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ri Christ
1:t Center of Paul's Theolory

Iy both the kerygma and the way of life Paul exempli- (2 Cor 2:5-11; 6:11-13). Reconciliation is thus admira- Fortress, 1990); L. Cerfaux, Chríst in tlu resunection* ofJesus (cf I Cor 15:34). This received
ol St. Paul (New York: Herder & Herder, tradition,* coupled mth üe singular experience Paul
ñed and enacted in his pastoral dealings with awk- bly suited to express and safeguard the existential ele- TIwoLog
had of Christ on the Damrucus Road (see Conversion
ward people (at Corinth) md ugly situations (at Phi- ment in Paul's moral theology. God has achieved a 1959); H. Conzelma\n, Ln Oatliru 0f tlu Tluologl oJtlu
lippi). final reconciliation ofthe world but men and women Nu Tntamtnt (London: SCM, 1969); N. A Daht, and Call), go far in explaining the distinctive ideas the
,,Form-Critical Observat.ions on Early Christia¡ aposde associated with Jesus being the Christ. There
need to learn to live with moral sensitivity and vig-
Preaching," inJmu in tlu Monory of tlu Church
(Min- is, however, no clear explanation or rationale for the
4. The Theme ofReconciliation. ilance until the end comes.
neapolis: Augsburg, 1976) 30-36; T. Deidun, "Some particular pemutations and combinations that we
It is the overall theme of reconciliation (see Peace, The blend of God's deed and Paul's role as a rec-
Reconciliaúon), we propose, that meets most of-if Recent Anempts at Explaining Paul's Theology," Way
find in Paul's letters where he juxtaposes Christ with
onciling agent at Corinü and in the note to Philernon
not all-these tests (see Martin). This is not to say that illustrates how the transition fiom historical factuality 26 (1986) 230-42; J. D. G. Dunn, IIniE and DiuersiE $ various other names and titles. Ciru¿or most often
the word-group katallass- is prominent in Paul's wril to ethical obligation may be made. The middle term Neu Testamiltt (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1977); seems lo appear where Christ's death, resurrection

ings; manifesdy it is not. Nor is it claimed that "rec- is Paul's "ministry ofreconciliation" (2 Cor 5:18)-the
and retum are under discussion. The m Chrkto fom*
la in many ways best encapsulates Paul's view of the
onciliatron" is used wiü üe same nuance in those one clearjob description Paul has left on record. What
places where it does occur; obviously it does nol But ñnn and fudtmpion (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971); C. J. A condition and position of Christians-they are "in
God did expressed his great love,* wiü Christ s cross
the contention stands, namely, that reconciliation pro- Hickling, "Centre and Periphery in Paul's Thought " Christ." The use of the tem Chrutos in the disputed
at the center (Rom 5:1-11). As Paul gratefirlly rejoiced
in Stud.i.a Biblica IIL Papm on Paul and Othn NT Au' Pauline letters differs litde fiom what we hnd in those
vides a suitable umbrella unde¡ which the main fea- in that love as a fact of experience, conveyed by üe
tures of Paul's kerygma md its practical outworking ii¿¡s, ed. E. A. Livingstone (Sheffield: Academic Press, Ietters generally regarded as authentic, except that
Spirit, he saw his mission as modeling what God had
i there is more emphasis on what may be called cosmic
may be set (see Lemcio 1988, 3-17; 1990, 3-11, for a done in recalling the Cori¡thians to their true alle-
i. bold assertion of what these features or "categories" chnstology.
giance and in urging Philemon* to consider the social
were, summed up as "God [who] sent or raisedJesus. l.Jewish Background
implications of the new life on which he had em-
A response towards God brings benefits"). Moreover, barked. The skeleton of an adequate ethical theory is 3'17; 38 (1990) 3J1; R P. Marún, Rmonciliatinn: 2. Greek Usage

justice is done to some of the main motifs in Pauline here seen in embryo-even if it took Christians eight- Stu$ of Paul\ Tluologl (re,r. ed.; Crand Rapids: 3. Origin of the Christran Cirutos Usage

missionary rheology. een centuries to work out the force and releyance of Zondervan, 1990); J. Plevnik, "The Center of Pault 4. Pauline Usage

