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POLYGON

ENERGY
SERVICES

SHORT COURSE

ON

RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT
VENUE: ABUJA, NIGERIA

DATE: SEPTEMBER 15 – 19, 2008

TUTORIAL QUESTIONS

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1. An oilwell is producing at a rate of 5000 barrels per day into a 50psi separator through a 2’’
tubing. Given the following well data, estimate :

(a) The drawdown [Ans = 500psi]


(b). The flowing wellhead pressure[Ans = 360psi]
(c) The combined choke/surface line pressure drop[310psi]

Well data :

Reservoir pressure = 2000psi


Flowing bottom hole pressure = 1500psi
Tubing Length = 3000ft Oil SG = 0.8(Water = 8.33ppg)
Friction + Misc. pressure loss in tubing, etc = 100psi.

2. Given the following data for a cylindrical core sample, estimate :

(a) The core porosity[15.6%]


(b) The density of the rock grains[And=2.92g/cc]
(c) The storage space in the core[19.05cc]

Core data :

Clean, dry weight of sample = 311gms


Wt. of sample with pores filled 100% with 1.05SG Brine = 331gm
Diameter of core sample = 4cm
Length of core sample = 10cm

3. Estimate the pore volume and porosities of sand packs with the following pack
structures :

(a) Cubic structure


[Ans = 47.6%]
=90o
D

(b) Hexagonal structure

[Ans = 39.5%] =60o


D

(c) Rhombohedral structure

D
[Ans = 26%]
=45o

4. The core sample in Q3 is subjected to core flooding test using distilled water as the test
fluid. Compute the core sample permeability based on the following test parameters :

Water viscosity, w = 1cp


Inlet pressure, p1 = 50psig Outlet pressure, p2 = 14.7psia
Flow rate, q = 0.5cc/sec Length of core , L = 10cm
[Ans = 117mD]

5. What is the STOIIP for the following oil reservoir conditions :

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Area = 1000acres Porosity, = 18%
Connate water saturation = 25%
Oil Formation Volume Factor = 1.15
Pay thickness = 15ft [Ans = 13.7 MMstb

6. An undersaturated reservoir has effective permeability to oil of 500mD


and an absolute permeability of 750mD. What is the relative
permeability to oil? [Ans = 0.67]

7. What is the density of a 40 o API crude oil (Assuming water density of 8.33ppg). ?
[Ans = 6.873ppg]

8. Oil produced from a saturated oil reservoir shows 38% water cut. Given that the
compressibility of the individual components of the reservoir are :
co = 9.5 x 10-6 1/psi cw = 3 x 10 -6 1/psi cf = 1 x 10-6 1/psi
What is the total reservoir compressibility? [8.03 x 10 -6psi]

9. A linear flow system 10cm in length contains two cores in series of lengths L 1 and L2
respectively. Core 1 has a permeability of 100mD and core 2 has a permeability of
400mD. Total Pressure drop in the linear system is 10psi and the pressure drop across
core 1 is 8psi. Estimate :

(i) The pressure drop across core 2 [ Ans = 2psi]


(ii) Lengths L1 and L2 [Ans = 5cm]

10. Two core samples of identical dimensions are connected in parallel and steady state ,
incompressible flow of fluid is run through the system.

k1 = 100mD k2 = 500mD

(i) What are the percentages of total pressure drop shared by each
core? [Ans = 100%]
(ii) What is the fraction of the total flow that passes through each
core?

11. A vertical well has been drilled through a gas reservoir and producing at steady state.
Given the following well and production data, estimate the delivery from the well in
SCF/Day;

Reservoir pressure = 1769psi Flowing bottom hole pressure = 1250psi


Wellbore radius = 3.061’’ Drainage radius = 1640ft
Pay thickness = 100ft Average Gas compressibility factor = 0.9
Formation permeability = 2583mD
Gas Viscosity = 0.0168cp Reservoir Temperature = 158 oF

q 

0.703kh p r2  p 2w 
Hint : sg  r 
T g  ln e 
 rw 
o
[qsg] = scf/day; [T]= R; [k]=mD; []=cp; [r] = ft; [h]=ft

