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Some Streams of Systemic Thought

(Draft update — May 2001)

* * *

Originated in 1996 by Dr. Eric Schwarz, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Extended in 1998, including items from the The Story of Philosophy by Will Durant (1933). Elaborated in 2000-2001 from many sources for the International Institute for General Systems Studies. Currently a research project of the IIGSS. - - -

This rendition is the property of the International Institute for General Systems Studies. All Rights Reserved. Errors and omissions in this chart are solely attributable to the IIGSS.

KEY:

white

general systems

red

cybernetics

black

physical sciences

blue

mathematics

magenta

computers & informatics

green

biology & medicine

yellow

symbolic systems

orange

social systems

olive

ecology

gray

philosophy

cyan

systems analysis

purple

engineering

International Encyclopedia of Systems & Cybernetics Charles François 1997
International Encyclopedia of
Systems & Cybernetics
Charles François
1997

Teleonics

Gyuri Jaros

Multi-Methodology

John Mingers

General Systems Theory Yi Lin

Genomics

Craig Venter,

Francis Collins

Theory Yi Lin Genomics Craig Venter, Francis Collins Social Entropy Theory Kenneth D. Bailey Co-creative Process

Social Entropy Theory Kenneth D. Bailey

Co-creative Process

Hector Sabelli

Cultural

Hegemony

USA

Systems Semiotics

Luis Rocha,

Howard Pattee

Hegemony USA Systems Semiotics Luis Rocha, Howard Pattee Critical Physics Ronald W. Moses Cosmological Physics

