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Science, technology and society (STS), also referred to as science and technology

studies, is a branch or offspring of science studies. It considers how social, political, and
cultural values affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in
turn, affect society, politics and culture.
Science, technology, and society In the mid- to late-1960s, student and faculty social
movements in the U.S., UK, and European universities helped to launch a range of new
interdisciplinary fields (such as women’s studies) that were seen to address relevant
topics that the traditional curriculum ignored. One such development was the rise of
“science, technology, and society” programs, which are also—confusingly—known by
the STS acronym. Drawn from a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, history,
political science, and sociology, scholars in these programs created undergraduate
curricula devoted to exploring the issues raised by science and technology. Unlike
scholars in science studies, history of technology, or the history and philosophy of
science, they were and are more likely to see themselves as activists working for
change rather than dispassionate, “ivory tower” researchers. As an example of the
activist impulse, feminist scholars in this and other emerging STS areas addressed
themselves to the exclusion of women from science and engineering.

Innovation and creativity are fundamental to all academic disciplines and educational
activities, not just the arts. The creative process, as with reflection considered in the
previous chapter, is a critical component of making sense of learning experiences. A
number of approaches to teaching and learning are considered in this chapter that help
to nurture creativity and innovation.

Innovation can be broadly thought of as new ideas, new ways of looking at things, new
methods or products that have value. Innovation contains the idea of output, of actually
producing or doing something differently, making something happen or implementing
something new. Innovation almost always involves hard work; persistence and
perseverance are necessary as many good ideas never get followed through and
developed. Creativity is an active process necessarily involved in innovation. It is a
learning habit that requires skill as well as specific understanding of the contexts in which
creativity is being applied. The creative process is at the heart of innovation and often the
words are used interchangeably

Today, the video camera is a tool that is so deeply woven into everyday life that it
seems strange to find a person without one. Whether on a smartphone, tablet, laptop, or
other device, most of us carry video technology and seldom think about it. However,
when one stops to consider the history of this device’s development, one develops a
new respect for the advances in the technology of motion photography. It is important to
differentiate the video camera from a “movie” camera, which is a motion picture camera
that utilizes photographic film to record images. Film cameras have a long and varied
history dating back to the late 19th century. Modern cameras utilize video technology
rather than film. This is an electronic format that has historically been stored on various
media such as magnetic tape, CCD chips and solid state flash memory.

Modern Digital Video Cameras Professional video cameras have come a very long
way since the introduction of the 1.4-megapixel digital camera. In the early 2000s, Sony
developed the first high definition digital video cameras. Today, high-resolution digital
video is no longer confined to the domain of the television studio. High-end professional
digital video cameras are used for independent films, web series and hobbyist
purposes. In the hand-held realm, the familiar camcorder of the 1980s underwent a
smoother evolution to digital. It wasn’t until 2003 that Sony introduced the first digital
video camcorder that eliminated the need of tape entirely. These hand-held digital video
cameras have found use in projects from home movies to professional film. Celebrated
horror director Michael Almereyda’s 1994 film, Nadja, notably uses an early digital video
camera manufactured by Fisher-Price in certain sequences for its gritty, low-resolution
effect. These hand-hend devices have also contributed greatly to live journalism, as well
as journalism’s casual cousin, “vlogging,” which is live video blogging on websites like

CCTV Camera and Historical Timeline -------------------------------------------------- 4
Pinhole camera and Camera Obscura -------------------------------------------------- 5
Underwater Camera ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
Polaroid Camera ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7
Analog Camera ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
Kodak Digital Camera ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
IP Camera ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
Conclusion and Recommendation ------------------------------------------------------ 11
Bibliography ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12

A close observation of a person or a group, especially one under suspicion for the
purpose of influencing, directing, managing, or protecting. It creates both positive and
negative effects. It is very useful for governments and law enforcements to maintain
social control, prevent primes, recognize threats, investigating criminal activity and etc.
CCTV means close circuit Television, and that is in simple terms the utilization of
security cameras to deliver signals to a particular destination, typically for the
surveillance and observing a place or people. It’s usually utilize for safety reasons in
public places, as well as other places where monitoring of environment and people’s
activities is really important. Like, airport, banks, large shopping malls, casino, and even
around one’s properties or home.