12. A reservoir is approximately circular in plan and of 3000ft radius. Water influx is negligible.
It is produced from a single well with a wellbore radius of 0.5ft situated at the centre
of the reservoir. Initial reservoir pressure was 3400psia. Production is then commenced at
a rate of 350stb/day. Estimate :

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(i) the pressure at 500ft radius after 5days of production [Ans = 3376psi]
(ii) pressure at 500ft radius at the end of the transient period. [3360psi]

Well data :

Bo = 1.32rb/stb = 0.44cp c = 18 x 10-6 1/psi

h = 43ft  = 16% k = 25mD

13. A bounded reservoir is producing oil with a viscosity of 30cp. through a 9’’ diameter well.
The reservoir is 40ft and has a uniform permeability of 570mD. Reservoir pressure at a
drainage radius of 300ft is 3250psi. Assuming a flowing bottomhole pressure of 2900psi,
what will be the total production rate in stb/day.
[ Ans = 242stb/day]

Formation volume factor = 1.26rb/stb.

14. In a radially infinite reservoir, the permeability is 1125mD. The pay thickness is 25ft.
Reservoir radius is 150ft and pressure is 2800psi. Given that the wellbore diameter is 4’’
and a damaged zone of radius10ft exists where the permeability is 50% less than the
formation permeability,

(i) Estimate the flowing bottom hole pressure required to produce


160bbls/day if oil with a viscosity of 65cp. [Ans. = 2232psi]
(ii) What is the PI if Bo = 1.3rb//stb
(iii) If the oil production is to be increased 50% by pumping,
determine the suction pressure developed by the pump [ Ans = 1946psi]
(iv) For the same flow rate as in (i) determine the flowing bottom
hole pressure for the undamaged well assuming all other
parameters remain the same.[ Ans = 2445psi]
(v) Estimate the flow efficiency
(vi) What is the Reservoir Flow Potential?

15 An 8’’ diameter well is drilled through a sandstone formation with a permeability of 250mD
and thickness of 25ft. The drainage radius is 660ft. The well suffers zonal damage out to a
radius of 6.25ft reducing the permeability to 10mD. However, electric heaters are able to
reduce the viscosity of the oil from its normal 120cp to an average of 8cp within a 4ft
radius. What is the resulting productivity ratio assuming steady state flow?
[Ans = 3.91]

16 As part of the risk assessment studies for a new field development,


detailed analysis have been carried out on the core samples taken from the exploratory
well as part of the formation evaluation programme. The analysis data are as follows::

Clean dry weight of core sample = 315gms


Weight of core sample filled with 1.1SG Brine = 340gms
Diameter of core sample = 4cm
Length of core sample = 10cm
Core flood data with the permeameter :
Test Fluid : 1.1SG Brine(Viscosity = 1.2cp)
Inlet pressure = 50psig Outlet pressure = 14.7psia
Core flood flow rate = 1cc/sec
Formation Relative Permeability to oil = 0.87

(i) Formation Grain Density?


(ii) What is the effective formation permeability to oil?
(iii) Given that an 8-1/2’’ exploratory well drilled was tested at a
flowing bottom hole pressure of 1250psi , what is the delivery from the well
in stb/day?
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(iv) What is the reservoir AOF(Absolute Open Flow Potential)

Assume the following :

Reservoir Pressure = 1750psi Drainage radius = 1640ft


Oil Viscosity = 3cp
Oil Formation Volume Factor = 1.2rb/stb
Pay Thickness = 100ft

17. A vertical well has been completed by inside casing perforated completions through a gas
reservoir and producing at steady state. PVT analysis of the natural gas sample shows that
the composition is as presented in Table Q17. Well test data analysis indicates that the
formation permeability is damaged by drilling/completion fluid invasion to a radius of 6.5ft and
the permeability in the damaged zone is 50% of the clean formation permeability. Additional
skins identified include :
Perforation skin = 20
Partial penetration skin = 10

Given the following well and production data :

Reservoir sand permeability = 2580mD


Reservoir Pressure = 1770psi
Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure = 1250psi
Average Reservoir Temperature = 160oF
Effective Wellbore Diameter = 7’’
Reservoir Drainage radius = 1640FT
Gas viscosity = 0.0168cp
Pay Thickness = 100ft

Compute:
(a) the gas compressibility factor
(b) the total skin
(c) the delivery from the well in MSCF/day
(d) The Productivity Index

