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ECC3113

Digital Communications
> Topic 2
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

2
⊙ Formatting is the first step to ensure that the
message is compatible with digital
processing.
Baseband
Transmission ⊙ Transmit formatting is a transformation from
- Character Coding source information to digital symbols.
- Formatting Analog
Information ⊙ What if the source format is,
- Sources of - Digital?
Corruption
- Pulse Code - Textual message?
Modulation
- Analog?

Overview 3
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Overview 4
⊙ Let us consider a message with a textual
(alphanumeric) format.
Baseband ⊙ Need to be encoded with one of several
Transmission standard formats,
- Character Coding - ASCII
- Formatting Analog
Information - EBCDIC
- Sources of - Baudot
Corruption
- Pulse Code - Hollerith
Modulation

Textual Information 5
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Coding via ASCII 6


Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Coding via EBCDIC 7


⊙ Recall some important terms:
- Message – It comprises a sequence of alphanumeric
characters.
Baseband - Character – A,e, !, = @ etc.
Transmission - Symbol – M=2k, k = no. of bit
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog - Digital Waveform – si(t), where i = 1,…..,M.
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
⊙ M-ary communications
Modulation - Send multiple, M, waveforms.
- Choose between one of M symbols instead of 1 or 0.
- Waveforms differ by phase, amplitude, and/or frequency.
- Advantage: Send more information at a time.
- Disadvantage: Extra bandwidth needed.

8
Baseband
8-ary
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

32-ary

M-Ary Communication 9
⊙ You want to transmit the word “HOW” using
an 8-ary system.
- Encode the word “HOW” into a sequence of bits, using 7-bit
Baseband ASCII coding, followed by an eight bit for error detection, per
Transmission character. The eight bit is chosen so that the number of ones
- Character Coding in the 8 bits is an even number. How many total bits are there
- Formatting Analog in the message?
Information
- Sources of - Partition the bit stream into k = 3 bit segments. Represent
Corruption each of the 3-bit segments as an octal number (symbol). How
- Pulse Code many octal symbols are there in the message?
Modulation
- If the system were designed with 16-ary modulation, how
many symbols would be used to represent the word “HOW”?
- If the system were designed with 256-ary modulation, how
many symbols would be used to represent the word “HOW”?

Example 2.1 10
⊙ We want to transmit 800 characters/s, where
each character is represented by its 7-bit
ASCII codeword, followed by an eight bit for
Baseband error detection, per character, as in Example
Transmission 2.1. A multilevel PAM waveform with M = 16
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog levels is used
Information
- Sources of - What is the effective transmitted bit rate?
Corruption - What is the symbol rate?
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Example 2.2 11
⊙ We want to transmit a 100-character
alphanumeric message in 2 s, using 7-bit
ASCII coding, followed by an eight bit for error
Baseband detection, per character, as in Example 2.1.
Transmission A multilevel PAM waveform with M = 32 levels
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog is used.
Information
- Sources of - Calculate the effective transmitted bit rate and the
Corruption symbol rate.
- Pulse Code
Modulation
- Repeat for 16- level PAM, eight-level PAM, four-level
PAM, and PCM (binary) waveforms.

Example 2.3 12
⊙ Sampling - the first process of transforming an
analog waveform into a form that is
compatible with a digital communication
Baseband system.
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Sampling - An Overview 13
⊙ Sampling is the reduction of a continuous
signal to a discrete signal.
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Under what circumstances is it


possible to reconstruct the
original signal completely (almost
Sampling - An Overview perfect reconstruction)? 14
⊙ If a signal is bandlimited:
- if its Fourier transform is zero outside a finite band of
frequencies, and
Baseband
Transmission - if the samples are taken sufficiently close together in
- Character Coding relation to the highest frequency present in the signal,
- Formatting Analog - then the samples uniquely specify the signal, and it
Information
- Sources of can be perfectly reconstructed.
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Sampling Theorem 15
⊙ The sampling rate which is known as the
Nyquist criterion or Nyquist rate is
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information where fs = 1/Ts, Ts is the sampling rate
- Sources of
Corruption fm = boundary of the bandlimited signal
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Sampling Theorem 16
⊙ Some sampling approaches:
- Impulse sampling
Baseband - Natural sampling
Transmission - Sample and hold sampling
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Sampling Theorem 17
Given a signal , we can model sampling by
using periodic impulse train,

Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Impulse Sampling 18
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Impulse Sampling 19
It is called as natural sampling, since the top of
each pulse in the xs(t) sequence retains the shape
of its corresponding analog segment during the
Baseband pulse interval.
Transmission
 C F x(t )e 

j 2nf s t
- Character Coding Xs( f )  n
- Formatting Analog n  
Information reduces to
- Sources of 

Corruption Xs( f )  C
n  
n X ( f  nf s )
- Pulse Code
Modulation where Cn = (1/Ts)sinc(nT/Ts)

Natural Sampling 20
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Natural Sampling 21
The sampling result produces the flat top sampled

1
X s ( f )  P( f )
Ts
 X ( f  nf
n  
s )
Baseband
Transmission where P(f) is of the form Ts sinc fTs
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Sample-hold Sampling Natural (top) vs Sample and Hold/Flattop (bottom) 22


Pulse Amplitude Modulation: Flat-top Sampling Pulse Amplitude Modulation: Flat-top Sampling
8 8
Analog Analog
PAM PAM
Baseband 6 6

Transmission 4 4

- Character Coding 2 2

- Formatting Analog
0 0
Information
- Sources of -2 -2

Corruption -4 -4
- Pulse Code
Modulation -6
-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
-6
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
time time

Compare these two diagrams, what is your observation?

Sampling Theorem 23
⊙ When the sampling rate is reduced, such that
fs<2fm, the replications will overlap and some
information will be lost.
Baseband ⊙ The result of undersampling is aliasing.
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Aliasing 24
⊙ No Aliasing (f >=2f
s m)
(a)

Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation
(b)

Aliasing 25
⊙ Aliasing occurs (f <2f
s m)
(a)

Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation
(b)

Aliasing 26
⊙ A process of mapping a large set of input values to
a smaller set.

Baseband
⊙ Simple terms - rounding values to some unit of
precision.
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Quantization 27
Quantize at every sampling point

Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Quantization 28
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Quantization 29
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Uniform vs Non-Uniform
Quantization
30
Strong signal

Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Weak signal

Uniform Quantization 31
⊙ When the steps are uniform in size.
⊙ Problems with uniform quantization
Baseband - Only optimal for uniformly distributed signal
Transmission - Real audio signals (speech and music) are more
- Character Coding concentrated near zeros
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
⊙ The quantization noise is the same for all signal
- Pulse Code
magnitudes.
Modulation ⊙ Solution
- Using non-uniform quantization: quantization interval
is smaller near zero

Uniform Quantization 32
⊙ Main approach:
- Provide fine quantization of the weak signals and
coarse quantization of the strong signals.
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding ⊙ How to get non-uniform quantization:
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Transform the signal using any logarithmic
- Sources of compression
Corruption
- Pulse Code
-> -law
Modulation -> A-law

⊙ Quantize the transform value using uniform


quantizer

Non-Uniform
Quantization 33
For small magnitude signals the
compression characteristics has
a much steeper slope than for
Baseband large magnitude signals.
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Non-Uniform
Quantization 34
Companding Characteristics

Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Non-Uniform Further reading: page 84-85


Quantization 35
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Non-Uniform
Quantization 36
⊙ Sampling and Quantizing effects
- Quantization noise: Round off or truncation error.
- Quantizer saturation: When the input exceeds the operating
Baseband range of the converter.
Transmission - Timing jitter: It is a phase variation (random process).
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation
⊙ Channel effects
- Channel noise: Thermal noise, interference from circuit
switching can cause channel error.
- Intersymbol interference: Overlapping when the channel is
Please read page 78-79. bandlimited.
37
⊙ The class of baseband signals obtained from
the quantized signals by encoding each
quantized sample into a digital word.
Baseband
Transmission ⊙ The process:
- Character Coding - The source information is sampled and quantized to one of L
- Formatting Analog levels.
Information
- Sources of - Then each quantized sample is digitally encoded into an l-
Corruption bit (l>=log2L) codeword.
- Pulse Code Note: L=1/(2p)
Modulation
- For baseband transmission, the codeword bits will then be
transformed to pulse waveforms.

