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Q14.26 (a) Since the velocity of the air in the right-hand section of the pipe is lower than that in the

middle, the pressure is higher.

(b) The equation that predicts the same pressure in the far right and left-hand sections of the

tube assumes laminar f low without viscosity. Internal friction will cause some loss of

mechanical energy and turbulence will also progressively reduce the pressure. If the pres-

sure at the left were not higher than at the right, the f low would stop.

*Q14.27 (i) Answer (c). The water level stays the same. The solid ice displaced its own mass of liquid

water. The meltwater does the same. You can accurately measure the quantity of H2O going

into a recipe, even if some of it is frozen, either by using a kitchen scale or by letting the ice

f loat in liquid water in a measuring cup and looking at the liquid water level.

(ii) Answer (b). Ice on the continent of Antarctica is above sea level.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

4 3

P14.1

⎣3 ⎦

M = 0.111 kg

P14.2 The density of the nucleus is of the same order of magnitude as that of one proton, according to

the assumption of close packing:

m 1.67 × 10 −27 kg

ρ= ~ ~ 1018 kg m 3

3 π (10 m)

−15 3

V 4

With vastly smaller average density, a macroscopic chunk of matter or an atom must be mostly

empty space.

F 50.0 ( 9.80 )

P14.3 P= = 2 = 6.24 × 10

6

N m2

A π ( 0.500 × 10 −2 )

P14.4 The Earth’s surface area is 4π R 2 . The force pushing inward over this area amounts to

F = P0 A = P0 ( 4π R 2 )

Fg = mg = P0 ( 4π R 2 )

so the mass of the air is

P0 ( 4π R 2 ) (1.013 × 10 N m 2 ) ⎡ 4π ( 6.37 × 10 6 m ) ⎤

5 2

m= = ⎣ ⎦ = 5.27 × 1018 kg

g 9.80 m s 2

Fluid Mechanics 369

Vacuum

kx

and h =

ρ gA

h=

(1 000 N m ) (5.00 × 10 m )

2 −3

= 1.62 m

(10 kg m ) ( 9.80 m s ) ⎡π (1.00 × 10 m) ⎤

3 3 2 −2 2

⎣ ⎦ FIG. P14.5

P = 1.01 × 10 7 Pa

(b) The gauge pressure is the difference in pressure between the water outside and the air

inside the submarine, which we suppose is at 1.00 atmosphere.

Pgauge = P − P0 = ρ gh = 1.00 × 10 7 Pa

2

When the cup barely supports the student, the normal force of the

ceiling is zero and the cup is in equilibrium.

Fg = F = PA = (1.013 × 10 5 Pa ) A

Fg 784

A= = = 7.74 × 10 −3 m 2

P 1.013 × 10 5

FIG. P14.7

F1 F2

P14.8 Since the pressure is the same on both sides, =

A1 A2

15 000 F

In this case, = 2 or F2 = 225 N

200 3.00

P14.9 The excess water pressure (over air pressure) halfway down is

horizontally toward the back of the hole . Russell Shadle suggested the idea for this problem.

370 Chapter 14

P14.10 (a) Suppose the “vacuum cleaner” functions as a high–vacuum pump. The air below the brick

will exert on it a lifting force

2

⎣ ⎦

(b) The octopus can pull the bottom away from the top shell with a force that could be no

larger than

F = PA = ( P0 + ρ gh ) A

2

⎣ ⎦

F = 275 N

P14.12 The air outside and water inside both exert atmospheric

pressure, so only the excess water pressure ρ gh counts for the

net force. Take a strip of hatch between depth h and h + dh .

It feels force 2.00 m 1.00 m

dF = PdA = ρ gh ( 2.00 m ) dh

2.00 m

(a) The total force is

FIG. P14.12

2.00 m

F = ∫ dF = ∫ ρ gh ( 2.00 m ) dh

h =1.00 m

( 2.00 m )

2.00 m

h2

F = ρ g ( 2.00 m ) = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ⎡⎣( 2.00 m )2 − (1.00 m )2 ⎤⎦

2 1.00 m

2

F = 29.4 kN ( to the right )

(b) The lever arm of dF is the distance ( h − 1.00 m ) from hinge to strip:

2.00 m

τ = ∫ dτ = ∫ ρ gh ( 2.00 m ) ( h − 1.00 m ) dh

h =1.00 m

00 m

2.0

⎡ h3 h2 ⎤

τ = ρ g ( 2.00 m ) ⎢ − (1.00 m ) ⎥

⎣3 2 ⎦1.00 m

⎛ 7.00 m 3 3.00 m 3 ⎞

τ = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( 2.00 m ) ⎜ −

⎝ 3 2 ⎟⎠

τ = 16.3 kN ⋅ m counterclockwise

Fluid Mechanics 371

P14.13 The bell is uniformly compressed, so we can model it with any shape. We choose a sphere of

diameter 3.00 m.