TABLE Q17: Gas Composition

Composition Vol. % MW Pc, psia Tc, oR


Methane 74.4 16.04 673 344
Ethane 5.2 30.07 709 550
Propane 2.8 44.09 618 666
Isobutane 1.2 58.12 530 733
n-Butane 0.8 58.12 551 766
Nitrogen 15.6 28.02 651 485

qsg 

0.703kh pr2  pw2

HINT : For Ideal situation  r 
zT g ln e 
 rw 

where : [qsg] = scf/day; [T]=oR; [k]=mD; [g]=cp; [r] = ft; [h]=ft

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18 Blackfriars field is located offshore in approximately 250ft of water. Initial exploration and
appraisal drilling confirmed the presence of two oil reservoirs with lithology column as shown in
Fig Q1 and the following characteristics:

ZONE A : UPPER ZONE


Depth Interval Depth 7125ft – 7189ft TVDSS
Lithology Partially consolidated sandstone, fine grained, 500mD
Oil type 35o API gravity oil
Reservoir pressure 3000psi at 7125ft

ZONE B : LOWER ZONE


Depth Interval 7411ft – 7483ft TVDSS
Lithology Massively fractured limestone reservoir[Matrix Permeability = 0.5mD]
Oil Type 35o API
GOR 420SCF/Bbl
Reservoir PI 10stb/day/psi
Reservoir pressure 3860psi @ 7411ft

Assume 13-3/8’’ Casing set at 7125ft [ Casing ID = 12.615’’]

(a) Given that Zone A and Zone B are to be produced at a pressure above Bubble point
pressure, complete the IPR Data tables in the attached Work sheet Tables A1 and Table A2
clearly showing illustrative calculations for each zone

(b) Zones A & B is to be completed with 5-1/2’’OD x 4.892’’ ID tubing .


Complete the Vertical Lift Perfomance Data Worksheets Tables B1 & B2. Assume operating
tubing head pressures of 400psi for each zone.

(c) Present your generated nodal analysis curves for each of the two zones and recommend the
appropriate operating pressure and production rate for the tubing in each zone.

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Fig Q18 : LITHOLOGY COLUMN

Marls
13-3/8’’ Casing set at 7125ft

HALITE
7125ft

UPPER ZONE
SANDSTONE

ZONE A

7190ft
INTERBEDDED
SILTSTONE

SHALE ZONE

7411ft
FRACTURED
LIMESTONE

ZONE B

7483ft

AQUIFER

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WORKSHEET A

TABLE A1 : INFLOW PERFORMANCE TABLE FOR ZONE A

Production Rate, q stb/day Flowing BHP, psi

TABLE A2 : INFLOW PERFORMANCE TABLE FOR ZONE B

Production Rate, q stb/day Flowing BHP, psi

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WORKSHEET B

TABLE B1 : PRESSURE DATA FOR STRING A

Production rate THP, psi Equivalent Equivalent Flowing


q, stb/day Depth for THP, ft Depth for BHP[Pwf], psi
Flowing BHP, ft
10000

15000

20000

30000

TABLE B2 : PRESSURE DATA FOR STRING B

Production rate THP, psi Equivalent Equivalent FBHP[Pwf], psi


q, stb/day Depth for THP, ft Depth for FBHP,
ft
10000

15000

20000

30000

18. (a) Outline the key reasons for well testing


(b) Outline the basic procedures involved in a pressure drawdown test.
(c) What are the procedural steps involved in a pressure buildup test?
(d) A well was allowed to flow at a rate of 5535stb/day for 15hrs before it
was shut in for pressure buildup test after which the following
data were recorded. Using the Horner plot, estimate :
(i) The initial cumulative production before shut-in
(ii) The formation permeability
(iii) The skin factor
(iv) The productivity index
(v) The radius of investigation in 5hrs

t(Min) Pws(Psi)
0 2710

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1 2760
2 2803
4 2830
5 2825
7 2828
9 2830
12 2832
20 2833
60 2837
120 2839
300 2842
420 2842
550 2842

co = 9.5 x 10-6 cw = 3 x 10 -6 1/psi cf = 1 x 10-6 1/psi


Sw = 38%  = 23% o = 0.89
Bo = 1.31rb/stb h = 110fft rw = 0.362ft

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