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Camelia Neagu

Limba engleză
- suport de curs -

EDITURA UNIVERSITĂŢII „NICOLAE TITULESCU”


BUCUREŞTI

2016
Acest material este destinat uzului studenţilor, forma de învăţământ la distanţă.
Conţinutul cursului este proprietatea intelectuală a autorului /autorilor; designul, machetarea
şi transpunerea în format electronic aparţin Departamentului de Învăţământ la Distanţă al
Universităţii „Nicolae Titulescu” din Bucureşti.

Acest curs este destinat uzului individual. Este interzisă multiplicarea, copierea sau
difuzarea conţinutului sub orice formă.

Acest manual a fost analizat si aprobat in sedinta Departamentului de Stiinte Politice si


Administrative din data de 5 octombrie 2016.
UNIVERSITATEA „NICOLAE TITULESCU” DIN BUCUREŞTI
DEPARTAMENTUL PENTRU ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTUL LA DISTANŢĂ

Camelia Neagu
Limba engleză
Editura Universităţii „Nicolae Titulescu”

Calea Văcăreşti, nr. 185, sector 4, Bucureşti


Tel./fax: 0213309032/0213308606
Email: editura@univnt.ro

ISBN: 978-606-751-330-1
CUPRINS

Introducere

Unitatea de învăţare 1

1.1. Introducere
1.2. Obiective
1.3. Rezumat
1.4. Test de evaluare
1.5. Test de autoevaluare
1.6. Temă de control
1.7. Bibliografie specifica
1.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 2

2.1. Introducere
2.2. Obiective
2.3. Rezumat
2.4. Test de evaluare
2.5. Test de autoevaluare
2.6. Temă de control
2.7. Bibliografie specifica
2.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 3

3.1. Introducere
3.2. Obiective
3.3. Rezumat
3.4. Test de evaluare
3.5. Test de autoevaluare
3.6. Temă de control
3.7. Bibliografie specifica
3.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 4

4.1. Introducere
4.2. Obiective
4.3. Rezumat
4.4. Test de evaluare
4.5. Test de autoevaluare
4.6. Temă de control
4.7. Bibliografie specifica
4.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

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Unitatea de învăţare 5

5.1. Introducere
5.2. Obiective
5.3. Rezumat
5.4. Test de evaluare
5.5. Test de autoevaluare
5.6. Temă de control
5.7. Bibliografie specifica
5.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 6

6.1. Introducere
6.2. Obiective
6.3. Rezumat
6.4. Test de evaluare
6.5. Test de autoevaluare
6.6. Temă de control
6.7. Bibliografie specifica
6.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 7

7.1. Introducere
7.2. Obiective
7.3. Rezumat
7.4. Test de evaluare
7.5. Test de autoevaluare
7.6. Temă de control
7.7. Bibliografie specifica
7.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 8

8.1. Introducere
8.2. Obiective
8.3. Rezumat
8.4. Test de evaluare
8.5. Test de autoevaluare
8.6. Temă de control
8.7. Bibliografie specifica
8.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 9

9.1. Introducere

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9.2. Obiective
9.3. Rezumat
9.4. Test de evaluare
9.5. Test de autoevaluare
9.6. Temă de control
9.7. Bibliografie specifica
9.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 10

10.1. Introducere
10.2. Obiective
10.3. Rezumat
10.4. Test de evaluare
10.5. Test de autoevaluare
10.6. Temă de control
10.7. Bibliografie specifica
10.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 11

11.1. Introducere
11.2. Obiective
11.3. Rezumat
11.4. Test de evaluare
11.5. Test de autoevaluare
11.6. Temă de control
11.7. Bibliografie specifica
11.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 12

12.1. Introducere
12.2. Obiective
12.3. Rezumat
12.4. Test de evaluare
12.5. Test de autoevaluare
12.6. Temă de control
12.7. Bibliografie specifica
12.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare

Unitatea de învăţare 13

13.1. Introducere
13.2. Obiective
13.3. Rezumat
13.4. Test de evaluare
13.5. Test de autoevaluare

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13.6. Temă de control
13.7. Bibliografie specifica
13.8. Răspunsuri la testele de autoevaluare
List of Irregular Verbs
Bibliography

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INTRODUCERE

Acest modul se adresează studenţilor Facultăţii de Drept, forma de


învăţământ la distanţă, anul 1.

Obiectivul Modulul Limba engleză are drept obiectiv însuşirea de către studenţi a
modulului unui set de termeni juridici de bază (pe care studenţii să îi poată folosi la
un interviu de angajare sau în vederea redactării în limba engleză a unor
eseuri/ referate/articole sau pentru a traduce texte juridice). Totodată,
studenţii vor recapitula noţiuni generale de gramatică a limbii engleze.
Deprinderea competenţelor necesare utilizării limbii engleze în mediul
juridic le va permite studenţilor să utilizeze această limbă străină în
vederea angajării, în activitatea de cercetare (foarte multe cărţi de
specialitate fiind scrise în limba engleză) şi în vederea îndeplinirii
viitoarelor sarcinilor de serviciu.
Cunoştinţele dobândite în cadrul acestui modul vor putea fi folosite
alături de cunoştinţele obţinute prin studierea altor discipline din planul
de învăţământ al specializării, contribuind împreună cu acestea la
formarea unui specialist care să răspundă cerinţelor şi exigenţelor
angajatorilor din domeniu.
Prin însuşirea conţinutului modulului, studenţii vor dobândi următoarele
competenţe generale şi specifice:

Competenţele 1. Competenţe instrumentale


generale - stăpânirea unui set de termeni juridici de bază în limba engleză
- capacitatea de a soluţiona probleme profesionale care implică
folosirea limbii engleze
- capacitatea de a comunica în limba engleză.

2. Competenţe interpersonale:
- capacitatea de evaluare şi autoevaluare
- capacitatea de a lucra în echipă
- capacitatea de a avea un comportament etic şi de a respecta
regulile deontologiei profesionale.

3. Competenţe sistemice:
- capacitatea de a transpune în practică noţiunile dobândite
- capacitatea de a învăţa
- capacitatea de a se adapta procesului de integrare europeană
- abilitatea de a lucra independent.

Competenţele 1. Cunoaştere şi înţelegere


specifice  sistematizarea şi fundamentarea noţiunilor de gramatică a limbii
engleze;
 însuşirea de către studenţi a cunoştinţelor necesare pentru redactarea
unui referat, articol etc. pe teme de specialitate,
 achiziţionarea de către studenţi a unui număr cât mai mare de
termeni de specialitate;

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 stimularea conversaţiei spontane în vederea dobândirii unei fluenţe
convenabile în dialoguri pe teme de specialitate.
2. Explicare si interpretare
 interpretarea corectă a sensului unui text juridic, redactat în limba
engleză şi capacitatea de a explica în mod corect termenii juridici
folosiţi în textul respectiv.
3. Instrumental – aplicative
 dezvoltarea capacităţii de a efectua corect traduceri din limba
engleză în limba română şi de a redacta cu acurateţe retroversiuni
din limba română în limba engleză, folosind termeni de specialitate.
4. Atitudinale
 dezvoltarea abilităţii de a gândi şi interpreta în limba engleză
noţiunile juridice şi gramaticale învăţate;
 dezvoltarea interesului pentru cunoaşterea vocabularului juridic de
specialitate în limba engleză.

Structura Acest modul este structurat în 13 unităţi de învăţare.


modulului
(sem. I+II) În primul semestru se vor studia primele 7 unităţi de învăţare, după cum
urmează:

Unitatea de învăţare 1 – ORDINEA CORECTĂ A CUVINTELOR


ÎN LIMBA ENGLEZĂ (60 de minute) Acest capitol expune regulile de
organizare a cuvintelor în propoziţie, aplicate în limba engleză.

Unitatea de învăţare 2 - THE UK - A CONSTITUTIONAL


MONARCHY (90 de minute) prezintă noţiunile de bază privind rolul şi
structura Parlamentului Marii Britanii, rolul Monarhului în conducerea
Statului, atribuţiile Primului Ministru şi ale Cabinetului condus de
acesta.

Unitatea de învăţare 3 - VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ (90


de minute) prezintă noţiunile de bază privind folosirea corectă a vorbirii
indirec te îlimba engleză.

Unitatea de învăţare 4 - THE SOURCES OF ENGLISH LAW (90 de


minute) prezintă principalele surse ale legislaţiei din Marea Britanie.

Unitatea de învăţare 5 - VERBUL (THE VERB). TIMPURILE


VERBULUI (VERB TENSES) (90 de minute) prezintă două timpuri
folosite în mod frecvent în limba engleză: prezentul simplu şi prezentul
continuu.

Unitatea de învăţare 6 - THE JUDICIARY (80 de minute) prezintă


noţiuni generale privind sistemul judiciar din Marea Britanie.

Unitatea de învăţare 7 –THE PAST TENSES (90 de minute) prezintă


regulile de folosire a trecutului simplu şi trecutului continuu, două dintre
cele cele mai importante timpuri ale limbii engleze.

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În al doilea semestru se vor studia ultimele 6 unităţi de învăţare, după
cum urmează:

Unitatea de învăţare 8 – COURTS OF LAW IN THE UNITED


KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN (90 de minute) prezintă instanţele
de judecată din Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii.

Unitatea de învăţare 9 – THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


SIMPLE (90 de minute) recapitulează regulile de folosire a unuia dintre
cele mai uzuale timpuri ale limbii engleze – prezentul perfect simplu.

Unitatea de învăţare 10 – THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


CONTINUOUS (60 de minute) - recapitulează unul dintre cele mai
uzuale timpuri ale limbii engleze – prezentul perfect continuu.

Unitatea de învăţare 11 – THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM (90 de


minute) prezintă atribuţiile profesionale care îi revin unui avocat în
Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii.

Unitatea de învăţare 12 - THE PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE


AND THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS (100 de
minute) prezintă regulile de folosire a două timpuri: trecutul perfect
simplu (past perfect simple) şi trecutul perfect continuu (past perfect
continuous).

Unitatea de învăţare 13 – THE EUROPEAN UNION (90 de minute)


prezintă studia un scurt istoric privind formarea Uniunii Europene şi
rolul principalelor instituţii din cadrul UE.

Pregătirea şi  Până la data primului tutorial din semestrul unu, studenţii vor
evaluarea parcurge unităţile de învăţare 1, 2, 3 şi 4. Îşi vor însuşi cunoştinţele
studenţilor teoretice şi vor răspunde la toate sarcinile incluse în acestea.
(sem. I) Răspunsurile la exerciţii şi referatele se vor redacta în scris (sunt
acceptate şi în formă electronică – document Word) şi vor fi transmise
tutorelui.
 Până la data celui de-al doilea tutorial, inclusiv, studenţii vor parcurge
unităţile de învăţare 5, 6 şi 7. Îşi vor însuşi cunoştinţele prezentate în
cadrul unităţilor 5, 6 şi 7 şi vor rezolva temele de control.

Nivelul de pregătire al studenţilor se apreciază astfel:


 Lucrare scrisă
o traduceri
o exerciţii de completare a spaţiilor libere
o întrebări de verificare a cunoştinţelor acumulate
o exerciţii de parafrazare (rephrasing)
o eseu/referat/articol
 Evaluarea temelor de control.
Ponderea referatelor şi lucrărilor de control este de 30%. Lucrarea scrisă
are o pondere de 70%.

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Pregătirea şi  Până la data primului tutorial din semestrul doi, studenţii vor parcurge
evaluarea unităţile de învăţare 8, 9 şi 10. Îşi vor însuşi cunoştinţele teoretice şi vor
studenţilor răspunde la toate sarcinile incluse în acestea. Răspunsurile la exerciţii şi
(sem. II) referatele se vor redacta în scris (sunt acceptate şi în formă electronică –
document Word) şi vor fi transmise tutorelui.
 Până la data celui de-al doilea tutorial, inclusiv, studenţii vor parcurge
unităţile de învăţare 11, 12 şi 13.
 Îşi vor însuşi noţiunile expuse în unităţile 11, 12 şi 13 şi vor rezolva
temele de control.

Nivelul de pregătire al studenţilor se apreciază astfel:


 Lucrare scrisă
o traduceri
o exerciţii de completare a spaţiilor libere
o exerciţii de reformulare (rephrasing)
o exerciţii de transformare (de la diateza activă la diateza pasivă
sau de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă)
o întrebări de verificare a cunoştinţelor acumulate
o exerciţii de parafrazare (rephrasing)
o eseu/referat/articol
 Evaluarea temelor de control.
Ponderea referatelor şi lucrărilor de control este de 30%. Lucrarea scrisă
are o pondere de 70%.

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UNIT I
ORDINEA CORECTĂ A CUVINTELOR ÎN LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
(Word Order)
1.1. Introducere
Acest capitol expune regulile de organizare a cuvintelor în propoziţie, aplicate
în limba engleză. Studenţii ar trebui să acorde o atenţie sporită acestui capitol
deoarece necunoaşterea regulilor de organizare a cuvintelor în propoziţie atrage
după sine comiterea unui număr foarte mare de greşeli de topică în limba
engleză.

1.2. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:

 să folosească în ordine corectă părţile de propoziţie în limba engleză,


semnalând diferenţele de topică existente între engleză şi română;
 să sesiseze poziţia corectă a adverbelor de frecvenţă în propoziţie
(observând diferenţele care apar în funcţie de predicat şi de timpurile
folosite).

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de


învăţare este de 1 oră.

CONŢINUTUL UNITĂŢII DE ÎNVĂŢARE

Folosirea corectă a ORDINII CUVINTELOR ÎN PROPOZIŢIE prezintă o importanţă


deosebită în limba engleză. Limba engleză este o limba analitică, având puţine forme
flexionare, de aceea, locul pe care-l ocupă cuvintele în propoziţie are un rol important în
identificarea funcţiilor lor sintactice. 00:30
Ordinea cuvintelor în propoziţie trebuie studiată şi datorită diferenţelor de topică dintre
română şi engleză.
În limba română, poziţia părţilor de propoziţie diferă de cea a cuvintelor englezeşti în două
privinţe:

a) Limba română are mai multe forme flexionare şi deci locul cuvintelor nu este atât de
important, iar subiectul nu este exprimat de obicei, verbul românesc fiind marcat
formal pentru persoană şi număr:
I never see him there (engl.)
Niciodată nu-l văd acolo (română)
(Eu) Nu-l văd niciodată acolo.
(Eu) Nu-l văd acolo niciodată.
b) Unele părţi de propoziţie în limba română ocupă de obicei alte locuri decât părţile de
propoziţie corespunzătoare din limba engleză.
Engleză: Română:
He speaks English well. El vorbeşte bine englezeşte.
(Subiect + predicat + compl. direct + (Subiect + predicat + circ. mod.
circ. mod) + compl. direct)

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Exemple
1. Comparaţi topica propoziţiei englezeşti cu topica
propoziţiei româneşti, observând că în română
topica este mult mai flexibilă:
(Compl. circ. de timp)Subiect + Predicat + Compl. direct + Compl. indir. +
Compl. circ. de mod + Compl. circ. de loc + (Compl. circ. de timp).

(After dinner) She said good night to them quickly in the hall (after dinner).

(După cină) le-a spus noapte bună repede în hol (după cină) sau

(După cină) le-a spus repede noapte bună în hol (după cină).

2. Adverbele de frecvenţă (usually*, sometimes*, never, often, rarely/seldom, always) stau


înaintea predicatului dacă acesta este exprimat printr-un verb aflat la un timp simplu (deci
NU continuu** sau perfect***):

She never pleads in criminal cases.


Law students often simulate cases as part of their academic training.

* Usually and sometimes can be placed at the beginning/at the end of the sentence or
immediately before the predicate:
E.g. (Usually) We prepare our pleadings carefully (usually). sau
We usually prepare our pleadings carefully.

(Sometimes) she asks this senior counsel for advice (sometimes). sau
She sometimes asks this senior counsel for advice.

