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Metal Cutting Project

Submitted by:
M. Asjad Aamir 2016-ME-10
Danish Ali 2016-ME-13
Anass Nazeer 2016-ME-33
M. Ahmed 2016-ME-44

Lab Supervisor:
Engr. Waqas Rafique

Department of Mechanical Engineering


University of Engineering & Technology Lahore, Pakistan
Table of Contents
Nomenclature: ............................................................................................................................................... 3
Background ................................................................................................................................................... 3
Machining: ................................................................................................................................................ 3
Surface finish: ........................................................................................................................................... 3
Lay: ....................................................................................................................................................... 3
Surface roughness: ................................................................................................................................ 3
Waviness: .............................................................................................................................................. 3
Working of surface analyzer: ................................................................................................................ 4
Measurement: ........................................................................................................................................ 4
Important Parameters: ............................................................................................................................... 5
Cut-off Length: ..................................................................................................................................... 5
Evaluation Length: ................................................................................................................................ 5
Average Roughness: ............................................................................................................................. 5
Unit used: .................................................................................................................................................. 5
Full Factorial Design: ............................................................................................................................... 5
Three level full factorial design: ........................................................................................................... 5
Three Level with two factor design: ..................................................................................................... 5
Objectives: .................................................................................................................................................... 6
Methodology: ................................................................................................................................................ 6
Work piece: ............................................................................................................................................... 6
Turning operation: .................................................................................................................................... 6
Measurement of Surface finish: ................................................................................................................ 6
Experimentation: ........................................................................................................................................... 7
Full factorial design: ................................................................................................................................. 7
Design Summary:.................................................................................................................................. 7
General Factorial Regression: Response versus Cutting speed, Feed rate:............................................... 8
Factor Information: ............................................................................................................................... 8
Analysis of Variance: ................................................................................................................................ 8
Model Summary: .................................................................................................................................. 8
Coefficients: .......................................................................................................................................... 8
Regression Equation: ................................................................................................................................ 9
Conclusions:................................................................................................................................................ 10
To perform machining on metal rods at different feed rate
and RPM and measuring their surface roughness
Nomenclature:

Background
Machining:
Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and
size by a controlled material-removal process. The processes that have this common theme, controlled
material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive manufacturing in distinction from processes
of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing. Exactly what the "controlled"
part of the definition implies can vary, but it almost always implies the use of machine tools (in addition to
just power tools and hand tools). Machining is a part of the manufacture of many metal products, but it can
also be used on materials such as wood, plastic, ceramic, and composites. A person who specializes in
machining is called a machinist. A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine
shop. Much of modern-day machining is carried out by computer numerical control (CNC), in which
computers are used to control the movement and operation of the mills, lathes, and other cutting machines.

Surface finish:
Surface finish, also known a surface texture or surface topography, is the nature of a surface as defined by
the 3 characteristics of lay, surface roughness, and waviness. It comprises the small local deviations of a
surface from the perfectly flat ideal (a true plane). Surface texture is one of the important factors that control
friction and transfer layer formation during sliding. Considerable efforts have been made to study the
influence of surface texture on friction and wear during sliding conditions. Surface textures can be isotropic
or anisotropic. Sometimes, stick-slip friction phenomena can be observed during sliding depending on
surface texture. Each manufacturing process (such as the many kinds of machining) produces a surface
texture. The process is usually optimized to ensure that the resulting texture is usable. If necessary, an
additional process will be added to modify the initial texture. The latter process may be grinding (abrasive
cutting), polishing, lapping, abrasive blasting, honing, electrical discharge machining (EDM), milling,
lithography, industrial etching/chemical milling, laser texturing, or other processes.

Lay:
Lay is the direction of the predominant surface pattern ordinarily determined by the production method
used.

Surface roughness:
Surface roughness commonly shortened to roughness, is a measure of the finely spaced surface
irregularities. In engineering, this is what is usually meant by "surface finish".