Historical timeline of the invention of the camera. A camera is a lightproof enclosed
device with an aperture and shuttered lens used to take photographs of objects. Analog
cameras transfer the photographic image to a photosensitive film or plate recording
medium, whereas digital cameras use image sensors that convert optical images to
electronic signals.

400’s BC to 1880

What: Pinhole camera and Camera Obscura

Chinese philosopher Mozi(400’s BC)
Scientist Abu Ali Al-harithi(1011-1021) He was Built the Camera
Irish scientist Robert Boyle(1660’s) He was invented the Large portable for Camera
Johann Zahn(1685) He learned on how to use the Camera.
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce(1814) provided a prototype for the box that reflex cameras.

Where: The box form of Camera Obscura shown at the right was invented by Johann
Zahn in 1685. This example is in the historical apparatus collection at Transylvania
University, and is of the form used by William Henry Fox Talbot for his experiments with
photography in the 1830s.

When: the precursor to the pinhole camera, to demonstrate how light can be used to
project an image onto a flat surface. Earlier references to the camera obscura have
been found in Chinese texts dating to about 400 B.C. and in the writings of Aristotle
around 330 B.C

Why: The Arab scholar Ibn Al-Haytham (945–1040), also known as Alhazen, is
generally credited as being the first person to study how we see.
He invented the camera obscura, the precursor to the pinhole camera, to demonstrate
how light can be used to project an image onto a flat surface.

Conclusion: The structure of a Pinhole Camera consists of a small pinhole in which

light passes through the camera itself as well as the film that is placed inside of camera.
... Since the Pinhole camera has a small hole, only a small amount of light can go
through the camera and reflect on the film.


What: The first underwater pictures using a camera mounted on a pole. 1893 — Louis
Boutan takes underwater pictures in Banyuls-sur-Mer while diving using a surface
supplied hard hat diving gear.

Who: William Thompson

Where: a metal box housing for a camera with which Thompson later takes underwater
photos in Weymouth Bay, England

When: the biologist Louis Boutan (1859-1934), who studied underwater biology at the
Banyuls-sur-Mer laboratory in the Eastern Pyrenees, realised the first underwater
photography of history.

Why: To show the reflections into water like SubMarine Camera.


What: Land founded the Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, Mass., in 1937. Four years
later he developed a widely used, three-dimensional motion-picture process based on
polarized light. During World War II he applied the polarizing principle to
various types of military equipment.

Who: Edwin Land

Where: Edwin Land first demonstrated the instant camera on February 21, 1947 at a
meeting of the Optical Society of America in New York City. The Land camera, as it
was originally known, contained a roll of positive paper with a pod of developing
chemicals at the top of each frame

When: After Edwin Land's retirement from Polaroid, the name 'Land' was dropped
from the camera name. The first commercially available model was the Model 95, which
produced sepia-colored prints in about 1 minute. It was first sold to the public on
November 26, 1948.

Why: He also invented the Polaroid vectograph, a special stereoscopic viewing

system which revealed the enemy even if they were camouflaged. On February 21,
1947, he invented the famous instant camera and related film. He called it the “Land
Camera” and it went on sale commercially in late 1948.


What: Analog CCTV (closed-circuit television) is a TV system in which signals are not
publicly distributed but are monitored, primarily for surveillance and security purposes.

Who: Engineer Walter Bruch

Where: The first CCTV camera known to us was developed by Siemens AG in

Germany. It was built to observe the launch of rockets in the war. Let's give a huge
*high-five* to Walter Bruch who installed and designed the breakthrough system. 1949 –
A US company introduced the first commercial CCTV television system

When: The earliest documented use of CCTV technology was in Germany in 1942. The
system was designed by the engineer Walter Bruch and it was set up for the monitoring
of V-2 rockets. It wasn't until 1949 that the technology was launched on a commercial

Why: To set up for the monitoring of V-2 rockets. It wasn't until 1949 that the
technology was launched on a commercial basis.