** Adverbs of frequency are used between the verb to be and the present participle (with
continuous tenses):

E.g. They are always asking me questions about the day of the crime because they suppose I
am the real offender!

*** Adverbs of frequency are used between the verb to have and the past participle (with
perfect tenses):

E.g. She has never agreed with such a clause in the contract!

!!! If adverbs of frequency are used with the verb to be, they are placed after this verb:

Mr. Johanson is always on time when he expects a client at the office.

Corectaţi greşelile din propoziţiile de mai jos:


I appreciate very much this internship period.
………………………………………………….
The witness testified yesterday without hesitation.

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……………………………………………
She checks her knowledge in this law encyclopedia often.
……………………………………………

Să ne reamintim
Topica limbii engleze este diferită de cea din limba română într-o mare
măsură. Ca limbă sintetică, româna şi-a conservat formele flexionare, de aici
flexibilitatea topicii româneşti. În schimb, engleza, ca limbă analitică, a
pierdut foarte multe forme flexionare, ceea ce a dus la rigidizarea topicii ei.

1.3. Rezumat
- În limba engleză, nu se pune niciodată un complement circumstanţial între
predicat şi complementul direct/ complementul indirect;

- Complementele circumstanţiale au o ordine strictă de folosire în limba


engleză: C.C.M + C.C.L + C.C.T(Adverbial of Manner + Adverbial of
Place + Adverbial of Time);

- Următoarele complemente circumstanţiale de timp pot sta la începutul sau la


sfârşitul propoziţiei: last week/month/year, next week/month/year, this
week/month/year, in 2010, at noon/at midnight/at weekend, in the future/in the
morning/in the afternoon, during the 1st semester, on Monday/Friday etc.

1.4. Test de evaluare a cunoştinţelor:

I. Schimbaţi ordinea complementelor. Folosiţi to sau for înaintea


complementului indirect.
00:30

Ex: Show us the album. Show the album to us.

1. Please, pass me the dictionary.


2. Fetch me a glass of water.
3. Please, send your parents my regards.
4. He didn’t forget to buy his sister a ticket.
5. Tell the children this funny story.
6. He offered everyone flowers.
7. Andrew owes Betty some money.
8. William handed her some pictures.
9. I have written John a letter.
10. They told us the news.
11. She offered everyone present a copy of the text.

II. Completaţi spatiile libere cu prepoziţiile care lipsesc pentru a forma complemente
prepoziţionale:
1. She never speaks………this subject.
2. He still depends….. his parents.
3. Do you agree …. me?

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4. She waited…. you for half an hour.
5. The boy insisted… doing it himself.
6. Please, look …. the book I’ve bought.

1.5. Test de autoevaluare a cunoştinţelor:

I. Traduceţi următoarele propoziţii în limba engleză:

1. Descrie-ne tot ce ai văzut ieri la locul faptei, te rog.


2. Te rog, citeşte-mi declaraţia martorului.
3. Comunică-ne rezultatul procesului imediat ce-l afli!
4. I-am cumpărat săptămâna trecută asistentei noastre un dicţionar explicativ de termeni
juridici.
5. Medalia de aur a fost acordată echipei române pentru performanţa ei extraordinară la
concursul de procese simulate.
6. Nu este nevoie să-mi înapoiezi cursul de drept constituţional. Ţi-l fac cadou.

II. Completaţi spaţiile libere cu termenii de mai jos (conform exemplului dat):

authority court to govern Judge


law enforcement agency lawyers legal action legal system
legislation Rule the judiciary tribunal

1. A body that is appointed to make a judgement or inquiry. tribunal


2. A country’s body of judges.
3. An act or acts passed by a law-making body.
4. Legal proceedings.
5. An official body that has authority to try criminals, resolve disputes, or make other legal
decisions.
6. An organization responsible for enforcing the law especially the police.
7. A senior official in a court law.
8. The body or system of rules recognized by a community that are enforceable by
established process.
9. The control resulting from following a community’s system of rules.
10. Members of the legal profession.
11. To rule a society and control the behavior of its members.
12. Behavior recognized by a community as binding or enforceable by authority.

1.6. Temă de control

I. Puneţi în ordinea corespunzătoare cuvintele de mai jos:

1. The/is/about/like/thing/I/this faculty/great/research department/its.


2. A/smuggling/building/man/apprehended/in/ was/who/this/dealt with.
3. We/read/the/before/file/must/and/about/forgotten/it/have.
4. Unfortunately/caused/year/are/crimes/juveniles/by/every/many.
5. An/by/injured/rescued/from/the/burning /a/dog/was/woman/building.

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II. Puneţi complementele circumstanţiale din paranteze la locul potrivit în
propoziţie, precizând funcţia lor sintactică:

1. I am working on my graduation project (now).


2. He has had his dinner (already).
3. The last lesson was difficult (unusually); this one is easy (enough).
4. I have believed them (never).
5. His behavior cannot be explained (entirely).
6. You can excuse yourself for the reason (hardly).
7. He goes to the seaside (usually, in July).
8. Look at those sentences (tonight).
9. He speaks English (in the classroom, always).
10. He comes (sometimes, on Saturdays, to my place).

1.7. Bibliografie specifica


Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993

Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept,


Ed. Compania, 2004.

1.8. Răspunsuri la testul de autoevaluare

I.
1.Describe to us everything you saw at the crime scene, please!
2.Please, read me the witness’ testimony!
3.Let us know the outcome of the trial as soon as you find it out!
4.Last week we bought our assistant a legal explanatory dictionary.
5.The golden medal was awarded to the Romanian team for its outstanding
performance at the moot competition.
6.You do not have to give me back the constitutional law coursebook. I’ll offer
it to you as a gift.

II.
1.- tribunal, 2. – the judiciary, 3. – legislation, 4. – legal action, 5. – court, 6. -
law enforcement agency, 7. Judge, 8. - legal system, 9. – authority, 10. –
lawyers, 11. – to govern, 12. – Rule.

17
UNIT II
THE UK - A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY

2.1. Introducere
Studiind această unitate de învăţare, veţi dobândi noţiunile de bază privind
rolul şi structura Parlamentului Marii Britanii, rolul Monarhului în
conducerea Statului, atribuţiile Primului Ministru şi ale Cabinetului condus
de acesta, precum şi despre alegerile generale din Regatul Unit al Marii
Britanii.
2.2. Obiectivele/competențele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:

 să ofere informaţii generale despre puterea legislativă din Marea


Britanie;
 să precizeze atribuţiile Monarhului Britanic în guvernarea
statului;
 să ofere informaţii generale despre puterea executivă din Marea
Britanie.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90


minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

THE UK - A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy and
a unitary state, which is made up of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and of 00:30
Northern Ireland. All four countries of the Kingdom are represented in Parliament at
Westminster, which is the supreme legislative authority in the United Kingdom.

The three main powers in the British state are: the legislative power, the executive power and
the judiciary. The legislative power is the power of making, altering or repealing the laws and
it belongs to Parliament.

The Parliament is the legislative body, which is constitutionally composed of the Monarch,
the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The judiciary is represented by the Supreme
Court and all the other courts of law in the UK.

The Queen represents the people as the Head of State, but the real power lies in Parliament.

The House of Commons or the Lower House consists of 650 Members of Parliament (MPs)
who each represent a constituency. They are salaried members elected by universal adult
suffrage. Members of the House of Commons are elected at a General Election, which must
be held every five years, but it is often held at more frequent intervals.

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The House of Lords or the Upper House has around 1,200 members and is made up of
hereditary and life peers and peeresses, including the law lords appointed to undertake
judicial duties of the House, and the archbishops and bishops of the Church of England.

The Sovereign formally summons and dissolves Parliament and generally opens new sessions
of Parliament with a speech from the throne. The Queen reigns but does not rule.
The full duration of Parliament is five years. No bill can become law until it has been
sanctioned or “read” three times by both Houses and has finally received the royal assent.
The Constitutional principles, rules and practices of the United Kingdom have never been
codified; they derive from state law, from common law and from the conventions of the
constitution.

General Elections are held every five years, though the Prime Minister may call one earlier
and if a MP dies or retires a by-election is held in her or his constituency. MPs win their seats
in Parliament by a majority vote.

The Party which wins sufficient seats at a General Election to command a majority of
supporters in the House of Commons forms the Government; its leading members are chosen
by the Prime Minister (PM) who forms the Cabinet.
The Party which wins the second largest number of seats becomes the official Opposition.
Parliament’s main functions are debating, passing legislation and examining the actions of
the Government.

The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected from the members to preside over the
House immediately after each new Parliament is formed. He is required to be impartial over
parliamentary procedure and the traditional guardian of the rights and privileges of the House
of Commons.

The Government consists of the ministers appointed directly by the Crown on the
recommendation of the Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister is the Head of the government and presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
He consults and advises the Monarch on government business, supervises and, to some
extent, coordinates the work of the various ministries and departments and is the principal
spokesman for the Government in the House of Commons.

The Cabinet is the nucleus of government; its members consist of a small group of the most
important ministers who are selected by the Prime Minister. The size of the Cabinet is about
23 and its main function is to determine, control and integrate the policies of the government
for submission to Parliament.

The Lord Chancellor and the Law Officers of the Crown.


The Lord High Chancellor and the Law Officers of Great Britain presides over the House of
Lords both in legislative capacity and as a final court of appeal.

Corectaţi greşelile din propoziţiile de mai jos:

a. The Lord Chancellor is the head of the Cabinet of Ministers.


………………………………………………….
b. Norther Ireland is a part of Great Britain.
………………………………………………

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c. The Speaker is the head of the House of Lords.
………………………………………

Să ne reamintim
-Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii este o monarhie constituţională, ceea ce
înseamnă că Regele/Regina este şeful statului, dar acesta/aceasta nu poate
acţiona decât în limitele impuse de prevederile Constituţiei.
- În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, puterea legislativă a statului îi revine
exclusiv Parlamentului;
- În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, Puterea executivă este reprezentată de
Primul Ministru (Şeful Guvernului) şi de Cabinetul de Miniştri (ale cărui
şedinţe sunt prezidate de Primul Ministru).

2.3.Rezumat
- Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii este o monarhie constituţională;
- În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, Parlamentul este bicameral (the House of
Lords & the House of Commons);
- The Lord Chacellor este Președintele Camerei Lorzilor, în timp ce the
Speaker este Președintele Camerei Comunelor;
- În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, alegerile generale se organizează o dată la 5
ani;
- pentru Camera Lorzilor nu se organizează alegeri, membrii acestei camere
fiind aleşi de Monarh la recomandarea Primului Ministru sau a Camerei
Lorzilor.

2.4. Test de evaluare a cunoştinţelor:

I. Completaţi spaţiile libere cu cuvintele corespunzătoare:


assent, Constitution, repealing, branches, duration, executive, that is, 00:60
altering, convoke, prorogue, power, law, sanctioned, retires, both, but,
earlier, held, elections, constituency

1. The British……. consists of two great ……. , the legislative … and the …. power.
2. The legislative power, ……. the power of making, ………. or ……. the laws, belongs to
Parliament.
3. The Queen alone can …… Parliament or ……. , or dissolve it.
4. The full ….. of an MP`s term of office is 5 years.
5. No bill can become …… until it has been …… or read three times by ….. Houses and has
received the royal ….
6. General ……. are held every five years, …. the Prime Minister may call one….., and if a
MP dies or …. a by-election is …. in her or his ……

II. Răspundeţi la următoarele întrebări:

1. What does Parliament consist of?


2. What does the Sovereign formally do?
3. Who are the members of the House of Lords?

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4. What do the terms peer and peeress mean?
5. What does the House of Commons consist of?
6. At what intervals must a General Election be held?
7. What is the Prime Minister’s first duty?
8. Who becomes the official Opposition?
9. What does the Speaker do during debates in Parliament?
10. What are the criteria that must be take into account in electing the Speaker?

2.5.Test de autoevaluare a cunoştinţelor:

I. Traduceţi în engleză următoarele propoziţii:


00:60
1. Camera Comunelor este formată din 630 membrii salariaţi aleşi prin
sufragiu universal de către populaţia adultă.
2. Primul Ministru alege membrii Guvernului din partidul care câştigă
majoritatea locurilor în Parlament.
3. Preşedintele Camerei Comunelor este propus de Guvern după
consultări cu opoziţia.
4. În Camera Lorzilor, autoritatea supremă – Lordul Cancelar – are
puteri mai mici ca Preşedintele Camerei Comunelor (The Speaker).
5. Membrii Camerei Comunelor reprezintă autoritatea finală în
emiterea legilor.

II. Traduceţi în limba română următorul text:

“Laws can be seen as a set of rules which are meant to govern behavior between people.
Law, the body of official rules and regulations, generally found in constitutions and
legislation, is used to govern society and to control the behavior of its members. In
modern societies, a body with authority, such as a court or the legislature, makes the law;
on the other hand the police must make sure the law is observed.
In addition to enforcement, a body of expert lawyers is needed to apply the law.
This is the role of the judiciary, the body of judges in a particular country”.

2.6. Temă de control


I. Completaţi spaţiile libere cu adverbele potrivite:

annually – mainly – impartially – dangerously – usually – fluently –


carefully.

1. He was fined because he was driving …..


2. You must cross the road…
3. He speaks English…..
4. An arrested person will … be granted bail if he cannot be brought before
the court within a day.
5. The Pleading competition is held …
6. Criminal law is … concerned with crimes against the community as a
whole.
7. Judges must act …

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II. Answer to the following questions (using, if necessary, information
from Wikipedia):

1. What is the difference between a constitutional monarchy and an absolute


monarchy?

2. Give examples of other constitutional monarchies.


What does it mean that the Queen reigns but does not rule?

2.7. Bibliografie specifica


Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept,
Ed. Compania, 2004.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy

2.8. Răspunsuri la testul de autoevaluare

I.
1. The House of Commons is made up of 630 salaried members, elected by universal adult
suffrage.
2. The Prime Minister appoints the members of the Government from the party that won the
majority of seats in Parliament.
3. The Speaker is appointed by the Government after consulting with the opposition.
4. In the House of Lords, the supreme authority, the Lord Chancellor, has less authority in
comparison with the Speaker.
5. The members of the House of Commons represent the final authority in passing the laws.

II.
Putem considera că legile reprezintă un set de reguli menite să controleze comportamentul
oamenilor.
Legea, privită ca o sumă de reguli şi regulamente, este folosită pentru a guverna societatea şi
pentru a controla comportamentul membrilor acesteia. În societăţile moderne, un organ al
statului învestit cu autoritate, cum ar fi o instanţă judecătorească sau legislatura, emite legi;
pe de altă parte, poliţia trebuie să se asigure că legea este respectată.
Pentru ca legea să fie aplicată, este necesar să existe un grup de specialiști în drept. Acesta
este rolul sistemului judiciar, reprezentat de totalitatea judecătorilor dintr-o ţară.

22
UNIT III
VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ
(Direct and Indirect Speech)

3.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, veţi putea revizui/vă veți putea consolida


noţiunile de bază privind folosirea corectă a vorbirii indirecte în limba
engleză.

Vorbirea indirectă este folosită frecvent în limbajul de zi cu zi, iar buna


cunoaştere a acesteia este strâns legată de regulile concordanţei timpurilor,
specifice limbii engleze.

3.2. Obiectivele/competenţele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi de învăţare, studentul trebuie să fie


capabil:
 să folosească în mod corect vorbirea indirectă în limba engleză
 să evite greşelile frecvente de concordanţă a timpurilor.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ

Există două posibilităţi de redare a spuselor cuiva: prin vorbire directă şi indirectă.
În vorbirea directă (Direct speech) se reproduc întocmai cuvintele persoanei care le-a rostit: 00:45

He asked me: “Where is Dan?”


M-a întrebat: - Unde este Dan?

Folosirea timpurilor în vorbirea directă nu este afectată de timpul predicatului din propoziţia
principală:

He is saying,”I’ll see you tomorrow”.