Waviness:
Waviness is the measure of surface irregularities with a spacing greater than that of surface roughness.
These usually occur due to warping, vibrations, or deflection during machining.
Working of surface analyzer:
It contains a sensitive diamond prop which touches the surface of the work piece and makes a graph. The
most common method is to use diamond profilometer. It runs perpendicular to the surface. Prop traces along
the straight line on the surface or in a circular arc on the curved surface. The length traced is called
measurement length. Measurement length should be almost seven time s greater than the sampling length.

Figure 1: Surface analyzer

As a fully integrated option for the measurement system, users of the surface finish prop will benefit from
a range of powerful features that will boost inspection speed and flexibility. The prop incorporates a C axis,
which combined with finite positioning capability of measuring head and a choice of style, allows the prop
to be automatically oriented to any angle to suite the part, ensuring that the highest quality surface data is
acquired.

Measurement:
Surface finish may be measured in two ways: contact and non-contact methods. Contact methods involve
dragging a measurement stylus across the surface; these instruments are called profilometers. Non-contact
methods include: interferometry, confocal microscopy, focus variation, structured light, electrical
capacitance, electron microscopy, and photogrammetry. The most common method is to use a diamond
stylus profilometers. stylus is run perpendicular to the lay of the surface. The probe usually traces along a
straight line on a flat surface or in a circular arc around a cylindrical surface.

Figure 2: Mechanism of surface analyzer


Important Parameters:
Cut-off Length:
Roughness of a surface is measured on a span. Along the surface, roughness of some area is not measured.
This much amount of length is called Cut-off length. It is denoted by Lc.

Evaluation Length:
It is the total length of the sample which is taken for the measurement of roughness for a length.

Average Roughness:
The average roughness at all locations along evaluation length (neglecting cut-off length spaces) is known
as average roughness.

Unit used:
Average or arithmetic roughness is expressed in terms of micro meter.

Full Factorial Design:


In statistics, a full factorial experiment is an experiment whose design consists of two or more factors, each
with discrete possible values or "levels", and whose experimental units take on all possible combinations
of these levels across all such factors. A full factorial design may also be called a fully crossed design. Such
an experiment allows the investigator to study the effect of each factor on the response variable, as well as
the effects of interactions between factors on the response variable. Factorial experiments are suitable when
there are many factors of interest in an experiment.

Three level full factorial design:


The three-level design is written as a 3k factorial design. It means that k factors are considered, each at 3
levels. These are (usually) referred to as low, intermediate and high levels.

Three Level with two factor design:


This is the simplest three-level design. It has two factors, each at three levels. The 9 treatment
combinations for this type of design can be shown pictorially as follows:

Figure 3
Objectives:
Objective of this experiment is to perform different machining operations like turning, facing on nine
different mild steel rods at different rpm and feed rate with 2 minutes machining time and then measuring
their surface roughness

Methodology:
Work piece:
In this experiment mild steel in form of circular rod is used as experimental work piece. Circular rod has a
length of 110 mm with 55 mm diameter.
Table 1

Workpiece specifications Tool specifications


Length = 1 inch. Carbide Tip
Diameter = 25 mm
Turning length= 130mm

Turning operation:
The general process of turning involves rotating a part while a single-point cutting tool is moved parallel
to the axis of rotation. Turning can be done on the external surface of the part as well as the internal surface
(the process known as boring). The starting material is generally a workpiece generated by other processes
such as casting, forging, extrusion, or drawing.

Figure 4: Turning operation

Figure 4: Work pieces after machining

Measurement of Surface finish:


Similarly, the process was repeated for nine experiments explained earlier in the methodology. At the end
the surface roughness of each workpiece was noted using a surface analyser.
Figure 5: Surface Analyzer

Experimentation:
The surface roughness values that were noted during the experiment are tabulated in Table 2:
Table 2

Experiment no. Cutting RPM Feed Depth of cut Surface


speed roughness
m/min (rev/ min) (min / rev) (mm) m

1 20 256 0.2 1 4.2


2 20 256 0.4 1 4.4
3 20 256 0.6 1 4.5
4 30 256 0.2 1 4.1
5 30 256 0.4 1 4.1
6 30 256 0.6 1 4.3
7 40 256 0.2 1 3.7
8 40 256 0.4 1 4.0
9 40 256 0.6 1 4.1

