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The

Human

Digestive

System

The Human Digestive System

Humans are chemical factories, we need raw

materials to produce new cells, repair damaged

parts, and produce energy.

we need raw materials to produce new cells, repair damaged parts, and produce energy. Copyright ©

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Main Functions of Digestive System

Ingestion

Taking in food/s into the body

Main Functions of Digestive System • Ingestion – Taking in food/s into the body
Main Functions of Digestive System • Ingestion – Taking in food/s into the body

Digestion: The process of breaking

down food into nutrients.

• Digestion: The process of breaking down food into nutrients. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Absorption

The process of absorbing nutrients

from food that was eaten.

• Absorption – The process of absorbing nutrients from food that was eaten.

Excretion

The process of eliminating or

expelling waste matter out of the

body.

• Excretion – The process of eliminating or expelling waste matter out of the body.
• Excretion – The process of eliminating or expelling waste matter out of the body.

How well do you already know?

How well do you already know?

P

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P A R T S

FOCUS QUESTIONS

1.How does the digestion

process happen?

2.How are the different organs of digestion important to our bodily

function?

Digestive System Organization

• Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract – Direct link/path between organs –Structures • Mouth • Pharynx •
• Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract
– Direct link/path between organs
–Structures
• Mouth
• Pharynx
• Esophagus
• Stomach
• Small intestine
• Large Intestine
• Rectum
• Anus

10

Enzymes

Are chemicals that speed up the

chemical reactions in our body by lowering the activation energy required to initiate reaction.

Mouth

Teeth mechanically

break down food into

small pieces. Tongue

mixes food with saliva

(contains amylase,

which helps break down

starch).

saliva (contains amylase, which helps break down starch). • Incisors & canines – used to bite

Incisors & canines

used to bite and tear

down food.

Molars help in

grinding food

down starch). • Incisors & canines – used to bite and tear down food. • Molars

• Saliva helps to moisten your food and contains a chemical to begin the process of

Saliva helps to moisten your food and contains a

chemical to begin the process of digestion.

helps to moisten your food and contains a chemical to begin the process of digestion. Copyright

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

• Saliva helps to moisten your food and contains a chemical to begin the process of

Saliva helps to moisten your food and contains a

chemical to begin the process of digestion.

helps to moisten your food and contains a chemical to begin the process of digestion. Copyright

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Saliva helps to moisten your food and contains a

chemical to begin the process of digestion.

helps to moisten your food and contains a chemical to begin the process of digestion. Copyright

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Ptyalin (ti´ah-lin): Chemical (Enzyme) in saliva that breaks starches into sugars.

• Ptyalin (ti´ah-lin): Chemical (Enzyme) in saliva that breaks starches into sugars. Copyright © 2010 Ryan

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Besides the chemical enzymes, what else did

you use to break down the piece of bread?

• Besides the chemical enzymes, what else did you use to break down the piece of

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Taste buds: The sensory organs that are found

on your tongue.

• Taste buds: The sensory organs that are found on your tongue. Copyright © 2010 Ryan

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Mechanical Digestion: Physically breaking down the food.

• Mechanical Digestion: Physically breaking down the food. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Mechanical Digestion: Physically breaking down the food.

• Mechanical Digestion: Physically breaking down the food. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Mechanical Digestion: Physically breaking down the food.

orm

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Mechanical Digestion: Physically breaking down the food.

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Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Mechanical Digestion: Physically breaking down the food.

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unction

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Mechanical Digestion: Physically breaking down the food.

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Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Mechanical Digestion: Physically breaking down the food.

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unction

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Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

The primary

purpose of the digestive system is

to breakdown food to facilitate

effective transport

of nutrients to

different parts of

the body.

the digestive system is to breakdown food to facilitate effective transport of nutrients to different parts

Epiglottis: A flap of cartilage at the root of the

tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to

cover the opening of the windpipe

A flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to
A flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to

Epiglottis: A flap of cartilage at the root of the

tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to

cover the opening of the windpipe

A flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to
A flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to

Epiglottis: A flap of cartilage at the root of the

tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to

cover the opening of the windpipe

A flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to

When you swallow (reflex), your muscles

(tongue) move food into your throat and

cause your epiglottis to close.

your muscles (tongue) move food into your throat and cause your epiglottis to close. Copyright ©

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

When you swallow (reflex), your muscles

(tongue) move food into your throat and

cause your epiglottis to close.

your muscles (tongue) move food into your throat and cause your epiglottis to close. Copyright ©

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

When you swallow (reflex), your muscles

(tongue) move food into your throat and

cause your epiglottis to close.

your muscles (tongue) move food into your throat and cause your epiglottis to close. Copyright ©

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Esophagus

Approximately 20 cm long.

Functions include:

1.Secrete mucus

2.Moves food from the throat

to the stomach using muscle

movement called peristalsis

If acid from the stomach gets

in here that’s heartburn.

to the stomach using muscle movement called peristalsis • If acid from the stomach gets in

The esophagus is covered with a slimy mucous

that aids movement.

(12 seconds to travel to stomach)

is covered with a slimy mucous that aids movement. – (12 seconds to travel to stomach)

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

The esophagus is covered with a slimy mucous

that aids movement.