He has said,”I met her last night”.
He said, “I’ve just arrived”.

În vorbirea indirectă (Indirect/Reported speech) o a treia persoană redă spusele cuiva, fără a
reproduce totdeauna întocmai cuvintele sale:

John said to Peter, ”Shall I meet you at the station tomorrow?”


John suggested that he should meet Peter at the station the next day.

23
Transformarea vorbirii directe în vorbire indirectă (change from Direct to Indirect
Speech).
Când spusele cuiva sunt trecute de la vorbirea directă la cea indirectă, procedeu frecvent
utilizat în conversaţie, au loc anumite schimbări atât în propoziţia principală cât şi în
propoziția completivă directă:

Modificările sunt de două feluri:


A. Generale, care afectează orice fel de enunţ reprodus;
B. Specifice, caracteristice fiecărui tip de propoziţie: enunţiativă, interogativă,
exclamativă, imperativă.

A. Modificările generale
a. Pronumele personal, reflexiv si posesiv se schimbă după înţeles: persoana I şi
a II-a devin persoana III-a.
 pronumele rămâne neschimbat când vorbitorul îşi reproduce propriile lui
cuvinte.
b. Pronumele/adjectivele demonstrative şi adverbele de loc şi timp sunt înlocuite
cu altele care exprimă depărtarea:

This – that Today - That day


These – those Yesterday - The day before
Here – there The day before yesterday - Two days before
Now – then Tomorrow - The next day/ following day
The day after tomorrow - In two days’ time
Next week - The next/following week
Last week - The previous week/ the week before
A year ago - A year before/ the previous year

c. Folosirea timpurilor în vorbirea indirectă


Present devine Past
Past Tense devine Past Perfect
Present Perfect Tense devine Past Perfect
Past Perfect rămâne neschimbat
Future devine Future-in-the-Past
Exemplu:
Mr. Brown said to his wife:”I’ve been very busy today”.
Mr. Brown told his wife that he had been very busy that day.

B. Modificările specifice se referă la verbele care trebuie folosite în fiecare fel de


propoziţie reprodusă (enunţiativă, interogativă, exclamativă, imperativă).

a. Propoziţiile enunţiative
 Verbul to say când nu este urmat de complement indirect se păstrează;
 În celelalte cazuri to say devine tell + complement indirect
Cathy said she didn’t understand the lesson.
Cathy told the teacher she didn’t understand the question.

b. Propoziţiile interogative
 Verbul to say este înlocuit cu verbe ca: to ask, to wonder, to want, to know, to inquire.
“Why is Tom angry?”, Helen said to me.

24
Helen wondered why Tom was angry.

- Propoziţia secundară se va introduce cu conjuncţia if, whether, how, when, where.


”Would you attend our meeting?”, the students asked their professor.
The students wanted to know whether their professor would attend their meeting.

Schimbările de timp în propoziţiile interogative au loc la fel ca în cele enunţiative:

Where have you been?” He wanted to know where


we had been.
“What is Tom doing?” He wanted to know what
Tom was doing.
“When will you leave?” He wanted to know when
they would leave.

c. Propoziţiile exclamative
 Ele devin propoziţii enunţiative în vorbirea indirectă.
Exclamaţiile cu what…, how…, Oh!, Ah! Devin completive directe introduse de that:

“How very kind of him to help us with our luggage!” mother said.
Mother exclaimed that it was very kind of him to help them with their luggage.

d. Propoziţiile imperative
 Ele devin în vorbirea indirectă propoziţii infinitive
Afirmative:
He said, ”Sit down, Peter”.
He told Peter to sit down.

Negative:
He said,”Don’t interrupt the speaker please”.
He asked them not to interrupt the speaker.

 Verbul la imperativ se transformă în verb la infinitiv cu to/not to.

Corectaţi greşelile în frazele de mai jos:


1. The witness swore he will say the truth.
2. The lawyer wondered how he has entered the room.
3. We will become good practitioners when we will start working in law firm
or in the Bar.

Să ne reamintim
Vorbirea indirectă reproducere spusele unei persoane, folosind verbe specifice
(reporting verbs) în acest scop: to ask, to say, to comment, to exclaim, to wonder,
to order, to underline, to offer etc.
Vorbirea directă este marcată prin ghilimele, deoarece în limba engleză nu se
foloseşte linia de dialog. În schimb, vorbirea indirectă nu este marcată prin
ghilimele.

25
3.3. Rezumat
Trecerea de la vorbirea directă la cea indirectă presupune efectuarea următoarelor
modificări:
- de persoană (pers.1 => pers. a 3-a);
- de timp (toate timpurile coboară cu o treaptă: prezentul devine trecut, iar trecutul
devine trecut perfect, în timp ce viitorul cu will se transformă în viitor-în-trecut);
- de compl.circ. de timp/loc (now => then, here => there etc.);
- de pronume demonstrativ (this => that, these => those)

3.4. Test de evaluare:


I. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la vorbirea indirectă, făcând schimbările de
pronume necesare:

1. Our teacher says, “If you work hard, you will succeed”.
2. They always say, “These exercises are too difficult for us”.
3. Doris is saying, “Behave yourself, Peter.”
4. The teacher has said to the students, “I want to have a look at your homework”.
5. I always say, “I don’t like to be late”.
6. John and Tom are saying, “We haven’t done our homework”.

II. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la vorbirea indirectă operând schimbările de timp


şi adverbe, după un verb la Past Tense:
He said (That)…. sau He told me/us (that) …
1. “I read this book a long time ago”.
2. “They are having an English class now”.
3. “I’ll give you an answer as soon as I can”.
4. “We watched TV last night”.
5. “We’ve never been here before”.
6. “I know what the teacher will say”.
7. “I can’t answer this question; it’s too difficult for me”.
8. “I shall try to finish this today”.
9. “I talked to them yesterday”.
10. “I’ll be very busy next week”.

3.5. Test de autoevaluare:


I. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii în vorbirea indirectă folosind în propoziţia
principală verbe la Past Tense (say, tell, ask, wonder, promise, order, advise):
00:45
1. “What are you studying?”
2. “Has Paul left any message for me?”
3. “Could you make up this prescription for me?”
4. “I don’t take sugar in my tea”.
5. “What a lovely day!”
6. “I’ll be back in half an hour”.
7. “Why should I do this?”
8. “Let’s play tennis, now!”

II. Traduceţi următoarele propoziţii în limba engleză.

1. Voia să ştie de ce prietenii mei au plecat aşa devreme.

26
2. Profesorul i-a întrebat pe studenţi dacă au înţeles lecţia sau nu.
3. Funcţionarul ne-a sfătuit să citim cu atenţie instrucţiunile înainte să deschidem
cutia.
4. Doctorul ne-a spus ca nimeni nu are voie sa vorbească cu pacientul până a doua
zi.
5. Ei au spus ca ar fi ajuns la timp dacă n-ar fi pierdut autobuzul.

3.6. Temă de control:

I. După ce aţi tradus propoziţiile de mai sus în limba engleză, treceţi


propoziţiile în vorbirea directă.

II. Daţi echivalentul românesc la fiecare din cuvintele de mai jos, apoi alcătuiţi câte o
propoziţie cu fiecare din ele:

1. Barrister 6. Minister of Justice


2. Solicitor 7. Attorney General
3. Prosecutor 8. Solicitor General
4. Judge 9. to pursue
5. To take an oath 10. Law graduates

3.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993

Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept,


Ed. Compania, 2004.

Răspunsuri la testul de autoevaluare:


I.
1. She asked me what I was studying.
2. She asked if Paul had left any message for her.
3. He asked whether I could make up that prescription for him.
4. He told me that he does not/did not take sugar in his tea.
5. She exclaimed what a lovely day it was.
6. He promised to be back in half an hour.
7. He asked why he should do that.
8. She suggested playing tennis then.

II.
1. He wanted to know why my friends had left so early.
2. The teacher asked the students whether they (had) understood the lessond or not.
3. The clerk advised us to carefully read the instructions before opening the box.
4. The doctor told us that no one was allowed to talk to the patient till the next day.
5. They said that they would have arrived on time unless they had missed the bus.

27
UNIT IV
THE SOURCES OF ENGLISH LAW

4.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, veţi studia principalele surse ale legislaţiei din
Marea Britanie, dobândind o mai bună înţelegere a câtorva principii
fundamentale specifice pentru dreptul anglo-saxon, cunoscut sub numele de
common law.

4.2. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:

 să precizeze sursele principale ale legislaţiei britanice.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de


învăţare este de 90 minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

From the aspect of their sources, laws are traditionally divided into two main categories: they
may be written or unwritten. The expression “written” law signifies any law that is formally
enacted, whether reduced to writing or not, and the expression “unwritten” law signifies all
unacted law. 00:30

In England unwritten law is predominant, for more of their law derives from judicial
precedents than from legislative enactment.

Two principal sources of law are worth to be mentioned: Legislation and Judicial Precedent.
Legislation is enacted law and it was studied at Constitutional Law (Constitution and
Government).

Judicial Precedent is the principle of justice enforced in English law by the rule of stare
decisis (keep to what has been decided previously).
English law is, to a large extent, based on case-law. The rules of common law have been
evolved inductively from decision to decision involving similar facts.

A distinctive feature of the English system is that, because the English judge has power to
make new law, his position in the legal system is central.
The judge may simply be obliged to consider the former decision as part of the material on
which his present could be based or he may be obliged to decide in the same way as that in
which the previous case was decided. In the latter case the precedent is said to be “binding”.
So another feature of the English system is the doctrine of the binding case.

28
Cases of “first impression” are based upon facts, which bear no resemblance to the facts of
any previous case.

The administration of justice is not a simple process of matching precedents. The judges have
a field of choice in making their decisions. But they do not exercise their discretion in an
arbitrary way; they rest their judgments upon general principles.

Corectaţi greşelile în enunţurile de mai jos:

The common law system is specific for France and Belgium.


The judicial precedent does not ensure a homogenous jurisprudence in the UK.
Romanian law is primarily based on case-law.

Să ne reamintim
În sistemul de drept anglo-saxon, dreptul cutumiar este un important izvor al
dreptului.

4.3. Rezumat
In sistemul de drept anglo-saxon, jurisprudenta (case-law) este un important
izvor de drept. Common-law se constituie din: hotarârile judecatorești, cutume
și tradiții juridice. Judecatorul este un creator al legii, el nu doar interpretează
legea.
O cauză poate fi soluţionată pe baza unui precedent judiciar, care a fost
pronunţat cu mult timp în urmă.

4.4. Test de evaluare:


I. Puneţi cuvintele de mai jos în spaţiile libere ale textului :

Common Law Roman Law 00:60


Napoleonic Code The Ten Commandments

….. , which evolved in the 8th century BC, was still largely a blend of custom and
interpretation by magistrates of the will of the gods.
….. evolved from the tribal and local laws in England. It began with common
Customs, but over the time it involved the courts in law-making that was responsive
to changes in society. In this way the Anglo-Norman rulers created a system of
centralized courts that operated under a single set of laws that replaced rules laid
down by earlier societies.
…. formed the basis of all Israelite legislation. They can also be found in the laws of
other ancient peoples.
…. refers to the entire body of French law, contained in five codes dealing with
civil, commercial, and criminal law.

29
II. Completaţi spatiile libere cu verbele cu particulă separabilă de mai jos:
To break down To look down upon smb.
To put up To go down
To make up for To break up
To cut down To make up (a quarrel)
To turn down

1. You have to … with your new job.


2. I hear prices have already …
3. I’m sorry for being late but my car …
4. Many foreign tourists … at the hotel in Brasov.
5. He has missed for a month, so he has to … for his absence.
6. I don’t like her because she … on people.
7. You have to … your expenses.
8. You cannot … their invitation to dinner.
9. I’m happy that they … their quarrel.
10. School … in June.

4.5. Test de autoevaluare:

I. Explain the principle of the judicial precedent.

II. Alcătuiţi zece propoziţii folosind următorii termeni:

1. to deprive smb. of liberty = a priva pe cineva de libertate


2. to make an appeal = a face recurs
3. to give evidence = a depune mărturie
4. to comply with a decision = a se supune unei hotărâri
5. to impose a fine = a impune o amendă
6. to state the cause = a-şi apăra cauza
7. to punish with imprisonment = a pedepsi cu închisoarea
8. to plead not-guilty = a pleda pentru nevinovăţie
9. to discharge a defendant = a pune în libertate un acuzat
10. to pass a sentence = a pronunţa o sentinţă.

4.6. Temă de control:

I. Descrieţi sistemul de guvernare din România în comparaţie cu cel din Anglia.


Urmăriţi în descrierea dumneavoastră următoarele puncte:

 The Head of State: appointment, function and powers, relationship with


other state organs;
 The Legislative: composition, function and powers, relationship with
other state organs;
 The Executive: composition, function and powers, relationship with
other state organs;

II. Translate into Romanian, using, if necessary, a dictionary (you can check your answers by
reading the Romanian Constitution):

30
Art. 73
(1) Parliament passes constitutional, organic, and ordinary laws.
(2) Constitutional laws shall be pertaining to the revision of the Constitution.
(3) Organic laws shall regulate:
a) the electoral system; the organization and functioning of the Permanent Electoral
Authority;
b) the organization, functioning, and financing of political parties;
c) the statute of Deputies and Senators, the establishment of their emoluments and other
rights;
d) the organization and holding of referendum;
e) the organization of the Government and of the Supreme Council of National Defence;
f) the state of partial or total mobilization of the armed forces and the state of war;
g) the state of siege and emergency;
h) criminal offences, penalties, and the execution thereof;
i) the granting of amnesty or collective pardon;
j) the statute of public servants;
k) the contentious business falling within the competence of administrative courts;
l) the organization and functioning of the Superior Council of Magistracy, the courts of law,
the Public Ministry, and the Court of Audit;
m) the general legal status of property and inheritance;
n) the general organization of education;
o) the organization of local public administration, territory, as well as the general rules on
local autonomy;
p) the general rules covering labour relations, trade unions, employers' associations, and
social protection;
r) the status of national minorities in Romania;
s) the general statutory rules of religious cults;
t) the other fields for which the Constitution stipulates the enactment of organic laws.
(Constitution of Romania)

4.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993

Constituţia României, Regia autonomă „Monitorul Oficial”, Bucureşti, 2003

Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureşti,


2003

Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept, Ed.


Compania, 2004.

4.8. Răspunsuri temă de autoevaluare:

I. A judicial precedent is a decision passed by the court and used as a source for future
decision making. Precedents are binding so they must be followed. The common law has
developed by each and every new precedent adopted by the courts of law. When delivering a

31
judgment, the judge presents the facts of the case, explains the law that is applicable to the
facts and then passes the sentence. The ratio decidendi (the legal reasoning or ground for the
judicial decision) is binding on later courts under the system of judicial precedent.

II.
He was deprived of liberty after having committed the murder.
The client decided to make an appeal at the advice of his lawyer.
You need to give evidence in order to support your accusations.
It is compulsory for the defendant to comply with the judge’s decision.
The policeman imposed a fine for driving under influence (DUI).
In order to state his cause, he decided to call several colleagues to testify in his favour.
Any murderer is punished with imprisonment.
He pleaded not-guilty because he knew he was innocent.
The defendant was discharged after the witness testified in his favour.
As soon as the verdict was returned, the judge passed the sentence.

32
UNIT V
VERBUL (THE VERB)
Timpurile verbului (Verb Tenses)
5.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, se vor revizui două timpuri folosite în mod


frecvent în limba engleză:
- prezentul simplu
- prezentul continuu.

5.2. Obiectivele/competențele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi de învăţare, studentul trebuie să fie


capabil:
 să deprindă folosirea corectă a prezentului simplu şi continuu
 să evite confuziile dintre cele două timpuri, frecvente în cazul
vorbitorilor de română

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 de


minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

Categoria gramaticală a timpului (Tense) se referă la ordinea evenimentelor în timp, aşa cum
este percepută aceasta de vorbitor. Este foarte important ca vorbitorul să sesizeze din ce
perspectivă este prezentată acțiunea sau, altfel spus, în ce segment de timp este plasată 00:30

acțiunea (prezent, trecut sau viitor).