Critical Physics

Ronald W. Moses

Cosmological

Physics

Stephen Hawking

Topology of Meaning R. Ian Flett

Superstrings Brian Greene, et al

Evolutionary Philosophy Richard L. Coren

Grand Unified Treories Steven Weinberg

Knotted Systems

Louis Kauffman

Systemic Development Richard Bawden

Cyber-semiotics Søren Brier Semiotic Catholicity Randolph F. Lumpp Socio-Cybernetics R. Felix Geyer Literary
Cyber-semiotics
Søren Brier
Semiotic Catholicity
Randolph F. Lumpp
Socio-Cybernetics
R. Felix Geyer
Literary Semiotics
Umberto Eco
Conscientization
Paolo Freire
Noetic Systems
Walter J. Ong
Linguistic
Mathematics
Hekki Heiskanon
Systemics of
Benefit
Postmodernism
Warren Ziegler
Semio-Physics
René Thom
Autopoietic Social
Noosphere
Systems
Teilhard
Self-Reference
Niklas Luhmann
de Jardin
& Autonomy
Social Semiotics
Floyd Merrell
Relativism
Radical
Constructivism
Bio-semiosis
Jesper
Hoffmeyer
Communicative
Semiotic
Habermas
Umwelt
New Criticism
Jakob von
John Crowe
Uexküll
Ransom
Linguistic Logic
Jerrold J. Katz
Cognitive
Linguistics
George Lakoff &
R.W. Langacker
Family
Systems
General Semiotics
Therapy
Deconstructionism
Thomas Sebeok
Watzlewick
Jacques Derrida
Narratology
Roland Barthes
Social
Psychology
Abraham
Maslow
Psycholinguistics
Applied
General Semantics
S.I. Hayakawa
Appreciative
Systems
Transformational
Gregory
Linguistics
Bateson
Naom Chomsky
Stratificational
Tagmemics
Kenneth L. Pike
Grammar
Sydney Lamb
Phonology
Literary
Criticism
I.A. Richards
Standardized
Linguistics
C.K. Ogden
Morphology
General Semantics
Alfred Korzybski,
Sociolinguistics
Punctuated Evolution Stephen J. Gould Pansystems Informational Fuzzy Systemics Evolutionary Grey Systems Sifeng
Punctuated Evolution
Stephen J. Gould
Pansystems
Informational
Fuzzy Systemics
Evolutionary
Grey Systems
Sifeng Liu, Yi Lin
Wu Xuemou
Microdynamics
Anti-chaos &
Vladimir Dimitrov
Homeorheotic
Vladimir Lerner
Adaptation
Richard Dawkins
Total Systems
Chris Langton
Interpretive
William Irwin
Thompson
Complex Evolutionary
Systems
Peter M. Allen
Whole Systems
Self-organized
Economics
W. Brian Arthur
Stuart Kauffman
Symmetry
Intervention
Physics
Design
Harold Nelson
Appreciative Systems
William E. Smith
Scientific Philosophy
Paul C.W. Davies
A. Zee
Robert Flood
B.J. West
Stabile Systems
Approximation-
Claude Bernard
Rational
Physics As
Metaphor
Roger S. Jones
Biotechnology
Nanotechnology
Philosophy of Physics
& Mathematics
F. David Peat
Estimation Theory
Mechanics
Geometry of Meaning
& Reflexive Universe
Arthur M. Young
Fuzzy Logic
Bart Kosko
Scientific
Eco-futurism
Systems Trends
Critical Systems
Michael C. Jackson,
Robert Flood,
Werner Ulrich
Internet
Intuitionism
Philosophy of Physics
John Archibald Wheeler
General
Criticality
Management Cybernetics
Philosophy of
Kenneth E.F. Watt
Communicational Cybernetics
Michael Polanyi
Systemology
Per Bak
ARPA
Peter Senge
Science
Social Cybernetics
Klaus Krippendorff
D.H. McNeil
Infodynamics
Analysis of
Complex Dynamical
Systems
Ralph Abraham
Fritjof Capra
Stuart Umpleby
Social
Stanley Salthe
Rheomodal
Systems
Sciento-politics
Complexification
Tessellations
Systems
Systems
Media
Sciences
Ian Mitroff
Soft Systems
Holonics
Conrad H.
Roger Penrose
Development
Hyper-
Laws of Form
David Bohm
Semiotics
Primate
Methodology
Arthur Koestler
Waddington
John Warfield
mathematics
H. Marshall
Linguistics
Peter Checkland
George
Spencer-Brown
