e e e o e, e e o

W
disciplin is lov and lov is t h k pin g f h laws and t h
e e, e e ee o er ,
e

g iving h d unto h ee laws is t h assuranc f incorru p tion


er e e o ,

and incorruption mak th us n ar unto God T h r for t h e e . e e e e

d sir f wisdom brin g th to a kin gdom ( i d m f S l


e e o e . s o o o o

m o n, vi 1 7 ,
A mi q
ii j gh t muc h mor t h an
i xa i o v
-
i eou s n es s , e

j t
us i c and is
e so translat d in our En glis h Bibl (St Matt e e . .

iii 1 5 ; Romans x 3
,
5 6 1 0 ; I Cor i ,
d 3p 5 , , ,
.
,
v 6 a
,

alth ou gh translat d fortitud is prop rly t h Latin i t e e, e e v r us,

lI i word I t m ans . e t he condition of a sound mind ; sobri ty e ,


30 MA RCUS AU RELIUS

w
r word t m p h anoth r f unction it is t h q i
e er a n c e as e , e e u va

l nt f t h Gr k y p and is r nd r d in t h Bibl
W

e or e ee e x a r cca so e e e e e
, .

T his fourth virtu compr h nds w h at t h Romans m ant e e e e e

by da r
and
g ntl
e man I te is t h most d lic
. most sop histicat d
e e e

m im p li s a s ns of fitn ss consid ration e e e e ,


e ,

car fuln ss r asonabl n ss a r adin ss to giv to ac h h i


e e , e e e ,
e e e e s

d ; and in fact it borrows fr


ue ,
ly from t h oth r virtu s
,
ee e e e ,

for it is impossibl to imagin p r f ct propri ty with out e e e e e

wisdom coura g or ri ght ousn ss I t impli s ord rlin ss


,
e, e e . e e e ,

an d t h art f sayin g and doing t h righ t t h ing at t h righ t


e o e e

tim I t b fits all matt rs of daily li f and op rat s at


e . e e e, e e one

tim as h armony at anoth r as proport ion or still a gain


w
e , e , ,

as tact or good tast I t prompts to good will I n s h ort e . .

cr fp fi q
ca o o Cic ro d scrib s it (D Ofii ii Book I 2 7
-
v , as e e e e

c s, ,

2 8 ) l ads m eto act in h armony with natur ; and i t h


en e s e

virtu (as I t hink ) w hich t h Emp ror Marcus h d in mind


e e e a

in such passa g s as th s I t is t h trait of a r asonabl


e e e: e e e

spirit to lov h i n i ghbor to lov truth and mod sty and


e s e ,
e e ,

to honor nothing mor th an r asonabl n ss f spirit (M A e e e e o



. .

XI , Wh n you h av don a ki nd act to a man wh at mor


e e e ,
e

do you want ? I sn t it nou gh th at you h av act d in accord ’


e e e

with your own natur ? A you looking for a r ward of e re e

your act ? As if t h y s h ould k to b paid for s in g or e e e as e ee ,

t h f t for wa lkin g ? F or j ust as y s and f t w r mad


e ee e e ee e e e

for a particular s rvic and by doin g th at particular s rvic


e e, e e

com into th ir own


e a man was cr at d by natur to do
e , so e e e

good ; and wh n h h don a good action or som thing


e e as e ,
e

t h at contribut s to t h g n ral good h h don w h at natur


e e e e , e as e e

cr at d him to do and h h com into hi own (M A IX


e e , e as e s

. .
,

4 2,
Such was t h Stoics thical cr d as it was acc pt d by
e

e ee e e

t h Roman world and no doubt t h l tt r of t h Stoic doc


e ,
e e e e

trin r main d v ry much t h sam v n to t h days of


e e e e e e e e e
STOI C ETHICS 31

Marcus Aur lius but ll t h tim t h cont nts f that cr d


e , a e e e e o ee

h d b n c h anging Th ton
a ee f t h Roman t mp r sinc . e e o e e e ,
e

the days f t h R public h d c hang d t h wh ol moral


o e e a e , e e

atmosp h r was di ff r nt Th fulln ss f t h Roman sum


e e e e . e e o e

mer h d pass d and t h r was alr ady a touc h f autumn


a e ,
e e e o

in t h air But in som ways th is autumnal quality mani


e . e

f t d its l f m r ly in gr at r rip n ss How v r muc h cor

w w
es e e e e e e e e . e e

ruption display d its l f in t h imp rial palac ls wh r


e e e e e, e e e e

th r
e e an i ncr as f t en d
as s com passion f justic e e o ennes , z
o e

f rom man to man Latin lit ratur sh o s a sor ry f allin g ff


. e e o ,

but Roman law s h ows a h andsom gain Civilization h e . as

acquir d som f t h virtu s tli at commonly g und r t h


e e o e e o e e

w
W
conc d t at
wnMrations it
e e e h
a matt r of e t he
int lle e ct ,
with in a fe ge e ha d acquir d t h e e em o

’lQ
t QBR SE M
L —a ’— a
M J— fi t
p h ilo h into a
s ion Th aust rity f arly Stoicism re . e e o e

h d b n so ft n d by contact wit h li f in t h m tropolis f


a ee e e e e e o

t h world it h d b n t mp r d by oth r p h ilosop h i s


e ,
a sp
ee e e e e e ,
e e

i lly by Epicur anism it h d loos d its l f f rom t h H


c a e ,
a e e e e

brai do gmas f Z no and acquir d a rip n ss a m llow


e o e ,
e e e ,
e

n ss th at m r ly n d d t h saintlin ss f Marcus Aur lius


e ,
e e ee e e e o e

to giv it a r li gious spirit such as


e e can find ls wh r on e e e e e

at th at tim only in C h ristianity e .

T h is rip n ss th at I sp ak f is found in t h writin gs f


e e e o e o

S n ca but f various r asons Marcus was not draw to


e e ,
or e n

hi m ; h may h av t h ou gh t f S n ca as too clos ly associat d


e e o e e e e

with t h in famous m mory f N ro or h may h av f lt


e e o e , e e e

that S n ca s luxurious li f hi w alth hi villas and g


e e

e, s e ,
s ar

d ns hi lov f f am gav t h li to hi Stoical prof ssion ;


e ,
s e o e, e e e s e

and it i c rtain th at h was tau ght from arli st boyhood


s e e e e
32 MA RCUS A URELIUS
to d t st t h particular form f rh tor c I n whic h S n ca
e e e o e i e e

h abitually xpr ss d h ims lf B sid s Marcus h d at h and


e e e e . e e ,
a

a book in whic h spiritual x h ortation qual to t h b st f e e e e o

S n ca was to b f ound to g th r with an arn stn ss and


w
e e e ,
e e e e e

sinc rity b yond t h r ach of incr dulity Th Emp ror


e e e e e . e e

n v r for got hi gratitud to t h Stoic R t i y h p


e e s e e , us c ,
o re

s nt d it to h im (M A I
e e I t s ms to h av b com h i. .
,
ee e e e s

favorit book to hav s rv d him in its own way as t h


e ,
e e e
,
e

Bibl h s rv d to str n gt h n and comfort C hristians in


e as e e e e

t h ir s asons f discourag m nt or sorrow H quot s it f


e e o e e . e e re

qu ntly and tim and again hi th oughts


e , e cho s f its s ar e e e o

t aching Th Emp ror sp aks of this book as t h m mora


e . e e e e

e

bilia f Epict tus ; w h r as suc h t ach ings f B rim


o e

e e e o

hm “ consist f a coll ction f discours s


“ ”
o e o e ,

writt n out by a pupil and a manual w h ic h is a com


e , ,

p d
en i m uf t h discours
o s ; t h y e no doubt a part at l ast e e ar e e

o f w h at t h Emp ror r f rs to As vid nc of t h r ligious


e e e e . e e e e e

c haract r f Stoic p hilosop hy at this tim I quot various


e O e, e

e xtracts from Epict tus in t h App ndix e e e .

Th s simpl pr c pts and this is a simpl phi l


e e are e e e , e oso

ph y ; ind d it is obviously l ss a p h ilosop h y t h an an


ee e en

d to illumin conduct with r li gious motion and giv


ea v o r e e e ,
e

to m som t hing st adfast to fix th ir y s upon in plac


en e e e e e e

o f t h s h i ftin g s h adows t h at constitut li f


e T h h abit f e e . e o

mind th at Epict tus r pr s nts is t rnal in h umanity ; it


e e e e e e

is akin to that f t h discipl s f Budd h a as w ll as to th at


o e e o ,
e

o f t h H br w prop h ts Th gr at
e e e d t h at h t b f or e . e e en e se e e

h ims lf is p ac
e f t h soul Th discipl s of Budd h a br d
e e o e . e e ,
e

in th ir ast rn civilization for ign to us w r f mor


e e e , so e ,
e e ar e

th orough t han is possibl f t h c h ildr n of t h W st e or e e e e .

Accordin g to th m mi s ry is t h ins parabl companion


e ,
e e e e

o f li f and not to b cast ff xc pt by casting away ll


e, e o e e a

d sir ; h th at awak ns to th s truths must fr h ims lf


e e e e e e ee e

f rom impur h op s from i gnoranc e from wrong b li fs as


e ,
e, e e ,

w ll as f rom all unch aritabl n ss Th Roman Stoics such


e e e . e ,
34 MA RCUS A URELIUS
would h av call d walkin g with God All t h ir rul s
e e to . e e a re

h l p us xtricat ours lv s f rom t h m s h s w hic h t h s ns s


e e e e e e e e e e e ,

misl d ( t h y ass rt ) by t h ima gination cast about us


e as e e e ,
.

Ot h r t ac h r s of quit di ff r nt sc hools and cr ds t ac h


e e e , e e e ee ,
e

t h sam doctrin ; but suc h ot h r sc h ools and cr ds try to


e e e e ee

giv t h pow r f scap


e us e by t h quick ning f t h spirit
e o e e, e e o e ,

by t h stimulus of passion of mystic f rvor of dogmatic


e , e ,

h op T h y striv to giv t h spirit win gs Th Stoic on t h


e . e e e e . e ,
e

contrary plants hi f t , t up in its


s ee e s ,

divin di gnity of Go
t he e

app al to a s ns f p rsonal dignity th at giv s to Stoicism


e e e o e e

its imp ris h abl valu To t h Stoics a man s inn r p rma


e e e . e

e ,
e

n nt s l f i lik t h imag f Pallas Ath n in h t mpl


e e s e e e o e e er e e .

I t must b k pt inviolat h i gh abov t h commotion f lif


e e e, e e o e,

untouch d by t h marring passions of h at r v n g gri f


e e e, e e e, e ,

or d sir ; it must b approach d and minist r d to v n in


e e e e e e ,
e e

privacy with t h r v r nc d to t h godd ss I t is a f l


, e e e e e ue e e . ee

ing akin to t h ch ivalric id al f h onor La i n st ll


e e o .

v e

e

I un

plaisir mi e doul ur c st
, un fl i g rav dont nous e ,

e un e a

a re e

somm s c harg é s qu il f aut conduir t t min r av c h


e ,

e e er e e on

u his -
this attitud
d r t li e —u n iv er saf r em '

nN An d, if e

soul pr s nts on e e sid an asp ct f prid on t h oth r it


on e e e o e, e e

pr s nts an asp ct f f aith mor t h an C h ristian in its sim


e e e o , e

p li i t
c y t h at
,
t h doin g s f t h univ rsal
e r ason wort h y o e e e ar e

o f t h is d vout ob di nc
e Epi c t tus pus h s th is simpl f aith
e e e . e e e ,

th is trust ful confid n c furth r v n than S n ca furth r e e, e e e e e ,


e

th an any of t h s ct and b yond wh r t h Emp ror Marcus


w
e e , e e e e e

i abl to f ollow hi m
s e .

I t may b i f do not find in ours lv s t h pow r to


e, e e e e e

f orsak t h l ad rs h ip f r ason t h at t h r can b no nobl r


e e e e o e ,
e e e e

e th ical id al t h an t his of t h Stoics and t hat no man can


e e ,
STOIC E THICS 35

do b tt r th an s k to patt rn hi li f upon it But quit


e e ee e s e .
, e

apart f rom any p h ilosop hi c al d fici nci s it li s op n to e e e ,


e e

this suspicion A man in hi ff ort to acc pt it may bring


.
, s e e ,

hims l f to cast ff or disr g ard


e by t h obj cts
O f e ,
on e o n e, e e o

ordinary h uman d sir w hic h t h Stoics j ud g to b vil e e, e e e e ,

or at b st matt rs f indi ff r n c not m r ly as luxury


,
e ,
e o e e e, e e e e, ,

f am th e,passions but also h alt h good r put and t h


e , e ,
e e, e

a ff ctions ; and climbin g hi gh r and h igh r to a sinl ss


e ,
e e e

summit brin g h ims l f into h armony with w h at h d ms to


, e e ee

b t h proc ss s f Et rnal R ason but i f h do s to wh at


e e e e o e e : e e ,

h ash attain d but an infinit lon lin ss f soul And as


e e , e e e o ?
,

h approac h s t h at c old p r f ction su p pos h i h art s h all


e e e e ,
e s e

f ail hi m at t h si ght may it not b too lat t h n to turn


e ,
e e e

back r trac hi st ps acc p t t h low r standards f com


,
e e s e ,
e e e o

mon m and on c mor warm hi h ands at t h fi f li f


en , e e s e re o e?

I t is impossibl to r ad t h M d i t t i f Marcus Aur lius


e e e e a o ns o e

and not to susp ct wit h a sinkin g f t h h art th at t h e ,


o e e ,
e

crown f absolut r si gnation to t h univ rsal r ason is as


o e e e e e

vain a thing as t h m an st passing pl asur But t his i t h


w
e e e e e . s e

sk p ticism f a humanity compound d f t h dust f t h


e o e o e o e

e arth T h r is humanity f anoth r kind Th scul p tor h


. e e o e . e ,
o

plans mod ls c h an g s c ont mplat s tou c h s and r touch s


, e ,
e ,
e e ,
e e e ,

s q uand rin g hi h art on plan s and sur fac s on pois bal


e s e e e ,
e,

anc proportion and h armony in valiant stri f to giv to


e, , ,
e e

e ach s v ral c ontour f h i statu t h forc and d licacy


e e o s e e e e

th at h s s in h i mind s y may s rv as a com p arison


e ee s

e e, e e .

So t h Stoic looks u p on t h lump f matt r committ d to


, e e o e e

hi s ch ar g and works ov r it with t h artist s infinit


e, e ,
e

e

pati nc and t h artist s int nsity f passion in ord r to


e e e

e o ,
e

produc a soul with out a bl mi s h And w h th r any i t lli


e e .
,
e e n e

g nc
e divin
e, or h uman s h all b h oldew h at h h don or ,
e e as e,

wh th r this obj ct radiat its nobl b auty in an infinit


e e e e e e e

dark and but f a mom nt f tim is th at mom nt not


,
or e o e, e

ch aply bou ght with t h r nunciation f all l ss r th in gs


e e e o e e ?

But h ow v r this may b unl ss it is Marcus Aur lius no


e e e, e e ,
MA RCUS A URELIUS

w
36

oth r man h climb d so high as to attain t h Stoics goal ;


e as e e

and to us common m h lack t h si gh t to t h out

w
en , o e s ee e

str tc h d hands f a p rsonal God th ir t achings furnis h


e e o e ,
e e

a rod and a sta ff that h lp us as trav l along t h rough


e e e e

road of lif e
.
C H A P T E R I I I

B O Y H O O D A ND Y O U T H

HE Emp ror Domitian f vi l f am by whom ll e , o e e, a

p hilosop h rs including Epict tus w r banis h d e e e e e

from Rom di d in t h y ar 9 6 A D H was


w
e, e e e . . e su c

cee d d by a s ri s of abl m
e f h igh c h aract r known as
e e e en o e ,

th e g ood mp rors h h av won from t h gr at st f


e e , o e e e e o

mod rn h istorians this h onorabl ncomium I f a man w r


e e e :

e e

call d to fix t h p riod in t h hi story f t h world durin g


e e e e o e

wh ic h t h condition f t h h uman rac was most h appy and


e o e e

prosp r us h would without h sitation nam that which


e o , e ,
e , e

e laps d from t h d ath f Dom i tian to t h acc ssion f


e e e o e e o

Commodus Th vast xt nt f t h Roman Empir was g


. e e e o e e ov

e rn d by absolut pow r und r t h guidanc f virtu and


e e e ,
e e e o e

wisdom Th armi s w r r strain d by t h firm but g ntl


. e e e e e e e e e

h and f four succ ssiv


o mp rors wh os ch aract rs and e e e e , e e

authority command d involuntary r sp ct Th labors of e e e . e

th s monarch s w r ov rpaid by t h imm ns r ward th at


e e e e e e e e e

ins p arably wait d on th ir succ ss ; by t h h on st prid f


e e e e e e e o

virtu and by t h x quisit d li gh t f b holdin g t h g n ral


e, e e e e o e e e e

h appin ss f wh ic h t h y w r t h aut h ors



e o (D li d e e e e . ec n e an

F ll t
a ,C hap I I I )
e c .
, . .

Th g ntl N rva r i gn d but a y ar or two (96 9 8 ) hi


e e e e e e e
-
s

gr at st ac hi v m nt was to s l ct Traj an as hi coll a g


e e e e e e e s e ue

and succ ssor Traj an (9 8 1 1 7 ) was an u p ri ght man an


w
e .
-

e xc ll nt administrator and f v ry gr at abiliti s as a sol


e e ,
o e e e

di r h sp nt much f hi r ign wagi g war and add d


e ,
o e o s e n ,
e

t h provin c s of Da c ia Arm nia M sopotamia Assyria and


e e , e ,
e , ,

Arabia to t h Empir H was succ d d by Hadrian (1 1 7


e e . e ee e

p rh aps t h most tantalizin g fi gur in Roman h istory


e e e ,
38 MA RCUS A URELIUS .

for only nough is known of hi m to s how th at in addition


e ,

to t h national qualiti s t h at h d mad t h Romans a domi


e e a e e

nant rac h poss ss d many tal nts quit ali n to th ir


e, e e e e e e e

ch aract r H prov d hims l f a r markabl command r f


e . e e e e e e o

m en , firm f will st ady of hand strict in disciplin quick


o , e , e,

to r ward m rit and comp t nt to dir c t larg armi s ; h


e e ,
e e e e e e

was ric hly ndow d wit h common s ns and for si ght ; b


e e e e e e

d vis d a military policy for t h d f nc f t h Empir


e e e e e e o e e,

dr w up t h n c ssary r gulations to put that policy into


w
e e e e e

action and nforc d th m And y t wit h all th s high


,
e e e . e , e e

soldi rly qualiti s no soon r


e h Emp ror t h an h gave ,
e as e e e e

up t h provinc s in t h ast b yond t h iv r Eup h rat s


e e e e e e r e e ,

w hic h Traj an h d lat ly conqu r d and withdr w t h bound


a e e e , e e

ary of t h Roman Empir back to t h riv r H studi d


e e e e . e e

with minut att ntion t h various n ds f t h s v ral parts


e e e ee o e e e

o f th Empir ; and in ord r to l arn t hos n ds h


e e e e e ee ,
e

trav ll d ast and w st north and south th rough t h l ngt h


e e e e , ,
e e

and br adth f t h wh ol Roman r alm I t s ms probabl


e o e e e . ee e

t h at a roving int ll c tual curiosity lay b n ath this policy ;e e e e

lik Ulyss s h b cam a nam f always roaming with a


w

e e e e e e, or

h u gry h art H was ag r to b acquaint d with all con



n e . e e e e e

di t i f m
on s o and all sorts of things H
en , a lov r of t h . e as e e

arts f music paintin g and sculptur a connoiss ur and


, o , ,
e, e

dil ttant ; h was a gr at b i ld r ; h was also a sc holar


e e e e u e e ,

f amiliar wit h Gr k lit ratur a lov r of Ath ns and of ee e e, e e

Ath nian glory and h wrot po try ; h was inquisitiv


e ,
e e e e e

about p h ilosop hy and r ligions i i t t m omnium x e ,



cu r o s a u e

pl t according to t h p h ras f T rtullian O f all this


o r a o r,

e e o e .

bustling int r st in li f scarc a v sti g is l ft Marcus


e e e e e e e .