TIMPUL PREZENT

 Timpul prezent simplu (Present Tense Simple)


o Se foloseşte pentru acţiuni repetate, cu caracter obişnuit sau permanent;
adverbele cu care este cel mai des întâlnit sunt : usually, frequently, generally,
ever, never, often, seldom; every day/month/week/year; once/twice/three times
a week, etc;
o Pentru o stare sau acţiune permanentă.
o Pentru adevăruri general valabile.

E.g.: I always teach English.


He works in a bank.
For minor offences, the police normally fine the offender.

 Timpul present continuu (Present Tense Continuous)


o Se foloseşte pentru acţiuni în desfăşurare în momentul vorbirii; adverbele
folosite sunt: now; at the moment; today.
o Pentru acţiuni care reflectă un proces, o dezvoltare, o evoluţie.

33
o Se mai foloseşte cu valoare de viitor, când intervine voinţa vorbitorului.

o Format din:

To be (present) + vb. – ing

E.g. : Look ! It is raining.


It is getting dark.
I’m studying, now.
“What are you doing tonight?”
I’m visiting my mother tomorrow.

N.B. Verbe care nu se folosesc la aspectul continuu :

 Verbe care arată percepţii senzoriale :


To feel, to hear, to see, to taste, to smell, to touch, to notice
 Verbe care arată sentimente:
To love, to hate, to wish, to desire, to like, to dislike, to prefer
 Verbe care arată posesia:
To own, to owe, to belong to, to keep, to possess, to hold, to have
Dar: To have se poate folosi la aspectul continuu dacă nu se referă la posesie:
I’m having lunch.
 Verbe care arată procese mentale:
To know, to intend, to believe, to trust, to doubt, to forget, to find, to mean, to
remember, to think, to understand, to expect.
 Verbele modale (can, must, may, shall, will, need, dare).

Să ne reamintim

Spre deosebire de limba română, verbul englezesc are patru aspecte: simplu,
continuu, perfect şi perfect continuu.
Aspectul continuu al verbului indică faptul că o acţiune este în curs de
desfăşurare la un moment dat, în timp ce aspectul simplu face referire la
acţiuni care se petrec în mod obişnuit şi nu la un moment dat.

5.3. Rezumat
Prezentul simplu se foloseşte pentru a exprima:
- acţiuni repetate, obişnuite
- adevăruri general-valabile
- acţiuni viitoare care sunt parte a unui program oficial (a se vedea mersul
trenurilor, de exemplu);

Prezentul continuu se foloseşte pentru a exprima:


- acţiuni care se află în curs de derulare în momentul de faţă
- acţiuni temporare
-acţiuni viitoare planificate.

34
Corectaţi greşelile din enunţurile de mai jos:

The smuggler is thinking that no one has noticed him while crossing the border
with the stolen jewels.
The court clerk is hating to work for so many hours in court every day.
Do not disturb the manager now, he discusses with the secretary.

5.4. Test de evaluare:

I. Alegeţi forma corectă a verbelor date în paranteză (prezentul simplu sau 00:60
continuu):

1. My passport (to expire) on 30th of October this year.


2. I usually (to write) for an hour or two every evening.
3. Leave me alone, I (to work) now.
4. … this paper (to belong) to you?
5. I (to want) to know how to cross a check.

II. Mai jos aveţi câteva expresii tipice folosite în limbajul de drept. Ce prepoziţii
folosiţi cu aceste expresii ?

1. To accuse someone of something.


2. To be liable … something.
3. To sentence someone … a punishment.
4. To claim damages … something.
5. To be entitled … compensation.
6. To bring a case … someone.
7. To be guilty … an offence.
8. To fine someone … something.
9. To bring an action … somebody.
10. To comply … a decision.

- Folosiţi aceste expresii în propoziţii alcătuite de dumneavoastră.

5.5. Test de autoevaluare:

I. Alegeţi forma corectă a verbelor date în paranteză (prezentul simplu sau 00:45
continuu):

1. I (to write) a letter now.


2. I (to drink) tea every morning.
3. … you (to understand) me now?
4. I (not to work) today.
5. He always (to work) at home on Saturdays.
6. We (to translate) the lesson now.
7. Where … you (to work) this week? In Bucharest or in New York?
8. What … you (to do) next week?
9. She (to like) swimming.

35
10. The telephone (to ring) at the moment.

II. Traduceţi în engleză:

1. Câte ore de engleză aveţi pe săptămână?


2. Casa aceasta îmi aparţine.
3. Mergeţi la birou în fiecare dimineaţă ?
4. In Anglia plouă destul de des.
5. Cresc preţurile. Luna aceasta totul este mai scump.
6. Cine este bărbatul cu care vorbeşte în acest moment ?
7. Mergem la teatru sau la opera o dată pe lună.
8. Verişoara mea lucrează la o firmă de publicitate.
9. Când se deschide banca ?

5.6.1. Temă de control: traduceţi în limba engleză:

1. Îmi vizitez părinţii în fiecare săptămână.


2. Preţul acestei cărţi este foarte mare. Nu-mi permit să mi-o cumpăr. 00:45
3. Astăzi lansăm pe piaţă un nou produs.
4. Despre ce discutaţi acum? De ce nu sunteţi atenţi?
5. Calculatorul nu face niciodată greşeli.
6. Săptămâna aceasta lucrez numai după-amiază.

5.6.2. Temă de control: traduceţi următorul text în limba română :

“The Law Course at Cambridge is intended to give a grounding in the principles of law
viewed from an academic rather than a vocational perspective. There are opportunities to
study the history of law and to consider the subject in its wider social context. The emphasis
is on principle and technique.
Skills of interpretation and logical reasoning are developed, and students are encouraged to
consider broader questions such as ethical judgement, political liberty and social control.
Although many undergraduates who read law do so with the intention of practicing, many do
not, preferring instead to go into administration, industrial management or accountancy.
Candidates intending to read law need not to have studied only particular subject at school. It
is as common for undergraduates to have a scientific or mathematical background at A-level
as it is for them to have studied history or languages.”
(Cambridge University Prospectus, 1988-1989).

5.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993


Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez, Editura Lumina Lex,
Bucureşti, 2003
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept,
Ed. Compania, 2004.

36
5.8. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare:
I.
1. I am writing a letter now.
2. I drink tea every morning.
3. Do you understand me now?
4. I am not working today.
5. He always works at home on Saturdays.
6. We are translating the lesson now.
7. Where are you working this week? In Bucharest or in New York?
8. What are you doing next week?
9. She likes swimming.
10. The telephone is ringing at the moment.

II. Traduceţi în engleză:

1. How many English classes do you have a week?


2. The house belongs to me.
3. Do you go to the office every morning?
4. It often rains in England.
5. Prices are higher and higher. This month everything is more expensive.
6. Who is the man she is talking to right now?
7. We go to the theatre or to the opera once a month.
8. My cousin works for an advertising company.
9. When does the bank open?

37
UNIT VI
THE JUDICIARY
6.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, veţi studia câteva noţiuni generale privind


sistemul judiciar din Marea Britanie.
Totodată, în setul de exerciţii de la sfârşitul unităţii de învăţare, veţi avea ca
temă de casă studierea a două articole din Constituţia României privind
statutul judecătorilor în ţara noastră.

6.2. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să ofere informaţii generale cu privire la puterea judecătorească din
Marea Britanie
 să expună modul de ierarhizare a instanţelor de judecată din ţara
noastră (judecătorii – courts of first instance, tribunale-tribunals,
curți de apel-courts of appeal și ICCJ- The High Court of Cassation
and Justice, precum și curți cu jurisdicție specială-special
courts/courts with special jurisdiction).

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 80 minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

Responsibility for the administration of the juridical system lies with the Lord Chancellor and
with the Home Secretary, the Secretary of the State for Scotland, and the Minister of Home
00:20
Affairs for Northern Ireland.

Judges are appointed by the Crown, on the advice of the Prime Minister. A judge holds office
until he retires, and his judicial independence is guaranteed.

Magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Lord Chancellor, the Secretary of
State for Scotland, or the Governor of Northern Ireland.
There is no single body of law in the U.K. There is, however, a similarity between the
separate systems of England and Wales and of Northern Ireland.
A feature common to all systems of law in Britain is that there is no complete code.

The sources of law include Acts of Parliament and subordinate legislation made under
powers conferred by Parliament and a large amount of “unwritten” or common law.

Another feature is the distinction between Criminal law concerned with the wrongs against
community and Civil law concerned with the rights, duties and obligations of individual
members of the community.

Most prosecutions in England and Wales are initiated and conducted by the police.

38
The police service in Great Britain is linked with the local government and subject to the
influence and control of the Home Secretary and the Secretary of State for Scotland. In
Northern Ireland it is controlled by an Inspector General. In Scotland, the police make the
preliminary investigations but the Public Prosecutor decides whether or not to prosecute.

Throughout the U.K. it is the law that as soon as anyone is arrested, he must be charged and
brought before the court with the least possible delay. If he cannot be brought before the
court within a day, he will usually be granted bail.

Să ne reaminitim

Numirea magistraţilor se face în Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii de către


Monarh, la recomandarea Primului Ministru. Judecătorii sunt independenţi şi
inamovibili (irremovable).

6.3. Rezumat

Lordul Cancelar împreună cu Miniştrii de interne ai Angliei, Scoţiei şi


Irlandei de Nord răspund de buna administrare a justiţiei în Regatul Unit al
Marii Britanii.
Judecătorii numiţi de Coroană, la sugestia Primului Ministru britanic, sunt
independenţi şi inamovibili.
Cercetarea penală este desfăşurată de organele de poliţie judiciară.

Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos:

In the UK magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Speaker.


…………………………………………………………………………
Acts of Parliament are not considered sources of law in the UK.
………………………………………………………………………….
The Prime Minister does not have any role in appointing judges in the UK.
……………………………………………………………………………

6.4. Temă propusă pentru evaluare:

I.Daţi echivalentele româneşti la următoarele cuvinte şi expresii apoi alcătuiţi


propoziţii cu ele: 00:60
 Responsibility lies with;
 To hold office;
 To be concerned with;
 Minister of Home Affairs;
 Criminal law;
 Civil law;
 On behalf of;
 Decisions of the courts;
 To prosecute;
 To be brought before the court;
 To be charged;
 To be granted bail.

39
II. Alegeţi echivalentele româneşti pentru cuvintele şi expresiile englezeşti:

1. To be entitled to vote a. Circumscripţie electorală


2. By-elections b. Sufragiu
3. Suffrage c. Alegeri parţiale
4. To resign d. A avea drept de vot
5. Constituency e. A demisiona
6. House of Lords f. Ministru de interne
7. To summon g. Camera lorzilor
8. Archbishop h. A convoca
9. Minister of Home Affairs i. A numi (într-o funcţie)
10. To appoint j. Arhiepiscop

6.5. Temă propusă pentru autoevaluare:

I. Alegeţi cuvântul corect şi completaţi spatiile libere:

1. The….. met urgently at 10 Downing Street to decide Government policy on the


economic crisis.
a. civil service; b. ministries; c. Cabinet of Ministers
2. Generally, a Bill becomes an Act of Parliament when it has received the …. of
both Houses of Parliament and the Sovereign.
a. assent; b. ratification; c. consent; d, enactment
3.The President of the House of Lords is called the …
a. Speaker; b. Lord Chancellor; c. Prime Minister; d. peer
4. The House of Commons consists of 650 Members of Parliament who each
represent a ….
a. state; b. house; c. county; d. constituency
5. If an MP dies or retires or is given a peerage a … is held on his or her
constituency.
a. by-election; b. general election; c. electoral roll; d. election
6.The three parts of the Parliament are the monarch, lords and …
a. people; b. government; c. commons; d. bishops
7.No…. can become law until it has been sanctioned or “read” three times by both
houses and received the royal assent.
a. bill; b. act; c. code; d. ratification

II. Traduceţi în română:

“The Government is formed by the party with majority support in the Commons. The
Queen appoints its leader as Prime Minister. As head of the Government the Prime
Minister appoints about 100 ministers. About 20 ministers make up the Cabinet, the
senior group making the major policy decisions. Ministers are collectively
responsible for government decisions and individually responsible for de decisions
adopted by their own departments. The second largest party forms the official
Opposition, with its own leader and 'shadow cabinet'.”
(http://www.britannia.com/gov/gov4.html)

40
6.6. Temă de control:

6.6.1. Traduceţi în română următorul fragment din Constituţia României:

ARTICLE 124
“(1) Justice shall be rendered in the name of the law.
(2) Justice shall be one, impartial, and equal for all.
(3) Judges shall be independent and subject only to the law.”
(The Romanian Constitution)
6.6.2. Traduceţi în englezz următorul fragment din Constituţia României
ARTICOLUL 125
“(1) Judecătorii numiţi de Preşedintele României sunt inamovibili, în condiţiile
legii.
(2) Propunerile de numire, precum şi promovarea, transferarea şi sancţionarea
judecătorilor sunt de competenţa Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii, în
condiţiile legii sale organice.
(3) Funcţia de judecător este incompatibilă cu orice altă funcţie publică sau
privată, cu excepţia funcţiilor didactice din învăţământul superior.”
(The Romanian Constitution)

6.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993


Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez, Editura Lumina Lex,
Bucureşti, 2003
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept,
Ed. Compania, 2004.

6.8. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare:


I.
1. - Cabinet of Ministers; 2. – assent ; 3. - Lord Chancellor; 4. – constituency; 5. - by-
elections; 6. – commons; 7. - bill.

II.
”Guvernul este constituit din membrii partidului care se bucură de cea mai mare susţinere în
Camera Comunelor. Liderul acestui partid este numit în funcţia de Prim-Ministru de Regină.
Ca şef al Guvernului, Primul Ministru numeşte în funcţie aproximativ 100 de miniştri.
Aproximativ 20 dintre aceştia formează Cabinetul de Miniştri, iar grupul constituit din cei
mai experimentaţi miniştri adoptă cele mai importante decizii politice. Miniştrii răspund în
mod colectiv de deciziile guvernamentale adoptate şi în mod individual de deciziile adoptate
de Ministerul pe care îl conduc. Al doilea partid ca mărime formează Opoziţia, care are
propriul ei lider şi în cadrul căruia se constituie un <<guvern din umbră>>.”
(http://www.britannia.com/gov/gov4.html)

41
UNIT VII
THE PAST TENSES
7.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, veţi recapitula trecutul simplu şi trecutul


continuu, două dintre cele cele mai importante timpuri ale limbii engleze.

7.2. Obiectivele/competențele unităţii de învăţare:

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să folosească în mod corect trecutul simplu şi continuu
 să evite confuziile care apar în momentul folosirii celor două timpuri,
confuzii frecvente în cazul vorbitorilor de română.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

A.THE SIMPLE PAST

The Simple Past Tense in regular verbs is formed by adding ed to the infinitive. 00:60
Infinitive: to look Simple past: looked

Verbs ending in e add d only:


Infinitive: to love Simple past: loved

Irregular verbs vary in their simple past form:


Infinitive: to see, to speak, to leave, to eat
Past tense: saw spoke left ate

The simple past form of each irregular verb therefore must be learnt.

1. The same form is used for all persons in affirmative even if we have a regular or irregular
verb.
I worked We worked I spoke We spoke
You worked You worked You spoke You spoke
He/she worked They worked He/she spoke They spoke

2. The negative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with:


did + not (didn’t) + the infinitive

I did not work We did not work I did not speak We did not speak
You did not work You did not work You did not speak You did not speak
He/she/it did not work They did not work He/she/it did not speak They did not speak

42
3. The interrogative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with:
did + subject + infinitive

Did I work? Did we work? Did I speak? Did we speak?