What: The Kodak digital camera prototype was made from parts of Kodak’s Super 8
movie cameras. It also included about half a dozen custom circuit boards, and used a
CCD sensor which shot black & white. Images went from the sensor to the camera’s
temporary memory in about 50ms. From there, it took a further 23 seconds to record
one image to a digital cassette tape.

Who: Steven Sasson

Where: first digital camera while working at Eastman Kodak in 1975. It weighed around
8 pounds (3.6kg) and shot a mere 0.01MP.

When: It was created in December 1975 by an engineer at Eastman Kodak named

Steve Sasson, now regarded as the inventor of the digital camera.

Why: His invention began in 1975 with a broad assignment from his supervisor at
Eastman Kodak Company, Gareth A. Lloyd: to attempt to build an
electronic camera using a charge coupled device (CCD). The resulting camera
invention was awarded the U.S. patent number 4,131,919


What: An Internet Protocol camera, or IP camera, is a type of digital video camera that receives
control data and sends image data via the Internet. They are commonly used for surveillance. Unlike
analog closed-circuit television cameras, they require no local recording device, but only a local area
Who: Axis Communications

Where: It has been 23 years since Axis Communications, headquartered in Lund,

Sweden, invented the first network camera boasting internet and web server capabilities—the
Axis 200 network camera (first called Neteye).

When: Axis Communications was formally founded in 1984 by Mikael Karlsson, Martin Gren
and Keith Bloodworth

Why: Covert surveillance was made possible, because for the first time in history,
a camera could be used without drawing any attention. 1942: Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)
is first used in Germany. German scientists developed the technology so that they could monitor
the launch of V2 rockets.


Now, it is fair to say that surveillance seems to be a huge issue within our society. To
say that we are unconsciously sleepwalking into a surveillance society can be a matter of
fact but it is clear to see that the Government has done everything in its power to make
society where they themselves are breaching their rights and our rights and freedoms are
put on the line. It is scary to think what our society will look like in a few years with
technology vastly growing, it is only a matter of time until we see surveillance take a new
turn. A closed-circuit television camera (CCTV) is an integral part of a TV system that is
used for security and surveillance reasons. They are a private way to monitor what is
happening in and around our society. Cameras are strategically placed so you can
observe certain areas of our property. The cameras communicate with monitors and the
images are shown only to the people who are designated to see it. This provides an
optimum level of privacy and security.

This system is reliable, which means it is often used for traffic monitoring, building
and grounds security, medical facilities and other important purposes. A CCTV camera
can also be used to keep your home and its occupants safer. You can watch it from the
monitor, a computer, and even your smartphone. The findings for having a CCTV camera
is to protect ourselves in different crime or other things that can harm us. The Government
came easier way to solve the country’s need in such different places to become accurate
and having a disciplinary attitude that having in their country.

Publisher: Oxford University Press Print Publication Date:,2005 Print ISBN-13:
Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Francis, Gregory E. (2007). "Light". Physics: A World View (6 ed.). Belmont, California:
Thomson Brooks/Cole. p. 339

Lefèvre, Wolfgang (ed.) Inside the Camera Obscura: Optics and Art under the Spell of the Projected
Image. Max Planck Institut Fur Wissenschaftgesichte. Max Planck Institituter for the History of
William Thompson Underwater Photography Guide Lighting with Strobes

Land, E. H.; Hunt, W. A. (1936). "The Use of Polarized Light in the Simultaneous Comparison of Retinally and
Cortically Fused Colors". Science. 83 (2152): 309.

Walter Bruch (2 March 1908, Neustadt an der Weinstraße – 5 May 1990, Hannover)
"The Rediff Interview/Steven J Sasson, inventor of the digital camera". India Limited. August 7, 2006.
Retrieved 22 September 2011.

Bloomberg. "Company Overview of Axis Communications AB." Dec 19, 2016. Retrieved Dec 19, 2016.