(12 seconds to travel to stomach)

is covered with a slimy mucous that aids movement. – (12 seconds to travel to stomach)

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Stomach

J-shaped muscular bag that stores

the food you eat, breaks it down

into tiny pieces.

Mixes food with Digestive Juices

that contain enzymes to break

food with Digestive Juices that contain enzymes to break down Proteins and Lipids . • Acid

down Proteins and Lipids.

Acid (HCl) in the stomach Kills

Bacteria.

Proteins and Lipids . • Acid (HCl) in the stomach Kills Bacteria. • Food found in

Food found in the stomach is

Cells in the stomach wall release a chemical

gastric juice (Pepsin enzyme) and thick

slippery mucous to protect stomach.

gastric juice (Pepsin – enzyme) and thick slippery mucous to protect stomach. Copyright © 2010 Ryan

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

The stomach churns the food (mechanical)

while the gastric juices break down the food

chemically. (Smooth Muscle)

(mechanical) while the gastric juices break down the food chemically. (Smooth Muscle) Copyright © 2010 Ryan
(mechanical) while the gastric juices break down the food chemically. (Smooth Muscle) Copyright © 2010 Ryan

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

SMALL INTESTINE

Divided into three sections: duodenum, jejunum, ileum. 20-30 feet in length Produces enzymes and absorbs
Divided into three
sections: duodenum,
jejunum, ileum.
20-30 feet in length
Produces enzymes and
absorbs nutrients

Note how the GI Tract coils around so that its incredible length can fit into an area so small.

around so that its incredible length can fit into an area so small. orm ollows unction
around so that its incredible length can fit into an area so small. orm ollows unction

orm

around so that its incredible length can fit into an area so small. orm ollows unction

ollows

around so that its incredible length can fit into an area so small. orm ollows unction

unction

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Duodenum: The beginning of the small

intestine.

• Duodenum: The beginning of the small intestine. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Small Intestine: Major organ for food

absorption.

• Small Intestine: Major organ for food absorption. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Small Intestine: Major organ for food

absorption.

• Small Intestine: Major organ for food absorption. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

The small intestine is covered with millions of

small fingerlike structures called villi.

The small intestine is covered with millions of small fingerlike structures called villi. Copyright © 2010

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

The shape of the villi creates more surface

area for the absorption of nutrients.

the villi creates more surface area for the absorption of nutrients. orm ollows unction Copyright ©
the villi creates more surface area for the absorption of nutrients. orm ollows unction Copyright ©

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the villi creates more surface area for the absorption of nutrients. orm ollows unction Copyright ©

unction

the villi creates more surface area for the absorption of nutrients. orm ollows unction Copyright ©

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

The mop has ends similar to villi so that it will

pick up the most dirt.

(More surface area)

has ends similar to villi so that it will pick up the most dirt. – (More

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Large Intestine

About 1.5 meters long

Accepts what small

intestines don’t absorb

Divided into:

caecum

Ascending colon

Transverse colon

Descending colon

Sigmoid colon

absorb • Divided into: – caecum – Ascending colon – Transverse colon – Descending colon –

Large Intestine

Functions

Contains huge

number of bacteria

Bacterial digestion Ferment

carbohydrates

Absorbs more water Concentrate

wastes

number of bacteria – Bacterial digestion • Ferment carbohydrates – Absorbs more water – Concentrate wastes

Rectum

Rectum (short term storage which holds feces

before it is expelled).

Rectum • Rectum (short term storage which holds feces before it is expelled).

Rectum: Short tube at the end of the large intestine that stores waste.

• Rectum: Short tube at the end of the large intestine that stores waste. Copyright ©

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Rectum: Short tube at the end of the large intestine that stores waste.

Anus: Opening at the end of the rectum.

of the large intestine that stores waste. – Anus: Opening at the end of the rectum.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Rectum: Short tube at the end of the large intestine that stores waste.

Anus: Opening at the end of the rectum.

What it actually looks like…

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Bowel movement

The strong muscular walls of the

rectum expand to hold the feces.

When the rectum is full, the area tell the brain that we have to

push it out of our body.

Accessory Organs The Glands

Not part of the path

of food, but play a critical role.

Include: Liver, gall

bladder, and

pancreas

The Glands • Not part of the path of food, but play a critical role. •

Liver

Directly affects digestion

by producing bile

Bile helps digest fat

filters out toxins and

waste including drugs and alcohol and poisons.

bile – Bile helps digest fat • filters out toxins and waste including drugs and alcohol

Gall Bladder

Stores bile from

the liver,

releases it into the small

intestine.

Fatty diets can

cause gallstones

Bladder • Stores bile from the liver, releases it into the small intestine. • Fatty diets

Pancreas

Produces digestive enzymes to digest

fats,

carbohydrates and

proteins

Regulates blood

sugar by producing insulin

Produces digestive enzymes to digest fats, carbohydrates and proteins • Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin
Produces digestive enzymes to digest fats, carbohydrates and proteins • Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin

The digestive system is the organ system responsible for the digestion of the food

we eat.

Each digestive organ plays an important role in digestion as well as nutrient

absorption for the body.

It works hand in hand with

respiratory, circulatory and excretory

system to maintain homeostasis inside the body.