Did you work? Did you work? Did you speak? Did you speak?
Did he/she/it work? Did they work? Did he/she/it speak? Did they speak?

4. Negative interrogative is formed with:


didn’t + subject + infinitive

Didn’t I work? Didn’t we work? Didn’t I speak? Didn’t we speak?


Didn’t you work? Didn’t you work? Didn’t you speak? Didn’t you speak?
Didn’t he/she/it work? Didn’t they work? Didn’t he/she/it speak? Didn’t they speak?

Past Tense is used for the relation of past events:


 It is used for actions completed in the past at a definite time:
e.g. I met him yesterday.
When did you meet him last?
I bought this car in London (here the action took place at a definite
time though this time is not mentioned).
 It is also used for an action whose time is not given but which occupied a period of
time now terminated:
e.g. He worked in that bank for four years (but he doesn’t work there now).
Did you ever hear Maria Callas sing?
 The simple past is also used for a past habit:
e.g. He always carried an umbrella.
She never drank wine.
 The simple past is used in conditional sentences for the use of the unreal past:
e.g. If I lived near my office I’d be in time for work (but I don’t live near
my office).
If I were you I’d go to see a doctor (but I am not you).

B. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

This tense is formed by:


The past tense of the verb to be (was, were) + the present participle (ing)

C. Affirmative Negative Interrogative


I was speaking I was not speaking Was I speaking?
You were speaking You were not speaking Were you speaking?
He/she/it was speaking He/she/it was not speaking Was he/she/it speaking?
We were speaking We were not speaking Were we speaking?
You were speaking You were not speaking Were you speaking?
They were speaking They were not speaking Were they speaking?

Some of the verbs cannot be used in the continuous tenses:


 Verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe, look, taste, as link verbs.
 Verbs expressing feelings and emotions: admire, adore, appreciate, desire, dislike,
fear, hate, like, love, want, wish.

43
 Verbs of mental activity: agree, believe, assume, expect, forget, know, mean,
recognise, suppose, think, trust.
 Verbs of possession: belong, owe, own, possess.

Main uses of the past continuous tense:


 The past continuous is used for past actions which continued for some time but whose
limits are not known;
 Used without a time expression it can indicate a gradual development;
 Used with a point in time, it expresses an action which began before that time and
probably continued after:
e.g. At eight he was having breakfast.
 Used in descriptions:
e.g. A wood fire was burning, a cat was sleeping in front of it. A girl was
playing the piano.
 It can be also used as a past equivalent of the present continuous:
Direct speech: He said: “I am living in London”.
Indirect speech: He said he was living in London.
 We may also use past continuous for apparently parallel actions:
e.g. Between one and two I was doing the shopping and walking the dog.
o This tense is normally used in this way with a time expression such as today,
last night, in the afternoon, which could either be regarded as points in time or
as periods.
o In questions about how a period was spent, the continuous often appears more
polite than the simple past:
e.g. What were you doing before you came here? Sounds more polite than:
What did you do before you came here?

Să ne reaminitim

Spre deosebire de limba română, verbul englezesc are patru aspecte: simplu,
continuu, perfect şi perfect continuu.
Aspectul continuu al verbului indică faptul că o acţiune este în curs de
desfăşurare la un moment dat, în timp ce aspectul simplu face referire la
acţiuni care se petrec în mod obişnuit şi nu la un moment dat.

7.3. Rezumat
Trecutul simplu este folosit pentru a exprima:
- acţiuni încheiate într-o perioadă de timp trecută;
- acţiuni obişnuite, repetate din trecut (cu adverbe de frecvenţă);
- acţiuni care s-au desfăşurat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp încheiate (cu
prepoziţia for);
- o condiţie ireală (în Condiţionalele de tipul II).

Trecutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima:


- o acţiune care se afla în continuă desfăşurare la un moment dat în trecut;
- o acţiune aflată în desfăşurare în trecut şi întreruptă de o altă acţiune;
- acţiuni care s-au aflat în desfăşurare în trecut, în acelaşi timp;
- descrierea unor secvenţe din trecut.

44
Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos:

1. When we arrived at court, the witness testified so we could listen to his


testimony.
2. The muggers hid in the old building when the police officers approached the
scene of the crime.

7.4. Test de evaluare:

Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or past continuous tense:
1. ”I (take) my friend to a murder trial the other day.”
”Who (be) tried?”
”A man called Tom Brown.”
”Was he acquitted?”
”I don’t know. They still (listen) to the evidence when we (leave).”
2. As we (come) here, a policeman (stop) us. He (say) that he (look) for some
stolen property and (ask) if he could search the car.
3. While he (make) his speech, the minister suddenly (feel) faint. But someone
(bring) him a glass of water and after a few minutes he (be able) to continue.
4. The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). He
(wear) blue overalls and black shoes.
5. I just (write) a cheque when I (remember) that I (have) nothing in the bank.
6. At 3 a.m. Mrs. Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) she (think) that someone (try)
to get into the house.
7. When I last (see) her she (hurry) along the road to the station. I (ask) her where
she (go) and she (say), “London”, but I don’t think she (speak) the truth,
because there (not be) any train for London at that time.
8. The teacher (come) into the classroom unusually early and one of the boys,
who (smoke) a cigarette, (have) no time to put it out. So he (throw) it into the
desk and (hope) for the best.
9. A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk.
“You (smoke) when I (come) in?” he (ask).
10. I (be) sorry that I (have to) leave the party early, because I (enjoy) myself.

7.5. Test de autoevaluare:

I. Put the verbs in the following sentences into: a) the negative; b) the
interrogative:
1. They broadcast an appeal for money.
2. The police caught the thief.
3. We heard a terrible noise.
4. His son wrote a novel.
5. I read a chapter of that novel last night.
6. His wife came at 8.00 p.m.
7. The action of the play took place in Italy.
8. She found her watch.
9. I sent it to the laundry.
10. They lent you enough money.

45
II. Answer the following questions:
1. Which optional course did you choose for this semester?
2. Where did you write the homework task for today?
3. Did you lend the English course book to anyone last week?
4. How much did the books for the 1st year of study cost you?
5. When did this academic year begin?
6. How many options did you have when you decided to become a student at this
university?
7. When did you write this homework?
8. Where did you meet your best friend/colleague?
9. Who (m) did you consult with when you decided to take up studying law?
10. Where did you hear about our law faculty?

7.6. Temă de control:

7.6.1. Choose the right answer:


1. What did you do when your husband called?
□ I put the book down.
□ I was reading a book.
2. What was Tom doing while Bill was fishing?
□ He sat on the bank and waited.
□ He was swimming in the river.
3. The door bell □ rang □ was ringing at about eight o’clock. It was Tom.
4. When he □ was calling □ called, I □ read □ was reading a book, but I □ put
down □ was putting down my book, and □ was going □ went to make a
cup of coffee for him.
5. Alice □ visited □ was visiting her mother at that time, and I never know
where □ she puts anything □ does she put anything.
6. First, I □ wasn’t finding □ couldn’t find the coffee and I spent ten minutes
looking □ at □ for it. Then □ I’ve □ I’d found it □ I couldn’t find □ wasn’t
finding the coffee-pot.
7. When I □ went back □ was going back into the lounge, it was half past
eight.
8. Tom looked □ at □ for the clock. “What □ did you do □ were you doing in
the kitchen □ at □ all that time?” he asked me. “I □ made □ was making
coffee for you”, I □ told □ said him.

7.6.2. Choose the right answer (sometimes two answers are correct; explain):
1. The judge was hearing/heard the testimony when we entered the court room.
2. What was the suspect doing/what did the suspect do when the alarm went on?
3. The jurors were not able to/could not understand the author’s behavior.
4. Fortunately, the barrister has not /had not recorded a lost single case until last
week.
5. Since the evidence has been /had been collected, the prosecutors could
formulate their accusation.

46
7.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993


Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez, Editura Lumina Lex,
Bucureşti, 2003
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept,
Ed. Compania, 2004.

7.8. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare:

I. Put the verbs in the following sentences into: a) the negative; b) the interrogative:

1. They did not broadcast an appeal for money. Did they broadcast an appeal for money?
2. The police did not catch the thief. Did the police catch the thief?
3. We did not hear a terrible noise. Did you hear a terrible noise?
4. His son did not write a novel. Did his son write a novel?
5. I did not read a chapter of that novel last night. Did you read a chapter of that novel last
night?
6. His wife did not come at 8.00 p.m. Did his wife come at 8.00 p.m.?
7. The action of the play did not take place in Italy. Did the action of the play take place in
Italy?
8. She did not find her watch. Did she find her watch?
9. I did not send it to the laundry. Did you send it to the laundry?
10. They did not lend you enough money. Did they lend you enough money?

II. (Possible answers):


1. I chose English as an optional course for this semester.
2. I wrote the homework task for today in the library.
3. Yes, I did. I lent it to my deskmate.
4. It cost me about 200 RON.
5. It began on the 3rd of October.
6. I had two options.
7. I wrote it last evening.
8. I met him/her at the Informatics laboratory.
9. I discussed with my parents.
10. A friend of mine told me about it.

47
UNIT VIII
COURTS OF LAW IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN
8.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, vom analiza instanţele de judecată din Regatul


Unit al Marii Britanii.

Totodată, la sfârşitul capitolului, vom expune, în limba engleză, instanţele de


judecată din ţara noastră.

8.2. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să dobândească informaţii generale cu privire la ierarhizarea instanţelor
de judecată din Marea Britanie
 să expună modul de ierarhizare a instanţelor de judecată din ţara noastră.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

In the English System three different types of institutions have been set up to resolve legal
problems. These institutions are: Criminal Courts, Civil Courts and Appelate Courts.
00:30
1. CRIMINAL COURTS are concerned with wrongs against community. In England and
Wales they include:

a. Magistrates Courts try less serious offences. They consist of two to seven unpaid or “lay”
magistrates known as Justices of the peace. The Jury is made up of twelve ordinary people
aged between 18 and 65. When they have heard the evidence and the judge’s summing-up,
they retire to a special room to decide whether to return a verdict of guilty or no guilty. If
they all agree, they have reached a unanimous verdict. If the accused is found guilty, he or
she has the right to appeal and ask for the case to be heard by a higher court.

b. Courts of Quarter Session try most of the serious offences. These Courts are presided
over by a bench of justices under a chairman. The Courts of Quarter Session sit at least four
times a year in the counties and boroughs.

c. Courts of Assize generally try the gravest offences. These Courts are branches of High
Court. They are presided over by High Court judges. There are such Courts of Assize in
London, at the Old Bailey, Central Criminal Court, at Liverpool and Manchester.
All trials at quarter session and assizes are held with a jury.

2. CIVIL COURTS are concerned with rights, duties and obligations of individual members
of the community between themselves. The courts concerned with civil jurisdiction in
England and Wales are:

48
a. Magistrates Courts are mainly related to domestic proceedings. They have limited civil
jurisdiction.

b. County Courts where the most ordinary civil actions are heard and tried.

c. The High Court is divided into: the Chancery Division, the Probate Division, the Divorce
Division, Admiralty Division and the Queen’s Bench Division.
The High Court forms part of the Supreme Court of Judicature.

In Scotland, civil cases of first instance are heard at the Sheriff Courts (they correspond to the
County Courts in England and Wales) and the Outer House of the Court of Session (this one
is the supreme court in Scotland).

3.APPEALS

They may be heard in the High Court, the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal (the most
important appeals) and a few appeals are heard before the House of Lords, this one being the
ultimate court of appeal in civil cases.

There is also another classification of these institutions:

Courts of First Instance in which cases are heard for the first time.

Appelate Courts in which people appeal for reconsideration of the decisions of the Courts of
First Instance.

As to the latest legal journals there are many English Courts which exercise purely civil or
criminal cases and some others hear both criminal and civil cases, as for instance: the House
of Lords and the Court of Appeal.

Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos:

1. In Courts of First Instance cases are heard again for a better judgment
thereof.
……………………………………………………………………………….
2. Magistrates Courts try very serious offences.
………………………………………………………………………………..

Să ne reaminitim

Modul de ierarhizare a instanţelor de judecată din Regatul Unit al Marii


Britanii este diferit de cel din ţara noastră.

În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, cauzele civile se judecă în următoarele


instanţe: Magistrates Courts, County Courts, Courts of Assize, iar cele penale,
în: Magistrates Courts, Courts of Quarter Session, Courts of Assize.

49
8.3. Rezumat

În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, cauzele penale se judecă în următoarele


instanţe:
- Magistrates Courts (pentru infracţiuni minore), în cadrul cărora lucrează
Judecătorii de pace (Justices of the Peace);
- Courts of Quarter Session (pentru majoritatea infracţiunilor grave)
- Courts of Assize (infracţiunile deosebit de grave).

Cauzele civile se judecă în următoarele instanţe:


-Magistrates Courts (conflicte familiale)
-County Courts (majoritatea litigiilor civile)
- The High Court.

Apelurile şi recursurile se judecă în: The High Court, the Civil Division of the
Court of Appeal şi The House of Lords.

”În România, Justiţia se realizează prin următoarele instanţe judecătoreşti:


a) Înalta Curte de Casaţie şi Justiţie;
b) curţi de apel;
c) tribunale;
d) tribunale specializate;
e) instanţe militare;
f) judecătorii.” (v. Legea 304/2004)

8.4. Test de evaluare:

I.Answer the following questions:


00:50
1. What are the main criminal courts in England and Wales and what do they
try?
2. What are the courts of civil jurisdiction in England, Wales and Scotland?
3. Where may appeals be heard?

II.Fill in the blanks with the missing words: try, branches, quarter, held, the gravest,
over, Assize Court, Supreme, part, heard, offences.

1.Courts of Assize try ……. offences.


2. Magistrates’ Courts ………… the less serious ………….. .
3. These Courts are ………. of the High Court presided ……… by High Court judges.
4. The High Court forms ……. of the …….. Court of Judicature.
5. The Central Criminal Court in London at the Old Bailey is an ………. .
6. All trials at ……….. sessions and assizes are ……….. with a jury.
7. Appeals may be ………. in the High Court.

III.One way of classifying and understanding the law is by subject matter. Lawyers
often divide the law and the legal system into two: criminal law and civil law. Classify
the following terms into the appropriate column below. Two terms can appear in both
columns:

50
compensation / contract/ crime / damages / family law /
intellectual property / plaintiff / police / private individual / prosecution /
the accused/ the defendant / theft / to bring a case /
to bring an action / to fine/ to charge someone with something

Criminal Civil

To charge someone with something Plaintiff

8.5. Test de autoevaluare

I. Now complete the following text contrasting criminal and civil law by
choosing the words/phrases above.

Criminal Law vs. Civil Law

One category is the criminal law – the law dealing with crime.
A case is called a _________(1). The case is instituted by the prosecutor, who takes
over the case from the __________ (2) who have already decided _______ (3) the
defendant (or ________) (4) with specified crimes. The civil law is much more wide-
ranging. The civil law includes the law of _______ (5) and ______ (6).
In a civil case, the __________ (7), normally a _________ (8) or company,
________ (9) in order to win ______ (10). If the case is proven (on the balance of
probabilities, meaning that one is more sure than not), the defendant normally pays
the plaintiff __________ (money) (11).

II. Every jurisdiction organises the administration of justice in different ways.


In England, the basic division between criminal and civil law is reflected in the
court system. Choose from the following to complete the description that refers
to each Court:

Court of Justice of the European Communities


House of Lords
Court of Appeal
Magistrates Court
Crown Court
High Court, Criminal Division
High Court, Civil Division
County Court

1. Claims of lesser value will start in a County Court. There are 250 of these around
the country. They can also deal with divorce and bankruptcy matters.
2. Matters of important legal dispute arising in the Crown Court may be appealed to
the __________.
3. From the Court of Appeal, there can be an appeal to the ________ on fact or law,
but usually appeal is only allowed on matters of legal importance.