Aur lius says Th v ry nam s f t h much sun g h ro s of


e :

e e e o e -
e e

old n d a glossary now


ee soon will th os f Hadrian e o

and Antoninus So quick doth h uman glory f ad int l g nd


. e o e e ,

so quick is it su k in oblivion (M A IV And y t


n . . .
,
e

th e Mus f history migh t h av d alt mor t nd rly with


e o e e e e e

Hadrian His parks and t mpl s at Tivoli and h i attach


. e e ,
s
th eN il
e
AND YOUTH
BOYHOOD

m nt to t h handsom youth Antinous h was drown d in


e

t h b st known circumstanc s in hi li f
e, a re e e
e
39

So-
,
w o

e s
e

e .

e ndurin g was t h m mory f this young man s b auty and


e e o

e

f t h imp rial h oma g th at long a ft r Hadrian s d ath ’


o e e e, e e ,

pri sts c l brat d sacr d rit s in t mpl s d dicat d to t h


e e e e e e e e e e e

Divin Antinous Apart from th s f a c ts littl d finit is


w
e . e e e e e

known A b ggarly bio grap hy f much lat r dat giv s a


. e o e e e

fe scraps f in formation f doubt ful trustworthin ss ; f


o o e or

t h r st
e e must build up a f abric f c onj ctur f rom coins
on e o e e ,

inscriptions t h ruins f buildi n gs and such thin gs T h is


,
e o , .

muc h is c rtain ; Hadrian maintain d p ac and ord r to a


e e e e e

d gr rar in Roman h istory Durin g t h last y ars f hi


e ee e . e e o s

li f hi h alth was infirm and h su ff r d much pain R p ort


e s e ,
e e e . e

says th at h b cam moros and cru l ; su ch stori s w r


e e e e e e e e

v ry acc ptabl to writ rs f Roman imp rial h istory T h y


e e e e o e . e

may b tru At any rat toward t h d hi old sk ptical


e e . e, e en ,
s e ,

play ful h umor flas h d up and h gr t d d ath with smil e ,


e ee e e

i g v rs s
n e e :

A ni mul vagul blan dul a a a

h p m q corp oris
os es c o es ue ,

qua nunc b ib i i loc e a s n a

p lli d l rigid a d l ;
a u a, , nu u a

t so l s d ab is j o c os ?
n ec u e ,

Litt l soul w and r r fi t t e e e , a er er ,

C omp ani o d gu st f m y b o dy
,

n an e o ,

T o w h at pl c s no w you going a e ar e ,

P alli d an d ri gi d d nak d , , an e ;
No mor to j st as you us d to ? e e , e

Marcus Aur lius was born in t h f ourth y ar f Hadrian s


e e e o

r ign on April 2 6 1 2 1 in hi fath r s h ous on Mons


e , , ,
s e

e

C liae that risin g ground h ardly a hill at t h south rn


u s, , ,
e e

en d f Rom o wh ith r si gh t s rs now g to


e, t h c h arm
e -
ee o s ee e

i g aps
n f SS Paolo
e o Giovanni and t h an c i nt ch urch f
. e e e o

San St fano Rotondo His anc stors th ou gh f I talian


e . e , o

stock cam f rom Spain as t h S n cas Hadrian s f amily


,
e ,
e e e ,

,
40 MA RCUS A URELIUS
and Traj an hims l f h d don His grand fat h rs and gr at e ,
a e . e e

g rand f at h rs w r f teh h i g h st o fficial rank


e e o ; h i f at h r e e s e ,

w hom h sp aks f as distin g is h d f manlin ss and mod


e e o u e or e

sty (M A I
e . di d youn g not long a ft r hi son s birt h
.
,
e , e s

and b for h h d h d tim to ris high r th an t h rank f


e e e a a e e e e o

pra tor His fath r s sist r F austina h d marri d a man


e . e

e , ,
a e

f solid r putation and brilliant promis


o e Titus Aur lius e, e

Antoninus a f ri nd and couns llor of Hadrian


,
e e .

Aft r hi fath r s d ath Marcus liv d in hi pat rnal


e s e

e ,
e s e

grand fath r s hous which was n ar by clos to w h r t h


e

e, e ,
e e e e

c hurc h f St Joh Lat ran now stands and lat r on


o . n it e ,
e , so

s ms p r haps wh n hi grandfath r gr w v ry old in hi


ee , e e s e e e ,
s

mot h r s h ous again (M A IX


e

e Th r lation b tw n . . .
, e e e ee

h i m and hi mot h r was v ry intimat S h taug h t m



s e h e e . e e, e

writ s in h i not book t h f ar of God ch arity and not


e s e -

,

e e , ,

only to k p f rom doin g vil but v n from thinking vil


ee e e e e ,

and simplicity in my way f livin g f r mov d f rom t h o ,


ar e e e

h abits f t h ric h (M A I nam was D m i t i



o e H . . .
,
er e o a

Lucilla S h h d b n ducat d in t h polit l arning f t h


. e a ee e e e e e o e

day ; at l ast h was f amiliar wi t h Gr k and must h av


e s e ee ,
e

h ard it spok n in h f at h r s h ous at t h tim wh n a ’


e e er e e, e e e

young Ath nian H rod s Atticus aft rwards a v ry m i


e ,
e e ,
e e e

“ n nte man f l tt rs and o f h e son s t eac h rs nj oy d on e o er



e e ,
e e

f at h r s h ospitality and appli d h ims l f to l arn t h


.

h
N
O ’
er e e e e e

customs of Rom e .

Marcus was brought up a ft r t h mann r f boys in th os e e e o e

patrician h ous h olds th at h ld fast to t h simpl and aust r


e e e e e e

traditions f arli r days H did not go to sch ool but


o e e . e ,

studi d with tutors at hom I n t h at part f hi not book


e e . o s e
-

print d as Book I wh r h r cords hi gratitud to t h


e ,
e e e e s e e

p rsons to whom h thinks h ims l f principally ind bt d h


e e e e e ,
e

sp aks with r sp ct and a ff ction f hi tutors I t is plain


e e e e o s .
,

as would conj ctur th at all or most f th m w r f


on e e e, ,
o e e e o

th eStoic sch ool T h y tau ght him t h Stoic morals to . e e ,

sc h w gladiatorial s hows rac s q uail fi ghts and suchlik


e e ,
e , ,
e
42 MA RCUS A URELIUS
he r a ft r h was a v ry winning and a gr abl companion
e e ,
e e ee e .

T h r xists a bri f biograp hy of him tog th r with H


e e e e ,
e e a

d i
r an s , among a littl coll ction of biograp h i s f t h Em

e e e o e

p er o r s of t h s cond and t h ird c nturi s Th writ rs of t his


e e e e . e e

book S ipt ,
Hi t i
cr A g t liv d som two
o r es s or ae u u s a e, e e c en

t i
u r es a ft r Hadrian s tim and althou gh t h y hav p
e

e, e e re

s rv d som valuabl in formation tak n from arli r hi


e e e e e e e s

tori s th y h av stu ff d t h ir pag s with all t h vul gar


e ,
e e e e e e

scandal th y co ld lay h old of much of it monstrous and


e u ,

obviously f als T h s low mi nd d writ rs (how v r trust


e . e e -
e e ,
e e

worthy far as t h y b ar t stimony to t h d g n racy of


so e e e e e e e

h istory and lit ratur in t h ir own tim ) could not b li v

W
e e e e, e e e

t hat d c ncy xists in palac But as Marcus Aur elius says


e e e a e .
,

30 1 f Zfiv

kfi,

ef ev a i i

( M A . . t h r was laxity in t h
V , If e e e

it could not h av b n v ry gross in a court w h r Antoninus


e ee e e e

was of t h principal figur s f t h wh ol anci nt world


on e e e ,
or e e e

was agr d th at h poss ss d all t h virtu s Lucius V rus


ee e e e e e . e

was not a puritan h probably liv d a ft r t h luxurious


w
, e e e e ,

s lf indul g nt dissipat d f as hion of t h Roman nobl s of


e -
e ,
e e e

t h l wd r sort ; but Hadrian


e e e h was d ply int r st d in ,
o ee e e e

th eEmpir was not t h man to appoint a m r pl asur


e, e e e e e

lov r to succ d hiN i V rus h d a son Lucius at


e ee uc us e a , ,

th at tim a v ry littl boy and also a daught r At t h


e e e ,
e . e

Emp ror s wis h t h girl was b troth d to Marcus Aur lius


e

e e e e .

I t is plain t h at t h Emp ror anticipat d a g r at car r f e e e e ee or

Marcus ; and it is incr dibl th at h s h ould h av propos d -

e e
- ~
e e e

to bring to g th r m r d bauch and t his youn g m b di


w
e e a e e e ee e o

m nt f innoc nc Lucius V us h ow v r di d within a


e -

o e e . er ,
e e ,
e

fe y ars on January 1 1 3 8 ; and t h v ry n xt mont h


e , ,
e e e ,

Hadrian adopt d Antoninus hi son and succ ssor and in


e as s e ,

ord r to s cur an ntail f t h Empir add d to t h t rms


ww w
e e e e o e e, e e e

of adoption a claus th at Antoninus s h ould adopt bot h hi e s

sist r s e Marcus h

s on th n n arly s v nt n and ,
o as e e e e ee ,

young Lucius V rus a boy of s v n I t t h first tim an


e ,
e e . as e e
AND YOUTH
BOYHOOD

w
43

Emp ror h d att mpt d to nam hi succ ssor s succ ssor


e a e e e s e

e ,

but t h imp rial constitution


e e unwritt n and ind finit ; as e e e

and Hadrian act d no doubt in wh at h b li v d to b t h e , ,


e e e e e e

b st int r st f t h Stat
e e e o f Marcus is asily
e e . o e

und rstood ; is th at f
e so t h gh m d f o “
ou

a e or

quit a di ff r nt r ason Hadrian h d b n d ply attach d


e e e e . a ee ee e

to t h f ath r and a ft r h i d ath h d k pt t h boy in hi


e e ,
e s e a e e s

palac as a m mb r f t h imp rial family ; it is lik ly th at


e e e o e e e

h g r w f ond f h i m and also t h at h con c iv d t h at youn g


e e o , e e e

V rus h ims l f or oth rs on hi b h al f mi gh t think t h at t h


e e ,
e s e ,
e

f at h r s d si gnation as Ca sar con f rr d upon t h son Som



e e e e e e e

inh ritabl claim upon t h thron and mi ght in t h futur


e e e e, e e

giv occasion to j alousi s i f not to civil war T h r was a


e e e , . e e

f urt h r stipulation in t h s ttl m nt f succ ss


e e e e e o e

t i
on n u s s hould b troth hi dau ght r F austina e s e

plan was to giv t h gov rnm nt wh at v r stability mighte e e e e e

b g t f rom dynastic marriag s Hadrian di d t h at summ r


e o e . e e ,

and Antoninus succ d d to t h th ron ee e e e .

By t h adoption Marcus h d b com son f An


e ,
a e e o

and grandson f Hadrian and accordin gly h d gon at


o ,
a e

to liv with hi imp rial grand fath r Hadrian I t is said


e s e e .

t h burd n of Empir cast its dark s h adow b for


e e and e e e,

Marcus l ft hi h ous on t h Ca lian Hill and t h fr dom


e s e e e ,
e ee

attac h d to t h condition f a subj ct with un f i gn d g


e e o e ,
e e re -

g r et On .t h d at h f Hadrian Marcus
e eb cam a m mb r
o f! ,
e e e e o

h i imp rial f at h r s h ous h old and liv d in t h gr at palac

w

s e e e e e e e

o f Tib rius on t h north slop


e f t h Palatin Hill T h is
e e o e e .

as h i h om w h il in t h city xc pt t h at h s ms to h av
s e, e e , e e e ee e

liv d f a tim by t h banks f t h Tib r His moth r w nt


e or e e o e e . e e .

with hi m H r b gan or continu d f b for th y b cam


. e e e ,
e ,
or e e e e e

f at h r ande th y may h av b n clos f ri nds as uncl


s on e e ee e e e

and n p h w f t h e most b auti ful f ri nds h ips b tw n

w
e e on e o e e e ee
,

man and man th at h istory r cords e .

Antoninus a gr at lov r f t h c ountry and country


as e e o e

pl asur s and w h n h was fr to tak a h oliday or was


e e ,
e e ee e ,
44 MA RCUS AU RELIUS
abl to transact t h busin ss f Stat away from Rom ff
e e e O e e, o

h w nt takin g hi f ami ly wit h hi m His two f avorit plac s


e e , s . e e

w r Lo ium a villag on t h V ia Aur lia s om doz n mil s


e e t ,
e e e , e e e

w st f Rom w h r h h d sp nt hi boy h ood and Lanu


e o e, e e e a e s ,

vium t h hill town wh r h was born H built a villa at


,
e e e e . e

L i m and may h av found t h r som sp cial c h arm f


or u ,
e e e e e o

wood or fi ld or in t h str tc h s and win di ngs f t h riv r


,
e , e e e o e e

Arron f h was fond of fis hin g h untin g and walking ;


e, or e , ,

but L i m f amous in arly history h d muc h mor


an u v u ,
e , a e

ch aract r I t stood on a w st rn spur f t h Alban Hills


e . e e o e ,

j ust ff t h V ia Appia about tw nty mil s south of Rom


o e ,
e e e
.

Th town f A i i is n ar by and t h Lago di N mi Lanu


e o r c a e ,
e e .

vi m was a pious plac fill d with t mpl s c hi f amon g


u e, e e e ,
e

t h m a f amous s h rin to Juno Sospita and p rhaps t h most


e e ,
e e

r c nt was th at to t h Divin Antinous T h s t mpl s w r


w
e e e e . e e e e e e

d corat d wit h mural paintings of mor t h an local r nown


e e e e ,

w hich p r haps w r int r sting to t h youn g princ h


e e e e e e e, o

among h i oth r l ssons h d studi d paintin g L i m


s e e a e . an u v u

was also c l brat d for its tradi tions and l g nds On t h


e e e e e . e

slop f t h hill was a cav and within t h cav a sacr d


e o e e, e e e

s rp nt lay asl p and v ry y ar a troop f girls w nt


ww
e e ee ,
e e e o e

t hit h r carrying littl bask ts f barl y cak s to f d t h


e , e e o e e ee e

s rp nt ; and i f t h r was
e e among t h m h not a e e on e e o as

vir gin t h s rp nt would r fus to t and th n a bli gh t


,
e e e e e ea ,
e

would f all upon t h h arv st f t hat y ar And th r was e e or e . e e

wors th an th is By t h sid of t h b auti ful lak f N mi


e . e e e e e o e ,

at t h di stanc of an asy walk from L i m down in a


e e e an u v u ,

h al f ravin was a sacr d grov and in t h grov a t mpl


e, e e, e e e e

to Diana Long lon g ago as t h story w nt I p hi g nia and


.
, , e e ,
e

her broth r Or st s h d fl d from Tauris a ft r h avin g kill d


e e e a e , e e

K ing T h oas and stol n t h statu f Diana and h d f ound e e e o ,


a

r fug at t h lak f N mi and th r for at that spot a


e e e e o e
'
e e e

t mpl h d b n built With n t h sacr d nclosur liv d a


e e a ee . i e e e e e

solitary pri st a fugitiv f rom j ustic H r h r main d in


e ,
e e . e e e e e

sa f ty xc pt for a singl dang r At any tim anoth r


e ,
e e e e . e e
AND YOUTH BOYHOOD 45

slav flying from j ustic mi ght com and ki ll hi m and tak


e, e, e , e

for h ims l f t h solitary sa f ty f t h sacr d spot So t h


e e e o e e . e

occupant was always xp ctant sword in h and P rh aps e e , . e

th s dark tra di tions and l g nds h d arous d f ar ful p


w
e e e e a e e a

pr h nsion in t h mind f Marcus a littl boy f h


e e e o as e ,
or e

r cords hi gratitud to hi tutor D i g t


e s h tau ght e s ,
o ne u s
, o

hi m not to b li v w h at sorc r rs and wizards said about


e e e e e

incantations and xorcisin g vil spirits and th ings f th at


,
e e , o

kind (M A I ”
And p rh aps lon g a ft rwards t h
. .
,
e , e ,
e

m mori s of th s vil myst ri s bl nd d with stori s cur


e e e e e e e e e e

r nt about t h nov l sup rstitions and dark practi c s f an


e e e e e o

ori ntal s ct that was croppin g up h r and th r all ov r


w
e e ,
e e e e, e

th e Empir and prompt d hi m to r cord this parti c ular


e, e e

matt r f thank fuln ss th at hi mind


e or untouch d by e , s as e

w hat h j ud g d to b t h d gradation f su p rstitious


e e e e e o e

th oughts .

Marcus r lis h d t h country and its pl asur s thou gh


e e e e e ,

p rh aps with not so k n a z st as Antoninus As a boy h


e ee e . e

took hi f ull s har in athl ti gam s and outdoor sports


s e e c e

aft r t h mann r f young Roman patricians H lik d box


e e e o . e e

i g wr stlin g running f owlin g t h rowin g t h j av lin but


n ,
e , , ,
e e ,

most f all ridin g playin g ball and h untin g t h wild boar


o , , ,
e ,

and lik Antoninus h nj oy d fri ndly r lations with t h


e ,
e e e e e e

p asants and husbandm n f t h n i ghborh ood and d


e e o e e ,
e

light d to pick grap s with th m in t h vintag s ason At


e e e e e e .

bottom h was primarily a stud nt and a lov r f


,
e e e o

and h always h d a liking f solitud and communion with


e a or e

h i own t h ough ts but h was not


s uncompanionabl as hi
,
e so e s

sug g st H contract d a r al intimacy with


w
M dit t i
e a on s e . e e e

A fidi
u V ictorinus and S ins F i
us two youn g nobl ,
e u s c an u s , e

men , as w ll as oth rs h s m to h av r main d hi


e e ,
o ee e e e s

f ri nds all t h ir liv s H did not avoid com p any


e e ith r f e . e ,
e e o

h i fri nds or m r acquaintanc s I t is said f hi m at th i i


s e e e e . o ,
s

p riod f hi li f th at h was virtuous but not pri ggis h


e o s e, e ,

mod st but not prudis h s rious mind d but not low spirit d
e ,
e
-
e
-
e ,
46 MA RCUS A URELIUS
in spit f hi rapid l vation in rank t hat h r main d
e o s e e ,
e e e

as natural familiar and kind as v r with hi r la , , , e e ,


s e

H was always punctual at h i l ssons and h us d


e s e , e e

to visit t h sick e .

I t is probabl t h at it was not until a ft r Marcus h d b n


e e a ee

adopt d h ir appar nt t h at t h most distin guis h d of

w
e as e e , e e

hi t ac h rs w r
s e n gag d for him I t s ms c rtainly so in
e e e e e . ee e

t h cas of som
e e f t h m F ronto ( h a ft r Marcus Aur
e o e . o, e e

lius will b t h principal p rsonag in this littl book )


,
e e e e e

tau ght hi m r h toric and Latin lit ratur H rod s Atticus


e e e . e e ,

t h old f ri nd of hi f amily a man f h igh birt h normous


w
e e s , o , e

w alt h and f gr at r putation tau ght h im Gr k S xtus


e ,
o e e ,
ee . e ,

a grandson of Plutarc h Junius Rusticus h w h n Marcus , , o e

b cam Emp ror h ld t h fli of City Pr f ct and Clau


w
e e e e e o ce e e ,

dins Ma x imus s m to h av taught him w h at th y may hav


,
ee e e e

call d thics or Stoic p h ilosop hy but wh at


e e might call , e

l ssons upon li f or l ssons of wisdom Marcus sp aks f


w
e e e . e o

t h m all wit h admiration and t nd r a ff ction xc pt H


e ,
e e e ,
e e er

od s Atticus h in spit of various good qualiti s was a


e ,
o, e e ,

con c it d s l f important quarr lsom p rson and him h


e e ,
e -

,
e e e ,
e

do s not m ntion (M A I 7 9 1 1
e e P rhaps hi s v n r
. . .
, , , ,
e e e

ation f Claudius Maximus was gr at r th an f any of t h


or e e or e

oth rs H sp aks of him as t h patt rn of good ess a man


e . e e e e n ,

in wh om sw tn ss and s riousn ss ee com


e e e

m in gl d e .

