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368 Chapter 14

Q14.26 (a) Since the velocity of the air in the right-hand section of the pipe is lower than that in the
middle, the pressure is higher.

(b) The equation that predicts the same pressure in the far right and left-hand sections of the
tube assumes laminar f low without viscosity. Internal friction will cause some loss of
mechanical energy and turbulence will also progressively reduce the pressure. If the pres-
sure at the left were not higher than at the right, the f low would stop.

*Q14.27 (i) Answer (c). The water level stays the same. The solid ice displaced its own mass of liquid
water. The meltwater does the same. You can accurately measure the quantity of H2O going
into a recipe, even if some of it is frozen, either by using a kitchen scale or by letting the ice
f loat in liquid water in a measuring cup and looking at the liquid water level.

(ii) Answer (b). Ice on the continent of Antarctica is above sea level.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

Section 14.1 Pressure

M = ρironV = ( 7 860 kg m 3 ) ⎡⎢ π ( 0.015 0 m ) ⎤⎥


4 3
P14.1
⎣3 ⎦
M = 0.111 kg

P14.2 The density of the nucleus is of the same order of magnitude as that of one proton, according to
the assumption of close packing:
m 1.67 × 10 −27 kg
ρ= ~ ~ 1018 kg m 3
3 π (10 m)
−15 3
V 4

With vastly smaller average density, a macroscopic chunk of matter or an atom must be mostly
empty space.

F 50.0 ( 9.80 )
P14.3 P= = 2 = 6.24 × 10
6
N m2
A π ( 0.500 × 10 −2 )

P14.4 The Earth’s surface area is 4π R 2 . The force pushing inward over this area amounts to

F = P0 A = P0 ( 4π R 2 )

This force is the weight of the air:

Fg = mg = P0 ( 4π R 2 )
so the mass of the air is

P0 ( 4π R 2 ) (1.013 × 10 N m 2 ) ⎡ 4π ( 6.37 × 10 6 m ) ⎤
5 2

m= = ⎣ ⎦ = 5.27 × 1018 kg
g 9.80 m s 2

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Fluid Mechanics 369

Section 14.2 Variation of Pressure with Depth

P14.5 Fel = Ffluid or kx = ρ ghA


Vacuum
kx
and h =
ρ gA

h=
(1 000 N m ) (5.00 × 10 m )
2 −3

= 1.62 m
(10 kg m ) ( 9.80 m s ) ⎡π (1.00 × 10 m) ⎤
3 3 2 −2 2

⎣ ⎦ FIG. P14.5

P14.6 (a) P = P0 + ρ gh = 1.013 × 10 5 Pa + (1 024 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) (1 000 m )

P = 1.01 × 10 7 Pa

(b) The gauge pressure is the difference in pressure between the water outside and the air
inside the submarine, which we suppose is at 1.00 atmosphere.

Pgauge = P − P0 = ρ gh = 1.00 × 10 7 Pa

The resultant inward force on the porthole is then

F = Pgauge A = 1.00 × 10 7 Pa ⎡⎣π ( 0.150 m ) ⎤⎦ = 7.09 × 10 5 N


2

P14.7 Fg = 80.0 kg ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 784 N


When the cup barely supports the student, the normal force of the
ceiling is zero and the cup is in equilibrium.

Fg = F = PA = (1.013 × 10 5 Pa ) A
Fg 784
A= = = 7.74 × 10 −3 m 2
P 1.013 × 10 5

FIG. P14.7

F1 F2
P14.8 Since the pressure is the same on both sides, =
A1 A2
15 000 F
In this case, = 2 or F2 = 225 N
200 3.00

P14.9 The excess water pressure (over air pressure) halfway down is

Pgauge = ρ gh = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) (1.20 m ) = 1.118 × 10 4 Pa

The force on the wall due to the water is

F = Pgauge A = (1.18 × 10 4 Pa ) ( 2.40 m ) ( 9.60 m ) = 2.71 × 10 5 N

horizontally toward the back of the hole . Russell Shadle suggested the idea for this problem.

