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JKTech Drop-Weight Test Description -- page 1

DESCRIPTION OF JKTECH / JKMRC DROP WEIGHT BREAKAGE TEST


PROCEDURE - APPLICATION TO SIMULATION

The proprietary JK Tech drop weight test, developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral
Research Centre (JKMRC), is designed to provide ore specific parameters for use in the
JKSimMet Mineral Processing Simulator software. The parameters obtained from the test
provide a means of comparing the amenability to impact breakage of one ore type to
another, particularly when used in a JKSimMet model of the flowsheet in question. In
JKSimMet, these parameters are combined with equipment details and operating
conditions to analyze and/or predict SAG/auto mill performance. The same test procedure
also provides ore type characterization for the JKSimMet crusher model.

For blends of different ore types, JK Tech has determined that it is best to test each ore
type individually and combine the breakage characteristics in the appropriate proportions
for a particular blend.

DROP WEIGHT TEST PROCEDURE. This section provides a brief description of the
drop weight test procedure.

The key measurement used in the drop weight test is the input energy. This is determined
from the mass of the drop weight head, the distance through which it falls in breaking the
rock and the mass of the rock which is broken. A schematic diagram of the drop weight
device is shown in Figure 1. It comprises a drop weight which is raised by a winch to a
known height from which it is released by a pneumatic switch and falls under gravity on to
a rock particle resting on a steel anvil. The unit is enclosed in Plexiglas to prevent any
broken fragments from being lost and incorporates a number of features to ensure
operator safety.

Variation of both release height and drop weight mass allows a very wide range of input
energy levels to be generated. To further provide a wide range of input energies, two drop
weight heads, one standard and one light weight, are normally available. Each head has a
series of lead weights which are added or removed as required.

The standard drop weight test comprises breaking five size ranges of particles, each size
range at three different energy levels, making a total of 15 size energy combinations. The
size ranges chosen lie in a fourth root of 2 range. Every second size interval in this range
is chosen to give a wide but uniform spread of particle sizes.

The broken product from each set of particles is sized on a root 2 sieve series down to 53
microns and the results reported together with the energies applied. This information is
sufficient to provide the model parameters which reflect the impact resistance of the ore
under test.
Rock density measurements are also made on a selection of particles. These are normally
conducted on 30 particles in one size range (in this case 3/4-inch)and may be carried out
by weighing in water and in air or with a Helium Pycnometer if porosity is evident.

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2750 Highland Bluffs Dr. Red Bluff, California USA 96080
Phone: (530) 527-7471 FAX: (530) 527-7169
e-mail: jmrcss1@cs.com
JKTech Drop-Weight Test Description -- page 2

D r o p w e ig h t

G u id e
R od
R ock
S p e c im e n
P e rs p e x
C a s in g

W in c h

A n v il

C o n c re te
Base

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the drop weight device

Determination of the drop weight heights. The aim is to subject the particles as nearly
as possible to input energies ranging from about 0.1 to 3.0 kwhr/mt. To calculate the
appropriate height to achieve these energy inputs, it is necessary to know the mean mass
of the particles in each set. There should not be much variation between the mean values
for each set of the same size particles, though some scatter is to be expected if shape
variation is apparent.

The drop weight heights are calculated from the following equations:

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2750 Highland Bluffs Dr. Red Bluff, California USA 96080
Phone: (530) 527-7471 FAX: (530) 527-7169
e-mail: jmrcss1@cs.com
JKTech Drop-Weight Test Description -- page 3

Input Energy

Ei  Hr Md
where
Ei  Input energy in kg . cm
Hr  Height of required drop in cm
Md  Mass of drop weight head in kg

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2750 Highland Bluffs Dr. Red Bluff, California USA 96080
Phone: (530) 527-7471 FAX: (530) 527-7169
e-mail: jmrcss1@cs.com
JKTech Drop-Weight Test Description -- page 4

Specific Input Energy

Hr Md 0.0272
Eis 
Mp
where
Eis  Specific input energy in kWh / t
Mp = Mean particle mass in g

Effective Drop Height

Eis Mp
Hr  (1)
Md 0.0272
He  Hr  Hf (2)
where
He  Height of drop weight above anvil before drop
Hf = Height of drop weight above anvil after drop
The height from which the head should be released is calculated from equation (1) above
for each of the particle size - energy combinations. This figure is then adjusted to
compensate for the fact that the drop head finishes some distance above the anvil. The
adjustment is approximately half the geometric mean of the starting particle size range.