Marcus gav much f hi tim to t h e o s e e

h ard st studi s lay in practical g


e e m ov ern

b cam qua stor at i ght n h was rais d to t h consuls h ip


e e e ,
e ee e e e

and ei d t h formal titl of C


r ec ve

H i duti s in t h s

e e a es a r
//
r s e e e

fi as w ll as palac brou t

f
i fd li f i m h i m i l h h i m
'

p os t s, t pEf e g e e -
a e,

into v ry clos intimacy with t h Emp ror and it was th is


e e e e

clos 3 5 m
,

e m v n th an hi e e s

tutors t h at constitut d t h chi f factor in hi ducation


,
e e e s e .

T h r h av b n s v ral v ry famous fri nds h ips in h istory


e e e ee e e e e ,

b tw n David and Jonath an Montaign and L B ét i Sir


e ee ,
e a o e,
AND YOUTH BOYHOOD 47

P h ilip Sidn y and F ulk Gr vill Go th and Schill r and


e e e e, e e e ,

ot h rs and f suc h f ri nds hips


e , or bot h f t h fri nds
o e ,
on e o e e

h av l f t loqu nt m morials but I know f no ulo gy


e e e e e ,
o e so

d lib rat
e e f ull fr f rom t h
e, s o motional xtrava ganc , so ee e e e e

of conscious loss as t h at w h ic h Marcus Aur lius d dicat d , e e e

to hi f ath r long y ars a ft rwards wh il fi ghtin g t h Bar


s e , e e , e e

b i among t h for sts and mars h s alon g t h Danub


ar a n s e e e e e.

Les s o n s f r om m y Fa t her

G ntl n ss and uns h ak abl firmn ss I n d cisions com


e e e ,
e e e e e

to a ft r full d lib ration no vain glory in wh at m n call


w
e e e : e

h onors lov f h ard work p rs v ran c


: e o and a r ady ,
e e e e, e ear

for thos h h av nythin g to p ro p os f t h common


e o e a e or e

g ood an unsw rving d t rmination to giv to v ry man


: e e e e e e

accordin g to hi d s rts a knowl d g g t by xp ri nc f


w
s e e : e e, o e e e e, o

w h n it is ri ght to insist and w h n to l t th in gs g con


e ,
e e o:

sid ration f oth rs h h l ft hi f ri nds quit f r to


ww
e or e , o e e s e e ee

din with hi m or not and und r no obli gation to att nd h im


e ,
e e

abroad ; and h m h h d stay d away constrain d by


o en o a e e

som n c ssity or oth r always found hi m j ust t h sam


e e e e ,
e e:

h i h abit f t h orou gh inv sti g ation at t h coun c il board hi


s o e e ,
s

p rsist ncy and furt h r hi r fusal to d sist from in quiry


e e , ,
e , s e e

and to r st satisfi d with plausibl im p r ssions hi constancy


e e e e s

to hi fri nds n v r fickl nor foolis hly fond f th m hi


s e , e e e o e : s

suffici n c y unto h ims l f on v ry occasion and hi ch r ful


w
e e e e s ee

n ss hi gr at for sigh t and hi provision f t h small st


e : s e e ,
s or e e

d tails with out makin g a fuss about th m h h ch c k d


e e : o e e e

c h rs and applaus and all kinds f flatt ry h i watch ful


ee e o e : s

car ov r t h int r sts f t h Empir hi mana g m nt f


e e e e e o e e, s e e o

its r sourc s and hi pati nc und r t h cond mnation h


w
e e s e e e e e e
,

was subj ct d to in cons q u nc hi fr dom f rom p t i


e e e e e: s ee su er s

tion in h i attitud to ard t h gods ; and in hi attitud


s e e ,
s e

toward m no ch as a ft r popularity no ff orts to pl as


w
en , e e e e e
,

th m no humorin g t h mob but always sobri ty and t di


e ,
e ,
e ,
s ea

n ss n v r any vulgarity or a g rn ss f
e e e thin gs e e e or n e .
48 MA RCUS A URELIUS
And as to thos thin gs th at contribut to t h comfort of
e e e

li f w hic h fortun h d h ap d upon him hi


e, of t h m
e a e e , s use e

with out arroganc and at t h sam tim with out apolo gy so


e e e e ,

t h at w h n th y w r at h and h partook f t h m without


e e e e e o e

ost ntation and wh n th y w r not h w nt wit h out And


e , e e e e e e .

non could y th at h was a sop hist or a p dant or h d


e sa e e ,
a

any qualiti s f t h s rvil courti r but h was rip finis h d


e o e e e e , e e, e ,

fl t d by prais w ll abl to manag hi own a ff airs


'

una ec e e, e e e s

and also th os f oth r p opl e o e e e .

B sid s this hi d p r sp ct for tru ph ilosop h rs (h


e e s ee e e e e ,
e

was polit v n to humbugs ) and y t h was not asily l d


e e e ,
e e e e

by th m And also h was a ff abl and gracious but not to


e . e e

e xc ss And h took prop r car of hi body (though not


e . e e e s ,

as a lov r of p hysical li f ) and h n v r g av too much or


e e, e e e e

too littl att ntion to hi good looks but did j ust right
e e s , ,
so

t hat by t h car h took h h ardly v r n d d a doctor or


e e e ,
e e e ee e ,

m dicin s or bandag s
w
e e ,
e .

And abov all hi d f r nc and fr dom from nvy


e s e e e e, ee e ,

toward th os h poss ss d any sp cial accomplis hm nt


e o e e e e ,

suc h as oratory f knowl dg of law or th ics or any oth r


,
o e e ,
e ,
e

subj ct ; and h di d hi b st for th m th at ac h Sh o ld


e e s e e so e u

r c iv full r cognition according to hi sp cial xc ll nc ;


e e e e , s e e e e e

and h always act d in accordanc with traditional usa g s


e e e e ,

not in o rd r to mak a display of doing so but f t h sak


w
e e , or e e

of pr s rvin g such usag s


e e e .

F urth rmor h e not unstabl or vacillating but h


e, e as e ,
e

lik d to f r qu nt t h sam plac s and do t h sam t h ings ;


w
e e e e e e ,
e e

and a ft r viol nt h adac h s h would com back fr s h and


,
e e e e ,
e e ,
e

vi gorous to hi usual occupations H h d v ry f s cr ts


,
s . e a e e e e ,

and th os v ry s ldom and only about a ff airs of Stat H


e e e ,
e . e

display d prud nc and mod ration in t h mana g m nt f


w
e e e e e e e o

public s hows in t h construction of public works and in


,
e ,

distributin g bounti s and such matt rs as a man do s h e ,


e ,
e o

looks s h arp at wh at ou ght to b don and not to t h r puta e e, e e

tion that may com from wh at h do s e e e .


C H A P T E R I V

L I T E R A R Y S O C I E T Y I N R O M E

NRom at this tim w hil Marcus was still in hi


e e,

w e s

W
stud nt y ars th r a cl v r cultivat d soci ty
w
e e ,
e e as e e , e e

int r st d in lit ratur and p hilosophy and mor par


e e e e e , e

l ly conc rning its lf ith ghet g i and matt rs f


w
ticu a r e e «
r c e o

i T h art of
s t h
. f i ewas s riously tak n e c on er en c er

e e ,

as it i in Paris today T hos h h av h ard M J an


s . e o e e . e

Ri h pi
c ef instanc will b abl to un d rstand t h t h
n, or e, e e e e en u

i m f p rsons of lit rary tast in t h r ign f Antoninus


s as o e e e e e o

Pius ov r a discours on any subj ct that o ff r d scop for


e e e e e e

t h display of imagination wit or rudition and was artis


e , ,
e ,

tically d si gn d with xordium and p roration with climax


e e e e ,

and h appy turns of ph ras wi th a finis h d l ganc of

w
e, e e e e s en

t nc and a display of trop s and simil s Som times t h


e e, e e . e e

oo n fé i spok in Latin som tim s in Gr k M of


r enc er e , e e ee . en

l tt rs d vot d wh olly to t h art would trav l about to t h


e e ,
e e e ,
e e

principal citi s of t h Empir from Antioch and Ep h sus


e e e e ,

to Ath ns Al xandria Rom and far as Lyons giving


e ,
e ,
e, as ,

l ctur s Of t h s t h v rs atil of S m t a city


w
e e . e e e e e a o s a a,

by t h Eup h rat s i far and away t h m ost brilliant ; at


e e , s e

l ast h s ms to us h bas our opinions on p rma


e e ee so ,
o e e

n en c e in lit ratur and p rh aps ov rr ady to d cry


e e, ar e e e e e

t al nts t h at only satisfy t h tast


e f t h ir own g n ration e e o e e e .

Lucian would giv a fé on S l d on C m p i e con r en c e an er, o a n on s

f Hi
or in prais f Th Fly in d f ns f Th Ty t or
r e, e o e , e e e o e ra n ,

d liv r a humorous satir on som f anatical p hilosop h r or


e e e e e ,

popular ch arlatan mixing to g th r truth xa gg ration m i,


e e , e e ,
s

r pr s ntation and fancy wi th stori s wort hy of Baron


e e e , ,
e
LI TE RARY S OCI ETY IN ROME 51

Munch aus n and a ff ct to pr s nt t h racy compound as a


e ,
e e e e

tru narrativ O migh t a w ll giv cr d nc to Gulli


e e. ne s e e e e e

ve r s trav ls Lucian was a Syrian or a Gr k p rh aps


e .
,
ee e ,

r ady to mak f
e f all t h world and h d no r putation
e un o e ,
a e

for s riousn ss to up h old Oth rs lik P l m or A li


e e . e ,
e o e on e us

Aristid s p rh aps b caus th y lack d Lucian s wit and


e ,
e e e e e

f ancy w r s rious nough and in Rom t h traditional

w
,
e e e e ,
e e

w
di gnity f t h conqu rin g p opl still maintain d its l f
o e e e e e e .

Among t h cl v r m of l tt rs h w r drawn to
e e e en e e o e e

Rom F e, f L ons H may s rv as a ty p


y as a v o ri n u s o f . e e e e o

t h lit rary fi gur s f ami liar t


e e Marcus in hi youth F avo e o s .

rinus was a phi losop h r and sc holar v ry w ll r ad I n Gr k


w
e ,
e e e ee ,

and by no m ans d fici nt in a knowl d g f Latin lit ra


e e e e e o e

tur H e . loqu nt r ady abl to turn an pi gram


e as e e ,
e ,
e e ,

e ndow d with a prodi gious m mory and in addition to all


e e ,

th at was a v ry a gr abl companion Amon g oth r works


,
e ee e . e

h h d w itt n a book on sk p tical p hi losop h y but h di d


e a r e e ,
e

not disdain l ss s rious matt rs and a ft r t h f as hionabl


e e e , ,
e e e

mann r f t h day nj oy d propounding a paradox such


e o e ,
e e ,

as an ar gum nt in prais f T h rsit s or f a quartan f v r


e e o e e ,
o e e .

I t was t h custom at hi h ous w h n h invit d gu sts to


e s e, e e e e

dinn r f a slav to r ad aloud out f som Latin or Gr k


e ,
or e e o e ee

auth or ; and f rom wh at was r ad h would ch oos a topic f e e e or

conv rsation Th topic might b Socrat s or a lin f


e . e e e ,
e o

V ir gil Lucr tius Pindar or Euripid s or a stanza from


,
e , ,
e ,

som lyrical po t or a gain som point of h istory or a q u s


e e , ,
e ,
e

tion f th ics as f instanc S ll t d nunciation f


o e , or e, a us

s e o

avaric At oth r tim s h and fri nds f lik tast s A p ol


e . e e ,
e e o e e ,

li i
n ar sSulpicius a sch olar S xtus C ili an min nt , , e a ec u s, e e

lawy r and oth rs would m t in Traj an s forum at t h


e ,
e ,
ee

,
e

bath or in ,
of t h public librari s or p rh ap s in t h
on e e e ,
e ,
e

v stibul f t h im p rial palac whil waitin g f t h Em


e e o e e e e or e

p to
er or app ar and conv rs on matt rs
e of r h toric ,
I f t h e e e e . e

w ath r was cold t h f ri nds mi gh t stroll to and f on


e e ,
e e ro

t h sunny sid
e f som h i gh wall d buildin g ; or if it was
e o e e
52 MA RCUS A URELIUS
summ r tim th y would g out f town to a fri nd s villa
e e, e o o e

on t h coast at Alsium Ostia or A t i m (now Porto d A


e , ,
n u

n

zio ) O f th
. youn g r f t h s lit rary m
ne o e e o e e e en ,

b d a gr at admiration f r F
o re i e or av o r n u s

p t bord rin g so clos on v n ration th at it


ee e e e e

r calls Bosw ll to on s mind j ott d down in hi not book


e e e

,
e s e -

various an cdot s f hi c l brat d fri nd w hic h s how him


e e o s e e e e ,

to h av b n a man of s ns and also that this lit rary


e ee e e, e

club as ,may call it was not w holly giv n ov r to t h


one , e e e

vapidity f a r h toric divorc d from li f Onc a voung prig


o e e e . e

j oin d th ir company and mad an ost ntatious parad f


e e ,
e e e o

antiquat d words and on b ing brought to book j ustifi d


e ,
e ,
e

t h practic by h i profound r g ard f


e e antiquity its prob s e or ,

ity i t t mp ranc and s l f control W ll and good said


,
s e e e e -

,

e ,

f as h ion your conduct on t h antiqu patt rn



F i
av o r n u s , e e e ,

but sp ak t h langua g of your g n ration H was s v r


e e e e e .

e e e e

upon t h gr at lu x ury of Roman banqu ts couch s f gold


e e e ,
e o

and silv r purpl rob s rar and x quisit dis h s If


e ,
e e ,
e e e e :

luxury continu s at this pac th r will b nothing l ft f


e e, e e e e or

us but to h ir p o p l to sav
, t h troubl of ating
e e H e e us e e e . e

was a r ad r f Epict tus and gr atly admir d t h famous


e e o e ,
e e e

apoth gm B ar and forb ar Th conv rsation h ow v r


e e e . e e ,
e e ,

usually g t round to nic ti s of xpr ssion or oth r points f


o e e e e , e o

lit rary criticism C h ang a word in Plato h said and


e .

e ,

e ,

you mar t h l ganc f hi lan gua g ; c h ang a word in


e e e e o s e e

Lysias and you mar hi m aning H was d li ght d by a


, s e .

e e e

lin in t h N l i of Plautus th at d scrib s som wom n


e e er v o a r a ,
e e e e

of t h town e tt pi p d ,

t itt i il di d
s c ra ae, s c ru e a e, s r v a e, s or a e,

hi d h bbli g h n g h l t
eo u s , o and ass rt d th at you
n ,
an ar o s ,

e e

might know by th is lin th at Plautus h d writt n t h on e e a e e

play A d onc w h n t h discussion turn d on t h f amiliar


. n e, e e e e

saying th at it is dang rous to marry a woman too ugly or e

too b auti ful F i e r mark d th at t h two xtr m s


,
av o r n u s e e e e e e

w r wid apart and th at th r mi gh t b a m an Som body


e e e ,
e e e e . e

quot d Ennius authority that t t (middlin g) was t h


e as s a a e
LI TE RARY SOCIETY IN ROME

w
53

prop r word to d scrib t h middl typ ; but F i


e e e e e e a vo r n u s

sugg st d i (wi f ly )

w
e e u or a e .

Th most distin guis h d m mb r f t h is grou p h o w v r


e e e e o , e e ,

was a man f many tal nts h o e ,


o

h d a in north rn A frica to mak e ,


e

h i f ortun in Rom
s and h d b n succ ss ful to a rar d
e e, a ee e e e

gr H ran a brilliant car r at t h bar o ft n ar guin g


ee . e ee e ,
e

cas s f gr at importanc b for t h S nat ; h b cam


e o e e e e e e e e e e

famous as an orator and was r gard d as t h h ad f t h ,


e e e e o e

world f l tt rs a mast r f styl and an admirabl critic


o e e ,
e o e, e

of lit ratur Lik hi cont mporari s h i d lg d i t h


e e . e s e e , e n u e

n e

f as h ion f parado x ical ssays and wrot O S l p O


o e , e n ee ,
n

Sm k O D t and oth r suc h subj cts H was a clos


o e, n us ,
e e . e e

f ri nd f F e i and s ms to h av b com t h c ntr f


o av o r n u s , ee e e e e e e o

t h at cot ri f int ll ctual m His conv rsation was not d


e e o e e en . e e

accu
ous ; th y cam upon t h at Fr o n t o

s h e e e e

W
usual com p any and f ll to talkin g about lan gua g F avo
,
e e .

i
r nu s said t h at th r w r mor words to x p r ss s had s f e e e e e e e e o

color in Gr k th an in Latin F ronto took u p t h ar gum nt


ee . e e

on b h al f f Latin
e will not d ny th at t h Gr k lan
o :

e e e ee

guag to wh ic h you h av award d t h palm is mor vari d


e, e e e e e

W
,

and c opious t h an our own ; but as to th s colors you h av e e e

m ntion d
e d f instanc our pov rty is not l an as
e , re or e, e so e

y ou sup p os for t h words fe, and b w h ic h you e ru us ru er ,

b rin g up not our only words to d not a d color


, ar e e e re . e

h av ot h rs and v n mor t h an you h av cit d f rom t h


e e ,
e e e e e e

Gr k F lee
fl . bi d p h
u vu s , i t i l l t
avu s , ru us, o en c eu s , ru us, u eu s ,

and p di all x p r ss va i ti s f d i
s a x, m g its spl n
e e r e e o re ,
n c r ea s e

,
dor as with fi bl nding it with gr n dark nin g it with
re, e ee ,
e

b lack or making it mor luminous wit h w h it ; and h


w
e e e
,

q uot d Enniuse P i and V ir g il in vid


,
nc f h i ass r
ac u v u s , e e e o s e

tions Wh n h h d finis h d F i
. e eith t h candor and
a e ,
av o r n u s , e

c ourt sy f good soci ty in south rn lands prais d hi rip


e o e e ,
e s e
54 MA RCUS AU RELIUS
knowl d g and hi nic e f lan gua g
e W r it not f s e u se o e: e e or

you my d ar F ronto th r is no doubt but th at t h Gr k


,
e , e e e ee

languag would b far ah ad f ours but th anks to w hat


e e e o ,

you h av don t h v rs f rom Hom r puts it


e e, a s e e e e ,

Y ou h av w on or l f t t h vi c tory i d oub t e , e e n .