13794_14_ch14_p365-394.indd 369 12/2/06 12:29:34 PM


370 Chapter 14

P14.10 (a) Suppose the “vacuum cleaner” functions as a high–vacuum pump. The air below the brick
will exert on it a lifting force

F = PA = 1.013 × 10 5 Pa ⎡π (1.43 × 10 −2 m ) ⎤ = 65.1 N


2

⎣ ⎦
(b) The octopus can pull the bottom away from the top shell with a force that could be no
larger than

F = PA = ( P0 + ρ gh ) A

= ⎡⎣1.013 × 10 5 Pa + (1 030 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( 32.3 m ) ⎤⎦ ⎡π (1.43 × 10 −2 m ) ⎤


2

⎣ ⎦
F = 275 N

P14.11 The pressure on the bottom due to the water is Pb = ρ gz = 1.96 × 10 4 Pa

So, Fb = Pb A = 5.88 × 10 6 N down

On each end, F = Paverage A = 9.80 × 10 3 Pa ( 20.0 m 2 ) = 196 kN outward

On the side, F = Paverage A = 9.80 × 10 3 Pa ( 60.0 m 2 ) = 588 kN outward

P14.12 The air outside and water inside both exert atmospheric
pressure, so only the excess water pressure ρ gh counts for the
net force. Take a strip of hatch between depth h and h + dh .
It feels force 2.00 m 1.00 m
dF = PdA = ρ gh ( 2.00 m ) dh
2.00 m
(a) The total force is
FIG. P14.12
2.00 m

F = ∫ dF = ∫ ρ gh ( 2.00 m ) dh
h =1.00 m

( 2.00 m )
2.00 m
h2
F = ρ g ( 2.00 m ) = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ⎡⎣( 2.00 m )2 − (1.00 m )2 ⎤⎦
2 1.00 m
2
F = 29.4 kN ( to the right )

(b) The lever arm of dF is the distance ( h − 1.00 m ) from hinge to strip:
2.00 m

τ = ∫ dτ = ∫ ρ gh ( 2.00 m ) ( h − 1.00 m ) dh
h =1.00 m
00 m
2.0
⎡ h3 h2 ⎤
τ = ρ g ( 2.00 m ) ⎢ − (1.00 m ) ⎥
⎣3 2 ⎦1.00 m
⎛ 7.00 m 3 3.00 m 3 ⎞
τ = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( 2.00 m ) ⎜ −
⎝ 3 2 ⎟⎠
τ = 16.3 kN ⋅ m counterclockwise

13794_14_ch14_p365-394.indd 370 12/2/06 12:29:35 PM


Fluid Mechanics 371

P14.13 The bell is uniformly compressed, so we can model it with any shape. We choose a sphere of
diameter 3.00 m.
The pressure on the ball is given by: P = Patm + ρw gh so the change in pressure on the ball from
when it is on the surface of the ocean to when it is at the bottom of the ocean is ∆P = ρw gh.
In addition:
−V ∆P ρ ghV 4πρw ghr 3
∆V = =− w =− , where B is thee Bulk Modulus .
B B 3B
4π (1 030 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) (10 000 m ) (1.50 m )
3

∆V = − = −0.010 2 m 3
( 3) (14.0 × 1010 Pa )
Therefore, the volume of the ball at the bottom of the ocean is
4
V − ∆V = π (1.50 m )3 − 0.010 2 m 3 = 14.137 m 3 − 0.010 2 m 3 = 14.127 m 3
3
This gives a radius of 1.499 64 m and a new diameter of 2.999 3 m. Therefore the diameter
decreases by 0.722 mm .

Section 14.3 Pressure Measurements

P14.14 (a) We imagine the superhero to produce a perfect vacuum in the straw. Take point 1 at the
water surface in the basin and point 2 at the water surface in the straw:

P1 + ρ gy1 = P2 + ρ gy2

1.013 × 10 5 N m 2 + 0 = 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) y2 y2 = 10.3 m

(b) No atmosphere can lift the water in the straw through zero height difference.