The tem reconc.iliation has a pre-history in the tra- Theology," CBQ 5l (1989) 460-78; J. Reumann, Vanetl 5. The En Cárir,ó Fomula
this admoniúon.
and Unil,¡ in Nat T¿staml Thong'il (Oxford: Univer- 6. Chrístos in the Contested Pauline Letters
dition Paul gladly took over, as in 2 Corinrhians 5:18- f,quail¡ the same may be said about the teaching
2l and Colossians l:15-20. However, he was not con- in Ephesians 2:11-22. Here reconciliation takes on a
sity Préss, 1991); X. P. Sanders, Paul and. Pal¿stininn
tent to leave the tem open fo misunderstanding; md Judaism (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977).
l.Jewish Background.
horizontal ürection. The inveterate hostility benveen
there is form-critical, linguistic and traditton-histonca.l R P. Martin The Greek verbal adjective cárarios (which came to be
Jews and non-Jews (see Gentiles) is overcome in the
evidence to show how he has changed the word's used as a noun) and its Hebrew analo1 müiah are
cross ofJesus who has reconciled both $oups in one
meaning by subde editorial adaptarions to the sur- CEPI{AS. Su Pr¡r" tems which were used in earlyJudaism and Christi
body (sea Body of Christ). The "one new person" in
anity to refer to an anointed person set apart for a
rounding context. In panicular, he has disinfected the place of two suggests üe vision of a "üird race," a
tem of its grosticizing taint by anchoring reconcilia- CIIAINS. S¿ Pn:soN, PRISoNER special task and, in particular, to a royal and/or mes-
new species of humankin4 who in becoming part of
tion in the historical events ofJesus'passion and tying sianic figure. In the political realm the tem was used
the divine family form a microcosm ofthat new socie-
in the effect ofreconciliation to moral transformation ty which is a token in God's design to place all of CHARISMATA. S¿¿ GrmsorrHt SprRIr. of Davidic kings (Ps 18:50; 89:20; 132:10-17). In this
in human lives. regard 2 Samuel 7:8-16 is especially crucial as it ex-
conscious life under the headship* of the cosmic
The counterarglments in Paul are always on the Christ (Eph 1:10). CHILDREN OF ABRAIIAM. S¿¿ A¡r¡¡,qu. presses the hope that God* would provide the ideal

level of personal relationships, of which the forgive- Davidic ruler. It should be noted, however, that none

ness of sins is the great reality shared alike by apostle 5. Concluion CHILDREN OF GOD, S¿¿A¡omroN,SoNsHlP. of the later OT prophetic books use the term m¿]i¿¿
and people. To that experience he appeals under a for the future royal one like unto David (cf., e.g., Zech
These far-ranging and distinctive ideas-covering
variety of images-new creation,* justification,* re- CHRIST 9:9-10; 12:7-13:1). Indeed, in Isaiah 45:1 the term
cosmic, personal, societal and ethnic areas of ou¡ hu-
demption,* sonship Adoption, Sonship), the grft of Paul's extraordinarily frequent use ofthe term Cl¿ruros refers to Cyms, and in Habakkuk 3:13 it appears to
(sae man story-are nevenheless part of a panern, whose
the Spirit (see Holy Spirit) and the promise of resunec- picture fills the tapestry. The various strands are close- calls for explanation. Paul often used üe term as a refer to a presently reigrring king. Furthermore, in
Lion.* vinual second name for Jesus, or as a way o[ distin- earlyJewish literature the term is found infrequendy
ly textured and inrricately woven together. Yer rhey are
ir Against those enthusiastic followers who believed nor aimlessly pur inro a frame. There is an emerging
guishing this particular Jesus from olhers. Various (cf Pss. SoL 18:5; 4QPBless 3; CD 12:2L24;14:19;
úat üeir baptism brought the completion of salva- texts also show that Paul was well aware of the larger 19:10-11; i Enoch 48:10;52:4) and does not seem to
design and a coherent picntre. And üe most adequate
tion+ here and now, and against the intruding teach- sigrificance of the tem Christos/Maliah. It is also no- have been "an essential designation for any future re-
and meaningful title for the result is, we submit, "rec-
ers who discounted morality as inelevant once üe table that there are certain ways Paul refrained from deemer" (DeJonge 1966, 147).
t! spirit had been saved, Paul entered the plea of the S¿¿ ¿/so CHrurolocy; CRoss, THEoLoGy oF THr;Jusrr"
using the term C¿rirlos; for instance, we neve¡ find üe There were various forms of messianic expectation
phrase 'Jesus the Christ" Careful snrdy of the Jewish in earlyJudaism, but it does not appear that the terms
,; "eschatological proviso," üe "noryeC' of reconcilia- IICATION; PAUL AND HIS INTERTR¡TERS; PEACT,, RXCON.
and Greek background does not explain üe frequen- Eanslated into English as "Messiah" were used with
tion which, unlike jusuficaúon, is strll going on and CILLA.TION; RIGHTEOUSNESS, RIGHTEOUSNESS OF GOD,
;tl needs to be renewed continually. Hence rhe call to BIBuoceApHy. J. C. Beker, "Contrngenry and Coher-
cy and manner in which Paul used the term Cñá¿os. any frequency, and üey probably were not technical
His usage is besr explained by the fact that Paul re- terms for a future redeemer figure. The messianic
Christians at Connth, "Be reconciled to God" (2 Cor ence in the Letters of Paul," USQR 33 (1978) 141-50;
5:20), lest they receive God's grace to no purpose ceived a tradition associating the term Cl¿ril¿ with the hope of earlyJudaism could incorporate the idea of
idem, Paul tlu Apostb (Philadelphia: Fonress, 1980);
irl (2 Cor 6:l) and fail to see his proffered forgiveness idem, Tlu Triwnph oJ hd.: tlu Essnu of Paul's Thought core of the early Christian message: the death and one or more messianic figures, as in the royal and