51
4. If the case involves a serious crime, it is heard in the ______.
5. In less serious criminal cases (which comprise over 90% of criminal cases), the
case is sent for trial in one of over 400 _______ .
6. More substantial civil claims (over around £ 25,000) are heard in the ________.
7. The __________ was set up under the Treaty of Rome 1957, by which the
European Community was established. The court can overrule all other courts on
matters of Community law.
8. Under the system of appeals in civil cases, it is possible to appeal from a County
Court or the High Court to the ______.

8.6. Temă de control

8.6.1. Translate into Romanian:

ARTICLE 126
(1) Justice shall be administered by the High Court of Cassation and Justice, and
the other courts of law set up by the law.
(2) The jurisdiction of the courts of law and the judging procedure shall only be
stipulated by law.
(3) The High Court of Cassation and Justice shall provide a unitary interpretation
and implementation of the law by the other courts of law, according to its
competence.
(4) The composition of the High Court of Cassation and Justice, and the regulation
for its functioning shall be set up in an organic law.
(5) It is prohibited to establish extraordinary courts of law. By means of an organic
law, courts of law specialized in certain matters may be set up, allowing the
participation, as the case may be, of persons outside the magistracy.
(6) The judicial control of administrative acts of the public authorities, by way of
the contentious business falling within the competence of administrative courts, is
guaranteed, except for those regarding relations with the Parliament, as well as the
military command acts. The administrative courts, judging contentious business
have jurisdiction to solve the applications filed by persons aggrieved by statutory
orders or, as the case may be, by provisions in statutory orders declared
unconstitutional.
(The Romanian Constitution)
8.6.2. Translate into English:

ARTICLE 129
“Împotriva hotărârilor judecătoreşti, părţile interesate şi Ministerul Public pot exercita căile
de atac, în condiţiile legii.”

8.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993


Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureşti,
2003
LEGEA Nr. 304 privind organizarea judiciară din 28 iunie 2004, republicată în
Monitorul Oficial al României, Partea I, nr. 827 din 13 septembrie 2005
Constituţia României, Regia autonomă „Monitorul Oficial”, Bucureşti, 2003

52
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept, Ed.
Compania, 2004.

8.8. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare:


I.
1. - prosecution; 2. - police; 3. – to charge; 4. – the accused; 5. – intellectual property; 6. –
family law; 7. - plaintiff; 8. – private individual; 9. – brings an action; 10. - compensation; 11.
– damages.

II.
1. - County Court; 2. - Court of Appeal; 3. - High Court, Criminal Division; 4. - Crown
Court; 5. - Magistrates Courts; 6. - High Court, Civil Division; 7. - Court of Justice of the
European Communities; 8. - House of Lords.

53
UNIT IX
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE
9.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, se recapitulează unul dintre cele mai uzuale


timpuri ale limbii engleze – presentul perfect simplu. Prin folosirea acestui
timp, vorbitorul stabileşte o legătură între trecut şi prezent în sensul generării
unui efect prezent de către o cauză trecută sau în sensul continuării unei
situaţii de fapt în viaţa cuiva/a unei comunităţi etc.

De asemenea, se remarcă un grad sporit de dificultate pe care îl presupune


folosirea corectă a acestui timp, dificultate care se datorează, în parte,
posibilității de a traduce în română prezentul perfect englezesc fie prin
prezentul simplu, fie prin perfectul compus.

9.2. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să folosească în mod corect prezentul perfect simplu sesizând
particularităţile de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul
simplu
 să identifice situaţiile de folosire a prezentului perfect simplu în vorbirea
curentă.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

The Present Perfect Tense is formed with:

The present tense of HAVE + the past participle of the verb to be conjugated
00:45
For the regular verbs the past participle has exactly the same form as the simple past.
In irregular verbs, the past participle varies.
The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary.
The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary and the subject.

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


I have looked I have not looked Have I looked?
You have looked You have not looked Have you looked?
He/she/it has looked He/she/it has not looked Has he/she/it looked?
We have looked We have not looked Have we looked?
You have looked You have not looked Have you looked?
They have looked They have not looked Have they looked?

54
Negative interrogative: has he/she it not looked? etc.
This tense may be said to be a sort of mixture of present and past. It implies a strong
connection with the present and is mainly used in conversations, letters, newspapers and
television and radio reports.

The Use of Present Perfect


a) it is used with just for a recently completed action:
He has just gone out.
Just must be placed between the auxiliary and the main verb.
b) it is used for past actions whose time is not definite:
I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them.
Have you had breakfast? – No, I haven’t had it yet.
c) recent actions in the present perfect often have results in the present:
The lift has broken down (we have to use the stairs).
 actions expressed by the present perfect + yet usually have results in the
present.
He hasn’t come yet (so we are still waiting for him).
d) it can also be used for actions which occur in the past, provided the connection with
the present is still maintained, that is that the action could be repeated in the present:
Ann Cox has written a number of short stories (that is she is still alive and can write
more).
e) it is used for actions occurring in an incomplete period:
 the incomplete period may be indicated by today or this morning / afternoon /
evening / week / month / year / century, etc.
Have you seen him today? – Yes, I have.
Has the postman come this morning?
Note: the present perfect can be used with this morning, this afternoon only up to about one
o’clock or five o’clock, because after that this morning or this afternoon becomes a
completed period, and actions occurring in it must be put into the simple past.
 lately, recently used with the present perfect also indicate an incomplete period of time:
He has recently bought this house.
He has had a lot of luck lately.
 it can be used similarly with ever, never, always, occasionally, often, several times:
I have never been to London.
He has always answered my letters.
This is the worst book I have ever read.
f) it is used for an action which lasts throughout an incomplete period:
 time expressions include for, since, all day/night/week/all the time.
He has been in the army for two years (He is still in the army).
I have smoked since I left school (I still smoke).
 the action usually begins in the past and continues past the time of speaking in
the present;
 sometimes, the action finishes at the time of speaking:
I haven’t seen you for ages (but I see you now).
It has been very cold lately but it’s just beginning to get warmer.
 for used with the simple past denotes a terminated period of time.
We lived here for ten years (but we don’t live there now).
 for used with the present perfect denotes a period of time extending into the
present:

55
We have lived in London for ten years (and we still live there).
g) it is also used with the verbs to be, to see, to know, to believe:
I have been here for a quarter of an hour.
I have often thought that I should have emigrated.
h) note that a conversation about a past action often begins with a question and answer in
the present perfect:
Where have you been? ~ I’ve been to the pictures.
 it is also used in letters:
I am so sorry I haven’t written to you but I’ve been very busy lately as my
husband has been away.

Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos:

1. Did you win any important case recently?


2. Since 2009 she studies EU law at our university.
3. I never imagined that working in a law firm can be so tiring.

9.3. Să ne reamintim

Presentul perfect simplu este o combinaţie între trecut şi prezent, aşa cum arată
şi numele lui.

Spre deosebire de timpul trecut, prezentul perfect simplu nu va indica niciodată


cu precizie momentul în care loc o acţiune. Din contra, prezentul perfect
simplu foloseşte, de regulă, adverbe de timp de genul: recently, so far, ever,
never, always, today, this week, this month, this year, lately/of late etc.

Rezumat

Acţiunea exprimată prin prezentul simplu poate indica faptul că producerea


acesteia generează un efect prezent.

E.g. He has prepared his speech. (=> he is ready to speak)


The prisoner has fallen ill. (=> he cannot appear in court)

!!! prezentul perfect nu se foloseşte niciodată pe lângă un adverb de timp


trecut:

Wrong: He has met him yesterday.


Right: He met him yesterday
OR
Right: He has met him (=> they have talked etc.) – no information is given as to
when this happened, but only to the result of the action, i.e. the fact that they
saw each other.

Prezentul perfect simplu indică, adesea, faptul că o situaţie/stare de fapt durează


de un anumit timp:

We have been students for a few weeks.


They have had this business since 2008.

56
9.4. Test de evaluare:
Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past tense

e.g. You (see) Mary on Monday? ~ Yes, I______ 00:45


Did you see Mary on Monday? Yes, I did.

1.”Where is Tom?”
”I (not see) him today, but he (tell) Mary that he’d be in for dinner.”

2. He (serve) in the First World War.

3.”When that war (begin)?”


”It (begin) in 1914 and (last) for four years.”

4.”You (see) today’s paper?”


”No, anything interesting (happen)?”
”Yes, two convicted murderers (escape) from the prison down the road.”

5.”How long you (know) your new assistant?”


”I (know) him for two years.”
”What he (do) before he (come) here?”
”I think he (be) in prison.”

6.”Who you (vote) for at the last election?”


”I (vote) for Mr. Pitt.”
”He (not be) elected, (be) he?”
”No, he (lose) elections.”

7.”That house (be) empty for a year.”


”But they just (take) down the “For sale” sign, so I suppose someone (buy) it.”

8. What are all those people looking at?


There (be) an accident.
You (see) what (happen)?
Yes, a motor cycle (run) into a lorry.

9. I (phone) you twice yesterday and (get) no answer.

10. ”I just (be) to the film War and Peace. You (see) it?”
”No, I_______. Is it like the book?”
”I (not read) the book.”
”I (read) it when I (be) at school.”
”When Tolstoy (write) it?”
”He (write) it in 1868.”
”He (write) anything else?”

11. She (say) that she’d phone me this morning, but it is now 12.30 and she (not
phone) yet.

57
9.5. Test de autoevaluare

Insert the Past or the Present Perfect Tense:


00:30
A.
John: ______ you_____ (write) a letter to your friend at last?
Mike: Yes, I_______.
John: When ______you _____ it?
Mike: I ______it last night.
John: And why _______ you not _____(send) it yet?
Mike: I ______ (leave) it at home in the morning and I ______ (be) busy since I
________ (return) home.

B.
Father: ________Jane______(come) home?
Mother: Not yet.
Father: I am very anxious about her. When _____she_____ (leave)?
Mother: She ______ (leave) home at 6 o’clock and she _____(go) straight to the
dentist. Don’t worry. I’m sure the doctor _____ (detain) her.
Father: But it’s 9 o’clock now, so she ______ (be) away from home for three.

9.6. Temă de control

9.6.1. Choose the right answer:

1. When ________________ the firm?


a) have you joined b) did you joined c) did you join
2. ___________________ in Paris?
a) Did you ever worked b) Have you ever worked c) worked you
3. That's the best pleading ______________
a) I've ever heardb) I didn't hear c) I used to hear
4. This is the most difficult case _____________________
a) I ever had b) I have ever had c) I've ever had to do.
5. ___________________ to him last week.
a) I talked b) I've talked c) I didn't talked
6. ______________ a binding contract last year and it is still valid.
a) We have concluded b) We concluded c) We haven't concluded
7. The reason she looks so sad is that she _______________ proved guilty in
court.
a) has been b) was c) had been
8. The number of customers ________ in 2009 but then _____in 2010.
a) rised falled b) rose fell c) have risen have fallen
9. You ____________ to a question ____________, of course I am angry with
you!
a) listened, I haven't asked
b) didn't listen, I asked
c) haven't listened, I've asked.
10. It's obvious that ________________ this report.
a) you haven't written b) you didn't write c) you don't write.

58
9.6.2. Choose the right answer:
1. She has worked/works in our company since 2014. She is very content with her job.
2. The lawyer had been/has been disbarred. He is unemployed at present.
3. Our law boutique dealt/has been dealing with insolvency cases for 3 years.
4. The solicitor is working/has been working for this file for a week now.
5. The Parliament adopted/has adopted a new fiscal code, which will hopefully be beneficial
for our economy.

9.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993

9.8. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare:

A.
John: Have you written a letter to your friend at last?
Mike: Yes, I have.
John: When did you write it?
Mike: I wrote it last night.
John: And why have you not sent it yet?
Mike: I left it at home in the morning and I have been busy since I returned home.

B.
Father: Has Jane come home?
Mother: Not yet.
Father: I am very anxious about her. When did she leave?
Mother: She left home at 6 o’clock and she went straight to the dentist. Don’t worry. I’m
sure the doctor has detained her.
Father: But it’s 9 o’clock now, so she has been away from home for three.

59
UNIT X
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS
10.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, se recapitulează unul dintre cele mai uzuale


timpuri ale limbii engleze – prezentul perfect continuu. Acest timp
precizează durata de când se desfăşoară o acţiune începută în trecut, care
continuă în momentul vorbirii.

De asemenea, trebuie precizat faptul că prezentul perfect continuu se


foloseşte cu verbe care exprimă acţiuni propriu-zise şi nu stări/situaţii de
viaţă (aşa cum se întâmplă în cazul prezentului perfect simplu).

10.2. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să folosească în mod corect prezentul perfect continuu sesizând
particularităţile de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la prezentul
perfect simplu
 să identifice situaţiile de folosire a prezentului perfect continuu în
vorbirea curentă.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 60 minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

FORM:
the present perfect of the verb to be + the present participle

Affirmative: I have been working We have been working 00:30


You have been working You have been working
He/she/it has been working They have been working

Negative: I have not been working We have not been working


You have not been working You have not been working
He/she/it has not been They have not been working
working

Negative interrogative:
Have I not been working?/ Haven’t I been working, etc
The Use of Present Perfect Continuous tense
This tense is used for an action, which began in the past and is still continuing or has only just
finished. The beginning of the action in the past is pointed out by since and the duration is
represented by for.

60
Note that the present perfect continuous expresses an action, which is apparently
uninterrupted; we do not use it when we mention the number of time a thing has been done.
There is, however, a difference between a single action in the simple present perfect and an
action in the present perfect continuous:
a) I’ve polished the car, means that the job has been completed.
b) I’ve been polishing the car, means: “this is how I’ve spent the last hour”, it does not
mean that the job is completed.

Verbs not normally used in continuous tenses are:


-Verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe, listen, look, stare;
-Verbs expressing emotion: admire, adore, appreciate, dislike, fear, hate, love, respect;
-Verbs of mental activity: agree, assume, believe, expect, forget, know, realize, recognize.

Where have you been? ~ I’ve been downtown.


Have you known him for a long time?
I haven’t seen her for ages.

Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos:

1. Have you been knowing your manager for a long time?


2. Your eyes look red, did you cry?
3. Look at the level of water in the bottle, it is clear that someone is drinking
from it for some time. The level is lower and lower day by day.

Să ne reamintim

Prezentul perfect continuu se foloseşte pentru a măsura de cât timp se petrece o


acţiune care a început în trecut şi care continuă în momentul de faţă.

10.3. Rezumat

Prezentul perfect simplu indică situaţii/stări care durează de ceva vreme în viaţa
cuiva, iar prezentul perfect continuu indică acţiuni propriu-zise care durează de
ceva vreme (ele continuând inclusive în momentul vorbirii).

Comparaţi:

She has been a prosecutor for 2 years. (the verb to be is a verb of state) – El
este procuror de 2 ani – pres.perf.simple

They have been working hard for drawing up the report for 2 days – De 2 zile,
ei lucrează intens la redactarea raportului (the verb to work indicates an action
and not a state) – pres. perf. cont.

10.4. Test de evaluare


Complete the sentences with the Simple or Continuous form of the Present
Perfect Tense of the verbs in brackets. The underlined adverbs should be put
in their correct position: 00:30

61
1.I already (to write) the letter, so perhaps you would post it for me.
2. A: How long (to know) you the truth?
B: I only just (to find out) but I (to find out) a lot of other things just recently.
3. You look very upset. What (to happen)?
4. A: What you (to do) for the last half hour?
B: I (to sit) here working at this problem.
5. I wonder if Tom (to forget) my number. I (expect) him to call for the past two
hours.
6. I’m sorry we’re late. You (to wait) long?
7. How you (to keep)? Well, I hope.
8. We always (to live) in a flat, so it will seem strange we move into a house with
a garden round it.
9. You (not to finish) that book yet? You (to read) it for more than a week.
10.We (to argue) about this for two hours now. Don’t you think we should stop?