Anoth r day of t h gu sts r ad aloud from a Roman


e ,
one e e e

historian Claudius Q d i g i this passa g A ft r t h “ ‘

,
ua r ar u s
,
e: e e

ass mbly was disp rs d M t llus w nt to t h Capitol m


e e e ,
e e e e cu

m lt i m
u t li b (in
s t h company of many mortals ) and O
or a us e n

hi way h om from th r all t h city w nt with h i m


s e Som e e e e . e

body spok up and said th at t h p hras m m lt i m t l


e ,
e e cu u s or a

ib usinst ad of m m lti k m i i b for an pisod in hi


e cu u s o n us, e e s

tory was absurd and f rigid th at it savor d too much f


, ,
e o

po try F ronto turn d t t h sp ak r Will you a man of


e . e o e e e :

,

suc h xquisit tast in oth r matt rs maintain th at t h


e e e e e ,
e

p h ras m m lt i m t lib is absurd and sti ff ? Do you


e cu u s or a us

suppos that Q d i g i w hos styl is pur and y t


e ua r ar u s , e e so e e

almost colloquial h d no motiv for saying m t lib , a e or a us

rath r than k m i i b ? N ow in my opinion unl ss it may


e o n us ,

e

b t h at my fondn ss my v n ration for t h is auth or and f


e e , e e , ,
or

our anci nt sp ch r nd r my j ud gm nt blind t h word


e ee ,
e e e —
e

m t l h
o r a es a far wid r and mor compr h nsiv i g i fi
as e e e e e s n

canc in d scribing t h concours f a whol city th an


e e e e o e ,

h mio Th xpr ssion m lti h m i may b compris d


n es . e e e u o n es e e

and contain d within a mod rat numb r but m lti me e e e ,


u or

t l
a es , i som p culiar way th at I cannot xactly xplain
n e e e e ,

includ s all p opl f v ry kind in t h city f v ry rank


e e e o e e e ,
o e e ,

ag and e x And as Q d ig i wis h d to d scrib (as it


se . ua r ar u s e e e

h app ns ) a vast numb r f p opl commingl d in a m dl y


e e o e e, e e e ,

h said M t llus cam m m lt i m t li b to t h Capi



e ,
e e e cu u s or a us e

tol and d pict d t h incid nt


,

b e c p pl d m ph e e e a v ec ea u ou us

e as e

th an i f h h d said m m lti k m i i b e a

Th w hol com cu u s o n us . e e

pany admir d F t d f nc of t h auth or and Aulus e ron o s



e e e e ,
LI TE RARY S OCI ETY IN ROME 55

G elli u snot d down hi accurat and subtl distinction


e

s e e

b tw n words
e ee .

On anoth r day a distinguis h d company of m not d


e , e en , e

for th ir rank th ir rich s or th ir l arning h d m t at


e ,
e e ,
e e ,
a e

h ous F ronto was lying down on a Gr k couc h

w

F t
ron o s e . ee ,

hi gouty l g str tc h d out xaminin g various plans f a


w
s e e e ,
e or

ne bath th at h propos d to build H s l ct d f th


e e . e e e e on e o e

plans and ask d h much it wo l d cost Th arc hit ct


,
e o u . e e

r pli d th r hundr d th ousand s st rc s


e e ,
ee Som e e e e e

body knowing t h ways f arch it cts put in you may add


,
e o e ,

fifty th ou and s st rc s mor p t p pt (or th r


s e e e e, r a e er ro er e e

O f t h company a grammarian passin g ov r


ne o e , ,
e

t h dig at arc h it cts obj ct d to t h words p


e t p p te ,
e e e ra e er ro er,

as a vulgar xpr ssion h ard from t h mouth s f m ch anics


e e e e o e .

F ronto how v r support d t h p h ras and quot d a pas

w
,
e e ,
e e e, e

sag from Enni us wit h t h v y words in it And so t h


e ,
e er . e

conv rsations w nt ;
e Julius Ca sar ri ght to insist th at
e as e

a r ena t sand not sands was t h corr ct xpr s


no a rena e, ,
e e e e

sion ? I s p m ili or i t h b tt r Latin word for


u o n es , n an , e e e

dwar fs ? At l ast such w r t h matt rs th at int r st d Aulus


e e e e e e e e

G lli
e and found th ir way into hi not book
us e s e -
.

T h s m w r sc h olars or at l ast f sch olarly tast s


e e en e e ,
e o e .

T h y h d nj oy d t h b st lib ral ducation th at an g


e a e e e e e e a e

int r st d in lib ral studi s h d to giv first at t h provin


e e e e e a e, e

w
i l univ rsity suc h as t h at at Carth ag
c a e and a ft rwards at
,
e, e

Ath ns or at Rom T h y w r f amiliar


e ,
—th t e . e e e a .

h d b n t h ough t and writt n on p h ilosop hy r h toric h i



a ee e ,
e ,
s

tory lit ratur


,
d p h ilology But t hfim k i u eaL
e e, h an . a re

T h y f lt no stim lus from Hm e e to u

r li v a t min g ima gination by puttin g into words wh th r


e e e ee ,
e e

o f po try or pros t h ou gh ts th at w ll d up with in impati nt


e e, e e e

minds T h y w r not young in spirit ; th y n v r drank of


. e e e e e e

t h intoxic ating cup


e f int ll ctual moral or spiritual d o e e , ,
a

v ntur I h y trod an w
e e . T h y liv d it is
e e e e ,

obvious nough in a narrowin g world and look d back at


e , ,
e
56 MA RCUS AU RELIUS
t he lar g r fr dom of t h past with a sort of b numb d
e ee e e e

admiration I t was an g as t h books y f criti c ism f a e, e sa o o

classification analysis and com arisons Th M


.
, ,

i e a n

m
, , .

m t h at h rald t h . e e

closing of an ; but among th m cropping up h r and era e , e e

t h r scanty b caus so littl f w h at th y wrot h com


e e, e e e o e e as e

down to trac s f t h b auty and c h arm as w ll as


u s , are e o e e ,
e

o f t h f rivolity and s nsuous r fin m nt t h at accompani s


e e e e e ,
e

ov rrip n ss and t h downward road Such trac s


e e e e . e ar e

P ronto s fabl f Sl p t h story f C pid d P yc h in



e o ee , e o u an s e

Apul ius and t h po m P ig ili m V i


e ,
e e er v u en er s .

N v rth l ss t h s m
e e h d a purpos
e e and strov to e e en a e, e

ac hi v it Auth ors orators scholars grammarians w r


e e .
, , , , e e

m
tryin g to ff ct a ch an g in lit rar Latin and th y t
e e e e ,
e se

about it d e vanity of th ir e e

fl t comparabl in its way to t h at f Marcus Aur lius to


'

e or ,
e o e

cur t h ills f t h world by t h pr c pts f Stoicism w ars


w
e e o e e e e o ,
e

a path tic asp ct But th y w nt gallantly to work T h ir


e e . e e . e

slogan Jetu to t h ld c la ssics T h y acknowl d g d


as a rn e O . e e e

t h aut h ority
e but r b ll d against t h e e e e

absolut auth ority in styl t h at t h s lords f lan guag h d


e e e e o e a

im p os d upon t h following g n rations and strov to ff ct


e e e e ,
e e e

t h f r dom t h y h d in mind by going back


e ee e f as might
a , so ar

b don with r ason to t h styl of t h


e e arli r Latin classi c s
e , e e e e e ,

o f Ennius and Plautus of old Cato and t h Gracc h i T h y ,


e . e

wo l d talk of Lucilius N i P i Accius T r nc


u ,
aev u s , a cu v u s , , e e e,

Claudius Q d i g i but n v r a word about Tacitus


ua r ar u s , e e ,

P tronius Martial Pliny t h Young r or Statius ; S n ca


e , , e e ,
e e

was only m ntion d to b scorn fully cond mn d a cor


e e e e e as

ru p t i g influ nnc and Lucan was bar ly


e nam d I n
e, t h s e e . e e

anci nt writ rs th y found a f r s hn ss an n r gy a natural


e e e e e ,
e e ,

n ss wh ich th y miss d in t h h igh ly cultivat d mann r f


e ,
e e e e e o

t h gold n
e g I n esuc h a mood lov ars of et h. Elizab t h an ,
e e e

past C h arl s Lamb p rh aps mi ght propos a r turn to


,
e e ,
e e

S h aksp r and Hook r An d this lit rary mov m nt was not


e e e . e e e
58 MA RCUS A URELIUS
mod l of loqu nc tak Plautus f s riousn ss and w i ght
e e e e e , or e e e

tak Cato for bitt r inv ctiv Gracchus f


e , loqu nc e e e , or e e e

Cic ro for pomp and circumstanc tak F ronto Orator


e , e e

insi gnis Orator bi li i m


,
” “
no ss us .

Orator y h d always b n h ld in hi gh st m amon g t h


a ee e e ee e

Romans Wh r t h r . no n wspap rs t h pow r of


e e e e a re e e , e e

sp c h i a pot nt instrum nt of gov rnm nt ; and und r t h


ee s e e e e e e

R public w h t h r in t h S nat in courts of law or b for


e ,
e e e e e, ,
e e

ass mbli s f vot rs a skillful orator was a man f


e e o e , o con se

I n S h aksp r s play of J li ff cts



u en c e
q . C th e e u us a es a r, e e e

wrought by t h sp ch s of Brutus and of Mark Antonye ee e

a re r asonably tru to Roman li f Und r t h Empir also


e e e . e e e, ,

a discours b for t h S nat or a h arangu to t h P t


e e e e e e, e e rae o

rian Guard might b a matt r of consid rabl political


,
e e e e

importanc ; and oratory was always h ighly valu d as a


e e

social accomp lis h m nt I n t h conv rsations r port d by e . e e e e

WW
Aulus G lli t h sp ak rs mph asiz t h trivial sid f
e u s, e e e e e e e o

oratory m r ly b caus t h y tak t h s rious for grant d


,
e e e e e e e e e .

Th gr at w igh t attac h d to t h
e e ducation f an orator is
e e e e o

plain from Cic ro s tr atis s and from Qui ntillian s I ti


e

e e

ns

t t
u es A d from t h
. arli st tim s it was r co gniz d th at
n e e e e ,
e e

N t h fundam ntal r qui it ;


e e e s e

for succ ss is ch aract r A orator must first of all b an


e e n e

IM
.

; h must first lay t h corn r an e e e

ston f ri ght ousn ss and aft r th at build up hi sup r


w
e o e e ,
e s e

structur f history po try p hilosoph y and forth Cato s


e o , e , ,
so .

d finition
e acc pt d as an axiom O t
as t i b
e e ,
ra o r es v r o nu s

di
c en di p it an orator is a good man skill d in t h art
er u s, e e

of sp aking e .

F ronto as t h most min nt orator f hi tim was natu


e e e o s e,

rally mark d out as t t p rson to instruct a f utur


e e es e e

sov r i gn I n I S
e e ranc o roya l arning and 1a e ,

a
cc o r i g y n cam r us s e f r h e eac er o e on e . e

natur f Il s t aching is t forth in th ir corr spond nc ;


e o l e se e e e e

and in r ading t h arli r l tt rs th at pass d b tw n th m


e e e e e e e e ee e ,
LI TE RARY S OCI E TY IN ROME 59

must r m mb r th at t h corr s d t mast r and


M
on e e e e e e on en s a r e e

pppi l t h at t,
h l tt rs in a e e an se a r e, e

in rh toric mad so partly on purpos and partly b c aus


e , e e, e e

th e r lation b tw n t h two gav t hat cast to t h corr


e e ee e e e e

sp d on and both ch os to abid by it ; and no doubt


en c e, e e , ,

F ronto advis d hi pupil th at it was a good practic to f l


e s e o

low t h rul s f rh toric in writing l tt rs Many passa g s


e e o e e e . e ,

in f act sound i f t h corr spond nts w r carryin g on


,
as e e e e e

un finis h d discussions and conv rsations f t h l ctur room


e e o e e e .

Wh at s ms to us f orc d stilt d xa gg rat d or fantastic


ee e ,
e ,
e e e , ,

was acc pt d by t h corr spond nts at its rh torical valu ;


e e e e e e e

v n in t h ir most a ff ctionat l tt rs it pl as d th m both


e e e e e e e ,
e e e

to k p to t h styl f a r h torical ssay Occasionally th r


ee e e o e e . e e

is an out and out laying down f principl s and f th ir


- -
o e o e

application but g n rally t h l m nts and fundam ntal


,
e e e e e e e

propositions f oratory assum d


w
o a re e .

Critics br d upon t h En glis h traditions of composur


, e e e

and s l f r straint h d m it a point f good ma n rs to


e -
e , o ee o n e

pr s nt a mask of in di ff r nc toward th ir d ar st fri nds


e e e e e e e e e ,

r f r with disapprobation to t h f rvid xpr ssions f ff


e e e e e e o a ec

tion b tw n F ronto and Marcus J W M k il f i


w
e ee . . . ac a ,
or n

stanc compar s t h nthusiastic p h ras s in w hi c h t h ir


e, e e e e e

mutual f ondn ss loth s its l f to t h ff e f s c h ool


C e e ,

e e us en es s o

girls T his criticism if I may v ntur to say so disr gards


w

.
,
e e ,
e

on e o f t h si gns f t h os tim s Latin as a spok n lan gua g


e o e e .
,
e e,

h d alr ady b gun to br ak up and tak on a


a e e f orm t h at e e ne

was d stin d ultimat ly to b com t h I talian lan guag


e e e e e e e .

Som f t h adj ctiv s th at F ronto and Marcus Aur lius


e o e e e e

apply to anoth r amon g t h arli st tok ns th at t h


on e e are e e e e e

writt n sp c h was followi n g t h sam cours En glis h m n


e ee e e e . e

may confin th ms lv s to D ar Smith and Yours truly


e e e e

e ,
” “
,

but I tali ans h av anoth r conv ntion th y b gin th ir l tt rs


e e e ,
e e e e e

I llustrissimo N obilissimo D i l t t i i m ,
and d with ,
e ss o en

Oss qui umilissimi


e S rvitor d t i i m and wh at ,
” “
e e ev o ss o,

not Th florid adj ctiv s th at t h two f ri nds


. e di ti e e e e u s e, s er s
60 MA RCUS A U R E L I US
sim d t i im mi hi carissim d l i i m Magist r opta
e, oc ss e, e, u c ss e e

tissim amic d i d t i im (th s


e, eth ir Latin words )
es era ss e e e ar e e ,

nothin g ls t han f rank I talian t rms of nd arm nt


w
a re e e e e e e ,

suc h as add a warmt h to ordinary I talian corr spond nc e e e,

and j usti fy t h ms lv s to t hos h b li v as F ronto did


e e e e o e e e, ,

t hat words s h ould x p r ss not only thou ght but also m e e , ,


e o

tion with nic accuracy Mann rs h av th ir g of rococo


,
e . e e e a e ,

as w ll as f Doric simplicity and t h rococo is not with out


e o , e

artificial c h arm f its own F t l tt rs m r ly adopt t h


o . ron o s

e e e e e

lit rary fas hion f t h tim s t h y h av (to quot an i ght


e o e e ,
e e e e

t h c ntury xpr ssion ) a corr ctly l gant pistolary


w

een e e e e -
e e e

styl A li Aristid s was quit


e . e usxtravagant and fri gid e e as e ,

as w ll F i wrot to H rod s Atticus h h d b n


e . av o r n u s e e e , o a ee

a Roman consul and hi anc stors consuls b for h i m


w
°

s e e e

Wh n s hall I
e you and kiss both corn rs of your lips
s ee , e

( pA f
i re L eL éu )

And H rod s hims l f famous as t h
To o r a e e e ,
e

ton gu f Ath ns h d th s v rs s inscrib d upon a statu


e o e ,

a e e e e e e

r ct d on t h Appian Way in h onor of hi d c as d wi f


e e e e , s e e e e

T O R E G I L LA

w
Come it r to this t m pl y d aught rs f T ib r
h he e e e e o e ,

S tr w in c ns
e t h s h rine f R gi ll
e on e e o e a ;
S p rung f rom t h mu ch owning sons f A as
ww
Sh e as e -
o en e ,

Of th f f m d r c
e arf A nch i s an d I d ali n Aph ro d it
-
a e a e o se a e .

A t M arathon w as h d an d t h go dd ss s f h av
s e e e e e o e en

H onor h D m t r t h and D m t r t h old


,

er , e e e e ne e e e e

For t th m t h s cr d statu f this f air gir dl d lady i d dicat


.

o e e a e e o e s e e;

B ut h inh b it th t h h appy is l s
s e a e e e

Wh r Kro os r i gns among t h h roin s


e e n e , e e e

Z us on t h E lysian b r z f Z p hyrus
.

e e ee e o e

S nt t h f ir l a dy to t h O c a S
e e a t t e e n ea , e c .
, e c .

As som of th s v rs s r f r to t h Empr ss F austina


e e e e e e e e e ,

th r may b good r ason to suppos th at t h y w r first


e e e e e e e e

submitt d to h and ap p rov d F t o ff ndin g li s in


e er e . ro n o s

e e

t y to ris abov t h acc pt d standards f hi e e e e e o s


C H A P T E R V

T H E F RH ETORIC S T U D Y O

F all h i t ac h rs Marcus was most intimat with


s e e e

F ronto and t h ough in lat r y ars h did not h av


, e e e e

th admiration f h im th at h nt rtain d toward


e or e e e e

Maximus and Rusticus p r h aps b caus F ronto was av rs ,


e e e e e

to all p hilosop hy and particularly to Stoic p h iloso p hy y t


, ,
e

all hi li f lon g h f lt a p culiar fondn ss f t h t h


s e e e e e or e en u

loqu nt kind f ri nd much old r t h an h ims l f


w
i ti
s as c, e e ,
e ,
so e e .

Evid ntly F ronto was a lov abl man with a warm h art
w
e e e e

h attach d p opl to hi m by transpar nt kindlin ss


o e e e e e .

Lucius V rus h also b cam hi p upil was as d vot d


e ,
o e e s ,
e e

to hi m as Mar c us h ims l f ; and F t x p r ssions f e ro n o s



e e o

admiration f h i f ri nds r v al v ry p lainly t hat a ff ction


or s e e e e e

and r sp c t must h av b n mutual O h says is r mark


e e e ee . n e, e ,
e

abl f t h l ganc f hi sc h olarly attainm nts ; anoth r


e or e e e e O s e e

h asa d licat s ns f words is a good f llow and phi


e e e e o ,
e no

l
os O
p h ; a
ert h ird is a man f xc p tional l arnin g and ora o e e e

t i l g i f ts ; a f ourt h is v ry brilliant in mars h allin g hi


or c a e s

p h ras s ; a fi fth l arn d and loqu nt ; a si x th I lik v ry


e ,
e e e e ,

e e

muc h b caus f hi acquir m nts and scrupulously h onor


,
e e o s e e

abl ch ara c t r ; anoth r is wort hy f any o ffic ; and to


e e

e

o e

h writ s Wh n I r m mb r t h at my b lov d fri nd is


w
one e e , e e e e e e e

sa f and w ll I b com a l ss asy pr y to gri f and t h


e e ,
e e e e e e ,
e

e vil c h anc s f li f and to anoth r T h r


e o e p opl h e ,

e e ar e e e o

alth ou gh th y h av b n fri nds f a long tim part all f


w w
e e ee e or e, o

a sudd n ith r b c aus th ir c h aract rs


e ,
e e sli gh t or
e e e e ar e ,

b caus f
e e o f ound f ri nds ; but
ne not m f t h at e e ar e en o

calibr e

.