94 95

Christ Grrist

priestly anointed figures atQumran (e.g., IQS 9:10-11; phrases, "in Christ" (1 Thes 4:16). Ihis suggests that rneans that in the period benueen AD. 30 and üe others utilized whal is commonly regarded as the ear-
CD 12:22-23), or none at all when it was believed rhat in the early and even earlier, the tem Cárutor had
50s, ooint at which Pau[ received üis radition (surely liest of Christian confessions 'Jesus is Lord" (Rom
Yahweh himself would fina.lly rescue his people (e.g., already become a virtual name forJesus and would be p.ior to tti. missionary joumeys) üe crm Chrisúos ms 10:9; see Creeds). This evidence strongly suggests that

lQM 1r-12). recognized as such by Paul's audience in Macedonia" ¡ot only being used by Christians as a term having the messiahship ofJesus was not under debate in the
A similar vari€ty of usage and assumptions can be exclusive reference to Jesus, but already it was being Pauline communi¡ies, and üat Paul himself took it as
2. Greek Usage. observed in I
Corinthians. There, for instance, we closely linked toJesus' death as the means of eschat- a presupposition for all oüer confessions. In his ler
It is surprising that the tem Chmtos is used so fre- find not only the phrase "ChristJesus" (1 Cor 1:1-4) ological salvation. ters he did not, for exmple, try to demonstrate by
quendy by Paul (270 out of a total of 531 uses in the but also "Christ" (l Cor 1:6) as well as "our LordJesus Ir is possible, as Dahl concluded (1974), that this prooftexts the messiahship ofJesus.J. D. G. Dunn puts
NT) and that it seems to be used as a name forJesus Christ" and 'Jesus Christ our Lord" (1 Cor 1:2, 7-10). development can be traced back to the fact üatJesus it this way:
rather than as a title or descriptive tem. This is espe- There is no obvious significance to üis variation; all crucified as a messianic pretend€r. There is room
$,as [Paul] makes no altempt to prove üatJesus really
cially remarkable since in the main Paul was miting these tems and phrases refer to the same person in doubt about this, however, since the tide on the is "the Christ" despite his suffering and death.
to Gentilesx who may or may not have been familiar his relationship to his people. Detailed sudies abour cross may well have read BasibÁ, tr[el0L and R¿r raüer "Christ" is no longer a title whose fitness in its
with the Jewish background for this tem. In seculr Paul's use of the lerm C¿rut have made clear that Paul Íhan Clüistos, Müiah and Cárürzr. it is perhaps more application to Jesus has to be demonstrated, The
Greek usage the term ¿irisros simply means an oint- uses the term in a variety of ways and combinations probable that the early md even pre-Pauline use of belief in Jesus as úe Christ has become so fimly
menl or cosmetic, but appuendy it never refened to wi¡h orher names and tides, and only rarely is it pos- the word Cárfutos, vimrally as a name forJesus, is ex- established in his mind and message that he slm-
the one anointed (cf f,uripides Hzff. 516; Moule, 32). sible to explain these pemutations. It would appear plained by the fact thatJesus during his ministry in ply takes it for granted, and "Christ" functions sim-
A fragment from a manuscript mitten by Diodorus that rhere is no tleological rationale for Paul some- some way identified himself as God's final agent ply as a way of speaking ofJesus, as a proper name
Siculus (lb;38-39, 4) shorrly before the time ofJesus times using the phrase "ChnstJesus" rather than 'Je- (Müah) and also spoke of his death in terms some- forJesus (so even in I Cor. 15.3), (Dunn, 43)
uses the tem neochri¡tos to refer to a building "newly sus Christ," or sometimes prefemng the phrase "the thing like we find in Mark 10:45 (cf. Witherington, One of the most important ways Paul uses the term
plastered." Thus the prolific Pauline use of the tem LordJesus Christ" as opposed to "Christ." 251-56). Perhaps also üe early Hellenisticlfewish C¡h¿sfos is in a daring phrase meant to characterize his

Ciátos, almost as a name forJesus, requires an erpla- It can be shown that Paul uses the tem Chrütas and knew that üe average Greek speaker might preaching: Christos ¿staurómos ("Christ crucified,"
nation. This is especially so since there was a perfectly its varianrs especially in contexts where he is drawing easily take the word Cárufoq like the more familiar I Cor l:23). The phrase must have had some shock
good Greek word available for speaking of an anoint- upon pre-Pauline tradition or is reflecting on the term Cárasúos (cf. Suetonilus Claud,ius 25, where evident- value forJewish listeners since there is no conclusive
ed person, ilámmmos (from the verb abiphn, eschatoiogical significance of Christ's death, resunec- ly Chrktus is read as Chratu) to be a name, distin- evidence that earlyJews expected a crucified Messiah.
"anoint"). Ard in fact Aqüla used this tem to render tion and parousia (see Eschatology). These epochal guishing thisJesus from orhers by that name. Further- Crucifixion+ was a punishment resened for the worst
the Hebrew u¿ii1¿l¿ in his Greek ranslation of the OT. events are the primary reason Paul is willing to call more, it is possible that the double name Jesru Christ criminals and revolutionaries. Jews, on the basis of a
The suggestion that the term Chritos as a surname in part became common because early Christians certain reading of Deuteronomy 2l:23 (cl Gal 3:13),
Jesus Chrutos (cf Hengel, l4&48). A summary of Paul's
forJesus arose in Gentile Christianity, where its orig- üeology ofChrist can be found in 2 Corinthians 5:14- wished to suggest the royal dignity of üeir savior and seem to have understood crucifixion to be a sign that
inal royal or messianic Jewish connorailons were no 21. Christ is the one who died-once for all-and was üus gave him a double name like oüer notable fig- the crucified person was cursed by Cod. There is no
longer understood, fails to explain why Paul, aJew, is raised so that those whom he has redeemed might live ures of the er4 such as Caesar Augustus. conclusive evidence that Isaiah 53 was ever applied to
the chief employer of this term among NT miters for him. These events bear witness to the self-sacrifi- the I{essiah beforeJesus'day (the significance ofthe
(Hengel). Paul's understanding ofthe meaning ofrhe cial love tha¡ Christ expressed for his people and 4. Pauline Usage. eüdence from Q. 1so 53 is debatable).
temr is clear from 2 Corinthians l:21 whe¡e we find which they in turn are to emulate. Christ then is the Paul, wherever he may have first herd ofJesus being Careful scrutiny of Paul's usage of the tem Cñru¿