10.5. Test de autoevaluare:


Translate into English, using the Present Perfect Tense, Simple and
Continuous:

1.Eu n-am mai citit o povestire aşa de interesantă. Ar trebui s-o publici !
2.Încerc să iau legătura cu el de mai bine de o săptămână.
3.El a stat în închisoare timp de un an, nu-i aşa?
4.Sora ta s-a schimbat mult în ultima vreme.
5. Prietenul meu traduce legislaţia UE de peste 5 ani deja.
6. Am studiat dreptul timp de patru ani iar în prezent mă pregătesc pentru a obţine
o diplomă de masterat.
7. Nu l-am mai văzut de când a terminat facultatea.
8. În ultima vreme am fost atât de ocupat că am şi uitat ce m-ai rugat.
9. Unde ai mai fost de când ai sosit în Bucureşti?
10. Au plecat la facultate acum trei ore şi încă nu s-au întors.

10.6. Temă de control:


10.6.1. Fill in the gaps with the right tense (past tense simple, present perfect
simple)

Jane: Look! I ________just_____ (receive) a letter from mother.


Angela: _______anything______ (happen)?
Jane: Brother _______(fall) ill.
Angela: Ill again! He________(be) ill last month.
Jane: Yes. At first doctors ________(say) it was the flu. But then he ______
(feel) worse, and they ______(take) him to the hospital. Mother writes he
______(be) ill for more than a week already, but the doctors told her he would
soon be well again.

10.6.2. Fill in the gaps with the right tense:


1. The law … (to be repealed) in 2000.
2. The Parliamentary Chambers … (to debate) the new Fiscal Code for the last 6
months.
3. What … (to determine) you to take this decision? Do you regret it?

62
4. The victim can’t walk because she … (to break) her legs.
5. In 2014 we … (to be employed) in this law firm for 7 years.

10.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993


Vianu, Lidia, English with a Key, Ed. Teora, 1996.

10.8. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare:

1. I have never read such an interesting story. You should publish it!
2. I have been trying to get in touch with him for more than a week.
3. He stayed in prison for a year, didn’t he?
4. Your sister has changed a lot lately.
5. My friend has been already translating EU legislation for 5 years.
6. I studied law for four years and now I am preparing to obtain an LL.M degree.
7. I haven’t seen him since he graduated the faculty.
8. Recently I have been so busy that I have forgotten what you asked me to do.
9. Where have you been since you arrived in Bucharest?
10. They left the faculty 3 hours ago and they have not returned yet.

63
UNIT XI
THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM

11.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, vom studia atribuţiile profesionale care îi revin


unui avocat în Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii.

11.2. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să precizeze atribuţiile profesionale care îi revin unui avocat membru al
baroului (barrister) şi unui avocat consultant (solicitor)
 să îşi însuşească în mod corect terminologia juridică necesară pentru a
descrie atribuţiile care îi revin fiecăreia din aceste profesii.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

The Victorian prestige of the law is expressed in the Royal Courts of Justice, built in 1880.
The Law and the Church are powerfully interlocked with the History of Britain. 00:30
Both have been conservative and resistant to change as their votes in the House of Lords
showed.

The conservatism of English lawyers is reinforced by their strict division into solicitors and
barristers. Solicitors are allowed to deal directly with the public. They perform all routine
cases, but when they have to take a case to the central courts, they must employ a barrister to
plead.

A barrister is required to have reached an accepted educational standard and to have passed
the legal examinations conducted by the Council of Legal Education. Finally, he must
become a member of the Inns of Court. Half of the barristers in Britain work in one of the
four Inns of Court – Gray’s Inn, Lincoln’s Inn, the Middle Temple and the Inner Temple.
The oldest one is the Inner Temple, which has produced the largest number of judges.

Lincoln’s Inn is entirely frequented by chancery lawyers, and Gray’s Inn, the newest of them,
is known for its number of provincial barristers.
A barrister who has a substantial junior practice may apply to the Lord Chancellor for a
patent appointing him Queen’s Counsel.

Most higher judicial appointments are made from common barristers who have become
Queen’s Counsels, a proceeding known as “taking the silk”. Their professional conduct is
subject to the scrutiny of the General Council of the Bar, but disciplinary powers are vested
exclusively in the Senate of the Inns of Court.

64
A prospective solicitor is considered suitable by the appropriate committee of the Law
Society, which is a professional organisation of solicitors. He/she must enter into “articles of
clerkship” with a practising solicitor of not less than five years standing before he can begin
his/her professional career. The articles last for three or five years and this depends upon the
educational qualifications of the student.

An articled clerk must pass the necessary examinations held by the Law Society and unless
he has been a barrister or is a law graduate of a university, he is required to attend a course of
studies at a recognised law school. Once a solicitor is qualified, he may become a member of
the Law Society.

Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos:

A solicitor is a member of the Bar.


A barrister usually assists a solicitor in court.
A Queen’s Counsel is a lawyer with little practice in court.

Să ne reamintim

În Marea Britanie, există trei categorii de avocaţi:


- solicitor
- barrister
- Queen’s Counsel

11.3. Rezumat

Cele trei categorii de avocaţi existente În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii


presupun parcurgerea unor etape profesionale de instruire şi stagiatură diferite.

Avocaţii consultanţi (solicitors) nu susţin examenul de intrare în Barou, spre


deosebire de avocaţii pledanţi (barristers).

Avocaţii consultanţi redactează contracte/testamente pentru clienţi sau rezolvă


sarcinile de rutină dintr-o firmă de avocatură. De asemenea, ei pot oferi sugestii
avocaţilor pledanţi în ceea ce priveşte soluţionarea anumitor litigii. Avocaţii
consultanţi pot, totodată, soluţiona în instanţă litigii minore.

Un avocat pledant (barrister) reprezintă clienţii în instanţele de judecată. Acesta


poate ţine cont de sugestiile avocaţilor consultanţi, dacă apreciază că ele sunt,
într-adevăr, utile şi pertinente.

Avocaţii emeriţi (Queen’s Counsels) reprezintă treapta profesională cea mai


înaltă la care poate ajunge un avocat în Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. Procesul
prin care un avocat pledant devine avocat emerit poartă numele de taking the
silk.

65
11.4. Temă de evaluare:

I.Answer the following questions:


1. What is the Victorian prestige of the law expressed?
00:60
2. What is the conservatism of English lawyers reinforced by?
3. How are the English lawyers divided?
4. What lawyers are allowed to plead?
5. What educational standard is a barrister required to have reached?
6. Whom are the legal examinations conducted by?
7. Who may apply to the Lord Chancellor for a patent appointing him/her Queen’s
Counsel?
8. By whom must a prospective solicitor be considered suitable?
9. How many years standing must the practising solicitor have when entering into the
articles of clerkship?
10. What does the term article depend upon?
11. What authority holds the necessary examinations?
12. What is an articled clerk required to attend?
13. What does a solicitor become, once he/she is qualified?
14. Where do half of the barristers in Britain work?
15. What institution has produced the largest number of judges in Great Britain?

II.Choose one of the words or expressions in the following list to fill in the blanks in
the text:

a) advocacy b) articled clerks c) barristers’ chambers


d) called to the Bar e) gown f) graduated in law
g) practising solicitor h) professional training i) pupillage
j) Queen’s Counsel k) standing l) taking the silk
m) wig and pen folk n) wigs

After having (1)______________, a trainee lawyer usually serves a period of


(2)______________.

Two basic patterns emerge. The majority of lawyers work as (3)____________ before
becoming (4)________________.
Anyone wishing to specialize in (5)_____________ in order to become a barrister must
first undergo a period of (6)______________ in (7)____________ after being
(8)_________. If a junior barrister has several years’ (9)_________, he or she may
become a senior barrister, known (10) as ____________. This promotion is called
(11)_________, because of the silk (12)___________ they wear in court as well as their
(13)________. The traditional dress of barristers and judges has earned members of the
legal profession the generic term (14)__________.

11.5. Temă de autoevaluare:


I. Complete the terms (1-7) with the words or expression (A-G). Then match each
profession to its definition (I-VII).

1. Attorney A. to the justices

66
2. Justice B. of the Peace
3. legal C. Counsel
4. Crown D. prosecutor
5. clerk E. General
6. duty F. solicitor
7. Queen’s G. adviser

I. A senior barrister appointed by the Crown.


II. Someone employed by a firm to help settle legal matters.
III. A lawyer with at least five years’ standing appointed to assist magistrates in court.
IV. Those responsible for prosecuting in the lower courts (Magistrates Courts).
V. A lawyer who appears in lower courts to assist defendants who should otherwise
be unrepresented.
VI. Someone whose principal function is to sit as a magistrate in the magistrates’
court.
VII. In Great Britain, the principal law officer of the Crown. In the USA, the Minister
of Justice.

II. Using the translations of the following Romanian words, make-up sentences in
Past tense (simple or continuous).

1. judecători de pace
2. a pronunţa o sentinţă
3. asistenţă juridică
4. drept constituţional
5. competenţa unui tribunal

11.6. Temă de control:

11.6.1. Make-up sentences with the following words and phrases:


1. to deal with
2. prospective solicitor
3. standing
4. to enter into articles of clerkship
5. taking the silk
6. to depend upon
7. society
8. to conduct an examination
9. to apply to
10. to attend a course at a law school

11.6.2. Translate into English:

Articolul 71 (Monitorul Oficial, Hotararea nr. 13/2015 a Congresului Avocatilor):

“(1.1) Nu pot face parte din consiliul baroului avocatii care au datorii scadente privind taxele
si contributiile stabilite pentru formarea bugetului U.N.B.R. si al baroului, precum si a
fondurilor Casei de Asigurari a Avocatilor si ale filialelor.”

67
11.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993

Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureşti,


2003
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept, Ed.
Compania, 2004.

11.8. Răspunsuri tema de autoevaluare:


I.
1. Attorney General – VII; 2. Justice of the Peace – VI; 3. legal adviser – II; 4. Crown
prosecutor – IV; 5. – clerk to the justices – III; 6. – duty solicitor – V; 7. Queen’s Counsel – I.

II. (possible examples)


1. Justices of the Peace work in Magistrates Courts. 2. The judge passed the sentence after a
careful analysis of the trial facts and circumstances. 3. Legal advice is offered to all
defendants, as provided by the law. 4. Constitutional law is studied in the 1st academic year.
5. This case is within the jurisdiction of this court.

68
UNIT XII
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE
AND
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS
12.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, vom studia două timpuri: trecutul perfect simplu
(past perfect simple) şi trecutul perfect continuu (past perfect continuous).

Vom observa că trecutul perfect simplu (care corespunde mai-mult-ca-


perfectului românesc) se traduce în română fie printr-o formă de perfect
compus fie printr-o formă de mai-mult-ca-perfect fie printr-o formă de
imperfect.

Trecutul perfect continuu se traduce în română prin imperfect.

12.2. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să folosească în mod corect trecutul perfect simplu sesizând
particularităţile de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul
simplu
 să identifice situaţiile de folosire a trecutului perfect simplu în
vorbirea curentă
 să folosească în mod corect trecutul perfect continuu sesizând
particularităţile de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul
perfect simplu
 să identifice situaţiile de folosire a trecutului perfect continuu în
vorbirea curentă.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de


învăţare este de 100 minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE

It is formed with:

Had + the past participle

Affirmative: I had looked We had looked


You had looked You00:30
had looked
He/she/it had looked They had looked
Negative: I had not looked/ hadn’t looked We had not looked
You had not looked You had not looked

69
He/she/it had not looked They had not looked
Interrogative: Had I looked? Had we looked?
Had you looked? Had you looked?
Had he/she/it looked? Had they looked?
Negative-
Had I not looked? / Hadn’t I looked? Etc.
interrogative:

The Past Perfect Tense is used to show that one action was completed before another action
in the past.
Let us take two examples:
Pedro learned English. – and – He came to England.

Both these actions took place in the past, so we use the Simple Past learned and came. But
suppose we want to show that one of these actions took place before the other one. Suppose
we want to say that Pedro learned English before he came to England. Then we use the Past
Perfect Tense for the action that took place first, and we use the Simple Past Tense for the
other action.

1. Pedro had learned English before he came to England.


2. Mrs. Thompson came to tell us she had made the coffee.
3. After she had chatted for a little time, Mrs. Beck went to see about the dinner.
4. The Past Perfect can be used with till, until and before to emphasize the completion of an
action.
5. He did not wait till we had finished our meal.
6. It was a very expensive town. Before we had been here a week we had spent all our
money.
7. He had stayed in his father’s firm till his father died. Then he had started his own business
and was now a very successful man.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS

FORM:
00:30
Had been + present participle

The form is the same for all persons:

Affirmative: I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they had been working.

Negative: I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they had not/ hadn’t been working

Interrogative: Had I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they been working?

Negative–interrogative: Had I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they not/hadn’t been working?
It is not used with verbs, which are not used in the continuous forms, except with want and
sometimes wish.
The boy was delighted with his new bike.
He had been wanting one for a long time.

70
The Use of Past Perfect Continuous Tense

1. When the action began before the time of speaking in the past, and continued up to
that time, or stopped just before it, we can often use either form:
It was now six and he was tired because he had worked since dawn.
It is now six and he was tired because he had been working since dawn
2. A repeated action in the past can sometimes be expressed as a continuous action by
the past perfect continuous:
He had been trying to get her on the phone.
3. But there is a difference between a single action in the simple past perfect and an
action in the past perfect continuous:
By six o’clock he had repaired the engine (this job had been completed).
He had been repairing the engine (tells us how he had spent the previous hour/half
hour, etc. It does not tell us whether or not the job was completed).

Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos:

1. When we arrived, the jury already returned the verdict. (we arrived too
late)
………………………………………………………………………
2. The trial started at 9 a.m. At 11 a.m. the judge was hearing the witnesses’
testimonies for 2 hours.
………………………………………………………………………

Să ne reamintim

Trecutul perfect simplu se foloseşte mai ales pentru a exprima anterioritatea


unei acțiuni din trecut faţă de un moment trecut/altă acţiune din trecut.

Trecutul perfect continuu se foloseşte mai ales pentru a preciza de cât timp se
petrecea o acţiune la un moment dat în trecut.

12.3. Rezumat

Trecutul perfect simplu exprimă o acţiune care s-a petrecut înainte de altă
acţiune din trecut.

Trecutul perfect simplu măsoară de când dura/a durat o situaţie/o stare care a
început în trecut şi care a continuat până la un moment dat în trecut.

Trecutul perfect continuu măsoară de cât timp dura o acţiune propriu-zisă (nu
o stare/situaţie) care a început în trecut şi care a continuat până la un moment
dat în trecut.

12.4. Temă de evaluare:

I. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Perfect Tense:


1. He told me that he never (to meet) you. 00:40
2. The lights hardly (to go out) when a strange noise was heard.
3. They (to be married) for five years when they finally had a child.

71
4. As we (not to eat) yet, we all felt very hungry.
5. The policeman wanted to know why she (to come) to that bank.
6. When he got to the airport, the plane already (to arrive).
7. She answered my question after I (to repeat) it four times.
8. At last my secretary handed me the letters she (to type).
9. She told me that they (to see) that film by Friday.
10. Although they (not to see) each other for a long time, Mary bought tickets for
the theatre that evening.

II. Rewrite the sentences, using the Past Simple or Past Perfect of the verbs in
brackets as appropriate:
1. We (get down) to business as soon as we (introduce – passive) to each other.
2. Nothing (move-passive) in the room until after the police (take) photographs.
3. None of his teachers (understand) how he (manage) to fail the examination.
4. The results last year (be) better than anyone (expect).
5. I (write) to the suppliers asking why the goods (not to arrive) yet. They
(reply) to say that they already (send – passive).
6. The motorist (discover) to his relief that he (not to take) the wrong road after
all.
7. I (call) at the manager’s office, but (discover) I just (miss) him. He (go) on
holidays.
8. The scientist suddenly (see) the answer to the problem that (occupy) his mind
for the last two months.
9. Once they (settle) the agenda, the committee (circulate) it to all members of
the company.
10. When Queen Victoria (die) in 1901, she (reign) for over 60 years.