The pressure on the ball is given by: P = Patm + ρw gh so the change in pressure on the ball from

when it is on the surface of the ocean to when it is at the bottom of the ocean is ∆P = ρw gh.

In addition:

−V ∆P ρ ghV 4πρw ghr 3

∆V = =− w =− , where B is thee Bulk Modulus .

B B 3B

4π (1 030 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) (10 000 m ) (1.50 m )

3

∆V = − = −0.010 2 m 3

( 3) (14.0 × 1010 Pa )

Therefore, the volume of the ball at the bottom of the ocean is

4

V − ∆V = π (1.50 m )3 − 0.010 2 m 3 = 14.137 m 3 − 0.010 2 m 3 = 14.127 m 3

3

This gives a radius of 1.499 64 m and a new diameter of 2.999 3 m. Therefore the diameter

decreases by 0.722 mm .

P14.14 (a) We imagine the superhero to produce a perfect vacuum in the straw. Take point 1 at the

water surface in the basin and point 2 at the water surface in the straw:

P1 + ρ gy1 = P2 + ρ gy2

(b) No atmosphere can lift the water in the straw through zero height difference.

P14.15 P0 = ρ gh

P0 1.013 × 10 5 Pa

h= = = 10.5 m

ρ g ( 0.984 × 10 3 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 )

Some alcohol and water will evaporate.

The equilibrium vapor pressures of alcohol and water are higher than the vapor

pressure of mercury.

FIG. P14.15

372 Chapter 14

mwater 100 g

hw = =

A2 ρwater 5.00 cm 2 (1.00 g cm 3 )

= 20.0 cm

after the water is added. A volume ( A2 h2 ) of

mercury has been displaced by water in the right

tube. The additional volume of mercury now in

the left tube is A1h. Since the total volume of FIG. P14.16

mercury has not changed,

A1

A2 h2 = A1h or h2 = h (1)

A2

At the level of the mercury–water interface in the right tube, we may write the absolute

pressure as:

P = P0 + ρwater ghw

The pressure at this same level in the left tube is given by

⎡ A ⎤

ρHg h ⎢1 + 1 ⎥ = ρwater hw

⎣ A2 ⎦

or

ρwater hw

h=

ρHg (1 + A1 / A2 )

Thus, the level of mercury has risen a distance of

(1.00 g cm 3 ) ( 20.0 cm )

h= = 0.490 cm above the original level.

(13.6 g cm 3 ) (1 + 10.0 / 50.0 )

*P14.18 (a) We can directly write the bottom pressure as P = P0 + ρgh, or we can say that the bottom of

the tank must support the weight of the water:

P = P0 + ρgh = 101.3 kPa + (1000 kg m3)(9.8 m s2)h = 101.3 kPa + (9.8 kPa m)h

(b) Now the bottom of the tank must support the weight of the whole contents:

Pb = P0 + ρhg + Mg A Then ∆ P = Pb − P = Mg A

(c) Before the people enter, P = 101.3 kPa + (9.8 kPa m)(1.5 m) = 116 kPa

Fluid Mechanics 373

The gauge pressure is

= 1.57 × 10 3 Pa ⎛ ⎞

1 atm

⎝ 1.013 × 10 5 Pa ⎠

= 0.015 5 atm .

It would lift a mercury column to height

P − P0 1 568 Pa

h= = = 11.8 mm

ρg (13 600 kg m 3 ) (9.8 m s2 )

(b) Increased pressure of the cerebrospinal fluiid will raise the level of the fluid in thee

spinal tap.

(c) Blockage of the fluid within the spinal coluumn or between the skull and the spinal

colu

umn would prevent the fluid level from risiing.

∑F y ( )

= may ⇒ B − Fg helium

( )

− Fg payload

=0

or

ρair gV − ρhelium gV − mpayload g = 0

This reduces to

mpayload = 444 kg

(b) Similarly,

( )

mpayload = ρair − ρhydrogen V = (1.29 kg m 3 − 0.089 9 kg m 3 ) ( 400 m 3 )

mpayload = 480 kg

The surrounding air does the lifting, nearly the same for the two balloons.