Metaphysics of
Charles
McLuhan
Generalized
Science
Muses
Fuzzy
Uncertainty
Gary Zukav
Neuchatel
Systems Ecology
Howard T. Odum
Systems
J. Ford
Evolutionary
Paradigmatic
Socio-Technical
Lofti Zadeh
Model
Revolutions
Systems
Cybernetic
Eric Schwarz
Harold Linstone
Epistemology
Thomas Kuhn
Ranulph
Geophysiology (Gaia)
James E. Lovelock
Development
Management Cybernetics
Barry Clemson
Objective
Glanville
Information
of Mentation
T. Stonier
Ecological
Walter Lowen
Model Theory
Demographics
Genetic
Michael Morley
Paul Ehrlich
Engineering
Endosymbiosis
Bio-cybernetics
Computationism
Jerry A. Fodor
Lynn Margulis
Geo-Impact
Manfried Eigen
Philosophy of
Systems
Autopoietic
Chaos Theory
Evolution
Nature & Science
Biology
Systems
M.J. Feigenbaum
Eugene
Carl von
Primate
Biodiversity
Robert Rosen
Rod Swenson
Shoemaker
Weizsäcker
Anthropology
Sociobiology
Edward O. Wilson
Cybernetic Semiosis
Douglas R.
Hofstadter
Robotics
Jane Goodall
Mathematical
Cellular
Scientific
Artificial
Green
Ecology
Psychology
Automata
Philosophy
Neural Nets
Rapid
Revolution
C.S. Holling
R.D. Luce
Jacques Monod
Miniaturized
Norman
Dissipative
Synergetics II
Collateration
Computing
Borlaug
Systems
R. Buckminster
& Hypertext
Sociometrics
Software
Modern Theoretical Physics
Fuller
Ilya
Environmentalism
Ted Nelson
Measurement
Knowledge
Prigogine
David Brower
Systems Dynamics
Jay W. Forrester,
Donella Meadows
Capers Jones
Sciences
Paradoxical
Systematics
Brian Gaines
Epistemology of Science
Sir Arthur Eddington
Social Ecology
Metamodeling
John Van Gigch
Imagery
Ernst Mayr
Eric Trist,
Philosophy
General Systems
Psycho-
M.C. Escher
Telecommunications
& Data Bases
James Martin
Fred Emery
of Biology
Evolution
Metrics
Morton O.
Erich Jantsch
General Systems
Beckner
Chaotic Systems
Hypervisors
Modeling
Edward Lorenz
George Klir
Social Psychology
Willis F. Overton
Emulation
Pattern
General Systems
Management
Ethology
Cognitive
Recognition
Thinking
Science
Konrad Lorenz
Science
Economics
Gerald M.
Allen Newell
Paul Samuelson
Weinberg
Systems
Cognitive
Genetic
Model Theory
Philosophy
Wholistic Biology
Psychology
Algorithms
Software
Alfred Tarski
Mario Bunge
Barry Commoner
Aaron Beck
Theory
Structured
Developmental
Software
Psychology
Yourdon,
Constantine
Techno-
Algorithmic
, DeMarco,
Species Cybernetics
Lotka & Voltarra
Psychology
Complexity
Bifurcated
Theory
Geological
Perceptual
Cultures
Group
Conversation
G. Chaitin
Tectonics
Control
Ecological
C.P. Snow
Dynamic
Theory
Psycho-
Theory
Cybernetics
Gordon Pask
Biology
William T.
Garrett Hardin
Control
Powers
Catastrophe
System
Theory
Engineering
Psycho-
René Thom
Earth as Organism
Vladimir Vernadsky
Physics
Modern
Systems Engineering
Harold Chestnut,
Andrew P. Sage
Statistics
Social
Jerzy Neyman
Psychology
Holographic
Kurt Lewin
Systems
Karl Pribram
Relativity of
Problem-
Artificial
General Systems
Rationalites
Automata
Sovling
Intelligence
Philosophy
Feyerabend
Theory
Nonlinear
Eco-pathology
Earth as
Ervin Laszlo
Social Cybernetics
Living Systems
James Grier Miller
Marvin Minsky
Systems
Rachel Carson
Organism
Geoffrey Vickers
Yevgraf
Mathematical Topology
Philosophy of
Korolenko
Econometrics
Urban
Systems
Second Order
Cybernetics
Heinz von Foerster
Numerical
Philosophy of
Interpersonal
Control Theory
Simulation
Ecology
Archie Bahm
Analysis
Behavioral
Law
Psychology
Louis Wirth
Psychology
Hans Kelsen
R.D. Laing
General
Systems Analysis