P14.15 P0 = ρ gh

P0 1.013 × 10 5 Pa
h= = = 10.5 m
ρ g ( 0.984 × 10 3 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 )

No. The “Torricellian vacuum” is not so good.


Some alcohol and water will evaporate.

The equilibrium vapor pressures of alcohol and water are higher than the vapor
pressure of mercury.

FIG. P14.15

13794_14_ch14_p365-394.indd 371 12/2/06 12:29:35 PM


372 Chapter 14

P14.16 (a) Using the def inition of density, we have


mwater 100 g
hw = =
A2 ρwater 5.00 cm 2 (1.00 g cm 3 )
= 20.0 cm

(b) Sketch (b) at the right represents the situation


after the water is added. A volume ( A2 h2 ) of
mercury has been displaced by water in the right
tube. The additional volume of mercury now in
the left tube is A1h. Since the total volume of FIG. P14.16
mercury has not changed,
A1
A2 h2 = A1h or h2 = h (1)
A2
At the level of the mercury–water interface in the right tube, we may write the absolute
pressure as:
P = P0 + ρwater ghw
The pressure at this same level in the left tube is given by

P = P0 + ρHg g ( h + h2 ) = P0 + ρwater ghw

which, using equation (1) above, reduces to


⎡ A ⎤
ρHg h ⎢1 + 1 ⎥ = ρwater hw
⎣ A2 ⎦

or
ρwater hw
h=
ρHg (1 + A1 / A2 )
Thus, the level of mercury has risen a distance of

(1.00 g cm 3 ) ( 20.0 cm )
h= = 0.490 cm above the original level.
(13.6 g cm 3 ) (1 + 10.0 / 50.0 )

P14.17 ∆P0 = ρ g∆h = −2.66 × 10 3 Pa: P = P0 + ∆P0 = (1.013 − 0.026 6 ) × 10 5 Pa = 0.986 × 10 5 Pa

*P14.18 (a) We can directly write the bottom pressure as P = P0 + ρgh, or we can say that the bottom of
the tank must support the weight of the water:

PA − P0 A = mwater g = ρVg = ρAhg which gives again

P = P0 + ρgh = 101.3 kPa + (1000 kg m3)(9.8 m s2)h = 101.3 kPa + (9.8 kPa  m)h

(b) Now the bottom of the tank must support the weight of the whole contents:

PbA − P0 A = mwater g + Mg = ρVg + Mg = ρAhg + Mg so

Pb = P0 + ρhg + Mg A Then ∆ P = Pb − P = Mg A

(c) Before the people enter, P = 101.3 kPa + (9.8 kPa m)(1.5 m) = 116 kPa

afterwards, ∆ P = Mg A = (150 kg)(9.8 ms2)π (3 m)2 = 52.0 Pa

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Fluid Mechanics 373

P14.19 (a) P = P0 + ρgh


The gauge pressure is

P − P0 = ρ gh = 1 000 kg ( 9.8 m s 2 ) ( 0.160 m ) = 1.57 kPa

= 1.57 × 10 3 Pa ⎛ ⎞
1 atm
⎝ 1.013 × 10 5 Pa ⎠
= 0.015 5 atm .
It would lift a mercury column to height
P − P0 1 568 Pa
h= = = 11.8 mm
ρg (13 600 kg m 3 ) (9.8 m s2 )
(b) Increased pressure of the cerebrospinal fluiid will raise the level of the fluid in thee
spinal tap.

(c) Blockage of the fluid within the spinal coluumn or between the skull and the spinal
colu
umn would prevent the fluid level from risiing.

Section 14.4 Buoyant Forces and Archimedes’s Principle

P14.20 (a) The balloon is nearly in equilibrium:

∑F y ( )
= may ⇒ B − Fg helium
( )
− Fg payload
=0

or
ρair gV − ρhelium gV − mpayload g = 0
This reduces to

mpayload = ( ρair − ρhelium ) V = (1.29 kg m 3 − 0.179 kg m 3 ) ( 400 m 3 )


mpayload = 444 kg

(b) Similarly,

( )
mpayload = ρair − ρhydrogen V = (1.29 kg m 3 − 0.089 9 kg m 3 ) ( 400 m 3 )

mpayload = 480 kg

The surrounding air does the lifting, nearly the same for the two balloons.