12.5. Temă de autoevaluare :

Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Noi am locuit la Cluj timp de doi ani înainte de a ne muta la Bucureşti.


2. Ne plimbam prin parc de o jumătate de oră, când i-am întâlnit pe prietenii
noştri.
3. Ieri pe vremea aceasta călătoream cu maşina de o oră.
4. Când am ajuns acasă, mi-a arătat traducerea pe care o făcea de la ora 5.
5. A predat franceza timp de un an înainte de a începe să predea engleza.

12.6. Temă de control:

I. Read and retell:

“A woman is in a hurry and takes a taxi. The taxi goes at great speed and
narrowly misses some lamp posts, trams and policemen. The woman is
frightened and says to the taxi driver: “Please, be careful! This is the first time
I’ve been in a taxi. “That’s all right, ma’am” answers the taxi driver”. “This is
the first time I have driven one”.

72
II. Change the following sentences, as to the pattern below:

Model:
This time yesterday he was translating an article.
This time yesterday he had been translating an article for half an hour.

1. This time yesterday my grandfather was working in the garden.


2. This time yesterday she was practising in the language laboratory.
3. This time yesterday they were drawing up a report for that case.
4. This time yesterday we were getting about the city.
5. This time yesterday they were travelling by motor coach.
6. This time yesterday she was translating an article from Romanian into
English.
7. This time yesterday they were visiting the National Gallery of Art.
8. This time yesterday Mary was doing her morning exercises.
9. This time yesterday the secretary was typing the last page of the report.
10. This time yesterday they were making the arrangements for
accommodation.
11. Mi-a spus că tocmai s-a întors de la birou unde a avut o zi obositoare.

12.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993


Vianu, Lidia, English with a Key, Ed. Teora, 1996.

12.8. Răspunsuri la tema de autoevaluare:

1. We had lived in Cluj for two years before we moved to Bucharest.


2. We had been walking in the park for half an hour when we met our friends.
3. This time yesterday I had been driving for 1 hour.
4. When I arrived home, he showed me translation which he had been writing since 5
o΄ clock.
5. She had taught French for 1 year before she started teaching English.

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UNIT XIII
THE EUROPEAN UNION
13.1. Introducere

În această unitate de învăţare, vom studia un scurt istoric privind formarea


Uniunii Europene şi rolul principalelor instituţii din cadrul UE.

13.2. Obiectivele/competentele unităţii de învăţare

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să furnizeze informaţii cu privire la istoricul UE şi al principalelor
instituţii din cadrul Uniunii Europene.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

Conţinutul unităţii de învăţare

The Treaty of Rome in 1957 established the European Economic Community (now
referred to as the European Union). It arose from the success of the European Coal and Steel
Community (ECSC), which sought to promote co-operation between Coal and Steel 00:30
companies in Europe. This programme succeeded in reducing tariffs and quotas in the coal
and steel markets between the participating countries.
Following the Treaty of Rome, the EU became a reality on January 1, 1958. The
founder members of the EU were France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux Countries
(Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg). It remained in this form until Britain, Ireland
and Denmark joined in 1972. The Union was extended further by admission of Greece in
1981 and then Spain, Portugal and Austria.
The objectives of the EU have changed over the years. Initially, the aims were to
abolish all internal quotas and tariffs and to impose a common external tariff on countries
outside the Union. These measures meant that as far as imports and exports went, the Union
acted as one country.
Components of the European Union
The parallel of the Union acting as a single nation now extends beyond preliminary
objectives. It has its own executive, legislative, secretariat and judiciary.
The Executive of the EU is made up of the Council of Ministers. This is composed of
elected politicians from each of the member countries. When the Council of Ministers is
considering finance matters, it will be made up of all the Finance Ministers (in the UK, this is
the Chancellor of Exchequer). The Heads of State meet as the Council of Ministers when
particularly important items are under consideration. The Presidency of the Council rotates
between the 27 members of the Union every six months. Under this system, the head of state
of the country, which holds the presidency, also assumes the title President of the Council of
Ministers of the European Union. When the UK held presidency in the first six months of
1993, Prime Minister Major also held the office of President of the Council of Ministers of

74
the European Union. The Council of Ministers is the highest authority in the EU. It must
endorse and authorise EU policy and any applications for membership or significant change.
The Secretariat or Administration is based in Brussels and is called the European
Commission. Unlike the Council of Ministers, the employees of the Commission are not
elected – they are the European equivalent of civil servants. The Commission is also
responsible for drafting and proposing legislation for the Council of Ministers to vote and
approve, amend or reject. The Commission is controlled by a President and a number of
Commissioners. The larger countries send two Commissioners to Brussels and the smaller
ones, just one.
The legislative is in Strasbourg, France and is called the European Parliament.
This is composed of over 500 elected Members of the European Parliament (MEPs).
Like in the UK, MEPs sit in the Parliament according to their political leanings rather
than nationality. Because the EU is not a state as such, the Parliament does not assume the
same degree of power that a national Parliament does. The number of MEPs from each
member country depends upon its size. The UK, Germany, France and Italy each send over
80 MEPs to Strasbourg, whereas Luxembourg sends just 6. Because the Parliament has little
authority over the affairs of the EU (it does not control the finance budget or key political
areas), its role has been criticised. The longer term plans for EU include closer links between
the member countries and this will involve a more prominent role for Strasbourg.
The European judiciary is the European Court of Justice. It is presided over by 27
judges (at least one from each country) and an overall President, elected from among the
judges.

Corectaţi greşelile de mai jos:

1. Following the Treaty of Rome, the EU became a reality on January 1,


1955.
............................................................................................................
2. The founder members of the EU were France, Germany, Italy, the UK, the
Netherlands and Spain.
............................................................................................................
3. The European Commission is the highest authority in the EU.
.............................................................................................................

Să ne reamintim

Prin Tratatul de la Roma (1957) a luat fiinţă Comunitatea Economică


Europeană (European Economic Community)

Comunitatea Europeană a Cărbunelui şi Oţelului (1951) a fost instituită


prin Tratatul de la Paris, pe care l-au semnat următoarele ţări: Franţa,
Germania de Vest, Italia, Belgia, Luxemburg şi Olanda. Rolul CECO este de a
partaja resursele de oţel şi cărbune ale statelor membre, în vederea prevenirii
unui nou război în zona europeană.

75
13.3. Rezumat

Uniunea Europeană nu este federaţie (cum este cazul SUA).


Ţările membre UE sunt naţiuni independente şi suverane. Ele îşi exercită o parte
din suveranitate în comun cu scopul de a deveni, pe plan internaţional, o putere
economic şi politică.

În UE, există trei instituţii principale:

 Parlamentul European care reprezintă cetăţenii UE şi este ales direct de


către aceştia;
 Consiliul Uniunii Europene care reprezintă statele membre
 Comisia Europeană care susţine interesele Uniunii, în ansamblu.

Un rol esenţial îl joacă şi: Curtea de Justiţie şi Curtea de Conturi.

Cea dintâi veghează la respectarea dreptului european, iar cea de a doua verifică
modul în care se efectuează finanţarea activităţilor Uniunii.

13.4. Temă de evaluare:


I. Translate the following text into English:
Parlamentul European este format din peste 500 de parlamentari aleşi în funcţie de
00:60
orientările lor politice. Deoarece Uniunea Europeană nu are un statut propriu-zis
de stat, Parlamentul nu- şi asumă acelaşi grad de autoritate ca un parlament intern.
Numărul de parlamentari din fiecare ţară depinde de mărimea ţării respective:
astfel ţări ca Franţa, Germania, Italia, pot trimite chiar peste 80 de parlamentari, în
timp ce Luxemburgul are doar 6. Parlamentul îşi va mari rolul pe viitor, pe măsură
ce se vor dezvolta legături mai apropiate între ţările membre.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false:


a. One of the first goals of the EU was to impose a common external tariff on countries,
which do not belong to the Union.
b. Ireland and Britain were among the founder members of the EU.
c. The head of State of the country holding the presidency automatically becomes
President of the Council of Ministers of the EU.
d. Each country sends one Commissioner to Brussels, where the Administration is based.
e. Criticism regarding the European Parliament has focussed on the way it handles
problems of finance and key policy areas.

13.5. Temă de autoevaluare

I. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place below. The text will help
you:
rotates authorise elected
Authority abolish as far as
domestic assume

76
Initially, the aims of the EU were to a)………. all internal quotas and tariffs. These measures
meant that b) ………… imports and exports went, the Union acted as one country.
The Council of Ministers is composed of c)…………. politicians from each of the member
countries. The Presidency of the Council d) …………… between the fifteen members of the
Union every six months.
As in the case of the e)………….. executive, the Council of Ministers is the highest
f)…………….. in the EU. It must endorse and g)……………. EU policy and any
applications for membership.
Because the EU is not a state as such, the Parliament does not h)……………. the same
degree of power that a national Parliament does.

II. Use the following words and phrases in sentences of your own:
- to abolish
- to hold the presidency
- to hold office of
- to endorse the policy
- domestic executive
- to draft legislation
- to amend
- Civil servants
- political leanings
- internal quotas and tariffs.

13.6. Temă de control

13.6.1 Write presentation of the main provisions set forth by The Lisbon
Treaty.

13.6.2 Translate into Romanian:

“In December 2000, the UN General Assembly decided to establish a special committee open
to all States for drawing up an effective international legal instrument against corruption
(Resolution 55/61). The committee negotiated the Convention between January 2002 and
October 2003. The Commission represented the European Community’s interests.

The Commission considers that the objectives set by the Council in its negotiating directives
have been attained. The Convention provides for a high standard of preventive and technical
assistance measures in matters within the Community’s powers, in particular with regard to
the internal market. This includes measures to prevent and to combat money laundering, as
well as standards on accounting in the private sector and on transparency and equal access of
all candidates for public works supply and service contracts.

As the Member States stated that they would sign the Convention as soon as it was opened
for signing in Merida, Mexico (Spain alone of the EU15 not having done so), the
Commission asserts that the European Community should also do so. To that end, the
Commission proposed that the Presidency of the Council designate the persons empowered to
sign the Convention on behalf of the European Community. The Council adopted the
Commission proposal without debate.” (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-
content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=URISERV:l33300&rid=1 – accessed 9th September 2015)

77
13.7. Bibliografie:

Bantaş, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993


Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureşti,
2003
http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/index_ro.htm
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-
content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=URISERV:l33300&rid=1 – accessed 9th
September 2015
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte – cheie în Drept, Ed.
Compania, 2004.

13.8. Răspunsuri la tema de autoevaluare:


I.
a. abolish; b. as far as; c. domestic; d. rotates; e. elected; f. authority; g. authorize; h. assume.

II. (possible examples)


- Death penalty was abolished in Romania in 1991.
- An elected candidate can hold the presidency for 5 years.
- This young man held office of the department for 2 years.
- The Queen endorses the policy of the Government.
- As the chief of domestic executive you are entitled to sign this document.
- The Parliament has the duty to debate and draft legislation.
- The American Constitution has been amended for 27 times so far.
- The statute of the civil servants is regulated by law.
- You can join our organization no matter what political leanings you have.
- The EEC tried to abolish internal quotas and tariffs.

78
IRREGULAR VERBS

TRANSLATION
INFINITIVE PAST TENSE PAST PARTICIPLE
INTO ROMANIAN
to arise arose arisen a se ridica
to awake awoke/awaked awaked a se trezi
to be was/were been a fi
to bear bore borne a purta
born a naşte
to beat beat beaten a bate
to become became become a deveni
to begin began begun a începe
to bend bent bent a îndoi
to bid bid bid a ruga
to bind bound bound a lega
to bite bit bitten a muşca
to bleed bled bled a sângera
to blow blew blown a sufla
to break broke broken a sparge
to breed bred bred a creşte
a educa
to bring brought brought a aduce
to build built built a clădi
to burn burnt burnt a arde
to burst burst burst a crăpa
to buy bought bought a cumpăra
to cast cast cast a arunca
to catch caught caught a prinde
to choose chose chosen a alege
to come came come a veni
to cost cost cost a costa
to creep crept crept a se târî
to cut cut cut a tăia
to know knew known a şti
to lay laid laid a pune
to lead led led a conduce
to leave left left a lăsa
to lend lent lent a împrumuta
to let let let a lăsa
to lie lay lain a zăcea
to lose lost lost a pierde
to make made made a face
to mean meant meant a însemna
to meet met met a întâlni
to pay paid paid a plăti
to put put put a pune
to read read read a citi

79
to ride rode ridden a călări
to ring rang rung a suna
to rise rose risen a răsări
to run ran run a alerga
to say said said a spune
to see saw seen a vedea
to seek sought sought a căuta
to sell sold sold a vinde
to send sent sent a trimite
to set set set a pune
to shake shook shaken a scutura
to shoot shot shot a împuşca
to show showed shown a arăta
to shrink shrank shrunk a se strânge
to shut shut shut a închide
to sing sang sung a cânta
to sink sank sunk a se scufunda
to sit sat sat a şedea
to sleep slept slept a dormi
to speak spoke spoken a vorbi
to spend spent spent a cheltui
to spring sprang sprung a izvorî
to stand stood stood a sta
to steal stole stolen a fura
to stick stuck stuck a lipi
to strike struck struck a lovi
to swear swore sworn a jura
to sweep swept swept a mătura
to swim swam swum a înota
to take took taken a lua
to teach taught taught a învăţa
to tear tore torn a rupe
to tell told told a spune
to think thought thought a se gândi
to throw threw thrown a arunca
to understand understood understood a înţelege
to wake woke woken a se trezi
to wear wore worn a purta
to weep wept wept a plânge
to win won won a câştiga
to wind wound wound a răsuci
to write wrote written a scrie

80
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Constituţia României, Regia autonomă „Monitorul Oficial”, Bucureşti, 2003

LEGEA Nr. 304 privind organizarea judiciară din 28 iunie 2004, republicată în Monitorul
Oficial al României, Partea I, nr. 827 din 13 septembrie 2005

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman, 1982

Bantaş, Andrei Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993

1000 de cuvinte - cheie în Drept, Ed. Compania, 2004


Brookes, Michael,
Treutenaere, Christiane
English for Business, co-ordinated by the British
Council, Romania, Covalliati Publishing House,
Colectiv, Bucureşti, 1999

Eckersley, C.E. Essential English, Foreign Languages, Press, Sofia,


1966

Gălăţeanu – Fărnoagă Giorgiana Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, Ed. Albatros, Bucureşti,


1979

Gălăţeanu – Fărnoagă Giorgiana Sinteze de gramatică engleză, Ed. * Bucureşti, 1990

Beizadea, Coziana Marina English for Law, Ed. Lumina, LEX, 2001.
Leviţchi, Leon Dicţionar român-englez, Ed. Thousib, Sibiu, 1994

Merealbe, Emanuel Limba engleză pentru jurişti, Ed. Eficient, Bucureşti,


1998

Niculescu, Adrian Să vorbim englezeşte, Ed. Ştiinţifică, Bucureşti, 1964

Oprescu, Simona Limba engleză pentru studenţii facultăţilor de drept şi


pentru jurişti, Ed. Oscar Print, Bucureşti, 1999

A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press,


Thomson, A.J. 2003
Martinet, A.V.
English with a Key, Ed. Teora, 1996

Vianu, Lidia,
Turcu, Fulvia, Engleza de afaceri, Ed. Uranus, Bucureşti.
Năstăsescu, Violeta

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy

http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/index_ro.htm

81
http://www.cdep.ro/pls/dic/site.page?id=371 – for the online translation of the Romanian
Constitution

http://www.britannia.com/gov/gov4.html

OPTIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brooks, Michael, Holden, Engleza pentru jurişti, Editura Teora, Bucureşti, 2003.
David, Hutchinson, Wesley,

Hanga, Vladimir, Dicţionar juridic englez-român şi român-englez, Editura


Lumina Lex, Bucureşti, 2003.

82