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Waste Water Treatment through Biotechnology

An assignment is submitted to

Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan

In partial fulfilment of the requirement for course

Environmental Biotechnology


Nosheen Rasheed

ES-15-12 (Morning)


Dr. Muhammad Wakeel Rana

March 5, 2018

Department of Environmental Science


Waste water is produce by the constituents that are flushed down toilet, drain, or sewer and pollutants
that are present in sewage and enter into water. Nitrogen and phosphorous are also present in the
waste water due to the usage of soaps and detergents. As the population increases, human has
increased their activities of industrial production that leads to negative impacts on the environment
such as increasing waste water, household waste, and other industrial wastes. Waste water causes
diseases and has environmental impacts. Treatment of waste water is necessary to remove harmful
substances, making water drinkable and to comply with water demand. Wastewater should be treated
in a manner that everyone can get safe water. The main objective of wastewater treatment is to
protect the natural environment and human health from the harmful effect of human and industrial

Literature Review
To make the water drinkable, water is treated by different degrees of treatments that are preliminary,
primary, secondary, tertiary and/or advanced and sludge wastewater treatment.

Stages Techniques Environmental impacts

Increase labor cost.

Preliminary Grit evacuation and Reduce the solid capture efficiency
Treatment sometimes large particles. of downstream unit.

Cellophane-like membranes Toxic substances are used in

Primary Reverse used in it that isolated cleaning of RO membranes which
Treatment osmosis purified water from filthy are harmful to marine life and
water. ecosystem.

Bioreactor that contain living

Fixed film process is the source of
Bio- material to seizure and
Secondary bio clogging and flow channeling.
filtration biologically degrade

Aeration Dissolved gases and oxidizes Denitrification and phosphorous

dissolved metals. exclusion can’t be achieved
without additional unit
Need high energy.

Wastewater is treated with the Produce odor during algal bloom.

collaboration of sunlight, Not very effective at removing
bacteria and algae. heavy metals from waste water.

It is an amalgamation of
flocculation and clarification Release coal slurry.
in a single tank.

Pressure They remove turbidity and It only relies on biodegradation to

sand filter suspended particles. remove contaminants.
Treatment Some plants (eucalyptus) cause soil
phytoremedi Aquatic plants such as
degradation, decline of ground
ation duckweed absorb dissolved
water level, decrease biodiversity.

Activated In this, activated carbon is

As biomass increase in filter its
carbon used to remove a soluble
adsorption efficiency decreases.
adsorption substance from the water.

Equipment has complex structure

Original volume of sludge is
Thickening and difficult to maintain. Small
reduces to less than half of it.
processing capacity.

treatment Organic solids are
High power cost for required
Aerobic decomposed into stable
oxygen, no useful by product
Digestion substances. It may be aerobic
(methane) is recovered.
or anaerobic.
Sludge after the above step is
Dewatering dewatered, that become solid, Leaching occur during dewatering.
before disposal.

After all above operations,

Sometimes it release harmful
sludge is dispose to land. This
substance depending upon the
Disposal is valuable for soil as it used
methodology of disposal and effect
as soil conditioner
the environment.
and fertilizer.


Wastewater is increasing as a result of discharge of waste material into water that is majorly due to rise
in population. It increases cost directly or indirectly by increase in illness and deterioration of
surroundings. Environmental biotechnology provides environmental friendly techniques to resolve this
issue at specific extent. As peremptory request for water increases, water managers and planners should
look widely for methods to improve water management and enhance water supplies.