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374 Chapter 14

P14.21 At equilibrium ∑F = 0 or Fapp + mg = B

where B is the buoyant force.

The applied force, Fapp = B − mg

where B = Vol ( ρwater ) g FIG. P14.21

and m = ( Vol ) ρball


4 3
So, Fapp = ( Vol ) g ( ρwater − ρball ) = π r g ( ρwater − ρball )
3

π (1.90 × 10 −2 m ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) (10 3 kg m 3 − 84.0 kg m 3 ) = 0.258 N down


4 3
Fapp =
3
*P14.22 For the submerged object ΣFy = 0 +B − Fg + T = 0 +B = Fg − T = 5 N − 3.5 N = 1.5 N

This is the weight of the water displaced. Its volume is the same as the volume V of the object:

B = mwater g = ρwVobject g = 1.5 N: Vobject = 1.5 Nρwg

Now the density of the object is


mobject ρw g Fg ρw 5 N (1000 kg/m 3 )
ρobject = mobject Vobject = = = = 3.33 × 10 3 kg/m 3
1.5 N 1.5 N 1.5 N
P14.23 (a) P = P0 + ρ gh

Taking P0 = 1.013 × 10 5 N m 2 and h = 5.00 cm

we f ind Ptop = 1.017 9 × 10 5 N m 2

For h = 17.0 cm, we get Pbot = 1.029 7 × 10 5 N m 2

Since the areas of the top and bottom are A = ( 0.100 m )2 = 10 −2 m 2

we f ind Ftop = Ptop A = 1.017 9 × 10 3 N


FIG. P14.23
and Fbot = 1.029 7 × 10 3 N

(b) T + B − Mg = 0

where B = ρwVg = (10 3 kg m 3 ) (1.20 × 10 −3 m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 11.8 N

and Mg = 10.0 ( 9.80 ) = 98.0 N

Therefore, T = Mg − B = 98.0 − 11.8 = 86.2 N

(c) Fbot − Ftop = (1.029 7 − 1.017 9 ) × 10 3 N = 11.8 N

which is equal to B found in part (b).

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Fluid Mechanics 375

P14.24 (a) Fg (b) ∑F y = 0: −15 N − 10 N + B = 0

B = 25.0 N

T B (c) The oil pushes horizontally inward on each side


of the block.
FIG. P14.24(a)
(d) String tension increases. The oil causes the water
below to be under greater pressure, and the water
pushes up more strongly on the bottom of the
block.

(e) Consider the equilibrium just before the string breaks: 15 N


−15 N − 60 N + 25 N + Boil = 0
Boil = 50 N
For the buoyant force of the water we have 60 N Boil
25 N
B = ρVg 25 N = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 0.25Vblock ) 9.8 m s 2
FIG. P14.24(e)
Vblock = 1.02 × 10 −2 m 3

For the buoyant force of the oil

50 N = (800 kg m 3 ) fe (1.02 × 10 −2 m 3 ) 9.8 m s 2


fe = 0.6625 = 62.5%

(f ) −15 N + (800 kg m 3 ) f f (1.02 × 10 −2 m 3 ) 9.8 m s 2 = 0 15 N

f f = 0.187 = 18.7%

Boil
FIG. P14.24(f)

*P14.25 (a) Let P represent the pressure at the center of one face, of edge ᐉ. P = P0 + ρgh

The force on the face is F = PA = P0 A + ρgᐉ2h

It increases in time at the rate


dFdt = 0 + ρgᐉ2 dh dt = (1030 kgm3)(9.8 ms2)(0.25 m)2(1.9 m s) = 1.20 × 10 3 N/s

(b) B = ρVg is constant as both the force on the top and the bottom of the block increase
together. The rate of change is zero .