Full factorial design:


Level of rejection=   0.05
Design Summary:
Table 3

Factors: 2 Replicates: 2
Base runs: 9 Total runs: 18
Base blocks: 1 Total blocks: 1
Number of levels: 3, 3
General Factorial Regression: Response versus Cutting speed, Feed rate:
Factor Information:
Table 4

Factor Levels Values


Cutting speed 3 20, 30, 40
Feed rate 3 0.2, 0.4, 0.6
Analysis of Variance:
Table 5

Source DF Adj SS Adj MS F-Value P-Value


Model 8 0.88444 0.110556 22.11 0.000
Linear 4 0.83556 0.208889 41.78 0.000
Cutting speed 2 0.56444 0.282222 56.44 0.000
Feed rate 2 0.27111 0.135556 27.11 0.000
2-Way Interactions 4 0.04889 0.012222 2.44 0.122
Cutting speed*Feed rate 4 0.04889 0.012222 2.44 0.122
Error 9 0.04500 0.005000
Total 17 0.92944
Model Summary:
Table 6

S R-sq R-sq(adj) R-sq(pred)


0.0707107 95.16% 90.85% 80.63%

Coefficients:
Table 7

Term Coef SE Coef T-Value P-Value


Constant 4.2056 0.0167 252.33 0.000
Cutting speed
20 0.2111 0.0236 8.96 0.000
30 0.0111 0.0236 0.47 0.649
Feed rate
0.2 -0.1556 0.0236 -6.60 0.000
0.4 0.0111 0.0236 0.47 0.649
Cutting speed*Feed rate
20 0.2 -0.0111 0.0333 -0.33 0.747
20 0.4 0.0222 0.0333 0.67 0.522
30 0.2 0.0889 0.0333 2.67 0.026
30 0.4 -0.0778 0.0333 -2.33 0.045
Regression Equation:
Response = 4.2056 + 0.2111 Cutting speed_20 + 0.0111 Cutting speed_30
- 0.2222 Cutting speed_40 - 0.1556 Feed rate_0.2 + 0.0111 Feed rate_0.4
+ 0.1444 Feed rate_0.6 - 0.0111 Cutting speed*Feed rate_20 0.2
+ 0.0222 Cutting speed*Feed rate_20 0.4 - 0.0111 Cutting speed*Feed rate_20 0.6
+ 0.0889 Cutting speed*Feed rate_30 0.2 - 0.0778 Cutting speed*Feed rate_30 0.4
- 0.0111 Cutting speed*Feed rate_30 0.6 - 0.0778 Cutting speed*Feed rate_40 0.2
+ 0.0556 Cutting speed*Feed rate_40 0.4 + 0.0222 Cutting speed*Feed rate_40 0.6

Figure 6
Figure 7

Figure 8

Conclusions:
 Relative magnitudes of effects for cutting speed and feed rate are compared. Fig.6 the absolute
values of the standardized effects from the largest effect to the smallest effect. The standardized
effects are t-statistics that test the null hypothesis that the effect is 0. The chart also plots a reference
line to indicate which effects are statistically significant. On the Pareto chart, bars that cross the
reference line (2.262) are statistically significant. From fig.5, it can be seen that the cutting speed
has the largest effect on the surface roughness.
 R2 is the percentage of variation in the response that is explained by the model. From table 6, the
value of R2 is 95.16%, which shows that the date points fall closer to fitted regression line i.e. the
model of experiment is responding well.
 Fig.7 shows main effect is the difference in the mean response between levels of a factor. The main
effects plot shows the means for surface roughness using both cutting speed and the means
for surface roughness using both feed rate. It can be seen that as the cutting speed is increased,
surface roughness is decreased. Also, it can be seen that, as feed rate is increased, surface roughness
is increased.
 Fig.8 is the interaction plot, which shows the impact of both factors, cutting speed and spindle
speed, on the response. Because an interaction means that the effect of one factor depends on the
level of the other factor, assessing interactions is important.