the play on words "God establishes us in Christ (ai great reconciler of humans to Cod (2 Cor 5:19; sz called Cñru¿os as a ürtual second name, did not lose suggests that in the main Paul's meaning was nol de-

Cárulon) and has anointed us (rárisai)." Yer, strikingly, Reconciliatron) and of humans to each orher (Gal sighr of the fact that Chnstos was originally likely to rived from earlyJewish ideas about God's anointed,
Paul rarely speaks of tlw Chri¡t, but rarher Inoru L',/¿m- 3:28). k is the climactic salvific events at the close of have been a title. This is shown by several pieces of but rather from traditions about the conclusion ofje-
los (Jesus Christ) or sometimes Cáátos llsom (Christ Jesus' iife that especially cause Paul to call Jesus the evidence. First, Paul neverjuxtaposes -Klrioswith Chtu- sus'life and its sequel, coupled with Paul's own Da-
alone, for this would amount to awkwardly combin- mascus Road experience. These events forced Paul to
Jesus) or even ho Klnos lisou Cirulos (the LordJesus Cl¿ru¿. The significance of üese events for dehning tos

Christ). This usage strongly suggesrs rhar before Pau] the Christ is also made clear by Paul's vinual silence ing m"o titles (Grundmann, 542-43). The one possible rethink what it meant for someone to be the Davidic
mote his letters the tem Chrutos was used widely in regardingJesus' miracles. Futhemore, though Paul exception to this rule is found in Colossians 3:24 Messiah (Kim). The fact that Paul and other early
early Christranity as paft of the name ofJesus. Were does draw on the tradition ofJesus'sayings in I Co- where we find lo ,{1rió Christó doubua¿ ("you sene./are Christians used the term Chrutos to refer to someone
this not the case, we would expect Paul somewhere to rinthians 7 and elsewhere, he does not cite such say- slaves to the Lord Christ"), but there ,{1nó may well who had died on the cross and had risen fiom the
explain to his audience(s) what t¡e tem meanl We ings as of the essence of his gospel* or kerygma (sre carry its secular meaning of "master," not divine Lord dead, indicates the extent to which the meaning ofrhe
must consider briefly the evidence that points to a pre- Preaching, Kerygna), nor as the hean of rhe early (ct Col 3:2t-23). Second, Paul never adds a genitive to term was transformed. Cárufos brought redemption to
Pauline use of the tem Cárulos forJesus. Christian confession of faith about Christ. the tem Cirutos (as may be obsewed in earlyJudaism, his people by dfng, rising and being exalted (r¿¿ f,x-
It is important to note that when Paul rehearses the e.9., "the Anointed ofthe Lord"). In fact, he does not altation) to authority* and power* at the nght hand
3. The Origin ofthe Christian (?rirtos Usage. paradosü, rhe sacred 'lradition" of early Christians use the tem in any sort ofpossessive expression, such ofGod over all the principalit.ies (sr Principalities and
In one ofPaul's earliest letters, 1 Thessalonians, prob- which he and others handed on, he indicates that it as "God's Christ" (but cf I Cor 3:23). Neither is Cáru' Powers). He did not bring redemption by throwing off
ably written in the 50s if not earlier, a variety of uses included the confession that"Chrutos died for our /os ever used as a simple predicate in the Pauline let- the yoke of Roman rule during his earthly ministry. In
of Christls appear. For example, Paul speals of the sins" (l Cor l5:3), This extraordinary formula, having ters, Nor is the expression 'Jesus the Christ" ever short, Paul has something rather different in mind
"LordJesus Christ" (1 Thess 1:1; cf. I Thess 5:23,28), no known precedént in earlyJudaism, is regarded as found (Dahl,37). In facl Paui never feels it necessary f¡om what is found in such texts as Ps¿ln¡ oJ Solomon
"Christ" (1 Thess 2:6), "in ChristJesus" (1 Thess 2:14) the hea¡t of Christian faith by Paul, who had learned lo state the fomula 'Jesus á the Christ," no¡ does he 1?-18 where Messiah ls seen as a conquering hero
and, what was to become one of Paul's favorite ofit from those who were "in Christ" before him. This argue for the idea. On the other hand, he among throwing off the yoke of a lbreign rule.