Arthur D. Hall,
Van Court Hare
Informatics
Systems
Information
B.F. Skinner
(Computer Science
Modeling
J.L. le Moigne
Theory
Theory
& Engineering)
Majilo
L. Brillouin
Viable Systems
Mesarovic
Linear &
Stafford Beer
Critical Ontology
Michel Foucault
Dynamic Programming
Richard Bellman
Nonlinear
Mathematics
Immunization
John Casti
Jonas Salk
Biosphere
Ecodynamics
Statistical
Eduard Suess
Kenneth
Operating Systems
Brooks et al
Biology
Intrinsic
Boulding
Calculus of
Karl Pearson
Uncertainty
Linkage
Variations
Heisenberg
Propositions
Clinical
Systems Cybernetics
W. Ross Ashby
Len Troncale
DNA
Psychology
Philosophy
Topology of
Crick,
of Systems
Directive
Cybernetics
Watson
Operating Languages
Kenneth Iverson et al
Intuitionism
L.E.J. Brouwer
Thomas
Correlation
Warren
Cowan
Sommerhoff
McCulloch
Algorithms
Operating
hardware
Blauw et al
Systems
Ecology
Decision
Donald Knuth
Category
Systems
Anthropology
Theory
Theory
Margaret Mead
Game
Saunders
Fractal Systems
Geometrodynamics
Theory
Semantic Theory
Rotational
Mac Lane
Benoit
PERT
Albert Einstein
Donald MacKay
Mandelbrot
Invariance
Quantum Systems
Planck, Bohr,
de Broglie, Dirac,
Schrödinger
P.W. Bridgeman
Delphi
Geometric
Programming Structuralism Queuing Utility Modern Claude Mathematical Theory Theory Encoding Economics
Programming
Structuralism
Queuing
Utility
Modern
Claude
Mathematical
Theory
Theory
Encoding
Economics
Information
Levi-Strauss
Experimentalism
Social Science
Time
Schemes
John Maynard
Theory
E.A. Singer
Anatol Rapoport
Dilation
R.W. Hamming
Claude
Organic
Lorentz
Programming
Shannon
Chemistry
Sciences
Pierre Duhem
Liebig
Optimality
of the
Psychological
General Systems
Theory
Industrial
Modeling
Critical
Logical Positivism
Design
Clark Hull
Instrumental
Epistemology
A.J. Ayer
Pragmatism
Karl Popper
Associative Algebras
William Clifford
Inorganic
Social Systems
John Dewey
Operations Research
Chemistry
Symbolic Logic
Talcott Parsons
Tektology
First Order Cybernetics
Willard Van
A.A. Bogdanov
General System Theory
Ludwig von Bertalanffy
Antibacterials
Orman Quine
Alexander Fleming
Morphogenesis
Sociology
D'Arcy
Emil
Holism
Cybernetics
Thompson
Durkheim
Molecular
Analytic Mechanics
Norbert Wiener
Jan Smuts
Organizing relations
Needham, Woodger
Genetics
Electronic Digital
Computing
Eckert & Mauchly
Systems
Joseph-Louis
Electromagnetic
Analysis
Applied
Mathematics
John von Neumann
Lagrange
Propagations
Heinrich Hertz
Algebraic
Structuralist
Homeostatic Systems
Walter Cannon
Logical Positivism
Industrial Sociology
G. Elton Mayo
Metalogic
Systems &
Functions
Psychology
Positivism
Rudolf Carnap
Alonzo Church
Analytic Functions
Conceptualism
Procedures
Theory of Computation
Alan M. Turing
Metalogic
Bernhard
Periodic
Edward Titchener
Josef
Ernst Cassirer
Historicism
Kurt Gödel
Leonhard Euler
Riemann
Table
Popper-Lynkeus
Antisepsis
Benedetto Croce
Organicism
Edward Stuart Russell
Number Theory
Dmitry
Lister
G.H. Hardy
Mendeleev
Organicism & Process
Alfred North Whitehead
Mathematical
Logic
Quaternions
Bertrand
William
Realism
Russell
Hamilton
Positivism &
Mathematical
G.E. Moore
Metric
Sociology
Biology
Emergent Process
Units
Auguste Comte
Evolutionary
A.J. Lotka
Samuel Alexander
Comparative
Philosophy
Measure Theory
Dialectical
Pan-ecology
Anthropology
Scientific Management
Frederick W. Taylor
Herbert Spencer
Giuseppe Peano
John Muir
Process
Classical Physics
Naturalism