I ima gin too t h at F ronto was ndow d with t h gi ft


e, , e e e
62 MA RCUS A U R E L I US
of instant sympat hy w h th r in j oy or sorrow and an ,
e e ,

instinctiv impuls to d clar that sym pat hy to g t h r with


e e e e ,
e e

a r ady pow r of x pr ssion in word look and g stur


e e e e , , ,
e e,

suc h as i o ft n t h pr ro gativ f south rn p opl and


s e e e e o e e e,

m ans muc h in s rious matt rs and in tim s of li ght h art d


e e e , ,
e —
e e

l isur r nd rs human int rcours v ry a gr abl A d


e e, e e e e e ee e. n

t h r is p r haps a f urth r xplanation of t h particular


w
e e ,
e ,
e e e

a ff ction t h at Marcus h arbor d toward him Th imp rial


e e . e e

h ous h old in its appointm nts and c r moni s


e ,
unos e e e e , as

t ntations v ryt hi n g was ord r d in accord with t h


e , e e e e e so

b i t y and s l f r straint of t h Emp ror s c h aract r and



r e e -
e e e e

tast ; n v rth l ss t h Domus Ti b i was t h palac f


e e e e e e er a n a e e o

t h mast r f t h world and could not disp ns wit h formal


e e o e ,
e e

d corum and t h conv ntional di gnity f royalty Marcus


e e e o .

h ims l f was t h appoint d h ir and willy i lly was oblig d


e e e e ,
-
n e

to maintain a styl f living uncon g nial to hi id als f lif e o e s e o e.

nj oy d hi uncl s soci ty but t h tim s w h n h was


w w
H

e e e s e e , e e e e

abl to nj oy it at l ast during th ir r sid nc in Rom


e e ,
e e e e e e,

must h av b n f and s hort Th Emp ror


e ee occupi d
e . e e as e

with a ff airs f Stat and Marcus on h i part h d c r


o e, , s ,
a e e

monial obli gations pri stly functions fli i l duti s in ,


e , o c a e ,

addition to hi hours f study Lif must h av contain d


s o . e e e

muc h irksom routin F or div rsions th r w r gladi atorial


e e . e e e e e

s h ows rac s t h t h atr ; but Marcus though h was oft n


,
e ,
e e e , e e

oblig d to b a sp ctator was av rs both by natur and


e e e ,
e e, e

by arly trainin g to such x hibitions and h d no tast f


e ,
e ,
a e or

f astin g or carousin g His int ll ctual curiositi s hi lit r


e . e e e , s e

ary nthusiasms n d d companions hip I n t h s thing


e ,
ee e . e ee

tim f adol sc nc a youn g man crav s sympathy outsid


e o e e e, e e

o f hi imm diat f amily


s e d wit h all t h
e . se e

virtu s but it do s not


e ,
h or hi wi fe
e e, s

F austina h d int ll ctual tast s ; D m i t i Lucilla was a


, a e e e o a

sw t and loving moth r but mat rnal t nd rn ss is not


ee e ,
e e e e

all th at a brilliant n ds And of hi cousin F austina s on ee . s

t h you g r n it h r durin g t h
e n p riod of th ir b troth al
e ,
e e e e e e
THE STUDY OF RHE TORIC 63

nor a ft r th ir marr a g I s th r any vid nc th at h h d


e e i e, e e e e e s e a

int r sts b yond h family a ff ctions Marcus s oth r tutors


e e e er e .

e

w r Stoics disciplin d m un motional disillusion d p


w
e e , e en , e , e er

h aps and would h av r pr ss d t h os


,
bullitions of ff e e e e e e a ec

tion and f ancy whi ch F ronto ncoura g d Marcus of a e e . as

s rious disposition but youth sp cially youth ndow d


e , ,
e e e e

with int llig nc and ima gination and rais d to a position


e e e ,
e

wh r o ly s lf r straint stands b tw n its l f and t h grati


e e n e
-
e e ee e e

fi tica f v ry wis h naturally r ac h s out to a larg r f r


on o e e ,
e e e ee

dom wh r it s h all find ampl scop for f ancy f s l f


,
e e e e ,
or e

e xpr ssion and for m r int ll ctual discursiv n ss F ronto


e ,
e e e e e e .
,

t h r for cam as a lib rating spirit H op n d windows


e e e, e e . e e e

upon a di ff r nt world ; and w h at m ant v n mor than


e e ,
e e e e

th is in hi warm impulsiv African way h lavis h d upon


, s , e ,
e e

Marcus an outspok n a ff ction and admi ration th at t h e e e

Roman tutors did not approv of and som tim s t l e e e a u s er e

r pr ss d Wh n Marcus was f ound w pin g at t h loss f


e e e . e ee e o

a f ri nd hi Stoic tutors r buk d hi m ; t h kind h art d


e , s e e e -
e e

Antoninus bad th m l t hi m alon sayin g n ith r phi e e e e, ,



e e

l
os o h
p y nor imp rial pow r can d stroy t h a ff ctions e e e e e .

A d y t Anto inus if
n e may j udg f rom hi ch aract r
,
n ,
on e e s e ,

did not g furth r th an fr dom f rom int r f r nc wh r as


o e ee e e e e, e e

F ronto laud d Marcus s capaciti s to t h ski s



e e e e

hi tast and r scu d t h di ffid t youn g man


w
p li h ms t en s , s e, e e e en

f rom t h h ost f appr h nsions t h at hi f utur


e op i b i li e e s e r es on s

ti s cast li k a gr at s h adow about hi m F ronto too


e e e .
, ,
as

stu ff d wi th a knowl dg f lit ratur and notions f lit r


e e e o e e o e

ary valu s and glow d with nt husiasm for h i art ; and


e e e s

F t z al f Latin lit ratur was not m r ly f Latin


r on o s

e or e e e e or

lit ratur as such but as a gr at achi v m nt f t h Latin


e e ,
e e e e o e

rac H was an int ns patriot hims l f and wh n h wis h d


e . e e e e ,
e e e

to mak h i gh comm ndation f a fri nd h would call hi m


e e o e e

a gr at l f h i country (p atria
e m ti im
ov er o ) H s e a an ss us . e

was at with t h Emp ror in M


on e M e e

past in v neration for t h stabl


,
M N
e
m
H e e

é
64 MA RCUS A URELIUS
s to t hat past
and str ngth
w
~ w ~
e

tb t he E m p i re7 afi d he(ifi i é ké ii tffl i r hi s r o yal l li v ely



r ~
u
p pi ~a ~

ad mi ration fo r t he
anci nt h ro s h h d mad t h Roman e e e o a e e

nam proud a poss ssion As a natural corollary or


e so e .

ac c ompanim nt to t his patriotism F ronto mbrac d t h


e , e e e

fas hionabl cult f anti q uity in lit ratur and tau ght a
e or e e,

d vout loyalty f t h anci nt aut hors and wh at v r ls


e or e e e e e e

h d issu d out f t h h roic days f t h R public Mor t h an


a e o e e o e e . e

t hirty y ars a ft rwards hi imp rial pupil still class d t h


e e s e e e

old words and t h old h ro s to g th r in hi m mory (M Ae e e e e s e . .

IV ,
And abov all F ronto was truthful p ur mind d
,
e , ,
e
-
e ,

h on st and g nuin
e and vid ntly from t h v ry b gin
e e, ,
e e ,
e e e

nin g conc iv d a d p and a g r a ff ction f t h winning


,
e e ee e e e or e ,

wist ful youn g man , .

F ronto was marri d ; h i h ous stood in wh at h d onc e s e a e

b n t h gard ns f Ma c nas on t h Esquilin Hill n ar


ee e e o e e ,
e e ,
e

t h old wall f S rvius Tullius a littl to t h sout h ast p


e o e ,
e e e ,
er

h aps f w h r S Maria Ma ggior now stands His wi f s


,
o e e . e . e

nam was Grac and th y h d


e dau ght r also nam d
e, e a on e e , e

Grac ; and all th r w r on t rms f a ff ctionat familiar


e ee e e e o e e

ity with Marcus and hi moth r Th part f t h corr spond s e . e o e e

e nc b tw n F ronto and Marcus th at I am about to quot


e e ee e,

runs ov r t h y ars f rom 1 3 9 to 1 4 3 or t h r abouts w h n


e e e e e ,
e

Marcus is i ght n to tw nty two y ars old Th x act


e ee e -
e . e e

c h ronology is not important f our purpos s I t s ms or e . ee

lik ly t h at F ronto was livin g in Rom and th at Marcus


e e,

usually wrot f rom som wh r in t h country L i m or


e e e e e ,
or u

L i m p r h aps and part f t h tim


anu v u ,
e f rom N a pl s or , ,
o e e, e

Baia Som l tt rs as will b s n r lat to t h pr c din g


e . e e e , e ee ,
e e e e e

l tt rs and som do not Gr k p h ras s I h av r nd r d in


e e ,
e . ee e e e e e

F r nc he .
66

Esp cially t h
e

sl p I do not succ d in
ee —
as
MA

thin g I d sir to t ach you h to


e on e
RCUS

ee .
AU

e
RELIUS
e e —
o w
F ollow your good pl asur ; and may t h gods pr s rv e e e e e e

you for m bot h w h il you sle p and w h il you wak Good e ee e e .

by my j oy good by
e, ,
-
e.

F RO N T O .

Ma rc u s t o Fr o n t o
MY DEAR MAsT E R
I s h all h av nothin g to do all day I f you v r lov d m
e . e e e e,

lov m today and s nd m a good f rtil subj ct I b g I


e e e e e e e . e ,

b s ch j t p i j t
e ee ,
e
p p li

j t
en i m pl F or
r e, in t h is e

en s u e, e

ore .

th m about t h C t m i I hav discov r d not hin g x


e e e en u v r s, e e e e

c pt d ph
e es ib t p t m i
ra s es l di c v F ar
r a n es ou r er n er e s o u rs . e

w ll B st f Mast rs Th Lady my Mot h r s nds you h


e ,
e o e . e , e , e er

kind r gards I h av b n wanting to writ about som th in g


e . e ee e e

w h r it would b n c ssary to rant and rav B nic about


e e e e e e . e e

it and s nd m a good ranting j t


e e su e .

M AR C U S .

Fr o n t o t o Ma rc u s
MY D EA R L O RD
I av got a th m for you ; it is a s rious subj ct A
h e e e e e .

consul f t h Roman P opl at t h f stival of Min rva laid


o e e e, e e e ,

asid hi o fficial toga put on gauntl ts and ri ght among t h


e s ,
e , ,
e

gladiators in t h pr s nc f t h Roman P opl kill d a


, e e e e o e e e, e

lion A d mand for punis hm nt h b n lodg d wi th t h


. e e as ee e e

C nsors E mp l j t d b d p i il f t t d
e . os e e su e

a or , u s au e n rer a ns

tou sl d é t i l F ar w ll my c h arming Lord Pl as giv


es a s . e e ,
. e e e

my r sp cts to my Lady your Moth r


e e ,
e .

F RO N T O .

M a rc u s t o F ro n t o
D E AR F R O N T O
Wh n did it h app n ? Was it at Rom ? Ar n t you sp aking
e e e e

e
THE STUDY OF RHE TORIC 67

of t hat a ff air und r Domitian at Albano ? I may y that it


e sa

will b n c ssary to do a gr at d al f work on this subj ct


e e e e e o e ,

in ord r to mak it s m cr dibl or rath r to stir up any


e e ee e e, e

indignation at it I t s ms to m j t t e p . i m ee e an s u e r s eu o ra s e

bl bl
a e .l as writ m at onc w h n it took plac
P
e e e e e e e .

M AR C U S .

Ma rcu s t o Fr on t o
MY D E A R M A ST E R
I av writt n out my th m compl t ly (s nd m anoth r
h e e e e e e e e e

subj ct ) but my s cr tary was not on hand to copy it out


e ,
e e .

N v rth l ss I h av not writt n it to my liking ; in t h first


e e e e ,
e e e

plac I was in a h urry in t h s cond your sickn ss took


e , e e e

away som of my pow rs But my apolo gi s s h all g tomor


e e . e o

row w h n I s h all s nd my t h m Good by my Sw t st


,
e e e e .

e, ee e

Mast r Th Lady my Moth r s nds h kind r gards


e . e ,
e ,
e er e .

M AR C U S .

F r on t o t o Ma r cu s
D E AR C A E S A R
Grac cam h om last night And a s cond grac b caus
e e e . e e, e e

you hav transpos d thos apoth gms admirably ; ind d


e e e e so ee

th I r c iv d today is
e on e n arly p r f ct th at it could
e e e so e e e
-

b put in a volum
e f Sallust wit h out any s h ortcoming or
e o ,

lack f h armony Wh n you


o making suc h good progr ss
. e a re e ,

I b com v ry h appy g y h alth y and young

w
e e e ,
a ,
e ,
.

I am goin g to ask som t h ing h ard of you ; but sinc I e e

r m mb r h much it b n fit d m I cannot h lp xacting


e e e o e e e e, e e

it f you Transpos t h sam apoth gm ov r and ov r


o . e e e e e e

a gain two or t hr tim s at l ast j ust as you h av don


,
ee e e ,
e e

with this littl Go on and transpos t h long r on s


e on e . e e e e

also two or t hr tim s ; b dili g nt and bold ; for w h at v r


,
ee e e e e e

you attack boldly you will wit h your int lli g nc do x , e e e, e

c ellen t l
y .

Wh n by t h grac of t h gods
e , e e e , you com back to Rom
e e,
es MA RCUS A U R E L I US
I s h all ask you to do daily v rs s again My ob isanc e e . e e,

pl as to my La dy your Moth r
e e, ,
e .

FRO NT O .

Marcus to Fro n t o
M O S T N O B L E C O NS U L :

I am plac d in t h at condition f fortun in w hic h as


e o e, ,

Ennius says :

Th c ou s l f ll m i h oll o w
e n e o a en s ,

U r ging alw ys to pl a ur us a e s e .

Plautus too says admirably on t his subj ct in hi C l

W
, , e ,
s o ax

Th ou gh th y h av pl d g d th ir h o r th y d c iv
e e e e e no e e e e

H i m th at b li v th m sn k ing sycoph ts
,

e e es e ea an

h p r ss ab ut t h k ing th ir lip s
, ,

o ed o e , an on e

Is thing i th i h rts anoth r


one , n e r ea e .

T h r was a tim w h n th is misc hi f conc rn d K in gs only ;


w
e e e e e e e

but now t h sons f K ings h av t h sam ki nd f courti rs


e o e e e o e ,

h o, as N i says a ev u s :

List n o b s qui ous d uck and pl ay t h l ck y


e e , , e a e .

Am I not ri ght d ar Mast r to b wroth to put b for ,


e e ,
e ,
e e

mys l f e l b t ? and am I not righ t to fix my t h ough ts


u n s eu u

on man only wh n I pick up my p ?


on e ,
e en

You ask m in a most flatt rin g way f my v rs s ; and


w
e, e ,
or e e

I s h ould h av s nt th m at onc i f I h d h d t h m with


e e e e, a a e

m e. But my s cr tary (you kno hi m I m an Anic tus )


e e , e e ,

wh n I was startin g did not pack any f my writin gs H


e ,
o . e

kn w my failin g and was a fraid th at i f I g t h old f t h m


e o o e ,

I S h ould do as I usually do and t h row t h m in t h fi But ,


e e re .

t hos v rs s ran no risk ; f as I will con f ss truly to my


e e e or, e

Mast r I lik th m
e , e e .

I n th is plac I study at ni gh t ; for my day is s p nt at t h


e, e e

th atr I accomplis h littl tir d at nigh t and I g t u p in


e e . e, e ,
e

t h mornin g h alf asl p I n spit


e f t h is I h av fill d fi ee . e o ,
e e ve

books with t c t f m i ty l m ! But wh n you r ad


ex r a s ro s x vo u es e e
THE STUDY OF RHE TORIC 69

sixty r m mb r t h at th y includ th in gs by N i and


,
e e e e e ov u s ,

f arc s and Scipio s s h ort sp c h s I was a f raid t h numb r



e ,
ee e . e e

mi gh t f right n you e .

Good by my v ry d ar my most a ff ctionat F ri nd ;


-
e, e e ,
e e, e

good by most nobl Consul sw t st f Mast rs


-
e, e , ee e o e .

M ARC US .

F ro n t o t o M a rc u s
MY D E AR L O R D
You may th ink th at I sl pt all last ni gh t but most f t h e , o e

tim I lay awak wond ring wh th r I am not too lax and


e e, e e e

too l ni nt toward your f aults on account f my x c din g


e e ,
o e ee

a ff c tion f you and w h th r you ough t not to b f arth r


e or , e e e e

advanc d in r h toric and hav a mor loqu nt way f


e e , e e e e o

e xpr ssin g yours lf w r it not th at sloth and car l ssn ss


e e ,
e e e e e

st lti fy your tal nts Wh il I was turnin g t his ov r anxiously


u e . e e

in my mind I b gan to r aliz th at you h av pro gr ss d


,
e e e e e e

muc h b yond your y ars mor th an was r asonabl to h op


e e ,
e e e e

for f rom t h l n gt h f tim y e h av studi d t h subj ct


e o e ou e e e e ,

and v n mor than I h d xp ct d alth ough I h d t my


e e e a e e e ,
a se

h op s xc ssiv ly h i gh
e e e e .

L t us gird ours lv s and mak an ff ort I will guarant


e e e e e . ee,

go bail giv any pl dg th at I s hall quickly t you on t h


, e e e, se e

v ry pinnacl f loqu nc Th gods will do it th y will


w
e e o e e e . e ,
e

bl ss Good by my Lord pe i b c g fi t i
e us .
-
e, , es r e, a e on o u ra e, e -
o

au t mp e t t l pé i s Pl as giv my humbl r sp cts


e a

e r en c e . e e e e e e

to my Lady your Moth r I n th at passag on t h di sci


,
e . e e

pli n f t h P rsians your xpr ssion l y l d is good


e o e e ,
e e a on oa .

F R O N TO .

M a rc u s t o Fr o n t o
D E A R M AS T E R
av r c iv d two l tt rs from you at onc I n
I h e e e e of e e e. on e

t h m you f ound f ault with m


e and ac c us d m f h avin g e e e o

w itt n a passa g car l ssly ; in t h oth r you w r watch


r e e e e e e e e

i g ov r my x rtions and makin g th m asi r by your com


n e e e e e e
70 MA RCUS A URELIUS
pli m en t s N ev erth el ess I
sw ar on my li f on my moth r s ’
. e e, e ,
,

on yours that your first l tt r gav m t h gr at r pl asur


, e e e e e e e e e .

Whil I was r adin g I xclaim d again and a gain How


w
e e e e

W
,

lucky I am ! Som body may ask A you lucky b caus you


e ,
re e e

h av a mast r to t ac h you h to t i t wit


w
e e
j t
e h o ra er nu su e ,

ing nuity lucidity br vity and l ganc ? N o th at is not


e , ,
e ,
"

e e e ,

t h r ason
e ehy I call mys lf lucky hy i it t h n ? B caus e . s ,
e e e

I l arn from you to S p ak t h truth To sp ak t h trut h


e e e . e e

strai ght out is a h ard matt r both f gods and m T h r e or en . e e

is no oracl so truth ful but it contains som doubt som


e e ,
e un

c rtainty som thing intricat by whic h imprud nt man


e ,
e e, an e

is caught as in a snar So I must t hank you b caus e . e e

you t ac h m so w ll bot h to sp ak t h truth and to list n


e e e e e e

to t h truth e .

M AR C U S .

Wh n t h tim cam for Marcus as consul to mak hi


e e e e , ,
e s

maid n sp c h in t h S nat (1 4 0 A D ) F ronto was mor


e ee e e e . . e

n rvous th an hi pupil
e s .

MY L O R D
I f you h av e any a ff ction for m sl p w ll th s nights e e ee e e e ,

so th at you s hall nt r t h S nat with a good color and


e e e e e ,

sp ak with a good vigorous voic


e e .

F R O N TO .

D E A R M A ST E R '

s h all n v r h av nough a ff ction


I e e e e e for you ; I will go to
sl p
ee .

M AR C U S .

MY L O RD
Excus m Pl as strik out
e word from your sp ch
e
. e e e on e ee ,

and I b g th at you will n v r y di ti f


e ti e e sa c on or o ra on .

Good by my Lord my v rlasting glory Pl as giv my



e, ,
e e . e e e

r sp cts to my Lady your Moth r


e e , e .

FRO NTO .
THE STUDY OF RHE TORIC 71

D E AR M A ST E R
If
you will r mind e me about th at word tomorrow , I will
g iv you my r asons
e e .

MA RC US .

Ifl y
m
Emp
t he ror appoint
m d F ronto
eai t m consul m ,
t he e e

for t hgb i f t rm of two month s according to t h custo m


'

r e e , e

th at obtain d at t his tim p g habm er m ari i hi e, r OR— s

s rvic s s t t to Marcu s for t h sam h onor h d b n


e e a u or ,
e e a ee

fd d a littl arli r to H rod s Atticus Th ffi


m
h u

a fz c d fe e e e e e . an c ea z as

h onora r and F t ch i f duty was to ’


e r on o s e

d liv r a pan gyric upon t h Emp ror Th occasion was


e e e e e . e

to b f gr at social importanc ; and in ord r to mak t h


e o e e e e e

w
oration worthy both of t h Emp ror and of hi own r puta e e s e

tion F ronto spar d n ith r tim nor pains B for it was


,
e e e e . e e

d liv r d h s nt c rtain passag s to Marcus p rh aps ith


e e e , e e e e ,
e

th id a f finding out wh th r t h styl and substanc


e e o e e e e e

would b satisfactory to hi imp rial patron


e s e .