Christ Christ

Yet it would not be qüte mre to say as Gmndmann üeisticJews with reference to a figure ofrecendy past pregnant sense indicating üe environment or atrnos- "ifit is really true that Paul thought of himself and
does that "the understanding ofthe Messiah loses its history" (Moule, 150). In these instances Jesus Christ phere in which Christians live, that is, they are "in other Christians as 'included' or'located in Chrisg
national, political, and religious significance and the is seen as one who dispenses what only God can truly Christ" A Deissmann in his pioneering study D¿e . . . it indicates a more üan indiüdualistic concep-

significance ofthe Messiü in human history is attest- give-shalom (re Peace, Reconcüation). Natratumtliclu Fonn¿l "in CbisuJm" (1892) argued tion of the person of Christ . . . a plurality of per-
ed and expounded. This is üe distinctive theological Romans I : 1 6 provides a possible clue indicating why üat this formula had boü a local and mystical mean- sons can find themselves'in Christ', as limbs are
achievement of Paul" (Grundmann, 555). In Romans Paul so persistently used the term Cárü¿os and occa- ing in which Christ, as a sort ofuniversal Spirit, was the in the body." (Moule,62, 65)
15:8 Paul very clearly recounts the fact that Christ be- sionally gave hins that it was originally a tide, r¿ther very atrnosphere in which believers üved. This means üat Paul conceives of the exalted Christ
came a servant to the circumcision,* and he holds out than using a term such as §óá ("Saüor"+) to refer to A good example of this usage is found in 2 Corin- as a diüne being in whom Christians everywhere can
üe hope of üe salvation* of manyJews at the escha- Jesus. Though Paul wm üe aposde to üe Gentiles, he thians 5:17: "If anyone is in Christ, üat person (or dwell. Put another way, Paul's üews on both incorpo-
ton (Rom I l:25-26). Christ is only now a savior to the wished to continue to amrm to his audience, and per- "there") is a new creation" (cf Phil 3:&9; sae Creation ration into Christ and is result, being in Christ, sug-
Gentiles through his ministers and aposdes* like Paul haps on occasion even stress, üat salvadon is from the and New Creation). In factwhole congregations could gest a view of Christ as a divine being "in" whom all
(cf. Rom l5:1G18), but in Paul's mind this does not Jews and for theJews before it is for oüers. One way be said to be "in Christ" in üe same way they were believers can dwell and at the same time a diüne
nullif, the significance of Christ's prior mission and ofdoingthis was to continue tojuxtapose üe t$,o terms said to be "in God" (cf. Gal l:22 and Phil 1:l üth being who can be "in" all believers, through the pres-
seflice to Jews. Indeed, Paul wishes to insist to his Iaou Chrutos. Paul, as a Jew, wished it never to be I Thess i:l). There are a variety of other passages ence of the Spirir
largely Gentile audience üat salvation is f¡om and for forgotten thatJesus, who is saüor of the world, is such which seem to have a locative sense (1 Thess 4:16; Gal
üeJew first and also the Gentile (Rom 1:16; s¿¿ Israel). only as üe Jewish Messiah-üe Cárüfos. Thus it may 2:17; 1 Cor 1:2; 15:18). A. Schweitzer in Tlu Mysritisn 6. 67¡ri*os in the Contested Pauline ktters.
Paul was well aware ofearlyJewish ideas about Mes- be that Paul's use of üe term Cáru¿os as a virtual name of Paul thc A\ostl¿ (1931), rejecting much of Deiss- In Colossians* and Ephesians* we find a further de-
siah being aJew born under the [aw* (cf. Gal 4:4) and forJesus, as well as the manner in which he refrained mann's reasoning, argued that the solidarity that Paul velopment of Paul's christology focusing on what is
of Davidic ancestry (cf, Rom 1:3), and he is happy to from using tlle term, was notjust a matter of habir On envisioned Christians haüng with Christ and wiü called "üe mystery* of Christ" This mystery is üat
affim these things ofJesus. There are also various üe other hand, it was an attempt by Paul to remind an each other is a corporate one of a quasi-physical na- God in Christ has provided salvation and reconcilia-
places where Paul refened to the fully human char- increasingly Gentile church of the Jewish origin and üre which occurs through the material rite of water tion for all peoples, Jews and Gentiles, and even for
acter ofthis Ciristos (Rom 5:17-19; Phil 2:7; Rom 8:3). character of üe Savior and his salvation. baptism* and not ürough some subjective experience the whole cosmos (sze World, Cosmolog¡). The cosmic