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376 Chapter 14

P14.26 Consider spherical balloons of radius 12.5 cm containing helium at STP and immersed in air
at 0°C and 1 atm. If the rubber envelope has mass 5.00 g, the upward force on each is
B − Fg ,He − Fg ,env = ρairVg − ρHeVg − menv g

Fup = ( ρair − ρHe ) ⎛ π r 3 ⎞ g − menv g


4
⎝3 ⎠

Fup = ⎣⎡(1.29 − 0.179 ) kg m 3 ⎤⎦ ⎡⎢ π ( 0.125 m ) ⎤⎥ ( 9.80 m s 2 ) − 5.00 × 10 −3 kg ( 9.80 m s 2 )


4 3

⎣3 ⎦
= 0.040 1 N
If your weight (including harness, strings, and submarine sandwich) is

70.0 kg ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 686 N

686 N
you need this many balloons: = 17 000 ~ 10 4
0.040 1 N

P14.27 (a) According to Archimedes, B = ρwaterVwater g = (1.00 g cm 3 ) [ 20.0 × 20.0 × ( 20.0 − h )] g

B = Weight of block = mg = ρwoodVwood g = ( 0.650 g cm 3 ) ( 20.0 cm ) g


3
But

0.650 ( 20.0 ) g = 1.00 ( 20.0 ) ( 20.0 ) ( 20.0 − h ) g


3

20.0 − h = 20.0 ( 0.650 ) so h = 20.0 (1 − 0.650 ) = 7.00 cm

(b) B = Fg + Mg where M = mass of lead

1.00 ( 20.0 ) g = 0.650 ( 20.0 ) g + Mg


3 3

M = (1.00 − 0.650 ) ( 20.0 ) = 0.350 ( 20.0 ) = 2 800 g = 2.80 kg


3 3

P14.28 (a) The weight of the ball must be equal to the buoyant force of the water:
4 3
1.26 kg g = ρwater π router g
3
13
⎛ 3 × 1.26 kg ⎞
router = ⎜ = 6.70 cm
⎝ 4π 1 000 kg m 3 ⎟⎠

(b) The mass of the ball is determined by the density of aluminum:

m = ρAlV = ρAl ⎛ π r03 − π ri3 ⎞


4 4
⎝3 3 ⎠

1.26 kg = 2 700 kg m 3 ⎛ π ⎞ ( 0.067 m ) − ri3


4
⎝3 ⎠
3
( )
1.11 × 10 −4 m 3 = 3.01 × 10 −4 m 3 − ri3
ri = (1.89 × 10 −4 m 3 )
13
= 5.74 cm

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Fluid Mechanics 377

P14.29 Let A represent the horizontal cross-sectional area of the rod, which we presume to be constant.
The rod is in equilibrium:

∑F y = 0: − mg + B = 0 = − ρ0Vwhole rod g + ρfluidVimmersed g

ρ0 ALg = ρ A ( L − h ) g
ρ0 L
The density of the liquid is ρ=
L−h
P14.30 We use the result of Problem 14.29. For the rod f loating in a liquid of density 0.98 g cm 3 ,
L
ρ = ρ0
L−h
ρ0 L
0.98 g cm 3 =
( L − 0.2 cm )
0.98 g cm 3 L − ( 0.98 g cm 3 ) 0.2 cm = ρ0 L

For f loating in the dense liquid,


ρ0 L
1.14 g cm 3 =
( L − 1.8 cm )
1.14 g cm 3 − (1.14 g cm 3 ) 1.8 cm = ρ0 L
(a) By substitution,
1.14 L − 1.14 (1.8 cm ) = 0.98 L − 0.2 ( 0.98 )
0.16 L = 1.856 cm
L = 11.6 cm
(b) Substituting back,
0.98 g cm 3 (11.6 cm − 0.2 cm ) = ρ0 11.6 cm
ρ0 = 0.963 g cm 3

ρ0 L
(c) The marks are not equally spaced. Because ρ = is not of the form ρ = a + bh,
L−h
equal-size steps of ρ do not correspond to equal-size steps of h. The number 1.06 is
halfway between 0.98 and 1.14 but the mark for that density is 0.0604 cm below the
geometric halfway point between the ends of the scale. The marks get closer together as
you go down.