Fr o n t o t o M a rc u s
Rom July
w
e, ,
1 43 .

MY D E A R L O R D C A E S AR
I n your last l ett er you asked h y I ha d not d eliv er ed my

e e
. w
sp eech in t he S enat e I s h all d eliver it on t he id es of Au
gust P er h a p s you want to know h y so lat e ? B ecaus e I am
n v r in a urry in any r sp ct to ulfill a c r monial f
h ,
.

e e ,
f e e un c
tion But also it is my duty to tr at you without di i m
.
,
as e ss u

lation or ambi guity I will t ll you wh at is t h id a in t h ,


e . e e e

back f my mind I h av o ft n in t h S nat prais d your


o . e e e e e e

g rand f at h r t h Divin Hadrian copiously and gladly


e ,
e e , , ,

too ; th r many f thos sp c h s and th y


e e ar e in v ry o e ee e e are e e

W
,

body s h ands My attitud toward Hadrian (b it said with



. e e

t h kind p rmission
e f your filial r sp ct ) was rat h r t h at
e o e e e

o f d sir to h av h i m w ll dispos d and g ntl as i f h w r


e e e e -
e e e, e e e

Mars G d i or F at h r Ju p it r than f a ff ction hy ?


ra vu s e e , o e . so
72 MA RCUS A URELIUS
B caus
e a ff ction
e fo r n ds som assuranc and f amil
e on e ee e e

i i t y ; but I lack d ssuran c


ar and t h r for th ou gh I f lt
e a e, e e e, e

g r at
e r v r n c f
e h i m I
e ewas not bold enou gh to nt rtain
or ,
e e e

a ff ction for hi m But Antoninus I lov d dot upon as I


e . ean e ,

lov t h e day li f t h soul and I f l th at h lov s


e s un , ,
e, e ,
ee e e

m e Unl ss I S p ak h i prais in suc h a way th at my ulogy


. e e s e e

s hall not li buri d in t h r c ords f t h S nat but b in


e e e e o e e e, e

m n s h ands and y s th n I v n f ail in gratitud to you


e

e e ,
e e e e .

F or as t h runaway slav is r port d to h av said



, e I e e e e ,

always ran lik sixty f my mast r but now to mak my


e or e ,
e

e scap I ll run lik a h undr d So w h n I us d to ulo giz


e,

e e .

e e e e

Hadrian I was running f a mast r ; but now I am runnin g


,
or e

on my own a c count for my own sak I say and I am put ,


e, ,

tin g all my mind into th is oration T h r for accordin g to . e e e,

my conv ni n c I s h all proc d slowly l isur ly c om fort


e e e, ee , e e ,

ably .

I f you in a gr at h urry find som di v rsion in t h


ar e e ,
e e e

m anwhil ; kiss your F ath r h g him and th n ulo giz


e e e ,
u ,
e e e

h i m yours l f How v r you may xp ct to h ar som t h in g


e . e e ,
e e e e

to your tast on t h id s f Au gust Good by Ca sar try to


e e e o .

e, e ,

d s rv such a f ath r ; and i f you m an to writ anyth in g


e e e e e e ,

writ slowly e

FRO NTO .

T h s l tt rs e e not in s qu nc ; possibly I am quit


e e ar e e e e e

wron g as to t h pisod s to which th y r lat ; and it is


e e e e e e un

c rtain j ust wh ich f F t l tt rs call d forth t h f l


e o r on o s

e e e e o

lowin g r h tori c al answ r f rom t h princ


e e e e .

Marcu s t o Fr o n t o

N apl es ,
July ,
143 .

MY D E A R F R O NT O , M O ST I L LU ST R I O U S C O N S U L
I surr nd r ; you h av conqu r d B yond a doubt you
e e e e e . e

h av outdon in a ff ction all t h lov rs t h at v r x ist d


e e e e e e e e e .

Tak t h victor s wr ath ; and b sid s l t t h h rald pro


e e

e ,
e e , e e e
74 MA RCUS A URELIUS
ears burn d for a lon g w hil My Sov r i gn lik s and
e e . e e e a
p
prov s your r ason for adj
e i g your sp c h e ou r n n ee .

M A RC U S .

F ro n t o t o Ma rc u s
MY D E AR L O R D A N D C A E S A R
I tak it f grant d my Lord th at you d vot a littl
e or e , ,
e e e

tim to writing pros ; for alth ough a rid r x rcis s hi


e e e e e e s

h ors s sp d w h t h r h go s at a gallop or at a trot n v r



e ee e e e e ,
e e

th l t h mor us ful gait s h ould b t h mor fr qu ntly


e es s e e e e e e e e

practis d e .

You th at I am not d aling with you as if I h d in


s ee e a

mind t h at you but tw nty two y ars old At th at g I


are e -
e . a e

h d h ardly r ad any of t h classics ; but by t h grac


a e f th e , e e o e

g ods and your own virtu s you h av attain d a profici ncy e ,


e e e

in oratory t hat would suffic to stablis h t h r putation of e e e e

m enof matur y ars And also (a difficult accomplis h


e e .
,

m nt ) you h av dO qually w ll in all forms f writin g


e ,
e ne e e o ,

for t h l tt rs w h ich you writ so assiduously s how m


e e e e e

cl arly nough wh at you can do in t h l ss c r monious


e e e e e e

l tt r writin g styl in Cic ro s mann r


e e -
e, e

e .

Th v rs s t h at you h av s nt m
e e e I h av s nt back by e e e e e

A fi di
u V ictorinus A d I s nt th m back in this way I
us . n e e .

car fully s w d t h pap r tog th r wit h th r ad and I


e e e e e e e e ,

s al d t h th r ad tigh t th at not v n th at littl mous


e e e e so e e e e

could g t a glimps in any way F or h h n v r s h ar d


e e . e as e e e

any f your h x am t rs with m ; h i


o ly and cun ing
e e e e e s so s n .

I n xcus h says t h at you r cit your h xam t rs on pur


e e, e e e e e e

pos v ry f ast and th at th r for h can t commit t h m to


e e , e e e e

e

m mory But h is paid tit f tat H g ts as good as h


e . e or . e e e

g av ; h s h an t h ar a sin gl lin B sid s I r m mb r you



e e e e e . e e ,
e e e

h av o f t n admonis h d m not to S h ow your v rs s to any

w
e e e e e e

on e .

W ll h do things go my Lord ? You


e ,
o sur ly in good ,
ar e e

spirits sur ly w ll sur ly saf and sound in v ry r sp ct


,
e e ,
e e e e e e .
THE STUDY OF RHETORIC 75

F ar w ll my d li gh t my saf ty my mirth my glory F ar


e e ,
e ,
e , , . e

w ll and I b s ch you lov m w holly both in j st and


e , , e ee ,
e e e

e arn st e .

I h av writt n your moth r a l tt r in Gr k (suc h is my


e e e e e ee

pr sumption ) and I h av nclos d it in my l tt r to you


e ,
e e e e e .

R ad it first and i f th r
e gross mi stak s in it will you
,
e e ar e e , ,

as you f r s h r from Gr k lit ratur


ar e corr ct th m and
e e ee e e, e e ,

t h n h and it to your moth r ; f I don t want h to d spis


e e or

er e e

m as a yok l Good by my Lord and giv your Mot h r a


e e .
-
e, ,
e e

ki ss w h n you giv h t h l tt r so th at h s hall b t h


e e er e e e ,
S e e e

mor willing to r ad it
e e .

C O R N E LI U S F RO N T O ,
C O N S UL .

M a rcu s t o Fron t o

N apl es ,
August 15 143 .

MY D E A R C O N S U L A N D M A ST E R
I f any of t h anci nt Gr ks v r wrot lik you l t e e ee e e e e ,
e

scholars j udg ; f my part i f I may v ntur to y I


e or ,
e e sa s o,

h av n v r found a passa g in Cato t h at vitup rat s


e e e w ll e e e as e

as you ulo giz I f it w r possibl to ulogiz our Sov r ign


e e . e e e e e e e

as h d s rv s c rtainly your ulo gy of hi m would b d


e e e e ,
e e e a e

quat M i t t t d h t c d f i And y t it would


e . a s ce e c e es en ore a re . e

b asi r to imitat P hidias or Ap ll s it would b asi r


e e e e e e , e e e

to imitat D mosth n s hims l f or Cato v n th an your


e e e e e , e e ,

work it i wrought with much laboration and finis h d


, s so e e

e xc ll nc I hav n v r r ad anyt h ing in whic h th r was


e e e . e e e e e e

such cultur such flavor f our old classics su c h polis h


e, o , ,

such pur Latin O h h ap p y m to b taught by suc h a


e .
,
e, e

mast r ! Q l g m t ! Q l d Wh at brilliancy '


e ue s ar u en s ue or re ’

W
.

w h at wit ! w h at gra c s ! Q l é c l t O h in v ry li n f it e ue a .

, e e e o !

May I di but you s h ould h av a s c ptr put into your


e e e e

h ands a crown , t on your f or h ad and a j ud gm nt s at


se e e ,
e e

r ct d f you T h n a h rald s h ould summon us all hy


e e e or . e e .

do I y sa I m an all m
u s,— of l tt rs and orators By t h e en e e . e
76 MA RCUS A URELIUS
authority of your sc ptr you would bring th m up by e e e on e

one and discours wisdom to th m e e .

I writ th is to you in t h gr at st hurry b caus as I am


e e e e ,
e e,

s ndin g you a most gracious l tt r from our Sov r i gn


e e e e e ,

wh at n d is t h r of a long r l tt r f rom m
ee e e good by e e e e, s o ,
-
e,

h onor of Roman oratory prid f your f ri nds h m m i m ,


e o e ,
o e

p y a bla most d li g
e,h t f ul f m most illustrious f consuls
e o en , o ,

sw t st f mast rs
w
ee e o e .

I n f utur pl as b war f suc h m ndacious xag g ration


e, e e e e o e e e

about m sp cially in t h S nat And y t h wond r ful


e, e e e e e . e o e

of you to h av writt n t h at sp c h ! 0 t h at I mi gh t kiss


e e ee ,

your h ad at v ry h ading V
e h m
e e t t l e . ou s a v ez c ar

e ou e

m d
on A ft r r ading your sp ch it is f no
e . e e f m to ee , o u se or e

stru g gl and labor and strain v ry n rv F ar you w ll


e ,
e e e e . e e

always sw t st Mast r,
ee e e .

M AR C U S .

l tt r from t h Emp ror contain d this passag t h


Th e e e e e e e, e

r st is lost
w
e

By H rcul s ! you h av don capitally to h av f ound


e e e e e

som th in g
e in such a f amiliar and w ll worn subj ct
ne e -
e .

But f cours v n to wis h to do wh at you can do so w ll


,
o e, e e e ,

is a sourc of ff ctiv n ss N othin g could b b tt r th an


e e e e e . e e e

your id as ; nothing mor urban (and y t th y k p th ir


e e e e e ee e

so ndn ss ) than your way f xpr ssin g th m N or will I


u e o e e e .

do you t h wrong to d fraud you f your w ll arn d prais


e e o e -
e e e,

f f ar f t h impropri ty f praisin g my own prais s So


or e o e e o e .
,

you h av mad your f ormal acc ptanc and by a most d


e e e e, ,
e

s rvin g p r formanc wh ich (t h subj ct apart ) is ntitl d


w
e e e, e e e e

to v ry h onor F or t h r st th r was littl to do in ord r


e e . e e ,
e e e e

to l t m know h you f lt toward m for I w ll know


e e o e e, e

th at wh at I say and do m ts your most kind approval ee .

Good by F ronto my d ar f ri nd
-
e, ,
e e .

A N T O N I N U S, I M P E R AT O R .
THE STUDY OF RHE TORIC 77

B S Th tribut to my F austina w h ic h you introduc d into


. e e ,
e

your sp ch most grac fully I thou gh t v n mor tru th an


ee e ,
e e e e

it was loqu nt Wh at you said was absolut ly tru By t h


e e . e e
. e

gods ! I h d rat h r liv with h on t h prison island of


a e e er e

Gyara th an on t h Palatin with out h


e e er .
L E T T E R S
C H A P T

B E T W E R

E E N
V I

F R I E N D S

WW W
HE not book f Marcus s m ditations is d and
e -
o

e sa

b longs to a b r av d old g ; it is a book f

W
e e e e a e o

antiqu hardi hood and f r li gious d sir almost


e o e e e,

r li gious passion t hwart d by a p hysical p h ilosop hy ; t h


w
e ,
e e

MEEB M M M M M M
o Lhim ; b ggarly bio grap h r h go s und r t h nam
t he e e ,
o e e e e

of Julius C pit li sp nt hi tim lik a ragpick r pok


a o nu s, e s e, e e ,

I ng about in t h r f us f h istory ; so t h at t h s l tt rs b
e e e o e e e e e

tw n t h kind old mast r and t h imp rial pupil


ee e almost e e e a re

t h only do c um nts t h at h av any biograp h ical valu


e e and e e,

t h r for it may not b out of plac to introduc som mor


e e e e e e e e

of th m A p h ras h r and t h r an an cdot a r qu st a


e . e e e e e, e e, e e ,

casual r f r nc r ports of r ading and x pr ssions f


e e e e, e e ,
e e o

a ff ction all contribut th ir s v ral touc h s to a pr s nta


e ,
e e e e e e e

tion f h i ch aract r At l ast th y act as a gloss to xplain


o s e . e e e

and ampli fy t h t stimony giv n by t h gracious sculptur d


e e e e e

e ffi gy f hi m as a yout h a s rvic w h ic h t h marbl statu s


o ,
e e e e e

o f hi s rious car worn man h ood r turn by t h i


s e ,
omm n
e —
e ,
e r o e

tary on t h book f M di t t i e o e a o ns .

I will b gin wit h a l tt r writt n in Gr k by F ronto to


e e e e ee ,

Marcus s mot h r sinc h was a gr at f actor in hi duca


w

e ,
e s e e s e

tion and b longs to t h cat gory as it s ms to m f t hos


, e e e ,
ee e, o e

wom n h e ntitl d to s h ar in t h glory f t h ir illus


o ar e e e e e o e

trio s sons
n .

Fro n t o t o D om i t ia Lu c illa
August , 143 .

MY LADY
Gladly , g ladly ,
I assur you by e t he gods ind d most
,
ee
L ETTERS
ag rly h av I s nt my d ar Grac to c l brat your birth
B ET W EE N F RIE ND S 79

w
e e ,
e e e e e e e

day and I s hould h av gon mys l f h d it b n possibl ;


,
e e e ,
a ee e

but my f t in t h sto ks of o ffic F or th r


ee are af e c e . e e a re e

days of offic l ft and th r is a gr at d al f public busi


w
e e ,
e e e e o

n ss to do Wh n th at Sh all l t m g I am sur to run to


e . e e e o, e

you much mor a g rly th an runn rs h run a rac ; th y e e e e o e e

a re start d a ft r t h y h av b n but a mom nt or two on


e e e e ee e

th ir marks but this is alr ady t h s cond month that I am


e , e e e

k pt back from my rac to you


e e .

T h t h ing t h at ou gh t to h av b n don to C l brat t h is

w
e e ee e e e e

day was f wom n to ass mbl from v rywh r ; first t h


w
or e e e e e e e ,
e

wom n h lov th ir husbands and lov th ir ch ildr n


w
e o e e e e e ,
,

and w ll b h av d ; s condly thos h


ar e e -
etru and e e ,
e o ar e e

quit with out guil ; and th irdly t h wom n h h av ch ar


e e ,
e e o e

ity t h a ff abl t h court ous and suc h as


,
e e, fr f rom e e ,
ar e ee

prid s hould all tak part in t h c l bration And many


e, e e e e .

anoth r troop f wom n S h ould b t h r to S har in your


e o e e e e e

prais and partak f your virtu f you poss ss all t h


e e o e, or e e

virtu s and you e ,


wis in all t h accomplis hm nts th at ar e e e e

b c om a woman j ust as At h n poss ss s and is wis in t h


e e ,
e e e e e e

arts ; but f oth r wom n non o v rs d in mor th an


e e ,
e a re e e e on e

particular virtu and a ch is prais d f t h at j ust as praise e e or , e

i divid d amon g t h Mus s to ac h f


s e h art e e ,
e or er o n e .

And if it h d b n my lot to h av h d ch arg of o p ning


a ee e a e e

your door to gu sts worthy f t h f stival I s h ould hav


w
e o e e , e

ob y d Hom r and xclud d th os t h at fals ly pr t nd to


e e e e e e e e e

kind f lin gs h hid ee thin g in t h ir h arts w h il th y


,

o e on e e e e e

utt r anot h r and


e count r f it all t h way f rom laugh
e , are e e e

ter to t ars e .

F RO N T O .

T h s ot h r l tt rs I h av pick d out r gardl ss f bro


e e e e e e e ,
e e o e

l gy f
no o th in formation th y contain ab ut Marcus s
,
or e e o

doin gs and h i way of li f s e .


80 MA RCUS A URELIUS
M a rc u s t o Fr o n t o
D E A R M A ST E R
Wh n my F ath r b took hims l f h om f rom t h vin yard
e e e e e e e ,

I as usual mount d my h ors and t out on t h road A ft r

w
e e, se e . e

I h d gon a littl way ri ght in t h road t h r w r a gr at


a e e , e e e e e e

many s h p all huddl d tog t h r I t


ee a lon ly S pot e e e . as e .

T h r w r four do gs and two s h p h rds and nothin g


e e e e e e ,

e ls T h n
e . f t h s h p h rds w h n h saw s v ral h ors
e on e o e e e ,
e e e e e

m cri d to t h oth r Look out f thos f llows on


en , e e e ,

or e e

h ors ba c k t h y
e o ft n t rribl robb rs Wh n I h ard
,
e are e e e e . e e

t h at I t spurs to my hors and das h d in among t h


se e, e e

W
,

s h p T h y took fright and scatt r d som h r som


w
ee . e e e ,
e e e, e

t h r bl atin g and scamp rin g in v ry dir ction O


e e, e e e e e . ne

s h p h rd h url d hi sta ff wh ic h land d on t h rid r h


w
e e e s ,
e e e o

was followin g m g a llop d away Th ups h ot was t h at


e . e e . e

t h man
e h was a f raid l st h los h i s h p lost h i sta ff
o e e e s ee ,
s .

Do you t hi k I am romancin g N o i t a tru storyn ?


,

s e .

T h r s mor b sid s and I s hould writ t h r st but t h


e e

e e e , e e e ,
e

s rvant com s to t ll m that my bat h i r ady Good by


e e e e s e .

e,

sw t st Mast r rar st and b st f m ; you


ee e e my id al
, e e o en a re e

o f pl asantn ss of kindlin ss and d ligh t fuln ss


e e ,
e , e e .

M AR C U S .

Marc u s t o Fro n t o
MY D E A R M A ST E R

you
that g t
w
Aft r I h d got into t h carria g and said good by to
w w
sprinklin
e

g f
e rain Buto b
a

did not h av by any m ans a bad j ourn y x c pt


,

a
e

f or r ac h d
e
e

o
e

.
e

e e w e

e
,
-

e
e
e

our co ntry h ous w nt about a mil out f our road to


u e, e e e o

visit A a gni and saw wh at th r was to


n ,
in t his old e e s ee

tow I t is a littl bit f a plac but it contains many


n . e o e,

antiquiti s and t mpl s and mor thin gs conn ct d with


e ,
e e ,
e e e

wors hip th an you can count N ot a corn r but th r is som . e e e e

sanctuary or s h rin or t mpl B sid s th r


,
a quan e, e e. e e ,
e e ar e

tity f books writt n on lin n t h at h av to do wi th r li gious


o e e e e
82

t hin g N v rth l ss
. e e e e

in t h a ft rnoon w nt h om and I b took mys l f to my


e e
MA

w
w
did c limb up a v ry st p hill ; and
e
,
RCUS
e

e
A

e,
URELIUS

e
e ee

books I pull d ff my boots took ff my cloth s and sp nt


. e o , o e ,
e

two hours on my b d I r ad Cato s sp ch O t h p p ty e . e



ee n e ro er

o f P lc h and
u anot h r in
ra, w h ich h brough t c h arg s e e e

a gainst a tribun Ho ! (you will y to your s rvant ) g e


.

sa e o

as fast as you can and f tch m t h os sp c h s from ,


e e e ee e

Apollo s library But y will s nd in vain f th os v ry



. ou e ,
or e e

books h av com down a ft r m So you must do your b st


e e e e . e

with t h librarian f t h Tib rian library ; som thin g will


e o e e e

h av to b paid in doing it and wh n I com to town h can


e e ,
e e e

g iv m e h alf e .