The breakage products of all particles for each size/energy combination are collected and
sized. The size distribution produced is normalized with respect to original particle size.
For a wide range of energy input, particle sizes and ore types, the relative size distributions
remain similar in shape and can be described by a single point on the distribution. The JK
Tech convention is to use the percentage passing one-tenth of the original particle size.
This is referred to as the "t10".

In the manner described above, a set of t 10 and Ecs values are produced for the 15 en-
ergy/size combinations. Just as with the pendulum test, regression techniques are then
applied to this data to fit the following equation, which describes the relationship between
breakage and impact energy:

t 10 = a(1 - e-bEcs)

where a and b are parameters used by the SAG mill model to reproduce this relationship.

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2750 Highland Bluffs Dr. Red Bluff, California USA 96080
Phone: (530) 527-7471 FAX: (530) 527-7169
e-mail: jmrcss1@cs.com
JKTech Drop-Weight Test Description -- page 5

USING STANDARD DROP WEIGHT AND PENDULUM TEST RESULTS IN


JKSimMet. To use the results of testing, the ore type parameters a and b (from drop
weight and/or pendulum testing) and t a (from abrasion testing), are input in the JKSimMet
SAG/auto mill model, along with a first estimate of mill size, grate size, ball load, etc. The
simulation predicts product size and mill load, as well as appropriate breakage rates. The
simulator can then also be used to predict performance with variations in screen, classifier
or even recycle crushing.

Both tests also result in a ôcrusher appearance functionö and a ôspecific comminution
energy tableö, which are used as inputs to the JKSimMet crusher model. The appearance
function defines the shape of the breakage distribution curve at various degrees of
"broken-ness", as defined by t 10. The specific comminution energy table defines the
amount of energy required to achieve varying levels of "broken-ness". The form of the
specific comminution energy table reflects the fact that the change in energy required to
achieve a certain degree of breakage is usually considered to be somewhat dependent on
the initial particle size.

Experience to date demonstrates that the drop weight tests are appropriate for brittle ores
over a wide range of hardness (10 < Work Index < 25). However, they are not useful for
ores which undergo plastic deformation, that is, those of high clay content.

BALL MILL APPEARANCE FUNCTIONS. A special lightweight head for the drop
tester allows small particles, similar to those encountered in typical ball mill feeds, to be
tested. The particle sizes tested range from 1/2-inch down to 6 mesh. JKMRC has
developed a specific ôstandardö energy value of 41.788 kgcm for the smallest size class of
4 1/2 mesh x 6 mesh; an interpolation algorithm is used to determine the t 10 value for this
particular energy for each ore type from that ore typeÆs energy vs. breakage curve. The
resulting t10 value is then used to develop a map of other ôtö values which define a size
distribution for that t10. That size distribution is the ball mill appearance function for the
ore type tested. The appearance functions are presented as fraction retained on a
normalized ôroot 2ö size series.

ABRASION BREAKAGE TESTING. It is possible to characterize low energy


(abrasion) breakage with a miniature pendulum and repeated impacts. However, Leung
(1987) demonstrated that a tumbling test of selected single size fractions could produce a
similar result with less experimental effort.

The standard abrasion test tumbles 3 kg of -50.8 by +38.1 mm particles for 10 minutes at
70% critical speed in a 12 in. by 12 in. lab mill fitted with 4 quarter-inch lifter bars. The
resulting product is then sized down to 38 microns and the t 10 value for the product is
determined. The mean particle size of the original size fraction 50.8 x 38.1 mm is 44 mm.
The t10 size would be 1/10 x 44 = 4.4 mm.

The abrasion parameter, ta, is defined as

t a = 1/10 x t 10

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2750 Highland Bluffs Dr. Red Bluff, California USA 96080
Phone: (530) 527-7471 FAX: (530) 527-7169
e-mail: jmrcss1@cs.com
JKTech Drop-Weight Test Description -- page 6

Therefore, for example, if t 10 = % passing 4.4 mm = 4.0%, then


ta = 1/10 x 4.0 = 0.40.

ORDERING DROP TESTS û Hazen Research - The JKTech Drop-weight test is


available in North America from Hazen Research., located in Golden, Colorado. Quotes
for testwork can be obtained by contacting Mr. Dennis Johnson at phone (303) 279-4501
or FAX (303) 278-1528.