He was also aware that earlyJews by and large did not The term Christos, tf studied in the context of its brought about ürough faith.* This surely goes scope of Christ's role becomes panicularly evident in
think of Messiah as some sort of superhuman ligure, varied uses in the Pauline corpus, reveals how the beyond üe evidence and conúadicts such texts as Ga- these two letten. It is thus not surprising that ther
but rather as an exemplary human being especially apost]e drew on, amplified, transformed and tran- latians 2:16 and Romans 5:2- Schweiuer's üew seems letters place more emphasis on üe ongoing role ofthe
anointed with God's Spirit (Grundmann, 526; but cf. scended some early.lewish ideas about üe Messiah. to have been more indebted to his own understanding exalted Christ than do most of Paul's earlier letters,
the parables of I Enoch which suggest a more-than- For Paul the content of üe term Cl¿¡isros was mainly ofearlyJewish eschatology than to Paul. though reference to Christ s death and resurrection is
human figure, and possibly the Son ofman of Dan 7). derived from the Ch¡ist event and his experience of Paul does speak of Christ being in the believer (Gal not absenl In these two letters Christ is seen not only
Yet here too Paul appears to have gone far beyond the that event This led to three elements in his preaching 2:20; Rom 8:10), but this is not nearly so characteristic as a personal saüor for indiüduals but also as a cosmic
majority of his Jewish contemporaries in his under- about Christ that were without k¡own precedent in of the aposde as the phrase m Claistó. It does not ruler. In Christ is found the storehouse of God's wis-
standing of the Davidic Messiah, for the most natur¿l earlyJudaism: (1) Messiah is cailed God; (2) Messiah seem possible eiüer to argue that Paul is simply using dom* and knowledge* (Col 2:2-10), alüough üe mys
way to read the grammatically difficult phrase in Ro is said to have been crucified, and his death is seen the language of üansfer from one dominion to an- tery is not esoteric since it has to do wiü Christ's public
mans 9:5 is as follows: "comes the Christ who is over as redemptive; (3) Messiah is expected to come to other or to eliminate completely the locative sense of work on the cross and in boü letters üe mystery is
I all God blessed forever" (Metzger). This suggests that earth again. Non-Christian Jews did not speak of a en Chrütó in various instances. Nor can these texts carefully related to the community offaith. According
Paul saw the Christ as not only assuming diüne func- crucified Messiah much less of a Second Coming of simply be explained as another way of saying one to Ephesians l:22 Christ rules over the cosmos for the
tions in heaven but in some sense properly being Messiah. Nor do we have any evidence that earlyJews belongi to Christ or that üings are accomplished for church, and in Ephesians 5:32 the mystery has to do
called God.* This comports with Philippians 2:11, were willing to call üe Messiah "God," or one in üe believer through Christ. Rather, for Paul boü log- wiü the relationship of Christ to his church. Funher-
whereJesus Ciristos is called by the diüne name used whom the fullness of deity dwells. ically and theologically üe concept ofbeíngm Clnísti more, the relationship berween Chúst's headship over
in the LXX, llnos ("Lord"+), as well as wiü Colossians is cenüal. One cannot do something for or with Christ both the cosmos and the church becomes eüdent in
1:19 .("for in him all üe fullness* [plnuna] was 5. The Er C]¡rit&i Formula. unless one is first m C/¿rütó. One cannot approach the the Christ hymn of Colossians 1:15-20, where the rwo
It should be noted that in Romans
pleased to dwell"). It was probably due to careful ¡eflection on some of Faüer through the Son (sra Son of God) unless one are mentioned in the same breati.
9:5 Paul very clearly speals of "the Christ," which the three elements listed above that Paul came to use is at, Chri¡tó. If one is ¿¿ Cl¿ru¿ó then one is in his Among the "faithful safngl' that characterize the
once more indicates his understanding of the larger the phrase m Christé ("in Christ") as he did (sa In body-the ehhllsia (see Church). The effects of being in Pastoral Episdes (sae Pastoral Letters), only two add
significance of the term. Christ). En Chrístó was unquestionably one of Paul's Christ a¡e varied: human spiritual transfomation by an¡hing new to üe concept of Christ revealed in
Paul's use of Cl¿rüfos in üe salutations ofhis letten* favorite phrases, appearing 164 times in üe chief means of death to sin,* possession of the Spirit (see Paul's earlier letters. In 1 Timothy 6:13 Christ's witness
also points to an exalted view ofJesus. Thus, for in- Pauline letters and anoüer halfdozen in the form m Holy Spirit), being made a new creation or creature, is made before Pilate, thus tracing moments of chris-
stance, in Philippians 1:2 grace and peace are said to Chrístó lisou ("in ChristJesus") in the Pastorals. This having one's inner person and mind renewed, being tological significance back to an event prior to Christ's
come not only from God üe Fathe¡ but also from üe total is especially remarkable in üew of the fact that given both hope+ and assurance of a bodily resurrec- death. Earlier, in 1 Timothy l:15 we read that Christ
LordJesus Christ. As Moule puts it, "The position here oüer NT writers hardly ever used the phrase ftut cf., üon* like unto Christ's, and being united spiritually "came into the world" for the specific purpose of sav-
occupied by Jesus in relation to God, as well as in e.g, I Pet 3:16; 5:10, 14). Paul never used the term wiü a great host of other believers in a liüng entity ing sinners. This theme presses the momens ofchris-
many other opening fomulae of the New Testament Clristinnos ("Christian"), rather m Chri:tó seems to be Paul likens to a body.* tologicaj signihcance even further back into üe story
leners, is noüing short of astounding-especially his substirute for this adjective (cf I Cor 3:l). At other The christological implications of this use of ¿n at least to üe inception ofJesus' human life,
when one considers that üey are written by mono points the phrase ez C[rilló seems to have a more Cá¡ü¿ó have been ably summed up by C. F. D. Moule: and possibly alludes to Chrisr's preexistence (see Chris-

98 99


CHRIST HYMN, Cu¡¡srorocv; HYMNS, HIMN available (but see Hengel 1991). gospel* through human beings, nor was it human in
tology). The latter idea is expressed elsewhere in Paul, S¿¿