P14.31 The balloon stops rising when ( ρair − ρHe ) gV = Mg and ( ρair − ρHe ) V = M
Therefore,
M 400
V= = −1
V = 1 430 m 3
ρair − ρHe 1.25e − 0.180

13794_14_ch14_p365-394.indd 377 12/2/06 12:29:39 PM


378 Chapter 14

P14.32 Constant velocity implies zero acceleration, which means that the submersible is in equilibrium
under the gravitational force, the upward buoyant force, and the upward resistance force:

∑F y = may = 0 − (1.20 × 10 4 kg + m ) g + ρw gV + 1100 N = 0

where m is the mass of the added water and V is the sphere’s volume.

1.20 × 10 4 kg + m = 1.03 × 10 3 ⎡⎢ π (1.50 ) ⎤⎥ +


4 3 1100 N
⎣3 ⎦ 9.8 m s 2
so
m = 2.67 × 10 3 kg

P14.33 B = Fg
V
ρH 2 O g = ρsphere gV
2
1
ρsphere = ρH2O = 500 kg m 3 FIG. P14.33
2

ρglycerin g ⎛ 4 ⎞
V − ρsphere gV = 0
⎝ 10 ⎠

ρglycerin =
10
4
(500 kg m 3 ) = 1 250 kg m 3
P14.34 By Archimedes’s principle, the weight of the f ifty planes is equal to the weight of a horizontal
slice of water 11.0 cm thick and circumscribed by the water line:
∆B = ρwater g ( ∆V )
50 ( 2.90 × 10 4 kg ) g = (1 030 kg m 3 ) g ( 0.110 m ) A

giving A = 1.28 × 10 4 m 2 . The acceleration of gravity does not affect the answer.

Section 14.5 F luid Dynamics

Section 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation

P14.35 Assuming the top is open to the atmosphere, then


P1 = P0
Note P2 = P0 . The water pushes on the air just as hard as the air pushes on the water.
F low rate = 2.50 × 10 −3 m 3 min = 4.17 × 10 −5 m 3 s .

(a) A1 >> A2 so v1 << v2


Assuming v1 = 0,
ρv12 ρv 2
P1 + + ρ gy1 = P2 + 2 + ρ gy2
2 2
v2 = ( 2 gy1 ) = [ 2 ( 9.80 ) (16.0 )]
12 12
= 17.7 m s

⎛ πd2 ⎞
(b) F low rate = A2 v2 = ⎜ (17.7 ) = 4.17 × 10 −5 m 3 s
⎝ 4 ⎟⎠

d = 1.73 × 10 −3 m = 1.73 mm

13794_14_ch14_p365-394.indd 378 12/2/06 12:29:40 PM


Fluid Mechanics 379

P14.36 Take point ➀ at the free surface of the water in the tank and ➁ inside the
Fwater Fair
nozzle.
1 1
(a) With the cork in place P1 + ρ gy1 + ρv12 = P2 + ρ gy2 + ρv22 f
becomes 2 2
FIG. P14.36

P0 + 1 000 kg m 9.8 m s 7.5 m + 0 = P2 + 0 + 0 ; P2 − P0 = 7.35 × 10 Pa


3 2 4

For the stopper ∑ Fx = 0

Fwater − Fair − f = 0
P2 A − P0 A = f
f = 7.35 × 10 4 Paπ ( 0.011 m ) = 27.9 N
2

(b) Now Bernoulli’s equation gives

P0 + 7.35 × 10 4 Pa + 0 = P0 + 0 +
1
2
(1 000 kg m 3 ) v22
v2 = 12.1 m s
The quantity leaving the nozzle in 2 h is

ρV = ρ Av2 t = (1 000 kg m 3 ) π ( 0.011 m )2 (12.1 m s ) 7 200 s= 3.32 × 10 4 kg

(c) Take point 1 in the wide hose and 2 just outside the nozzle. Continuity:

A1v1 = A2 v2
2 2

π⎛ v1 = π ⎛
6.6 cm ⎞ 2.2 cm ⎞
12.1 m s
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
12.1 m s
v1 = = 1.35 m s
9
1 1
P1 + ρ gy1 + ρv12 = P2 + ρ gy2 + ρv22
2 2
P1 + 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) (1.35 m s ) = P0 + 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) (12.1 m s )
1 2 1 2

2 2
P1 − P0 = 7.35 × 10 4 Pa − 9.07 × 10 2 Pa = 7.26 × 10 4 Pa

P14.37 F low rate Q = 0.012 0 m 3 s = v2 A2

Q 0.012 0 m 3 / s
v2 = = = 31.6 m s
A2 π (0.011 m)2

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380 Chapter 14

*P14.38 (a) The mass f low rate and the volume f low rate are constant:

ρA1v1 = ρA2v2 πr12v1 = πr22 v2 (4 cm)2 v1 = (2 cm)2 v2 v2 = 4v1

For ideal f low


1 1
P1 + ρ gy1 + ρv12 = P2 + ρ gy2 + ρv22
2 2
2.5 × 10 Pa + 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( v1 )
4 1 2

2
= 1.5 × 10 4 Pa + (1000)(9.8)(0.5) Pa +
1
2
(1 000 kg m 3 ) (4v1 )2
5100 Pa
v1 = = 0.825 m s
7500 kg m 3

(b) v2 = 4v1 = 3.30 m/s

(c) πr12v1 = π (0.04 m)2(0.825 m s) = 4.14 × 10 −3 m 3 /s

P14.39 The volume f low rate is


2
125 cm 3
= Av1 = π ⎛
0.96 cm ⎞
v1
16.3 s ⎝ 2 ⎠
The speed at the top of the falling column is
7.67 cm 3 s
v1 = = 10.6 cm s
0.724 cm 2
Take point 2 at 13 cm below:

1 2 1
P1 + ρ gy1 + ρv1 = P2 + ρ gy2 + ρv22
2 2
P0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.8 m s 2 ) 0.13 m + 1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 0.106 m s )
1
2
( 2

= P0 + 0 +
1
2
(1 000 kg m 3 ) v22
v2 = 2 ( 9.8 m s 2 ) 0.13 m + ( 0.1106 m s ) = 1.60 m s
2

The volume f low rate is constant:


2

7.67 cm 3 s = π ⎛ ⎞ 160 cm s
d
⎝ 2⎠
d = 0.247 cm

P14.40 (a) P = ∆ E = ∆ mgh = ⎛⎜ ∆ m ⎞⎟ gh = Rgh


∆t ∆t ⎝ ∆t ⎠
(b) PEL = 0.85 (8.5 × 10 ) (9.8) (87) =
5
616 MW

13794_14_ch14_p365-394.indd 380 12/2/06 12:29:41 PM


Fluid Mechanics 381

1 2 1
P14.41 (a) Between sea surface and clogged hole: P1 + ρv1 + ρ gy1 = P2 + ρv22 + ρ gy2
2 2
1 atm + 0 + (1 030 kg m 3 ) ( 9.8 m s 2 ) ( 2 m ) = P2 + 0 + 0 P2 = 1 atm + 20.2 kPa

The air on the back of his hand pushes opposite the water, so the net force on his hand is
π
F = PA = ( 20.2 × 10 3 N m 2 ) ⎛ ⎞ (1.2 × 10 −2 m )
2
F = 2.28 N toward Holland
⎝ 4⎠
(b) Now, Bernoulli’s theorem is

1 atm + 0 + 20.2 kPa = 1 atm +


1
2
(1 030 kg m 3 ) v22 + 0 v2 = 6.26 m s

π
The volume rate of f low is A2 v2 =
4
(1.2 × 10 −2 m )2 (6.26 m s ) = 7.08 × 10 −4 m 3 s
One acre–foot is 4 047 m 2 × 0.304 8 m = 1 234 m 3
1 234 m 3
Requiring = 1.74 × 10 6 s = 20.2 days
7.08 × 10 −4 m 3 s
*P14.42 (a) The volume f low rate is the same at the two points: A1v1 = A2v2
π (1 cm)2v1 = π (0.5 cm)2v2 v2 = 4v1