374 Chapter 14

4 3

So, Fapp = ( Vol ) g ( ρwater − ρball ) = π r g ( ρwater − ρball )

3

4 3

Fapp =

3

*P14.22 For the submerged object ΣFy = 0 +B − Fg + T = 0 +B = Fg − T = 5 N − 3.5 N = 1.5 N

This is the weight of the water displaced. Its volume is the same as the volume V of the object:

mobject ρw g Fg ρw 5 N (1000 kg/m 3 )

ρobject = mobject Vobject = = = = 3.33 × 10 3 kg/m 3

1.5 N 1.5 N 1.5 N

P14.23 (a) P = P0 + ρ gh

FIG. P14.23

and Fbot = 1.029 7 × 10 3 N

(b) T + B − Mg = 0

Fluid Mechanics 375

B = 25.0 N

of the block.

FIG. P14.24(a)

(d) String tension increases. The oil causes the water

below to be under greater pressure, and the water

pushes up more strongly on the bottom of the

block.

−15 N − 60 N + 25 N + Boil = 0

Boil = 50 N

For the buoyant force of the water we have 60 N Boil

25 N

B = ρVg 25 N = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 0.25Vblock ) 9.8 m s 2

FIG. P14.24(e)

Vblock = 1.02 × 10 −2 m 3

fe = 0.6625 = 62.5%

f f = 0.187 = 18.7%

Boil

FIG. P14.24(f)

*P14.25 (a) Let P represent the pressure at the center of one face, of edge ᐉ. P = P0 + ρgh

dFdt = 0 + ρgᐉ2 dh dt = (1030 kgm3)(9.8 ms2)(0.25 m)2(1.9 m s) = 1.20 × 10 3 N/s

(b) B = ρVg is constant as both the force on the top and the bottom of the block increase

together. The rate of change is zero .

376 Chapter 14

P14.26 Consider spherical balloons of radius 12.5 cm containing helium at STP and immersed in air

at 0°C and 1 atm. If the rubber envelope has mass 5.00 g, the upward force on each is

B − Fg ,He − Fg ,env = ρairVg − ρHeVg − menv g

4

⎝3 ⎠

4 3

⎣3 ⎦

= 0.040 1 N

If your weight (including harness, strings, and submarine sandwich) is

686 N

you need this many balloons: = 17 000 ~ 10 4

0.040 1 N

3

But

3

3 3

3 3

P14.28 (a) The weight of the ball must be equal to the buoyant force of the water:

4 3

1.26 kg g = ρwater π router g

3

13

⎛ 3 × 1.26 kg ⎞

router = ⎜ = 6.70 cm

⎝ 4π 1 000 kg m 3 ⎟⎠

4 4

⎝3 3 ⎠

4

⎝3 ⎠

3

( )

1.11 × 10 −4 m 3 = 3.01 × 10 −4 m 3 − ri3

ri = (1.89 × 10 −4 m 3 )

13

= 5.74 cm

Fluid Mechanics 377

P14.29 Let A represent the horizontal cross-sectional area of the rod, which we presume to be constant.

The rod is in equilibrium:

ρ0 ALg = ρ A ( L − h ) g

ρ0 L

The density of the liquid is ρ=

L−h

P14.30 We use the result of Problem 14.29. For the rod f loating in a liquid of density 0.98 g cm 3 ,

L

ρ = ρ0

L−h

ρ0 L

0.98 g cm 3 =

( L − 0.2 cm )

0.98 g cm 3 L − ( 0.98 g cm 3 ) 0.2 cm = ρ0 L

ρ0 L

1.14 g cm 3 =

( L − 1.8 cm )

1.14 g cm 3 − (1.14 g cm 3 ) 1.8 cm = ρ0 L

(a) By substitution,

1.14 L − 1.14 (1.8 cm ) = 0.98 L − 0.2 ( 0.98 )

0.16 L = 1.856 cm

L = 11.6 cm

(b) Substituting back,

0.98 g cm 3 (11.6 cm − 0.2 cm ) = ρ0 11.6 cm

ρ0 = 0.963 g cm 3

ρ0 L

(c) The marks are not equally spaced. Because ρ = is not of the form ρ = a + bh,

L−h

equal-size steps of ρ do not correspond to equal-size steps of h. The number 1.06 is

halfway between 0.98 and 1.14 but the mark for that density is 0.0604 cm below the

geometric halfway point between the ends of the scale. The marks get closer together as

you go down.

P14.31 The balloon stops rising when ( ρair − ρHe ) gV = Mg and ( ρair − ρHe ) V = M

Therefore,

M 400

V= = −1

V = 1 430 m 3

ρair − ρHe 1.25e − 0.180

378 Chapter 14

P14.32 Constant velocity implies zero acceleration, which means that the submersible is in equilibrium

under the gravitational force, the upward buoyant force, and the upward resistance force:

where m is the mass of the added water and V is the sphere’s volume.