{GMil\.rs, SoNGS, SPRITUAL SoNcs; PHIuPPLANS, hTTER 1.2. Hellaim. Another method of feneting out the origin nor üe result of some human instmction he
most clearly in the Christ hymns* of Philippians 2:& FR
origins of Paul\ christological thinking has been the received. To the conkary, Paul claims to have ¡eceived
1l and Colossians 1:1120. In I Timoüy 2:5 the sress TO THE: WORSHIP.
religinrugeschtehtlidu ("history-of-religions") approach. his gospel by revelation direcdy from God.+ Ir must be
is on üe humanity ofJesus as the mediator between
CHRISTOLOGICAL MONOTHEISM. s¿¿ Perhaps the paramount and most influential example s[essed that in this pusage Paul is primarily defend-
God and humanity. Finally, it should be noted that the
CHRrsrolocf GoD; Sou or Coo. of this approach is W. Bousset's classic work K)¡irs ing üe source and substance of his gospel, not his
Pastorals reflect a cenain predilection for the phrase
Clnütos (1913). Thereüe christology of Paul and the conversion to Christ, and this goes a long way toward
"ChristJesus" or occasionally "Christ Jesus" com-
CHRISTOLOGY early church is compared with ideas ftom the Greco explaining the differences that have been noted be-
bined with "our Lo¡d."
Pauline christology has frequendy been discussed un- Roman world, particularly üose found in its various §veen this nanative and the Acts accounts, panicular-
The study of Paul's use of üe tem Cl¿rislos provides
der the headings of the prominent tides Paul em- forms ofpagan religious üought. For example, it was Iy those ofActs 9 and 22. Let us assume, for üe sake
a window on the character of Paul's christological
ployed-Christ,* Lord,* Son of God,* Savior*-and assumed that Paul appropriated the tide lyíos of argumeng that Acts does provide us with some re-
thought, but it must be supplemented with detailed
prominent analogies such as Adam* and Wisdom.* ("Lord"*) from pagan usage and so reflected the Hel- liable data on the matter of Paul's call/conversion.
study of other important christological ideas such
Important as this christological nomenclature may be, lenizing influence on early Christian üought. Ar un- Both in Paul's letters, and certainly in the third Acts
Lord,* last Adam* and Son of God.*
however, it does not engage üe fuIl pic¡rre ofPauline derlying premise of this approach, however, assumes account ofhis conversion,zcall (Acts 26), it is clear rhat
.§¿¿ ¿Ir¿ A¡mt AND Clrusr; CunsroLocv; IN CHPI§I;
christology. In an attempt to enlarge on üe perspec- a mdical distinction between Hellenism* and Pales- Paul did not see his commission, mission md essen-
IoRD; SAvIo& SoN orc,oD.
tive gained through an account of üe individual tinianJudaism, an assumption that has been severely tialmessage as deriving from a human source. We
BIBuocR PHY. O. Cullmann, Tlu Ch¡istalog oÍ tlw Nru
facets of Paul's christology, this article will focus on disredited by üe work of M. Hengel and oüers read of no Christian instruction delivered to Saul
Testanrnt (rev. ed.; Philadelphia: West¡ninster, 1963);
the origins of Paul's christology, its narrative frame- (Hengel 1974; sea Hellenism). Research has shown, prior to his Damascus Road experience and as Acts
N. A. Dahl, "The Messiahship ofJesus in Paul," in Tfu
worl<, is dual focus on the divinity and humanity of for example, that documents such as Sirach and üe 26 makes clear, Ananias wa§ not üe ultimate source
Crucifud lvlessiah md Othn Essay (Minneapolis: Augs-
in C¡nt¿rt Christ, the significance of Paul's christology for the Maccabean corpus attest to the influence of Helle. of Paul's commission and mission.* All three elements
burg, 1974) 37-47; M. De Jonge, Chri"stolog)
(Philadelphia: Westrninster, 1988); idem, "The Earliest early church and its disünctive contribution in com- nism on Palestinian Jewish thinking about God and are traced to his encounter with üe exalted Lord. This
parison and contrast with other canonical christolo- other religious matters well before the Christian era" point is equally clear in Acts 9:15 and, to a lesser but
Christian use of ¡¡paroq, Some Suggestions," M§ 32
gr.t But apart from these more general considerations, significant degree, in Acs 22:14.
(1986) 32143; idem, "The Use of üe Word 'Anointed
The Origins of Paul's Christology there is evidence that the tide Á)rios arose from a¡ 1.3.1. "Th¿ Goslel of Cbist." T\e real issue for Paul
in the Time ofJesus," Nou? 8 (1966) 13248; J. D. G. 1.