A ft r I h d r ad th os sp ch s I wrot som poor stu ff


e a e e ee e ,
e e

t hat d s rv s to b burnt up or th rown in t h wat r V i


w
e e e e e e . ra

j i éc it é j d h i compositions
’ ’
m ten , a r s a ns s ucc s au ou r u ,

worthy f t h h untsm n and vintag rs h makin g a


w
o e e e o ar e

f righ t f ul rack t n ar my room s h outing and singin g T h y


e e . e

ar e odious and t dious nou gh f a l y Wh at is th at e e or a er .

I m sayin g I was quit corr ct f my Mast r is an



? t e e or e o ra o r .
,

I s m to h av caug ht cold ; I don t know w h th r it is



ee e e e

b caus I walk d about this morning in my sandals or b


e e e e

caus I wrot e badly A yh ow th ou gh I am g n rally a


e so . n ,
e e

man f p hl gmatic humors y t today I find my nos run


o e ,
e e

ni g much mor th an usual So I s h all pour oil on my h ad


n e . e

(f I don t propos to put a singl dro p today into my



or e e

lamp ) and go to sl p ; for I am d ad tir d with riding and ee e e

sn zing Tak good car f yours l f for my sak d ar st


ee . e e o e e, e e

and sw t st of Mast rs for wit hout xagg ration I miss


ee e e ,
e e

you mor th an I do t h city f Rom


e e o e .

M AR C U S .

M a rcu s t o Fr o n t o

D E AR M A S T E R ,
A N D M O ST N O B L E C O N S U L
I he ard P o lem o n d liv r an addr ss
e e e t he oth r day e —
pa r
LE T T E R S B E T
Do you want to know
W EE N F RIE ND S 83

w
lo ns un t o u t pet i t peu d e c es m es s i eu rs .

wh at I t ou t H r you h av it H s m d to m
h gh o f h im ? e e e . e ee e e

lik a s hr wd n rg tic farm r h h plant d a larg


e e , e e e e , o as e e

f arm wit h grain and vi s and not h in g ls ; f rom wh ic h to ne ,


e e ,

b sur h d riv s a h andsom crop and a v ry ric h r turn


e e, e e e e e e .

But in hi fi lds not a sin gl Pomp ian fi g tr no Arician


s e e e ee,

v g tabl s not a ros f Tar ntum no pl asant grov no


e e e , e o e ,
e e,

thick cops no s h ady plan tr Ev ryth ing for utility


e, e ee . e

rath r th an f pl asur ; and


e f ls a gr at r obligation
or e e on e ee e e

to b complim ntary th an to b pl as d Don t you think


e e e e e .

m bold nou gh in my opinion and audacious nough in my


e e ,
e

criticism wh n I pass j udgm nt on a man of such a v ry


,
e e e

gr at r putation ? But w h n I b th ink mys l f th at I am


e e e e e

writin g to you I b li v I am not so bold you would wis h


,
e e e as .

On such an occasion as this doubt bbs and flows lik t h ,


e e e

s ea! T h r you h av an out and out h xam t r So b for I


e e e e e e .
,
e e

b gin to writ po try I will mak an d to th is l tt r


e e e ,
e en e e .

Good by most wis h d for f m my b st f ri nd most


-
e, e o en , e e ,

nobl Cons l d ar st Mast r F ar you w ll always my


e u ,
e e e . e e ,

sw t st spirit
ee e .

M AR C U S .

MY W S E E T E ST

My b st gr tings All w ll
e ee
M A ST E R :
r I S l pt a littl lat on
Ma rcu s

. e
t o Fro n t o

he e, e e e

account f my tiny cold wh ich s ms to h av gon away


o , ee e e .

So f rom fi o clock th is mornin g to ni n I sp nt part f


, ve

e, e o

t h tim r adin g Cato s book on agricultur and part of ’


e e e e,

t h tim I wrot
e not so badly th ank h av n as I did y
e e, ,
e e ,
es

t d y I w nt to
er a .
yg ood mornin g to
e my F at h r and t h
san e ,
e

I paid att ntion to my th roat I sip p d wat r and h on y


e . e e e ,

l tting it go part way down to t h gull t and spittin g it


e e e

out ; I pr f r to xpr ss it in this way rath r th an to y


e e e e e sa

g g arl d alt h oug


e h I t
,
h ink g g l d is found in N i and ar e ov u s

e ls wh r A ft r I h d appli d thi s r m dy to my t h roat


e e e . e a e e e ,
MA RCUS A URELIUS

w
84

I w nt ff to my F ath r and stood b sid him w hil h


e O e e e e e

o ff r d sacrific T h n w nt to lunch Wh at do you think


e e e e e e

W
. .

I t ? A m r scrap of br ad w hil I watc h d t h oth rs

w
a e e e e e e e e
,

d vourin g b ans onions and sardin s with


e e A ft r th at
, ,
e r oe . e

t to work picking grap s and got into a gr at p


e se e ,
e er

spiration and sang son gs and as t h po t says only


w

, , e e , e

l ft som bu c h s h anging h igh last survivors of t h vin


e e n e ,
e

ta g At tw lv o clock w nt hom ; I did littl work


e
.

e e

e e e a e ,

but not with any good r sult T h n I h d a long c h at with e . e a

my d ar mot h r w hil h was sittin g on t h couch T his


e e e s e e .

was w h at I said Wh at do you t hink my d ar F ronto is ,



e

doing now And h answ r d And wh at do you think


?” s e e e ,

d ar Grac is doing T h n I w nt on And wh at is our


w
” “
e e ? e e ,

littl lady sparrow d ar littl Grac doing And whil


e
-

, e e e, ? ”
e

ew r talking about t h at and discussing as to wh ich f us


e e o

was fond r of or t h oth r of you t h gong sound d


w
e on e e e , e e ,

w hic h is t h way of announcin g th at my F ath r h gon to


w w
e e as e

tak hi bath So h d dinn r aft r our bat h in t h room


e s . e a e e e

with t h oil pr ss ; I don t m an th at h d our bat h i

w

e -
e e e a n

th e room with t h oil pr ss but a ft r our bath h d e -


e , ,
e ,
e a

dinn r t h r An d
e h d a good tim list ning to t h
e e . e a e e e

country folks j ollying anoth r I h av now g t back one e . e o ,

and b for I turn ov r on my sid to snor I r l ff my


e e e e e, ee o

task and giv an account f my day to my d ar st Mast r


e o e e e .

And i f it w r possibl f m to long for hi m mor th an I


e e e or e e

do I would gladly b oblig d to pin away still mor Tak


,
e e e e . e

good car f yours l f f my sak wh r v r you


e o my e or e, e e e a r e,

h on y sw t d ar d ar d li gh t ful F ronto W h at
e -
ee ,
e your ,
e ,
e . ar e

f li gs f
ee mn I lov you th ou gh you
or fe? away e ar e ar .

M AR C U S .

Ma rcu s to F r o n t o

MY D E A R C O N S U L A N D M A ST E R
Sinc e I last wrot to you nothing h e as h app n d worth t h
e e e
L ETTERS
labor f writin g it or that would b f any i f known
B ET W EE N F RIE ND S 85

w
o ,
e o u se .

F or our days g by l mm l t Th sam S h ow t h


o

u n co e

au r e, e e ,
e

sam bor dom and t h sam d sir for you But hy do I


e e , e e e e .

sa y t h sam F or in truth v ry day it is born an w and


e e? e e e

grows in int nsity And t h words th at L b i says about


e . e a er u s

lov e,

Your lov grows fast as t h l k and also as firm as t h


e e ee e

palm tr ee,

I apply to my lon gin g for you I want to w t a gr at d al . ri e e e

mor to you but nothing pr s nts its lf


e e e e .

O h I h av t hou gh t f som th ing I h av b n list ning


, e o e . e ee e

to thos f amous pan gyrists Gr ks of cours but wond r


e e ,
ee e, e

ful cr atur s ; so t hat th ough I am as f from any knowl


e e ,
ar

e d g f Gr k lit ratur as my birthplac on t h C a lian


e o ee e e e e e

Hill i from Gr c n v rth l ss I h op in comparison


s ee e, e e e e ,
e,

with th m to b bl t rival Th p m p f I h ar th at
e , e a e o eo o u s, or e

h i t h most loqu nt f t h Gr ks So t h s m f an

w

e s e e e o e ee . e e en , o

imp rvious ignoranc as C ili says h av b n push ing


e e

a ec us ,
e ee

m e, h m littl b tt r th an a lout into writing Gr k


o a e e e ,
ee .

Th climat e f N apl s is v ry pl asant but fri gh t f ully


e o e e e ,

variabl Within t h tw nty f ourth part of an h our it g ts


e. e e -
e

too ld too h t or v ry rou gh Som tim s at t h mid dl


co ,
'

or o ,
e . e e e e

o f t h ni gh t it is pl asantly warm as at L
e t m th n e , au r en u ,
e ,

at cock crow it turns as f rigid as at L i m ; at oth r



,
an u v u e

tim s t h first f t h ni gh t t h dawn and arly mornin g


e ,
e o e , e e

until t h is up it is cold v ry bit as Algi d


w
e su n ,
as e e us .

A ft r th at in t h morning it i sunny lik Tusculum th n


e , e s ,
e ,
e

at midday h av all t h h at of Pozzuoli And w h n t h


w
e e e e . e e

sun h gon down to hi oc an bath th n at last t h t m


as e s e ,
e e e

p t is
er a u r e g ntl t h kind of air heav at Tivoli
e, and e e e ,

during t h v nin g and t h first sl p f ni ght it k ps on


w
e e e e ee o ee

in t h sam way until to q uot


e e Cato t h d ad f ni ght
, ,
e ,
e e O

g o s h adlong But hy do I a ft r saying I s h ould writ




e e .
,
e e

but littl pil up this worth l ss stu ff ? So good by kind st


e, e e ,
-
e, e
86 MA RCUS A URELIUS
Mast r most nobl Consul and miss m as muc h as you lov
e ,
e , e e

me .

M AR C U S

w
.

W Ma rc u s t o Fr o n t o

G O O D M O RR o , S EET M A ST E R
Th e post is at last about to start and
at last can s nd , I e

you w h at I h av don in t h s th r days I y noth in g I


e e e e ee . sa ,

am so out f br ath with dictatin g n ar t hirty l tt rs And


w
o e e e e .

I h av not y t told my F at h r about w h at you t h ou ght con


e e e

c rning t h last l tt rs But wh n


e e g t to town ; pl as
e e . e e e e e

t h gods r mind m to t ll you som t h in g about t h m But


e ,
e e e e e .

your t hough ts and min too h igh up in t h air so t h at


,
e ,
a re e ,

you will not r mind m d I s h a ll not t ll you ; lth ough


e e, an e a

it is a matt r th at n ds to b though t about Good by my


e ee e .
-
e,

what S hall I y ? noth in g th at I y will b nou gh sa sa e e

good by my longin g my li ght my j oy



e, , , .

M AR C U S .

M a rc u s t o Fro n t o
B E ST OF M A ST E R S
How you I know th at on a birth day it is t h custom
a re ?
,
e

f f ri nds to mak good wis h s f


or e t h man born on t h at
e e or e

day ; n v rth l ss b caus I lov you as much I lov m y


w
e e e e ,
e e e as e

s l f this day th ou gh it is y birth day I mak pray r


w
e ,
on ,
ou r ,
e e s

for m y lf T h r for I b s c h ll t h gods h mak th i


se . e e e e ee a e o e e r

pow r a pr s nt h lp to m anyw h r h in dr ams in


e e e e en , e e, o e ,

s cr t wors hip i h alin g art or oracl s b stow th ir mighty


e e , n e e , e e

aid ach s parat g d in vows I h r invok and accord


w

e e e o e e e, ,

ing to t h natur f ach s v ral vow I transport my l f


e e o e e e ,
se

to wh at v r spot t h god h h t h particular matt r in


e e e o as e e

hi c h arg may h ar most asily T h r f or


s e first f all I
e e . e e e, o ,

climb t h citad l f P rgamum and mak my pray r to


e e o e e

A s c ulapius th at h k p wh ol my Mast r s h alth and


e ,
e ee e e

e

g uard it wit h mi gh t and main F rom t h nc I h i to At h n . e e e e s


L

and on b nd d kn supplicat Mi
E TTE RS
e eb hi g h ee
B ET W EE
e
N F

n er v a,
RIE
'

es eec
ND S
n
87

er ,

if v r I
e m to l arn augh t about lit ratur
e
-

a th at it s h all
e e e,

(rat h r t h an f rom anywh r ls ) transmi grat from


w
e e e e e e

P ronto s lips into my mind N ow I r turn to Rom and


. e e,

with my pray rs implor t h gods h watch ov r trav ll rs


e e e o e e e

by land and t h at you may accompany m wh r v r I


w
s ea, e e e e

go, and t h at I may not b torm nt d f r qu ntly and e e e so e e so

fi rc ly by your abs nc F inally I b g all t h gods h


e e e e . e e o

guard all nations I b g t h sacr d grov its l f w h ic h rustl s


,
e e e e e e

on t h Capitolin Hill to grant m th is boon t h t I with


e e ,
e ,
a .

you may c l brat this day on wh ich you w r born f my


e e e e e or

sak and th at you may b both w ll and m rry


e, e e e .

F ar w ll my sw t st d ar st Mast r Pl as pl as
e e ,
ee e ,
e e ,
e . e e, e e,

tak good car f yours l f so th at wh n I com I may


e e o e , e e s ee

you My Lady Moth r s nds h kind r gards


. e e er e .

MARC U S .

Fro n t o t o M a rc u s
MY D E AR L O R D

m ; f
e

e ei
t in gs
All h

e
w ll with m wh n you o ff r pray rs for
t h r i no or
ar e

h d s rv s mor t h an you to
e e

e
s

r c v from t h gods w h at h asks for ; and b sid s wh n


e

on e w o
e

e
e e
e

e
e

e e
e

,
e

I mak supplication f you


e d s rv s mor than you or ,
n o on e e e e e

to r c iv w h at i ask d f you
e e e s e or .

Good by my sw t st Lord Mak my r v r nc pl as


-
e, ee e . e e e e e, e e,

to my Lady .

F RO N T O .

W W
It
is h ard not to b ov rcritical with r sp ct to composi e e e e

tions th at lack t h qualiti s by wh ich mod rn coll ctions of


e e e e

l tt rs h av b com famous and tak n th ir plac i li t ra


e e e e e e e e n e

tur e . br d upon too h i gh a standard


e are e look for . e

th wit t h d lica c y t h rar gi ft f S impli c ity or t h


e ,
e e , e e o ,
e

simplicity f rar art su ch as mak William Cowp r s l t


o e , e e

e

t rs d li ght ful ; or t h bant r t h li ght satir t h practis d


e e e e ,
e e, e e
88 MA RCUS A URELIUS
S kill of t h r ady t poss ss d by Horac Walpol ;
e e r a c o n eu r , e e e e

or t h whimsical grac f C h arl s Lamb ; or t h spontan ous


e e o e e e

e loqu nc f t h qu n f l tt r writ rs Madam d S evign e


e e o e ee o e e -
e ,
e e .

R ad rs of t h classics look for t h various m rits t h y find


e e e e e e

in Cic ro or Pliny Th l tt rs of Marcus Aur lius poss ss


e . e e e e e

non f t h s q ualiti s T h y
e o almost all a littl forc d
e e e e a re e e

W
. ,

and t h y all savor a littl of l ssons in r h toric ; and y t


e e e e e

t h s d fici nci s m r ly s how th at h was not a born l tt r


e e e e e e e e e e

writ r N atur is as wayward in b stowin g t h gi ft f


e . e e e o

l tt r writin g as in b stowing t h gi ft f po try


e e -
xp ct e e o e . e e e

much Th l tt rs do r v al hi h on sty hi a ff ctionat


. e e e e e s e ,
s e e

rt and also hi natural r s rv I tak it t hat t h main


,
s e e e . e e

in th m i f satir of cl v r conc its f a wayward


e s o e, e e e , o

f ancy t h at i , f condim nt f suc h animation as a


s, o pg e ,
o s ou on

o f onion is said to b stow on a salad and t h at t h lack is e , e

d ue to a compl t abs nc f s l f lov A littl gotism ise e e e o e -


e
. e e

n c ssary in a good l tt r writ r A Gr k critic f t h n x t


e e e e -
e . ee , o e e

g n ration to Marcus br d upon lit ratur


e e and com f a ,
e e e, e o

f amily distin guis h d for its int ll ctual accomplis hm nts e e e e ,

a painstakin g stud nt and h istorian f t h c l brat d r h t e o e e e e e

i i
o r c an s and sop h ists f th at tim and t h r for w ll o e, e e e e

qualifi d to S p ak f t h ducat d tast f t h day rat s


w
e e or e e e e o e ,
e

Marcus s l tt rs v ry h ighly I sp ak f P hi l t t t h

e e e . e o o s ra u s e

Ath nian h is known to lov rs f En glis h po try b caus


e ,
o e o e e e

B Jonso took s nt n c s h r and th r from t h littl


en n e e e e e e e e e

po ms in pros th at P hil t t c alls lov l tt rs and put


e e os ra u s e -
e e ,

t h m into En glis h rhym s in t h song


e e e

D rink t m only with thin y s o e e e e ,

A nd I w ill pl d g w ith min e e e .

P hi l t t says I n r s p ct to pistolary styl f p hilos


os ra u s : e e e e, o

o ph Apollonius f Tyana and Dio (C h rysostom )


er s , o en

j oy d I th ink t h r putation f gr at st xc ll nc ; f
e , ,
e e or e e e e e e o

military m Brutus or wh om v r Brutus m p loy d to


en , ,
e e e e

writ hi l tt rs ; f Emp rors t h divin ly


e s e e o e ,
e e
C H A P T E R v i 1

E A R L Y M A N H O O D

s ms to h av b n Marcus s principal
H E T O RI C ee e ee

study during hi arly y ars from ight n to tw nty s e e e ee e

fi but h follow d t h curriculum usual f young


v e, e e e or

Romans f t h patrician ord r and d vot d a good d al of


o e e ,
e e e

tim to Gr k I n t h M di t ti
e ee r f r nc s occur to
. e e a on s e e e e

Hom r Euripid s Aristop h an s and Plato and in t h


w
e ,
e ,
e , , ,
e

corr spond nc b tw n hi m and F ronto to X nop h on


e e e e ee ,
e ,

T hucydid s D mosth n s and to Attic com dy N and


e , e e e ,
e ,
e

Old Probably h r ad many auth ors b sid s th s Gr k


. e e e e e e . ee

was t h lan guag f p h ilosop hy of Epict tus as w ll as f


e e o ,
e e o

Epicurus Z no and Plato and various allusions s h ow that


,
e , ,

Marcus r ad wid ly in Gr k p hilosop hy Mor ov r t h


e e ee . e e ,
e

r cords of h i lat r li f y th at h att nd d l c tur s at


e s e e sa e e e e e

Ath ns and Smyrna and list n d not only to Gr k sop hists


e ,
e e ee ,

but also to Gr k advocat s in t h ar gum nt of caus s ; it


ee e e e e

th r for s ms lik ly th at h spok t h languag r adily


e e e ee e e e e e e .

Th Empir r cogniz d t h two lan gua g s and it was i


e e e e e e ,
n

cumb nt upon a consci ntious Emp ror to b mast r of


e e e e e

both H l arn d Gr k from hi tutors at h om


. e e e ee s e .