Franz Boas
Statistics
Henri
Colonial
Coherentism
Friedrich
Gestalt
Perturbation
Karl Pearson
Bergson
Hegemony
Otto Neurath
Engels
Dialectical
Theory
Psychology
British Empire
Materialism
Electronic Digital
Prototype
Atanasoff & Berry
Experimental
Max
Mathematics of
Karl Marx
Existentialism
Wertheimer
Ecological
Projective
Sturm-
Psychology
Linguistic
Psychological
Martin Heidegger
Evolution
Algebra of Logic
Ernst Schröder
Feedback &
Geometry
Louiville
Wilhelm
Psychoanalysis
Pragmatism
Biostructures
Electrodynamics
Theory
Statistical
Ernst Haeckel
Wundt
William James
Jacques Lacan
Comparative
Psychology
C. Lloyd Morgan
Georg Cantor
(chirality)
James
Sociological
Mechanics
Gestalt
Louis Pasteur
Clerk-Maxwell
Phenomenology
J. Willard
Psychology
Gibbs
Max Scheler
Perspectivism
Wolfgang
Formalism
Friedrich Nietzsche
Köhler
Genetics
Empirical
David Hilbert
William Bateson
Mathematical Logic
Gottlob Frege
Psychoanalysis
Tabulating Machine
Herman Hollerith
Classical
Metaphysics
Thermodynamics
George Henry
Sigmund Freud
Conservation of matter
Antoine Lavoisier
Atomic
Competitive
Tectonic
Clausius,
Lewes
Weights
Evolution
Engineering
Symbolic Logic
Boltzmann
Electromagnetism
Eugenics
Personalism
John Dalton
Thomas Huxley
John Roebling
George Boole
Renouvier
Francis
Ampere, Kirchhoff,
Faraday et al
Will & Idea in Nature
Arthur Schopenhauer
Eigenvalues &
Superposition
Economic
Programming
Model Theory
Daniel
Conventionalism
Cybernetics
Dialectical
Ada Lovelace
Pragmatic Semiotics
Charles S. Peirce
Bernhard
Bernouli
Henri Poincaré
David Ricardo
Idealism
Clinical
Determinism
Bolzano
Georg Hegel
Critical
Vorticles
Philosophy of
Progressivism
Natural Evolution
Psychiatry
Laplace
Joule
Empirical
Phenomenology
William
History
Condorcet
Charles Darwin
Benjamin Rush
Analytical Engine
Utilitarianism
Symbolic Logic
Augustus de Morgan
Thomson
Edmund Husserl
Linear
Wilhelm Dilthey
1809-1881
Double
Charles Babbage
J.S. Mill
Field
Analysis
Refraction
Theory
Dirichlet
Augustin
Inheritance
Evariste
Magnetism
Fresnel
Gregor Mendel
Methodized
Group Theory
Galois
Astronomical
Materialism
Gauss
Imperial
Evolution
Encyclopedias
Applied
Felix Klein
Conditional
Measurement
Hegemony
Alfred Wallace
Denis Diderot
Johann
Transcendentalism
Probability
Enlightenment
Pierre Mechain
Heinrich
Linear
Napoleon
Henry David
Thomas Bayes
Jean d'Alembert
Mathematical
Alsted
Analysis
Thoreau
Economics
Utilitarianism
Programmable Loom
Joseph-Marie Jacquard
J. Fourier
Feedback governor
Antoine Cournot
Jeremy Bentham
Intentionality
James Watt
Moral
Philosophy
Franz Brentano
Friedrich
Electrostatics
Psychoanalysis
Circulation
Constitutional
Instrumental
Schiller
Benjamin Franklin
William Harvey
Demographic
Josef Breuer
Pragmatism
Rationality
Biological
Linear Algebra
Transcendentalism
James Madison
Cybernetics
Peter Ramus
Evolution
Benjamin Peirce
Ralph Waldo
Arithmometer
Charles de Colmar
Evolution
Classical Mathematics
Organicism
Jean Lamarck
Emerson
Physics
Charles Lyell
Saint-Simon
Isaac Newton
Ethnolinguistics
Empirical
Human Science
Sensationalism
Bio-Taxonomy
Johann Herder
Transcendental
Determinism
Etienne Condillac
Carolus Linnaeus
Structuralistic
Idealism
Giambattista Vico
Voltaire
Semiology
Johann Fichte
Ferdinand de
Critical Transcendental
Idealism
Immanuel Kant
Microbials
Saussure
von Leeuwenhoek
Heredity
P-L. de Maupertuis
Analytic Geometry
Pierre de Fermat