The Narrative Framework ofPaul's Christology early chapter in üe emergence ofthe church and was in Galatians* is not to establish that he is an auüendc
Dunn, t/ndf arut Damitl intlu Nru Tata¡wnt: An In- 2.
3. The Divinity and Humanity ofJesus Christ in not a product of the later Hellenization of Christian- Christian, or üat he received a missionary commis
quiry hto ltu Charmtsr oJ Fnrlix Chti§ianiry (Philadel-
Pault Christology ity. The fuamaic cry Mmona th¿,"Ou¡ l¡rd come" (l sion or even to identifr the source ofthe Pauline Gos-
phia: Westminster, 1977); W. Grundmann,'Xploróq,"
The Impact and Influence of Paul's Christology Cor 16:22; see Liturgical Elemens), which surely goes pel; the issue is üe content of his gospel. In Calatians
TDN? IX,540-62; M. Hengel, " 'Christos' in Paul," in 4.
The Distinctiveness and Commonality of Paul's back to fuamaic-speaking Palestinian or bilingual 1:7 Paul identifies his gospel with "the gospel of
Betuem Jews and Paul (Philzdelphia: Forress, 1983) 5.
Antiochean Jewish Christians, shows üat prior to the Christ," a gospel which his opponents in Galatia were
65-?7; J. Jeremias, "Artikelloses Christos," 2 4ry 57 Christology
writing of Paul's extant leners, Jesus was being in- seeking to penerl This phrase "the gospel of Christ"
(1966) 21115; idem, "Nochmals: Artikelloses Christos
t. The Origins of Paul's Christology' voked and beckoned as a diüne Lord who would re. could be understood as "the gospel that comes fiom
in lK 15.3," ZNi{ 60 (1969) 215-17; S E. Johnson,
There are various possible staning points for discuss- tum to his people. Had early Christians believedJesus Christ" or "the gospel ofwhich Christ is the content"
"Christ " IDB 2.567-68; S. Kim, Tlu Origin oJPaul's C,os
ing the sources or origins of Pault christology. was simply a deceased PalestinianJewish teacher, this The difference is significant, and a clue to Paul's
pel (Crand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982); W. Ikamer, Cárü-
sort of add¡ess would never have arisen (cf. Moule, meaning is found within the immediate context when
ns lgios ütttssohn (AThANT 44; Zurich: Zwingli' fudniffi. One approach is to attempt to extrap-
olate from the NT documents and extr¿canonical l,ongenecker). And its presenation in fuamaic, trans- Paul says that "God - . . was pleased to reveal his Son
1963); S. V. McCasland, "ChristJesus,"/BI 65 (1946)
sources Paul the Pharisee's (sarJew, Paul üe) beliefs litemted iñto Greek, aftests to its revered place in early to me" (Gal 1:lLl6). Paul appeals to a revelation, the
377-83; l. H. Manhall, Tlu Origiru ol Nm Tutammt
about the coming Messiah. How much of a debt did Christian devotion to Christ (sa Worship). content of which was the "Son of God." This is likely
Clrislolog (Domers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1990
Paul's christology owe to his pre-Christian messianic 1.3. Paul\ Cmrfun/Call and Euly Chstian Tradi- the meaning of "gospel of Christ" in Galatians 1:7 as
t19761); B. M. Meuger, "The Punctuation of Romans
beliefs? This enterprise, however, involves a remen- ,im. For reasons such as we havejust given, modem well. If üis is so, then it is germane to this argument
9.5," in Chríst and Spirit in tlu Nm T¿stnnmt: Studies in
research into the origins of Paul's christology has that in the accounts ofActs 9 and 22 Ananias does not
Honour of C. F. D. Moul¿, ed. B Lindars and S. S. dous amount of conjecture not only about messianic
Smalley (Cambridge: University Pres, 1973) 95-112; faith in pre-e.l. 70 Pharisaism, but also about Paul's found a more promising approach in examining early teach Saul aáoztJesus Christ. Rather, in Acts t he tells

unique appropriation of his heritage (for the com- christological confessions (saa Creed) embedded in him to arise, receive his sight and be baptized, while
C. F. D. Moule, Tlu Origin of Christolog (Cambridge:
plexity of the evidence representing the 'Judaisms" of Paul's letters and in exploring Paul's own statements in Acts 22 Ananias expounds the meaning of Paul's
University Press, 1977); F. Neugebauer, "Das Pauli-
Paul's day, see Neusner et al.). Unfortunately, apart about his call,/conversion (sza Conversion and Call). commission. In any event, in light of the word of the
nische 'in Christo,' " ,\t§ 4 (1957-58) 12438; J. Neus
from a few references here and there, Paul says litde From this evidence conclusions may be drawn about Lord that comes to Ananias in Acts 9:15-16, we are
ner, W. S. Green, E. Frerichs,./zdaisms andTlui¡ M¿s-
about his pre-Christian beliefs about Messiah. The how üat experience and his encounter with early probably to understand Ananias as spefing a pro-
siatu at tlu Tm of üu üristian Era (Cambridge:
most one can assume, judging fiom a text such as Christian confessions may have shaped his christol- phetic word to Paul, not offering mere human instruc-
University Press, 1987); K H. Rengstorf, "Xptoroq,"
Romans 9:5, is that he must have believed in a coming ogy. tion or counsel.
MDNTI2.33$43; C. C. Toney, '¡prmóc,," in Quantu-
human and Davidic Messiü. While Paul's debt toJew' Galatians l:11-23 provides üe clearest and proba- Funhermore, whatever Paul may have meant by
tarumque (Krsopp Lake Festschrift) ed. R. P. Casey et
ish messianism, and panicularly Pharisaic messian' bly the earliest statement {iom Paul about his own "the gospel of Christ," he was well aware that subse-
al. (London: Christopher, 1931\ 317-24; B. Withering-
o//m(Minneapolis: Fortress, ism, was surely greater than this, the eüdence for dis' conversion and its immediate consequences. Here quent to his conversion he had received traditions
ton, Tlu Chri¡tolng)
Paul is adamant in stating that he did not receive his aboutJesus and his teachings from other Christians,
1990). B, Witherington III covering the degree or characte¡ of this debt is not