We assume the tubes are at the same elevation:


1 1
P1 + ρv12 + ρ gy1 = P2 + ρv22 + ρ gy 2
2 2
1 1
P1 − P2 = ∆ P = ρ(4 v1 ) + 0 − ρv12
2

2 2
1
∆ P = (850 kg/m 3 ) 15v12
2
(
v1 = 0.0125 m/s ) ∆P where the pressure is in Pascals

The volume f low rate is π(0.01 m)2 ( 0.0125 m/s ) ∆P

= ( 3.93 × 10 −6 m 3 /s ) ∆ P where ∆ P is in pascals

(b) (3.93 × 10 −6
m 3 /s ) 6000 = 0.305 L /s

(c) With pressure difference 2 times larger, the f low rate is larger by the square root of 2 times:
(2)1 2(0.305 L s) = 0.431 L /s

(d) The f low rate is proportional to the square root of the pressure difference.

13794_14_ch14_p365-394.indd 381 12/2/06 12:29:41 PM


382 Chapter 14

⎛ P + 1 ρv 2 + ρ gy⎞ = ⎛ P + ρv 2 + ρ gy⎞
1
P14.43 (a) Suppose the f low is very slow:
⎝ 2 ⎠ river
⎝ 2 ⎠ rim
P + 0 + ρ g ( 564 m ) = 1 atm + 0 + ρ g ( 2 096 m )
P = 1 atm + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.8 m s 2 ) (1 532 m ) = 1 atm + 15.0 MPa
π d 2v
(b) The volume f low rate is 4 500 m 3 d = Av =
4
1d ⎞⎛ ⎞
v = ( 4 500 m 3 d ) ⎛
4
= 2.95 m s
⎝ 86 400 s ⎠ ⎜⎝ π ( 0.150 m )2 ⎟⎠
(c) Imagine the pressure as applied to stationary water at the bottom of the pipe:
⎛ P + 1 ρv 2 + ρ gy⎞ = ⎛ P + ρv 2 + ρ gy⎞
1
⎝ 2 ⎠ bottom ⎝ 2 ⎠ top

1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 2.95 m s ) + 1 000 kg ( 9.8 m s 2 ) (1 532 m )


1
P + 0 = 1 atm +
2
( 2

P = 1 atm + 15.0 MPa + 4.34 kPa

The additional pressure is 4.34 kPa .

*P14.44 (a) For upward f light of a water-drop projectile from geyser vent to fountain-top,
v yf2 = v yi2 + 2ay ∆y

Then 0 = vi2 + 2 ( −9.80 m s 2 ) ( +40.0 m ) and vi = 28.0 m s


1 2 1
(b) Between geyser vent and fountain-top: P1 + ρv1 + ρ gy1 = P2 + ρv22 + ρ gy2
2 2
Air is so low in density that very nearly P1 = P2 = 1 atm

vi + 0 = 0 + ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( 40.0 m )
1 2
Then,
2
v1 = 28.0 m s

(c) The answers agree precisely. The models are consistent with each other.

1 2 1
(d) Between the chamber and the fountain-top: P1 + ρv1 + ρ gy1 = P2 + ρv22 + ρ gy2
2 2
P1 + 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( −175 m )
= P0 + 0 + (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( +40.0 m )
P1 − P0 = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) ( 215 m ) = 2.11 MPa

ρv12 ρ2 A
P14.45 P1 + = P2 + 2 (Bernoulli equation), v1 A1 = v2 A2 where 1 = 4
2 2 A2

ρ 2 ρ ⎛ A2 ⎞ ρv 2
∆P = P1 − P2 = ( v2 − v12 ) = v12 ⎜ 12 − 1⎟ and ∆P = 1 15 = 21 000 Pa
2 2 ⎝ A2 ⎠ 2

v1 = 2.00 m s; v2 = 4 v1 = 8.00 m s:

The volume f low rate is v1 A1 = 2.51 × 10 −3 m 3 s

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