Pendulum Clock &
Wave Theory of Light
Christiaan Huygens
Geological
Superorganism
Immaterial
Idealistic Liberalism
William Godwin
Meta-Skepicial
James Hutton
Empiricism
Empiricism
George
David Hume
Berkeley
Mathematical
Nominalism
Gottfried von Leibniz
Mechanical Calculator
Wilhelm Schickard
Probability Theory
Polymath Physics
Algebra
Blaise Pascal
Robert Hooke
Bhaskara
Clinical Medicine
Mechanistic Materialism
Julien La Mettrie
Thomas Sydenham
Abstraction of
Mathematical
Physical Laws
Physical Chemistry
Economics
Democratic Idealism
Thomas Jefferson
Galileo Galilei
Robert Boyle
Formalized
Classical Biology
Vilfredo Pareto
Rationalistic
Logic
Dualism
Number Theory
René Descartes
Marin Mersenne
Mathematical
Political
Astronomy
Romanticism
Political Pragmatism
John Locke
J. Kepler
J.J. Rousseau
Chemical Medicine
Aureolus Paracelsus
Psychological
Algebra
Determinism
Political Economy
Logical Nominalism
Jean Buridan
Fibonacci
Thomas Hobbes
Algebra
Adam Smith
Natural Philosophy
Nicholas von Cusa
Omar Khayyam
Skepticism
Michel
Scientific Empiricism
Roger Bacon
Politics of Cynicism
Niccolo Machiavelli
Nominalism
William of Ockham
Montaigne
Renaissance
Platonism
Medicine
Giovanni Pico
Moses
Maimonides
Engineering Design
Leonardo da Vinci
Observational
Astronomy
Scientific
Tycho Brahe
Anatomical Medicine
Anreas Vesalius
Neo-Platonism
Algebra
Positivism
Printing
Plotinus
Brahmagupta
Francis Bacon
Johannes
Gutenberg
Roman Stoicism
Polymath Philosophy
Nicholas Oresme
Seneca
Scholasticical
Rational
Voluntarism
John Duns Scotus
Heliocentric Astronomy
Nicolaus Copernicus
Sciences
Albertus Magnus
Scientific Method
Manual
Scholastical Logic,
Dialectic & Linguistics
Peter Abelard
Critical Philology
Desiderius Erasmus
Robert Grosseteste
Transcriptions
Monastic Scribes
Scholasticism
Conic Sections
Meta-languages &
Linguistics
U. of Nalanda, India
Saint Anselm
Medicine
Guy de Chauliac
Apollonius
Humanism
Petrarch
Military
Hegemony
Algebra
Alexander
Diophantus
Politics of Benefit
Cicero
the Great
Roman Stoicism
Geocentric
Rationalism
Poseidonius
Astronomy
Algebra
Averroës
Engineering
Ptolemy
Aryabhata
Archimedes
Rationalism
Geometry
Roman Stoicism
Avicenna
Euclid
Panaetius
Observational
Astronomy
Medicine
Rosetta Stone
Hipparchus
Avenzoar
Egypt
Medicine
Rational Philosophy
Aristotle
Taddeo Alderotti
384-322BC
Positivism
Lucretius
Idealistic Philosophy
Plato
Geometry
Documentary
Theudius
Sociality
& Narrative
& Self
Confucius
Cynic
Philosophy
Positivism
Antisthenes
Epicurus
Indian
Philosophy
Democratic Development
Pericles
Astronomy
Eudoxus
Mathematics of
Anatomical
Concentric Spheres
Medicine
Sophistic
Callippus
Galen
Philosophy
Language &
Positivism
Socrates
Symbolism
Aristapippas
Medicine
Hieroglyphics
Reciprocities
Celsus
Mayans
Democracy
Atomism
Dialectic
Zeno of Elea
Anaximander
Recyclical Universe
Hindu Mythology
Cleisthenes
Mathematical Philosophy
Pythagoras
Democritus
Regularized
Law
c.580-500BC
Naturalism
Ideographics
Language
Atomism
Philosophy
Sophism
Solon
Thales
Chinese
Indo-Europeans
Protagoras
Elementalism
Leucippus
Archelaus
Empedocles
Alphabet
Systematic Medicine
Hippocrates
Pictographics
Hieroglyphics
Unity & Stasis
Parmenides
Philosophy of Regularity
Phoenicians
Apocalyptic
Aboriginals
Egyptians
Cuneiform
Dualism
Astronomy
Heroic Legends
Practical Medicine
Sumerians
Zoroaster
Philosophy
Babylon
Homer
Egyptians
c.628-551BC
Anaxagoras