O cannot but r gr t f hi sak t h at h did not nj oy


ne e e , or s e, e e

the car l ss f r dom f univ rsity li f suc h as h mi ght


e e ee o e e, e

h av h d at Ath ns far f rom both o fficial and dom stic


e a e ,
e

r sponsibiliti s ; th at h did not l arn in hi youth t h l


e e e e s e es

sons f b auty as w ll as f right ousn ss ; th at h did not


O e e o e e e

wand r alon g t h b ac h was h d by t h wat rs of Salamis


e e e e e e ,

stroll b sid t h gray gr n O liv tr s t h at cloth t h p lains


e e e
-
ee e ee e e

and slop s around t h city with a grac worthy of Pallas


e e e

At h n or climb t h Ac ropolis and sit b n ath t h marbl s


e e, e e e e e
E A R LY MANHOOD 91

of Parth non wh r sunli gh t and s h adow mor th an


t he e ,
e e ,
e

ls wh r display t h ir rival b auti s to mus upon t h


w
e e e e, e e e ,
e e

rich s f Gr k glory th at h d mad Ath ns th ir tr asur


e o ee a e e e e e

h ous Oe . would lik to t h ink of hi m as


ne do f Cic ro e , e o e ,

saunt rin g with oth r you g m th rou gh t h C ramicus


e e n en e e ,

and out by t h Dipylon gat to e t h h aunts f t h gr at e s ee e o e e

Ath nian p h ilosop h rs H mi ght w ll h av b n t h gu st


e e . e e e ee e e

o f H rod s Atticus in h i h ospitabl vill by t h footh ill


e e s e a e s

o f P nt licus h av pac d up and down t h pl asant s h ady


e e , e e e e

walks f hi gard ns and undisturb d by such conc rt as


o s e , ,
e e

t h birds and f ountains k pt h av li st n d to t h


e loqu nt e , e e e e e e

prais s of hi h ost upon t h b auty of Ath ns Th En glis h


e s e e e . e

po t quall d in r nown as w ll as in fat to blind Maconi

W
e ,
e e e e e

d h
es , d scrib d t h sc n
as e e e e e

B ho ld e

h r t h A g an sh or
e e on c ity st nd se e e e a a ,

B ui lt nobly p ur t h i and li ght t h soil , e e a r e ,

A th ns t h y f G r c moth r f arts
e , e e e o ee e, e o

A nd loqu nc nativ to f mous w its


e e e, e a

O r h os p it bl i h sw t r c s a e, n er ee e es ,

Cit y or sub urb an studi ous w alk s and sh a d s ; , e

S th r t h oli v grov f Acad m


ee e e e e e o e e,

P l ato s r tir m nt w h r t h A tti c b ir d



e e e , e e e

T ri lls h thi ck w arbl d not s t h summ r long ;


er -
e
'
e e e

Th r fl o w ry hi ll H ym ttus w ith th sou d


e e e e e n

w
,

Of b i nd ustrious murmur f t in i t s

ees , o v e

To stu di ou musing th r I li ssus ro ll s s ; e e

H i whi s p ring str am


s ithin t h wall s th n i w
e e ; e e v e

Th s ch ool e f anc i nt sag s s o e e

w
Marcus might w ll h av b n a m mb r f th at group of e e ee e e o

young Roman stud nts of which Aulus G lli was e ,


e us o n e,

h us d to c l brat th ir nativ f ast f t h S t


o e e e lie e e e o e a u r na a

within si ght of t h Parth non T h y nj oy d as G lli e e . e e e ,


e us

says mirth and gai ty within t h bou ds of d corum and


,
e e n e ,

f ound t h ir gr at st pl asur
e lik t h youn g r h toricians
e e e e, e e e

th at th y w r in lit rary conv rsation Th h ost f t h


e e e, e e . e o e

e ev ning (a ft r t h xampl of F i ) would propound


e e e e av o r n u s
92 MA RCUS A URELIUS
qu stions on various lit rary topics such as a lin from an
e e , e

old po t a point of anci nt history a p h ilosop hical para

w
e ,
e ,

d x a S op h istry or som rar word or matt r f grammar


o , , e e e o .

Th priz e f th b st answ r was a book and a laur l


e or e e e e

r at h ; or i f nobody could answ r t h qu stion th n book


e ,
e e e , e

and wr at h w r d dicat d to Saturn t h god of t h f ast


e e e e e ,
e e e .

T h s youn g m h d t h sam tast s t h sam nthusiasm


e e en a e e e , e e e

for l tt rs f styl t h at Marcus s h ows in hi corr spond


e e ,
or e, s e

e nc wit h F ronto P rh aps h thou ght of ll th s int l


e e e a e e e

l ctual pl asur s th at h might h av h d and r gr tt d th ir


e e e e e a , e e e e

loss w h n in lat r y ars h visit d At h ns and nd avor d


,
e e e e e e e e e

to pour f r s h li f into h d g n rat schools by t h ndow


e e er e e e e e e

m nt of ch airs of l arnin g But Marcus was a princ bound


e e . e,

ld f tt rs to quot h i p dagogu
en e e
g R m ,
h e s e e, e o o ae er eo

d ib e i i t H stay d in Rom and studi d


us a u re s v nc u s . e e e, e

rod s Atticus e e .

H rod s did not touch Marcus s h art at l ast h is not


e e

e ,
e e

m ntion d in t h not book H was a man of passionat


e e e e -
. e e

t mp ram nt ; wh n a d arly b lov d fri nd a m mb r of


e e e e e e e e ,
e e

h i h ous hold di d H rod s continu d to h av hi plac


s e ,
e ,
e e e e s e

at tabl t as usual and t h carriag was ord r d as usual


e se ,
e e e e

to com and tak him to driv H rod s also mad many


e e e . e e e

e n mi s and was constantly ngag d in quarr ls and law


e e e e e

suits ; and it h app n d that F ronto as a l ad r f t h bar e e ,


e e o e ,

at t h v ry b ginning of hi acquaintanc with Marcus was


e e e s e ,

r tain d to conduct a suit against him T h is h pr par d to


e e . e e e

do with g at spirit Marcus got wind of it and in ord r to


re .
,
e

mak p ac b tw n th m wrot to F ronto (quit di ff r


e e e e ee e e e e

e ntly from hi custom wh n practisin g an ssay in rh toric )


s e e e

with simplicity good s ns as w ll as tact and not with out


,
e e, e ,

a ton of aut hority


e .

MY DEAR FR O NT O
I r m mb r you h av oft n said to m th at you w r
e e e e e e, e e

looking f a ch anc to do som thing th at would giv m


or e e e e
EARLY MANHOOD 93

g r eat pl asur T h at
e tim h com N ow
e
. you can incr as e as e . e e

my a ff ction for you supposing th at it is capabl of


e ,
e

incr as e e .

Your cas is coming on at wh ich I xp ct th os pr s nt


e ,
e e e e e

will not only list n to your sp ch with kindly int r st but


e ee e e ,

will also and with malign int r st giv clos att ntion
w
,
e e ,
e e e

to any x pr ssions f ang r And I can t th ink f anybody


w

e e o e . o

ls h will h av t h courag to giv you good advi c in


w
e e o e e e e e

t his a ff air F or th os h . not your f ri nds will pr f r


e o are e e e

to you transgr ss t h propri ti s ; and th os h


s ee e e e e e o ar e

your r al fri nds will b a fraid you may th ink th m too


e e e e

inclin d to your adv rsary i f th y s h ould p rsuad you to


e e ,
e e e

l av unsaid wh at would naturally mak a part f your


e e e o

pros cution And b sid s i f you h av work d up som car


e . e e ,
e e e e

f ully c h os n passag s f t h occasion t h y can t b ar to



e e or e ,
e e

mak you h old your ton gu and mar t h sp ch So p r h aps


e e e ee . e

you will t hink m a pr sumptuous couns llor or an auda e e e ,

cions youn g f llow or too kindly dispos d toward your


e ,
e

adv rsary ; but f non f t h se r asons s h all I hold back


w
e or e o e e

from givin g you t h d t h at I think ri gh t and prop r


e a vI ce e .

But hy do I say advic ? f I am d mandin g th is f “


e

or e o

you and I d mand it with insist nc ; and i f I g t my way


,
e e e e ,

I promis you on my part th at I S h all hold mys lf und r


e e e

a li k obli gation to you


e .

You may y How s th is i f h attacks m am I not to


sa ,

, e e,

pay him back with as good as I g t But you will g t e ? ”


,
e

g r at r h onor f rom t h is v ry th in g t h at v n t h ou gh you


e e e , e e ar e

attack d you y nothin g in r ply I t is tru th at i f h


e sa e . e e

s h ould b gin wh at v r you mi ght answ r back would b


e ,
e e e e

e xcusabl ; but I h av mad a d mand upon hi m not to


e e e e

b gin and I b li v th at I h av g t my way th r F or I


e ,
e e e e o e e .

lov you both and ach f hi d s rts I r m mb r too


e , e or s e e . e e e , ,

th at h was b rou ght up in t h hous f my moth r s f ath r


e e e o e

e ,

Publius C l i i and on t h ot h r h and th at I h av


a v s u s, , e e ,
e

studi d with you ; and th r for I h av gr atly at h art th at


e e e e e e e
94 MA RCUS AU RELIUS
t his h orrid a ff air s hould b conduct d with t h utmost pro e e e

p i t y I trust t h at you will t h ink w ll of my advic


r e . f you e e, or

wi ll c rtainly approv f my int ntion I h d rath r sp ak


e e o e . a e e

out to t h d trim nt f discr tion th an hold my tongu to


e e e o e e

t h d trim nt
e e f t h obli g ations f fri nds h ip
e o e o e .

Good by my v ry d ar F ri nd
-
e, e e e ,

MARC U S .

F rontowrot a most polit answ r H b gg d Marcus to


e e e . e e e

tak back t h words pr sumptuous couns llor and auda


e e e e

i
c ou s young f llow said th at h h d no id a th at H rod s
e ,
e a e e e

was a f ri nd f Marcus or h woul d n v r h av spok n ill


w
e o e e e e e

of h i m and ask d for mor sp cific advic as to t h conduct


,
e e e e e

of t h cas f not only b but ot h r la y rs h d b n


e e, or e e e a ee

r tain d in it Marcus answ r d


e e . e e :

MY D E AR E ST F R O N T O
My b st gr tin gs to you I thank you and I am v ry
e ee .
,
e

grat f ul th at you not only h av not r j ct d my advic but


e e e e e e,

h av v n giv n it your approval A d as to t h matt r that


e e e e . n e e

you consult m about in your most kind l tt r my opi i on


e e e ,
n

is th is Ev ryth ing th at is strictly p rtin nt to t h S id f


: e e e e e o

cas that you up h old f cours s hould b t f orth ;


w
th e e ,
o e, e se

but wh at v r is m r ly p rtin nt to your own f lings no


e e e e e e ee ,

matt r h j ustifi d th y
e o no matt r w h at your provoca
e e a r e, e

tion s h ould b pass d ov r in sil nc


, eO th ing I e e e e . ne

h av muc h at h art
e th at you s h ould not y anything (not
e ,

sa

n c ssary to t h cas ) unworthy f your c h aract r and


e e e e o e

which migh t app ar obj ctionabl to your audi nc e e e e e.

Good by my v ry d ar d lightful F ronto


-
e, e e ,
e , .

M ARC US .

T h r is no furth r in formation conc rning th is lawsuit ;


e e e e

but it is k own t h at F ronto and H rod s b cam good


n e e e e

f ri nds and r main d


e all th ir liv s e e so e e .
MANHOOD E A R LY 95

I t may b p rtin nt to quot h r f rom anoth r l tt r


e e e e e e e e e

writt n by F ronto wh ich sp aks f t h youn g princ s


e , e o e e

pow r f making hi own fri nds fri nds to


e o s anoth r and e e on e e ,

warns hi m f t h main obstacl in t h way t h v r pr s nt


w
o e e e ,
e e e e e

e n my to fri nds h ip among courti rs j alousy Fronto b


e e e ,
e . e

g ins wit h f anci f ulad scription of Orp h us h h i music


e e ,
o s

c omp ll d t h lion and t h lamb to liv tog th r and


e e e e e e e ,
so

forth

I f th r v r liv d a man f so many tal nts th at h was
e e e e e o e e

a bl to unit h i fri nds and follow rs in mutual amity you


e e s e e ,

will do it f mor asily f N atur anticipat d ducation


ar e e , or e e e

i fittin g you f
n all t h virtu s B for you w r old nou gh
or e e . e e e e e

to und r go any instruction you w r alr ady absolut ly


w
e e e e e
,

p r f ct in all good conduct ; b for you w r fourt n you


e e e e e e ee ,

r a good man ; b for you put on t h t g i i li you


e e
‘ ’
e e e a a v r s

w r skill d in t h art f sp akin g But v rily f all your


e e

e e o e .

e , o

v irtu s t his is t h most admirabl th at you unit all your


e e e, e

f ri nds in mutual good will ; I will boldly ass rt t h at t h is


e e

is a mu ch mor di fficult j ob th an to tam lions with a lut


e e e .

You will do this t h mor asily i f you t yours l f to pull e e e se e

up and root out j ust


,
vi c Do not l t your f ri nds h
, on e e . e e e

e nvious or j alous f y or f e anoth r or think th at


o ou o on e e ,

wh at you may do f or con f r upon is a loss or


w
or o n e, e o n e,

takin g from anoth r J alousy among m is a most d t


w
e . e en es r u c

t iv p rnicious vil qually h arm f l f th os h c h ris h


e, e e ,
e u or e o e

it and thos h th
e obj cts of it I f you manag to
o are e e . e

k p it f from your doors you will nj oy kind and h


ee ar ,
e ar

m i
o n ou s f ri nds as you do now ; but s h ould it by any m ans
e , e

g t abroad amon g t h m it will cost gr at pains and labor


e e ,
e

to crus h it down .

But pl as l t us talk f som thing pl asant r I lov


w

w
,
e e, e o e e e . e

Julian (f h is t h ori ginal caus f th is l tt r ) ; I lov


or e e e o e e e

a ll h f ond f you ; I lov t h gods


o ar e o h prot ct you ; e e o e

I lov li f b c aus
e e f you ; I lov
e xch an gin g l tt rs with
e o e e e e

y ou And. your f ri nds and I r v l in youre a ff ction e e e



.
96 MARCUS AURELIUS
Som w h r in this p riod f h istorians disagr Mar
e e e e ,
or ee,

cus marri d hi cousin Faustina daught r f Antoninus


e s ,
e o .

Som y that it was in 1 4 5 and f various r asons th at


w
e sa ,
or e

s ms a lik ly dat Th marriag was t a lov match it


ee e e . e e no e ,

was a m i g d ar a d t rmin d by r asons f


e e c o n v en a r e, e e e e o

stat and accordin g to t h c hronicl rs acc pt d by Marcus


e, , e e ,
e e

with p h ilosop h ic d lib ration But th r can b littl doubt e e . e e e e

t hat it was a happy marriag ; and I h d b tt r y at onc e a e e sa e

t hat t h infamous stori s circulat d about Faustina


e e e ar e

wholly fals Th original b trot hal of F austina to you g


e . e e n

Lucius V rus and th at of Marcus to V


e ,
sist r h d er u s s

e ,
a

b n t asid appar ntly wit h t h cons nt of all conc rn d


ee se e, e e e e e .

Lucius V rus ultimat ly marri d Marcus s dau ght r Mar


e e e

e .

cus and Faustina h d thirt n c hildr n in all ; but only fi


w
a ee e ve

liv d to surviv th ir f ath r Th mortality among c hildr n


e e e e . e e

at th at tim v ry gr at Poor F ronto f instanc lost


e as e e .
, or e,

five out of six T h r was gross i gnoranc of hygi n and


. e e e e e

di t and Roman p hysicians at l ast t h f amous Gal n f


e , ,
e so e e o

thought w r v ry incomp t nt
w
,
e e e e e .

Th loss of hi c h ildr n was a gr at g ri f to Marcus and


e s e e e ,

h i v ry nd avors at conc alm nt s rv but to s h ow h

w
s e e e e e e e o

bitt r t h at gri f was I n hi not book h r cords hi d bt to


e e . s e -
e e s e

t h p h ilosop h r Apollonius h tau gh t h i m to r main t h



e e o e e

sam una ff ct d by t h loss of a ch ild (M A I


e, e e And e . .
, ,

accordin g to t h t stimony gri f h d littl or no pow r to


e e ,
e a e e

t h outward tranquillity f hi fac and b arin g ; but


e o s e e

and tranquil as b for e e,

contradict d by hi n d f r p ating to hims l f t h st rn


e s ee o e e e e e

i r fl ctions by w h ic h t h os h au ghty p h ilosop h rs h o p d

w
o e e e e e e

ov rcom all human w akn ss On


e e pag h writ s e e . on e e e e

down O m prays O h h can I sav my littl boy


:

ne an ,

,
o e e

but do th ou pray How may I b fr d from t h f ar of ,



e ee e e

losin g hi m ? (M A IX ”
On anoth r pag Th . .
,
e e:

e

h alt h y y s h ould look at all t h in g s visibl ; it s h ould not


e e e e

sa y ,I want‘
to look at gr n t h in g s for t h at is t h d sir ee ,

e e e
98 MARCUS AURELIUS
no dang r f starvin g ; for your moth r will s har with h
e o e e er

li g woman t h li ttl d licaci s th at you hav s nt to h


e e e e e e e e er .

N or is Grac poss ss d of a gr at app tit suc h as (it is


e e e e e e,

said ) wiv s of lawy rs h av S h would liv in gr at h appi


e e e . e e e

n ss on nothing but your moth r s kiss s But w h at is going


e e

e .

to b com f m ? T h r i not a singl kiss l ft for m in


e e o e e e s e e e

Rom My w hol fortun and all my d light is at N apl s


e . e e, e ,
e .

FRO Nr o '
.

Fr o n t o t o M a r cu s
MY L O RD
D EA R
I lov you t tim s as much I h av s n your daught r
e en e . e ee e .

I t s m d to m as i f I w r looking simultan ously at you


ee e e e e e

and F austina to g th r childr n a gain ; th r was such a


,
e e , e e e

h appy mi xtur f bot h your f ac s ! I lov you t


e o tim s as e e en e

much F ar w ll my Sw t st Lord My r sp cts pl as to


. e e ,
ee e . e e ,
e e,

my Lady .

FR O Nr o '
.

W M a rc u s t o Fro n t o

w
D E A R FR O N T O
too lov your daught r Grac b tt r b caus h
e, , e e e e e e e s e

looks lik you So asily und rstand th at t h lik n ss f


e . e e e e e e o

our littl girl to us s h ould win f h your a ff ction ; and


e or er e

of cours it is a gr at pl asur to m th at you h av s n


e e e e e e ee

her Good by B st f Mast rs


.
-
e, e o e .

M AR C US .

M a rc u s

w
t o Fr on t o
D E AR FRO NT O
By t h will of H av n s m to h av a h op f r cov ry
e e e e ee e e o e e .

T h diarr h o a h
e stopp d and t h f v ris h ss h abat d
e as e e e e ne as e
°

n v rth l ss th r is xtr m maciation and slight cough


e e e e e e e e e e ,

ing holds on Of cours you know I am w iting about our


. e r
e

c rn d
e e
EARLY MANHOOD
d ar littl F austina about whom hav b n gr atly con
.
e
99

,
w e e ee e

D ar Mast r l t m know i f your h alth con forms to my


e e , e e e

wis h s for it
e .

M AR US C .

Frou t o t o M arcu s
D E A RE S T C A E SA R
By t h Gods ! I was fri ght n d wh n I r ad t h b gin ing
e e e e e e e n

o f your l tt r F or it was e xpr ss d th at I ima gin d you


e . so e e e e

spok f dan g r to your own h alth A ft rwards f cours


e o e e . e ,
o e,

you mad it plain th at t h dang r w hich at t h b gi ning


e e e e e n

o f your l tt r I h d t h ough t yours conc rn d your dau gh t r


e e a