PCM - Overview 38
⊙ How to improve fidelity?
- Increase sampling frequency -> avoid aliasing
- Increase the number of quantization level -> reduce the
Baseband quantization noise.
Transmission -> recall, l>=log2L (l – bit codeword, L – levels)
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
⊙ What happen if the number of quantization
- Sources of levels is doubled?
Corruption
- Pulse Code
⊙ Consequences in terms of no of bits,
Modulation bits/sample, data rate, bandwidth and cost?

PCM - Overview 39
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding Binary digit with
- Formatting Analog electrical pulse
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation
The pulse has been
increased as maximum
as possible to get
correctly detected

PCM Waveform 40
⊙ When pulse modulation is applied to a binary
symbol, the resulting binary waveform is
called a PCM waveform.
Baseband
Transmission ⊙ These waveforms are called line codes in
- Character Coding telephony applications.
- Formatting Analog
Information ⊙ When pulse modulation is applied to a non-
- Sources of binary symbol, the resulting waveform is
Corruption
- Pulse Code
called an M-ary pulse-modulation waveform.
Modulation

PCM Waveform 41
⊙ Nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ)
⊙ Return-to-zero
Baseband ⊙ Phase encoded
Transmission
- Character Coding
⊙ Multilevel binary
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

PCM Waveform 42
⊙ NRZ-L (Level)
⊙ NRZ-M (Mark)
Baseband ⊙ NRZ-S (Space)
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Non-return-to-zero 43
⊙ Unipolar RZ
⊙ Bipolar RZ
Baseband ⊙ RZ-AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion)
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Return-to-zero 44
⊙ Also known as Manchester coding

Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Phase-encoded 45
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption Please check Figure
- Pulse Code 2.22, page 87.
Modulation

PCM Waveform 46
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

PCM Waveform
Attributes 47
⊙ Normalized bandwidth WT= W/Rs Hz/(symbol/s)
⊙ < 1 Hz for sending 1 symbol/s = bandwidth
efficient.
Baseband
Transmission
⊙> 1 Hz for sending 1 symbol/s = bandwidth
- Character Coding
inefficient.
- Formatting Analog
Information
⊙ Another interesting parameter:
- Sources of - Bandwidth efficiency:
Corruption R/W (bits/s)/Hz -> How much data throughput can be
- Pulse Code transmitted for each Hertz
Modulation

PCM Waveform
Attributes 48
8-ary PAM
Baseband
Transmission
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation PCM

M-Ary Pulse Modulation 49


⊙ The information in an analog waveform, with
maximum frequency fm = 3 kHz, is to be
transmitted over an M-ary PAM system, where the
Baseband number of pulse levels is M = 16. The quantization
Transmission distortion is specified not to exceed 1% of the
- Character Coding peak-to-peak analog signal.
- Formatting Analog
Information - What is the minimum number of bits/sample, or bits/PCM
- Sources of word that should be used in digitizing the analog waveform?
Corruption - What is the minimum required sampling rate, and what is the
- Pulse Code
resulting bit transmission rate?
Modulation
- What is the PAM pulse or symbol transmission rate? If the
transmission bandwidth (including filtering) equals 12 kHz,
determine the bandwidth efficiency for this system.

Example 2.4 50
⊙ Determine the number of quantization levels that
are implied if the number of bits per sample in a
given PCM code is
Baseband -5
Transmission -8
- Character Coding
- Formatting Analog -x
Information
- Sources of
Corruption
- Pulse Code
Modulation

Example 2.5 51
Week Topic
1 Introduction to Digital Communication Systems

2-3 Baseband Modulation, Character Coding, Formatting,


Sampling, Quantization, Aliasing, Pulse Code Modulation,
Course M-Ary Pulse Modulation, Line Coding, Binary Signal
Information Detection in Gaussian Noise, Matched Filter, ISI

(Teaching Plan) 4-5 Bandpass Modulation, ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, QAM,
GMSK
6-7 Multi-carrier Modulation and OFDM

8-9 Spread Spectrum Modulation, DSSS, FHSS, THSS,


Hybrid
10 Diversity in Fading Channels, receiver diversity,
transmitter diversity
11 Multiple Antenna Communications, MIMO model and
channel, diversity gain and beamforming
12-13 Multiplexing and Multiple Access

14 Channel Coding and Source Coding


52