Hazel Henderson

Homer Egyptians c.628-551BC Anaxagoras Hazel Henderson Ernst von Glasersfeld Intensional Logic Montague Action
Homer Egyptians c.628-551BC Anaxagoras Hazel Henderson Ernst von Glasersfeld Intensional Logic Montague Action
Ernst von Glasersfeld Intensional Logic Montague Action Jürgen Autopoietic Holonics Systems Jeffrey Humberto
Ernst von
Glasersfeld
Intensional
Logic
Montague
Action
Jürgen
Autopoietic
Holonics
Systems
Jeffrey
Humberto
Stamps
Maturana,
Francisco
Varela
Critical Theory of
Society
Max Horkheimer,
Theodor Adorno
Political
Systemics
Anthony Wilden
Philosophy
of Art and
Language
Susanne K.
Langer
Sociological
Walter Buckley
Developmental
Structuralism
Sructuralist
Jean Piaget
Mathematics
Linguistic Science
Leonard Bloomfield
Bourbaki
Computational
Linguistics
Phonemes
Analytical
Roman Jakobson
Philosophy
Tropology
Gilbert
Ryle
Comparative Linguistics
Benjamin Lee Whorf
Semantic Pragmatism
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Glossematics
Louis Hjelmslev
Anthropological
Linguistics
Structural Linguistics
N.S. Trubetzkoy
Edward Sapir
Atomisitc
Linguistics
Antoine Fabre
d'Olivet
Etymology
Jacob Grimm
Ethnolinguistics
Wilhelm von
Humboldt
Nature Philosophy
von Schelling
Wilhelm von Humboldt Nature Philosophy von Schelling Social Anthropology Bronislaw Malinowsky
Wilhelm von Humboldt Nature Philosophy von Schelling Social Anthropology Bronislaw Malinowsky

Social

Anthropology

Bronislaw

Malinowsky

Political

Sociology

Max Weber

Analytic

Psychology

Carl Jung

Empirical

Positivism

Ernst Mach

Operational Research Russell L. Ackoff, Stafford Beer

Operational Research Russell L. Ackoff, Stafford Beer

Artificial

Herbert

Simon

Philosophy of Irregularity River Map & Luo Book

Philology, Linguistics & Grammar

YinYang

Fu Xi

Divination

I Ching

2000-1000 B.C.

Harmony of Opposites Lao Tzu c. 570-490 B.C.

Philosophy of the Whole Baruch Spinoza

Cosmological Unity Giordano Bruno

Stoicism

Marcus Aurelius

Religious Stoicism

Epictetus

Diogenes of Babylon

Cynicism

Diogenes

Fluxation & Unified Opposites Heraclitus c. 540-480 B.C.

Scholasticical

Empiricism

Thomas Aquinas

Illuminationism

Saint Augustine

Pagan Celts

Binary Numbers

China

Systems

Positivism

Artificial Life

World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee

Comparative

Languages

William Jones

Tim Berners-Lee Comparative Languages William Jones Keynes Linear Evolutionary Systematization
Tim Berners-Lee Comparative Languages William Jones Keynes Linear Evolutionary Systematization
Tim Berners-Lee Comparative Languages William Jones Keynes Linear Evolutionary Systematization

Keynes

Linear

Evolutionary

Systematization

Conservation

of Energy

Evolutionary

Thomas Malthus

Gradual Geological

Mechanistic

Propositional Logic

Chrysippus

Religious Stoicism

Cleanthes

Dialectic Stoicism Zeno of Citium

Formal

Regularity

Zhu Xi

Chrysippus Religious Stoicism Cleanthes Dialectic Stoicism Zeno of Citium Formal Regularity Zhu Xi