4 3 1100 N

⎣3 ⎦ 9.8 m s 2

so

m = 2.67 × 10 3 kg

P14.33 B = Fg

V

ρH 2 O g = ρsphere gV

2

1

ρsphere = ρH2O = 500 kg m 3 FIG. P14.33

2

ρglycerin g ⎛ 4 ⎞

V − ρsphere gV = 0

⎝ 10 ⎠

ρglycerin =

10

4

(500 kg m 3 ) = 1 250 kg m 3

P14.34 By Archimedes’s principle, the weight of the f ifty planes is equal to the weight of a horizontal

slice of water 11.0 cm thick and circumscribed by the water line:

∆B = ρwater g ( ∆V )

50 ( 2.90 × 10 4 kg ) g = (1 030 kg m 3 ) g ( 0.110 m ) A

giving A = 1.28 × 10 4 m 2 . The acceleration of gravity does not affect the answer.

P1 = P0

Note P2 = P0 . The water pushes on the air just as hard as the air pushes on the water.

F low rate = 2.50 × 10 −3 m 3 min = 4.17 × 10 −5 m 3 s .

Assuming v1 = 0,

ρv12 ρv 2

P1 + + ρ gy1 = P2 + 2 + ρ gy2

2 2

v2 = ( 2 gy1 ) = [ 2 ( 9.80 ) (16.0 )]

12 12

= 17.7 m s

⎛ πd2 ⎞

(b) F low rate = A2 v2 = ⎜ (17.7 ) = 4.17 × 10 −5 m 3 s

⎝ 4 ⎟⎠

d = 1.73 × 10 −3 m = 1.73 mm

Fluid Mechanics 379

P14.36 Take point ➀ at the free surface of the water in the tank and ➁ inside the

Fwater Fair

nozzle.

1 1

(a) With the cork in place P1 + ρ gy1 + ρv12 = P2 + ρ gy2 + ρv22 f

becomes 2 2

FIG. P14.36

3 2 4

Fwater − Fair − f = 0

P2 A − P0 A = f

f = 7.35 × 10 4 Paπ ( 0.011 m ) = 27.9 N

2

P0 + 7.35 × 10 4 Pa + 0 = P0 + 0 +

1

2

(1 000 kg m 3 ) v22

v2 = 12.1 m s

The quantity leaving the nozzle in 2 h is

(c) Take point 1 in the wide hose and 2 just outside the nozzle. Continuity:

A1v1 = A2 v2

2 2

π⎛ v1 = π ⎛

6.6 cm ⎞ 2.2 cm ⎞

12.1 m s

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

12.1 m s

v1 = = 1.35 m s

9

1 1

P1 + ρ gy1 + ρv12 = P2 + ρ gy2 + ρv22

2 2

P1 + 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) (1.35 m s ) = P0 + 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) (12.1 m s )

1 2 1 2

2 2

P1 − P0 = 7.35 × 10 4 Pa − 9.07 × 10 2 Pa = 7.26 × 10 4 Pa

Q 0.012 0 m 3 / s

v2 = = = 31.6 m s

A2 π (0.011 m)2

380 Chapter 14

*P14.38 (a) The mass f low rate and the volume f low rate are constant:

1 1

P1 + ρ gy1 + ρv12 = P2 + ρ gy2 + ρv22

2 2

2.5 × 10 Pa + 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( v1 )

4 1 2

2

= 1.5 × 10 4 Pa + (1000)(9.8)(0.5) Pa +

1

2

(1 000 kg m 3 ) (4v1 )2

5100 Pa

v1 = = 0.825 m s

7500 kg m 3

2

125 cm 3

= Av1 = π ⎛

0.96 cm ⎞

v1

16.3 s ⎝ 2 ⎠

The speed at the top of the falling column is

7.67 cm 3 s

v1 = = 10.6 cm s

0.724 cm 2

Take point 2 at 13 cm below:

1 2 1

P1 + ρ gy1 + ρv1 = P2 + ρ gy2 + ρv22

2 2

P0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.8 m s 2 ) 0.13 m + 1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 0.106 m s )

1

2

( 2

= P0 + 0 +

1

2

(1 000 kg m 3 ) v22

v2 = 2 ( 9.8 m s 2 ) 0.13 m + ( 0.1106 m s ) = 1.60 m s

2

2

7.67 cm 3 s = π ⎛ ⎞ 160 cm s

d

⎝ 2⎠

d = 0.247 cm

∆t ∆t ⎝ ∆t ⎠

(b) PEL = 0.85 (8.5 × 10 ) (9.8) (87) =

5

616 MW

Fluid Mechanics 381

1 2 1

P14.41 (a) Between sea surface and clogged hole: P1 + ρv1 + ρ gy1 = P2 + ρv22 + ρ gy2