ORDERING DROP TESTS û SGS Lakefield Research - The JKTech Drop-weight test
is available in North America from SGS Lakefield Research., located in Lakefield, Ontario,
Canada. Quotes for testwork can be obtained by contacting Mr. Hans Raabe at phone
(705) 652 2039 or Mr. Andre McKen at phone (705) 652 2139 or FAX (705) 652-6365..

SAMPLE REQUIREMENTS - PREPARATION AND PACKAGING. With normal


run-of-mine ore samples, approximately 200 kg of û6 inch rock is required for each
individual ore type to be tested. [The important point is that once we receive the sample,
we must be able to split out approximately 10kg of 2 inch by 1-1/2 inch (50mm x 38 mm)
rock for the abrasion testing. The balance of the sample is coned and quartered, then
crushed and screened to provide a few kilos each of 2-1/2 inch, 1-3/4 inch, 1-1/4 inch, 7/8
inch and 7/16 inch sample for the standard impact breakage testing, in addition to several
hundred grams of 7/16 inch, 1/4 inch and 4.5 mesh x 6 mesh material for the ball mill
appearance function drop test]. The client need not worry about sizing or preparation of
the material, as that is taken care of by Hazen or SGS Lakefield personnel. The client
should only be concerned with the representative nature of the sample.

Drill Core Material. If only drill core material is available as a sample, we recommend 3-
inch un-split core as the minimum acceptable size to perform the full standard drop test.
If only material smaller than 3-inch un-split, is available, the drop test and abrasion test can
still be performed, but must be modified to reduce the sizes of particles tested. The largest
viable particle size for testing drops to 1 ╝ inch and the number of points plotted to
determine the energy vs. breakage relationship of the sample drops from 15 to 9. Having
smaller feed particles also affects the size of material in the abrasion test and requires a
specially modified procedure to estimate the abrasion index used by the SAG mill model.
This reduces the accuracy of the final results somewhat, but they are still considered
sufficient for pre-feasibility SAG mill and crusher simulations. A minimum of 100 kg of
drill core material is required for each individual ore type to be tested.

Each individual ore type sample must be packed in its own container. Each individual
sample must be clearly labeled; if there are multiple samples, please be sure that each
sample has a unique identification label and has identical labeling both inside and outside
the container.

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2750 Highland Bluffs Dr. Red Bluff, California USA 96080
Phone: (530) 527-7471 FAX: (530) 527-7169
e-mail: jmrcss1@cs.com
JKTech Drop-Weight Test Description -- page 7

SAMPLES TO HAZEN RESEARCH. Samples for the drop weight tester at Hazen
should be addressed to:

Dennis Johnson
Hazen Research
4601 Indiana St.
Golden, CO 80403

All costs of shipping incurred in sending the samples to Hazen Research are the
responsibility of the client. The client may also be invoiced for return shipment of the
sample after testing is completed, as Hazen Research can no longer provide disposal
services.

SAMPLES TO SGS LAKEFIELD RESEARCH. Samples for the drop weight tester at
SGS Lakefield should be addressed to:

Hans Raabe (or Andre McKen)


SGS Lakefield Research
185 Concession Street
Lakefield, Ontario, CANADA K0L 2H0

All costs of shipping incurred in sending the samples to Hazen Research are the
responsibility of the client. The client may also be invoiced for return shipment of the
sample after testing is completed, as SGS Lakefield Research can no longer provide
disposal services.

REPORTING. Contract Support Services will be responsible for analysis and reporting
of all results from this test work. Results will include a description of the tests and the
breakage parameters used by the JKSimMet Autogenous mill and Crusher models. If tests
are ordered directly from Hazen Research or SGS Lakefield Research, then Hazen (or
SGS Lakefield Research) will forward all final reports and invoices to the client.

U.S. CUSTOMS CLEARANCE. Samples coming to Hazen Research from outside the
United States should be clearly labeled on the outside of the containers, as follows:

Rock Samples taken from depth at ___(name of mine)___ in ___(country of


origin)___
Contains trace amounts of ___(appropriate metal commodity)___

A pro-forma invoice, on client letterhead and signed by a client representative should


accompany the sample, should include the above description, and should declare the value
for customs purposes as $50 US (amounts larger than $100 US can cause a duty to be
imposed, and zero value causes delays).

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2750 Highland Bluffs Dr. Red Bluff, California USA 96080
Phone: (530) 527-7471 FAX: (530) 527-7169
e-mail: jmrcss1@cs.com