2 2

1 atm + 0 + (1 030 kg m 3 ) ( 9.8 m s 2 ) ( 2 m ) = P2 + 0 + 0 P2 = 1 atm + 20.2 kPa

The air on the back of his hand pushes opposite the water, so the net force on his hand is

π

F = PA = ( 20.2 × 10 3 N m 2 ) ⎛ ⎞ (1.2 × 10 −2 m )

2

F = 2.28 N toward Holland

⎝ 4⎠

(b) Now, Bernoulli’s theorem is

1

2

(1 030 kg m 3 ) v22 + 0 v2 = 6.26 m s

π

The volume rate of f low is A2 v2 =

4

(1.2 × 10 −2 m )2 (6.26 m s ) = 7.08 × 10 −4 m 3 s

One acre–foot is 4 047 m 2 × 0.304 8 m = 1 234 m 3

1 234 m 3

Requiring = 1.74 × 10 6 s = 20.2 days

7.08 × 10 −4 m 3 s

*P14.42 (a) The volume f low rate is the same at the two points: A1v1 = A2v2

π (1 cm)2v1 = π (0.5 cm)2v2 v2 = 4v1

1 1

P1 + ρv12 + ρ gy1 = P2 + ρv22 + ρ gy 2

2 2

1 1

P1 − P2 = ∆ P = ρ(4 v1 ) + 0 − ρv12

2

2 2

1

∆ P = (850 kg/m 3 ) 15v12

2

(

v1 = 0.0125 m/s ) ∆P where the pressure is in Pascals

(b) (3.93 × 10 −6

m 3 /s ) 6000 = 0.305 L /s

(c) With pressure difference 2 times larger, the f low rate is larger by the square root of 2 times:

(2)1 2(0.305 L s) = 0.431 L /s

(d) The f low rate is proportional to the square root of the pressure difference.

382 Chapter 14

⎛ P + 1 ρv 2 + ρ gy⎞ = ⎛ P + ρv 2 + ρ gy⎞

1

P14.43 (a) Suppose the f low is very slow:

⎝ 2 ⎠ river

⎝ 2 ⎠ rim

P + 0 + ρ g ( 564 m ) = 1 atm + 0 + ρ g ( 2 096 m )

P = 1 atm + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.8 m s 2 ) (1 532 m ) = 1 atm + 15.0 MPa

π d 2v

(b) The volume f low rate is 4 500 m 3 d = Av =

4

1d ⎞⎛ ⎞

v = ( 4 500 m 3 d ) ⎛

4

= 2.95 m s

⎝ 86 400 s ⎠ ⎜⎝ π ( 0.150 m )2 ⎟⎠

(c) Imagine the pressure as applied to stationary water at the bottom of the pipe:

⎛ P + 1 ρv 2 + ρ gy⎞ = ⎛ P + ρv 2 + ρ gy⎞

1

⎝ 2 ⎠ bottom ⎝ 2 ⎠ top

1

P + 0 = 1 atm +

2

( 2

*P14.44 (a) For upward f light of a water-drop projectile from geyser vent to fountain-top,

v yf2 = v yi2 + 2ay ∆y

1 2 1

(b) Between geyser vent and fountain-top: P1 + ρv1 + ρ gy1 = P2 + ρv22 + ρ gy2

2 2

Air is so low in density that very nearly P1 = P2 = 1 atm

vi + 0 = 0 + ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( 40.0 m )

1 2

Then,

2

v1 = 28.0 m s

(c) The answers agree precisely. The models are consistent with each other.

1 2 1

(d) Between the chamber and the fountain-top: P1 + ρv1 + ρ gy1 = P2 + ρv22 + ρ gy2

2 2

P1 + 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( −175 m )

= P0 + 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( +40.0 m )

P1 − P0 = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( 215 m ) = 2.11 MPa

ρv12 ρ2 A

P14.45 P1 + = P2 + 2 (Bernoulli equation), v1 A1 = v2 A2 where 1 = 4

2 2 A2

ρ 2 ρ ⎛ A2 ⎞ ρv 2

∆P = P1 − P2 = ( v2 − v12 ) = v12 ⎜ 12 − 1⎟ and ∆P = 1 15 = 21 000 Pa

2 2 ⎝ A2 ⎠ 2

v1 = 2.00 m s; v2 = 4 v1 = 8.00 m s:

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